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心理学报
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神经肌肉下意识前馈与反馈控制的知觉线索效应
张芷;王健
(1浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028) (2浙江大学体育科学与技术研究所, 杭州 310028)
Effects of Perceptual Clues on the Subconscious Neuromuscular Feed-forward and Feedback Control
ZHANG Zhi;WANG Jian
(1Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China) (2 Institute of Sports Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China)
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摘要 

为研究视觉和时间知觉线索对突发外部姿势干扰下中枢神经系统对动作肌肉和姿势肌肉预期姿势调节(APAs)和补偿姿势调节(CPAs)的影响, 本研究被试分别在视觉和时间线索引导下完成经典落球试验, 同步采集右侧动作肌肉肱二头肌和姿势肌肉腰部竖脊肌和腰部多裂肌的sEMG信号, 计算被检肌肉APAs发生率、预激活时间和CPAs反应强度。结果发现, 视觉线索可以引发动作肌肉和姿势肌肉APAs发生率明显增加, 预激活时间明显提前, 以及动作肌肉CPAs反应强度明显减小; 而时间线索主要引发动作肌肉预激活提前, 对姿势肌肉APAs和CPAs无明显影响。该结果表明, 视觉和时间引导线索对突发外部姿势干扰条件下人体姿势肌肉和动作肌肉的中枢运动控制具有不同的作用。视觉引导线索能够明显增加姿势肌肉和动作肌肉预激活发生率和提早预激活时间, 表现出明显的“视觉线索预激活优势现象”; 而时间引导线索主要引发动作肌肉预激活提前, 对姿势肌肉APAs和CPAs无明显影响。

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张芷
王健
关键词 视觉线索时间线索预期姿势调节补偿姿势调节外部姿势干扰    
Abstract

During self-induced and externally triggered posture perturbations the central nervous system (CNS) subconsciously activates two different neural control strategies named feed-forward mechanisms (FFM) which is presented as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and feedback mechanisms (FBM) which is presented as compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs). Because of these two neural control strategies the postural muscles can respond rapidly in 50 to 120ms and the center of body gravity can be stable. It is a classic experiment paradigm that observing FFM by APAs changes of postural muscles triggered by optic clues. However, sudden loading and unloading triggered by temporal clues is a new way to examine neuromuscular rapid response control. Its impact on APAs and CPAs of postural and focal muscles during sudden posture perturbation is still unclear and the interaction between optic and temporal clues has not been reported yet. This experiment aimed to examine the effects of the optic and temporal clues on APAs and CPAs by which CNS acts on postural and focal muscles during externally triggered posture perturbation. Sixteen healthy young adults were subjected to the classic ball hitting test (BHT) in six conditions combined by optic clues (eyes open and eyes closed) and temporal clues (no counting backwards for release, counting backwards of release by the experimenter and counting backwards by subjects themselves). EMG activity on right side musculus biceps brachii as focal muscle and right side lumbar erector spinae and lumbar multifidus as postural muscles was collected. The incidence of APAs, the latency of pre-activation and the response intensity of CPAs of the muscles mentioned above were calculated in order to reflect the effects of perceptual clues on APAs and CPAs of postural and focal muscles. Our results showed that the incidence of APAs of postural and focal muscles was significantly increased and the pre-activation of postural and focal muscles was significantly earlier with optic clues than without. Besides, optic clues significantly decreased the response intensity of CPAs of the focal muscle. Nevertheless, temporal clues primarily induced earlier pre-activation of the focal muscle without significant effects on APAs or CPAs of postural muscles. We conclude that the effects of optic and temporal clues on CNS motor control of postural and focal muscles during externally triggered posture perturbation are different. Optic clues have significant effects on APAs of postural and focal muscles and CPAs of the focal muscle, which suggests a pre-activation superiority for optic clues. Temporal clues only have significant effect on APAs of focal muscles.

Key wordsoptic clues    temporal clues    anticipatory postural adjustments    compensatory postural adjustments    externally triggered postural perturbation
收稿日期: 2013-02-08      出版日期: 2014-01-25
基金资助:

2013~2016国家科技支撑计划资助项目(2013BAI10B00, 2013BAI10B05)。

通讯作者: 王健   
引用本文:   
张芷;王健. 神经肌肉下意识前馈与反馈控制的知觉线索效应[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00050.
ZHANG Zhi;WANG Jian. Effects of Perceptual Clues on the Subconscious Neuromuscular Feed-forward and Feedback Control. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(1): 50-57.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00050      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2014/V46/I1/50
[1] 谢琳;王健;张芷;袁立伟;王楚婕. 姿势干扰强度的心理预期效应[J]. 心理学报, 2014, 46(7): 951-959.
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