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心理学报
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时间感知差异对跨期选择倾向的影响作用
索涛;张锋;赵国祥;李红
(1河南大学教育科学学院, 心理与行为研究所, 开封 475004) (2辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029)
The Influence of Time Perception Difference on Intertemporal Choice
SUO Tao;ZHANG Feng;ZHAO Guoxiang;LI Hong
(1 Institute of Psychology & Behavior, College of Education and Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China) (2 College of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China)
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摘要 

本研究从人格特质差异角度出发, 采用简单跨期选择任务考察了由时距复制任务筛选的两类时距估计倾向不同的群体(时间高估者和时间低估者)在跨期选择中行为倾向的差异, 旨在探讨时间感知在跨期决策中的影响作用。结果发现:(1)无论任务难易, 与时间低估者相比, 时间高估者在跨期选择时更倾向于选择即时兑现的较小奖赏。(2)时间高估者和低估者的跨期选择反应时没有明显的差异, 但二者的反应时受任务难度的影响程度明显不同, 时间高估者的跨期选择反应时不受任务难度的影响, 而时间低估者在任务困难时的反应时比任务容易时明显增长。这些结果表明, 在跨期选择过程中, 时间感知倾向差异明显地影响了个体的选择倾向。时间高估倾向个体对时距的高估可能会导致其在跨期选择权衡中对收益成本的高估, 进而做出冲动的选择行为。

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索涛
张锋
赵国祥
李红
关键词 跨期选择时间感知时间高估倾向时间低估倾向    
Abstract

Intertemporal choice refers to decisions involving tradeoffs among costs and benefits occurring at different points in time. Despite a large number of studies have shown that impulsive behavior is closely related to subjective experience of time, but the relationship between impulsive behavior and perception of time is still controversial in intertemporal choices. From the perspective of personality differences, using a simple intertemporal choice task, this study investigated the differences in behavioral responses between two groups who had different tendencies of time perception (those who tended to overestimate time or underestimate time) in intertemporal choice to explore the role of time perception on intertemporal choice. In the present study, 32 participants who overestimated time (18 males and 14 females, average age = 20.36±1.25 years) and 32 participants who underestimate time (15 male and 17 females, average age = 20.64±1.98 years) were selected by using a time-production task from 120 volunteers recruited from some universities in China. They were asked to engage in a simple intertemporal choice task, in which, they were forced to make choices between two amounts of money attained in different delay time, and moreover, the difficulty of the intertemporal choice task was also manipulated through different amounts of money in options. The participants in the experiment were all right-hand, had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and had no neurological or psychological disorders. Each participant signed a consent form prior to the experiments and was paid after the experiment, according to their performance. The study was approved by the local academic committee. The results indicated that, (1) regardless difficulty of choice task, compared to the group who tended to underestimate time, the group who tended to overestimate time prefered to smaller-immediate rewards. (2) there is no significant difference in reaction time of intertemporal choice between the group who tended to overestimate time and the group who tended to underestimate time; and the reaction time of the group who tended to overestimate time was not affected by difficulty of choice task, while the reaction time of the group who tended to overestimate time in easy choice task was significantly longer than that in difficult task. In conclusion, the present study suggested that time perception plays an important role in intertemporal decision-making. Individuals who tend to overestimation of time may lead to overestimation of the cost of revenue, which would result in his/her impulsive choices in intertemporal choices

Key wordsintertemporal choice    time perception    tendency to overestimate time    tendency to underestimate time
收稿日期: 2013-06-24      出版日期: 2014-02-25
基金资助:

教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(10YJCXLX056)、河南省教育厅人文社科重点项目(2013-ZD-090)、河南大学科学研究基金项目(2012YBRW019)和河南大学教育科学学院青年科研基金(2012-JKJJ-03)资助。

通讯作者: 赵国祥;李红   
引用本文:   
索涛;张锋;赵国祥;李红. 时间感知差异对跨期选择倾向的影响作用[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00165.
SUO Tao;ZHANG Feng;ZHAO Guoxiang;LI Hong. The Influence of Time Perception Difference on Intertemporal Choice. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(2): 165-173.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00165      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2014/V46/I2/165
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