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心理学报
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目标与非目标身份特征的范畴间差异对多身份追踪的促进作用
白田1,2;吕创1;魏柳青3;周义斌1,4;张学民1,5
(1北京师范大学心理学院, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 北京 100875) (2浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028) (3河南省体育科学研究所, 郑州 450044) (4福州大学人文社会科学学院, 福州 350108) (5认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875)
The Facilitating Effect of Target-Nontarget Categorical Difference in Identity on Multiple Identity Tracking
BAI Tian1,2; LYU Chuang1; WEI Liuqing3; ZHOU Yibin1,4; ZHANG Xuemin1,5
(1 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (2 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China) (3 Henan Institute of Sport Science, Zhengzhou 450044, China) (4 School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China) (5 National Key Lab of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing 100875, China)
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摘要 

以数字和字母为实验材料, 考察了多身份追踪任务中目标与非目标的身份特征范畴性差异对目标追踪与身份识别的影响, 并探讨了其可能的认知加工机制。实验1A让被试追踪5个目标, 并操作目标与非目标的身份特征从无差异(目标与非目标为相同的数字)、范畴内差异(目标与非目标为各不相同的数字)到范畴间差异(目标为各不相同的数字, 非目标为各不相同的字母)变化, 发现随着目标与非目标差异水平的提高, 追踪正确率也显著提高。实验1B通过变化追踪目标数量为4和5操作追踪负荷, 发现中等负荷条件下(目标数量为5)实验结果与实验1A相同, 即目标与非目标身份特征的范畴内差异和范畴间差异均可促进追踪表现。实验2考察了目标与非目标身份特征的范畴间差异水平对追踪表现与身份识别的影响。结果发现随着范畴间差异水平的提高, 被试的追踪表现与身份识别表现都得到了显著提高, 但身份识别表现低于追踪表现。对可能解释以上现象的工作记忆理论、分组理论以及多身份追踪模型进行了分析讨论。

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白田
吕创
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周义斌
张学民
关键词 多身份追踪范畴工作记忆分组理论    
Abstract

Research on Multiple Identity Tracking (MIT) focused on the influence of differences in properties of targets’ and non-targets’ identities on tracking performance and identity recognition. It has been found that the uniqueness of single property, but not compounded property, facilitated tracking performance. However, the uniqueness of compounded property could facilitate tracking performance in the condition where the property guided or oriented attention towards targets. The facilitating effect was also affected by both the complexity of identity information and working memory load. One problem with the previous research is that the same category of stimuli (e.g., either numbers or letters) served as targets and non-targets. The current study involved two categories of stimuli (i.e., 0-9 and A、C、E、K、N、P、R、T、U、Y) and manipulated the differences between targets and non-targets to investigate the effects of differences in targets-nontargets identity on tracking performance and identity recognition. Two experiments had been conducted with undergraduate students using the MIT paradigm. Experiment 1A included three conditions: no identity difference (e.g., both targets and non-targets were the same numbers), within-category difference (e.g., targets and non-targets were different numbers), and between-category difference (e.g., targets were numbers and non-targets were letters). Results showed a significantly greater tracking performance in the between-category difference condition relative to the no identity difference condition, with within-category difference in between. Experiment 1B simultaneously manipulated the identity differences (no difference, within-category difference, between-category difference) and the number of targets (4 vs. 5) and found a significant interaction between the two factors. That is, when there were 4 targets (6 non-targets), tracking performance for between-category difference and within-category difference was better than for no identity difference; when there were 5 targets (5 non-targets), tracking performance for between-category difference was better than for within-category and no identity difference. And tracking performance for within-category difference was significantly better than for no identity difference. Experiment 2 altered the degrees of between-category difference. Non-targets in the third experiment were 5 letters. Targets were 4 letters and 1 number (low-difference condition), 2 letters and 3 numbers (medium-difference condition), and 5 numbers (high-difference condition). We observed that both tracking performance and identity recognition increased with the increasing degree of difference. The results of the two experiments indicated that between-category identity difference between targets and non-targets facilitated tracking performance and identity recognition in the multiple identity tracking task. These results could be explained by the working memory model, grouping theory and Model of Multiple Identity Tracking (MOMIT).

Key wordsMultiple Identity Tracking    category    working memory    grouping theory
收稿日期: 2013-12-25      出版日期: 2015-02-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“多目标视觉追踪中注意分配的认知神经机制研究” (31271083)和国家重点基础研究计划(973项目) (2011CB711000)资助。

通讯作者: 张学民, E-mail: xmzhang@bnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
白田;吕创;魏柳青;周义斌;张学民. 目标与非目标身份特征的范畴间差异对多身份追踪的促进作用[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00203.
BAI Tian; LYU Chuang; WEI Liuqing; ZHOU Yibin; ZHANG Xuemin. The Facilitating Effect of Target-Nontarget Categorical Difference in Identity on Multiple Identity Tracking. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(2): 203-211.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00203      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I2/203
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