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(1山西大学体育学院, 太原 030006) (2太原大学学生处, 太原 030032)
An Investigation of Female College Students’ Body Weight Perception Deviation and Its Reasons
(1 School of Physical Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China) (2 Student Department, Taiyuan University, Taiyuan, 030032, China)
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以女性身体图形评定量表PFRS (the female Photographic Figure Rating Scale)作为刺激材料, 研究女大学生体重自我知觉与偏差, 以及女大学生对他人的体重知觉与偏差, 引入男性视角作为体重社会标准, 研究女大学生体重社会知觉与偏差。研究中要求女大学生选择准确代表自己胖瘦的图像, 选择自己理想胖瘦的图像, 选择他人眼里最有吸引力的图像, 估计PFRS真人照片图像体重值(假定图像中人物和自己身高相同), 并报告自己的实际体重和理想体重。研究要求男大学生选择最有吸引力的图像。在此基础上提出3种模型假设:镜像模型、泛化模型和相关模型, 进一步探索女大学生体重知觉偏差的原因。研究表明:女大学生体重自我知觉高估了对应真人图像的BMI; 女大学生对其他女性BMI知觉, 倾向于高估体重正常和偏瘦女性的BMI, 低估偏胖和肥胖女性的BMI; 女大学生体重的主观社会压力高于体重的实际社会压力, 对体重社会压力存在过度解读的倾向。女大学生对他人体重知觉偏差更有可能影响其体重自我知觉偏差; 认知评价不是造成女大学生知觉偏差的重要因素, 但两者关系需要进一步实证。

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关键词 女大学生身体意象体重身体意象知觉身体意象知觉偏差体重指数    

References suggested that there are two components of body-image dysfunction: (a) perceptual body-size distortion and (b) cognitive-evaluative dysfunction. Also, reference indicated that an individual’s perception of body weight is an imperative component for understanding a dissatisfied body-image. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate female college students’ perceptions on their own body weight in relation to others. By analyzing college female students’ social perceptions on the deviation of their body weight in relation to a standardized normal female body weight, the study used the male students’ perceptions as a social standard of proper body weight image. Additionally, the reasons of the college students’ perceptions of deviation of body weight were also examined as well. The body image materials of PFRS (the female Photographic Figure Rating Scale) consist of ten photographic real female body images varying in body mass index (BMI) from emaciated to obese. Participants of the study were randomly selected from 6 universities and colleges, which included 1005 female students and 190 male students. The female participants were asked to choose the images in the PFRS representing their body size, ideal body size, and the most attractive body size respectively. To estimate the images of body weight based on the PFRS (assume that the image was as high as her), the participants were asked to report their actual body weight, and their perception on the desired ideal body weight. The male participants were asked to choose the most attractive body image from the PFRS. Based on the obtained research data, the attempt of this study was to reveal the female college students’ perceptions for the ideal body image so that the distance of deviation to ideal body image could be identified as well. In addition, the current study used three research models: (a) mirror model, (b) generalized model and (c) relevant model in order to reveal the reasons of the body weight perceptual deviation. The results of this study showed that the female students overestimated their own BMI (Body Mass Index); specifically, the female students tended to overestimate the BMI of the female students with normal weight or underweight, but underestimate the BMI of those overweight females. The score on the subjective social pressure of their body weight is higher than the real social pressure, which means that these students exaggerated the social pressure of body weight. Moreover, the female students’ perceptions on body image deviated to others were more possible to influence their self-perception deviation. Cognitive evaluation mentioned on the paper is not an important factor of weight perception deviation of the female college students, but the relation between these two factors should be further studied.

Key wordsFemale college students    body image    body weight    perception of body image    perception of deviation of body image    and body mass index
收稿日期: 2013-05-20      出版日期: 2014-01-25
通讯作者: 石岩   
周璠;石岩. 女大学生体重知觉偏差及探因[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00101.
ZHOU Fan;SHI Yan. An Investigation of Female College Students’ Body Weight Perception Deviation and Its Reasons. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(1): 101-112 .
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[1] 张静; 陈巍. 身体意象可塑吗? ——同步性和距离参照系对身体拥有感的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(8): 933-945.
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