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心理学报
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条件性的关联学习和消退过程的性别差异
孙楠;郑希付
(1广州大学心理学系, 广州 510006) (2华南师范大学心理学院, 广州 510631)
Conditioned Acquisition and Extinction Modulates in Men and Women: Event-related Potential Research
SUN Nan;ZhENG Xifu
(1Department of Psychology, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China) (2 School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
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摘要 

采用事件相关电位技术和条件性关联学习模型相结合的方法, 考察在负性背景下男女性对一般事件的关联学习和消退是否存在差异。结果表明:在关联学习阶段, 男性较女性表现出P2潜伏期缩短和N2波幅增大, 而女性比男性表现出更大的P3波幅。在消退阶段, 女性较男性出现更小的P2波幅和更大的P3/LPP波幅。这说明女性可能慢于男性探索到条件刺激和非条件刺激之间的关联, 并且保持时间更久; 男性在相对早期对消退产生更大的反应, 女性则在相对晚期对消退投入更多的资源及努力。

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孙楠
郑希付
关键词 负性背景条件性关联学习条件性消退性别差异事件相关电位    
Abstract

Gender differences in response to conditioned acquisition and extinction were observed in previous studies. The possible reasons for these differences might be the different strategies and modulations applied on males and females. Event related potentials have been used to quantify the conditioned acquisition and conditioned extinction of late recently. In this study, the event related potentials associated with sex differences in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned negative context were measured. Fifteen man with age and weight matched women were enrolled in this study. The present research consisted of three experimental phases of memory: habituation phase, acquisition phase and extinction phase. In the habituation phase, there are three negative context pictures as conditioned stimuli (CS). Participants were asked to attractively view the three pictures. In the acquisition phase, there was a neutral tone (as the unconditioned stimuli, US) signal appeared at the end of the presentations of negative context pictures. Participants were instructed to press a button as soon as possible when the tone emerged. Then they would go to the next trail. In extinction phase, the neutral tones were extinguished. Participants were instructed to press a button as soon as possible when hearing the tone and not press any button when hearing nothing. ERP analyses showed that shorter P2 latency and more N2 modulate in men than in women, whereas more P3 modulate in women than in men in habituation phase. The results suggested that men might probe the CS-US conditional acquisition faster than women. It indicated that women might be more difficult to get rid of the influence of negative context than men. In extinction phase, results showed attenuated P2 amplitude and larger P3/LPP amplitude in women than in men. The results showed that women might detect the extinction process slower and allocate more attention resources in the extinction process than men. Combined with the results of the two stages, the differences between men and women in the conditioned acquisition and extinction processes may be underlaid very complicated cognitive processes. The findings in this study extends our knowledge from previous behavioral studies in this field and shed light on the neural associates of the gender differences in the cognitive and emotional processes.

Key wordsnegative context    conditioned acquisition    conditioned extinction    gender differences    event-related potentials
收稿日期: 2013-08-08      出版日期: 2014-04-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(33371057)。

通讯作者: 郑希付   
引用本文:   
孙楠;郑希付. 条件性的关联学习和消退过程的性别差异[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00507.
SUN Nan;ZhENG Xifu. Conditioned Acquisition and Extinction Modulates in Men and Women: Event-related Potential Research. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(4): 507-515.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00507      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2014/V46/I4/507
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