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心理学报
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心理距离对跨期选择和风险选择的影响
陈海贤;何贵兵
(1浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 2浙江大学心理健康教育与咨询中心, 杭州 310028)
The Effect of Psychological Distance on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Choice
CHEN Haixian;HE Guibing
(1 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hanghzou 310028, China) (2 Mental Health Education and Counseling Center, Zhejiang University, Hanghzou 310028, China)
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摘要 

通过考察时间距离、社会距离和概率距离对跨期选择和风险选择的影响, 探究跨期选择和风险选择心理过程的相似性, 并检验不同心理距离影响决策的相似性。结果发现, 无论是时间距离(实验1)、社会距离(实验2)、还是概率距离(实验3), 心理距离越远, 被试在跨期选择中越倾向于延迟选项, 在风险选择中越倾向于风险选项。研究认为, 在跨期选择和风险选择中, 选项的表征结构和选项整体评价时不同选项特征的相对权重具有相似性。随着心理距离增加, 与高识解相联系的金额特征的相对权重增加, 与低识解相联系的时间和概率特征的相对权重降低, 这使得被试更倾向于选择金额较大的延迟和风险选项。同时, 研究发现三类心理距离对两类决策有相似影响, 进一步验证了不同心理距离的本质相似性。

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陈海贤
何贵兵
关键词 心理距离识解水平跨期选择风险选择心理折扣    
Abstract

Temporal distance, social distance and probabilistic distance are three basic dimensions of psychological distance. It has been proved that different kinds of psychological distance have similar effects on cognitive representations of events. In general, distant events are represented as high-level construals, whereas near events are represented as low-level construals. As events become more distant, the high-level construals become more influential in shaping preference whereas the low-level construals become less influential (Liberman, Trope, & Stephan, 2007; Liberman, & Trope, 2008; Trope, & Liberman, 2010). This study investigates the effects of temporal, social and probabilistic distance on intertemporal choice and risky choice. We hypothesize that different kinds of distance have similar effects on intertemporal and risky choice, based on the assumptions that these three kinds of distance share the same nature as psychological distance, and that intertemporal choice and risky choice have common processes of option representation and weighting. When psychological distance increases, money magnitude as high-level construal becomes more influential while time and probability as low-level construals become less influential (Sagristano, Trope, & Liberman, 2002; Trope & Liberman, 2003). Therefore, participants in distant conditions would choose delayed and risky alternatives with larger monetary value. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of temporal distance on intertemporal and risky choices. Participants were told that they would participate in a visual experiment, but before that they needed to make an intertemporal choice as their rewards between “¥50 immediately” and “¥90 in 3 months” (experiment 1a), or between “¥50 for sure” and “¥200 with the probability of 20%” (experiment 1b). In near condition, the experiment would be conducted soon, and in distant condition the experiment would be conducted in 6 months. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of social distance. In near condition, participants would make choice for themselves, and in distant condition, for other people. Experiment 3 investigated the effect of probabilistic distance. In near condition, participants were told that they would participate in the experiment with 90% probability, and in distant condition, with 10% probability. The options of intertemporal choice and risky choice are similar to experiment 1. The results show that no matter what kind of distance was involved, there were more participants in distant condition who chose delayed or risky alternatives than those who did in near condition, which confirms the hypotheses. The similar effects of temporal, social and probabilistic distance on intertemporal and risky choices suggest that intermporal and risky choices share common psychological process, and these three kinds of distance are homogeneous psychological distance.

Key wordspsychological distance    construal level    intertemporal choice    risky choice
收稿日期: 2013-02-05      出版日期: 2014-05-24
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金资助(71271189)。

通讯作者: 何贵兵   
引用本文:   
陈海贤;何贵兵. 心理距离对跨期选择和风险选择的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00677.
CHEN Haixian;HE Guibing. The Effect of Psychological Distance on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Choice. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(5): 677-690.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00677      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2014/V46/I5/677
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