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心理学报
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知觉负载影响注意选择和冲突解决的系列效应
刘英杰;郭春彦;魏萍
(首都师范大学心理系, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048)
The Sequential Effect of Perceptual Load on Attentional Selection and Conflict Resolution
LIU Yingjie; GUO Chunyan; WEI Ping
(Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition and Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China)
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摘要 

研究考察了无关侧抑制项引起的侧抑制效应如何受到当前试次知觉负载和先前试次知觉负载与目标?侧抑制项关系的交互影响。被试在视觉搜索集中搜索目标朝向刺激(水平或竖直朝向)并作辨别反应, 非目标项在低负载条件下彼此朝向一致, 在高负载条件下彼此朝向不一致。在搜索集的左侧或右侧存在一个与当前目标一致或不一致的无关侧抑制项(flanker)。结果发现, 整体上, 在当前试次低负载条件下会产生较大的干扰效应, 而在当前试次高负载下无干扰效应。此外, 先前试次(trial n-1)为高负载条件时, 当前试次(trial n)出现了典型的知觉负载效应, 即低负载条件干扰效应较大, 高负载条件无干扰效应。但是, 先前试次为低负载条件时, 当前试次的干扰效应大小受到先前试次冲突解决状态的影响。先前试次为低负载条件且目标?无关侧抑制项不一致时, 下一试次低负载条件的侧抑制效应显著减小, 与高负载条件没有差异; 反之, 先前试次为低负载且目标?侧抑制项一致条件时, 下一试次低负载条件的侧抑制效应显著增大。先前试次为低负载条件时, 完成了知觉加工的侧抑制项或者引发了冲突效应(不一致条件), 或者促进了对目标的反应(一致条件), 造成不同的注意选择和冲突解决状态, 显著影响了下一试次的行为表现。这说明, 注意选择与冲突控制过程是动态变化的, 除了受到当前试次知觉负载的影响, 也受到先前试次注意选择和冲突解决状态的调节。

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刘英杰
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关键词 知觉负载侧抑制效应注意资源冲突控制序列效应    
Abstract

The perceptual load theory resolved the debate between early and late selection theories, such that the perceptual load of a given task determines attentional selection, with the selection occurring earlier when the load is high and later when the load is low. Flanker congruency effect caused by processing of a task-irrelevant distractor has been used as the indicator for choosing between early or late selections, such that the flanker effect was significant under low load condition but was none under high load condition. However, according to the conflict monitoring theory, the state of conflict control in the current trial is influenced by the conflict condition of the previous trial. It is then of theoretic importance to investigate whether the sequential effect of conflict resolution is affected by the perceptual load of the task at hand. In the present study, participants were asked to search for a target orientation (a vertical or a horizontal bar) and to make discriminative response among homogeneously (low load condition) or heterogeneously (high load condition) oriented non-target bars in the central display, which was flanked by a congruent or an incongruent bar presented at the left or the right periphery. All trials were pseudo-randomized to evaluate the sequential impact of the perceptual load and the congruence of the previous trial (trial n-1) on the attentional selection and conflict resolution in trial n. Results showed that the flanker interference effect, in terms of the reaction times (RTs) in the congruent condition subtracted from the incongruent condition, was significant for the current trial low perceptual load condition, but was none for the current trial high load condition. Moreover, the perceptual load and the flanker congruence in trial n-1 affected the RTs and the flanker interference effect in trial n. When trial n-1 was of high perceptual load, trial n showed typical perceptual load effect, i.e. larger flanker effect for low load condition but none flanker effect for high load condition. However, when trial n-1 was of low load and incongruent condition, flanker effect in low load condition of trial n was significantly reduced, with no difference with the flanker effect in high load condition. When trial n-1 was of low load and congruent condition, the flanker effect in high load condition of trial n remained non-significant, but the effect in low load condition of trial n was significantly enhanced. These results indicated that the early or late attentional selection in the current trial is not completely determined by the current perceptual load, but is also affected by the state of attentional selection and conflict resolution of the previous trial. Reduced cognitive control in the previous trial causes more interference effects from task-irrelevant information, especially when there are spare attentional resources left from processing the current task.

Key wordsperceptual load    flanker congruence    attentional selection    conflict resolution    sequential effect
收稿日期: 2013-09-10      出版日期: 2014-09-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(31000502, 31271078)、高等学校博士学科点专项基金项目(20101108110004)、北京市教委科技计划重点项目(KZ201410028034)、首都师范大学哲学社会科学青年拔尖人才资助。通讯作者: 魏萍, E-mail: weiping@cnu.edu.cn

通讯作者: 魏萍, E-mail: weiping@cnu.edu.cn   
引用本文:   
刘英杰;郭春彦;魏萍. 知觉负载影响注意选择和冲突解决的系列效应[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01271.
LIU Yingjie; GUO Chunyan; WEI Ping. The Sequential Effect of Perceptual Load on Attentional Selection and Conflict Resolution. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(9): 1271-1280.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01271      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2014/V46/I9/1271
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