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心理学报
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污名身份对人际影响力和社会距离的影响
赵德雷
(哈尔滨工程大学人文社会科学学院, 哈尔滨 150001)
Effects of Stigmatized Identities on Interpersonal Influence and Social Distance
ZHAO Delei
(College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China)
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摘要 

研究采用现场实验法, 考察了污名身份对受污者影响力和受污者与外群他者的社会距离的作用。结果发现, ①在合作完成任务的过程中, 农民工启动组的被试倾向于低估启动对象的绩效, 更少受其意见影响; ②相比只知道启动对象是农民工的被试, 得知对方得分高于自己的被试更多地参考了启动对象的意见; ③农民工启动组的被试总倾向于跟启动对象保持较大社会距离; ④强调农民工身份的启动对象具有较强任务技能未能明显拉近其与被试间的社会距离。实验结果表明, “农民工”是一种标示底层群体资格的地位特征和污名身份, 由其带来的低期望和弱影响力可以通过引入新的优势地位特征加以平衡和改变, 但此方法并不能减弱身份污名。

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赵德雷
关键词 绩效期望社会地位地位特征社会距离建筑装饰业农民工    
Abstract

In order to reveal the processes through which status differentiation and stigmatization occur in daily interactions between migrant workers and out-groups, the present study investigated the effects a stigmatized status characteristic had on influence in the interaction and on the social rejection suffered during this process. This is a multiple site experimental study. Participants were 151 undergraduate students from freshman to senior level. The participants included seventy three male students and seventy eight female students in YanTai. In the experiment, the participants cooperated with a fictitious partner through a local area network to answer questions described as measuring “contrast sensitivity ability.” On the task, participants had the opportunity to be influenced by the partners. Participants then chose partners for the next period task. In accordance with the different identities of the partners, the study has five conditions that differentiated the participants’ partners (all partners were in fact fictitious). In the control condition, the partners are described as male college students just like the participants. In two conditions, the partners are high school students with either a low or high score on an initial contrast sensitivity task. In the remaining two conditions, the partners are migrant workers with either low or high initial test scores. In the study, influence and social distance were the indicators of social status and the degree of stigmatization respectively. Influence was measured as how often participants switched answers to correspond to answers provided by partners, and social distance was measured by whether participants selected the same or a new partner for the future session., The study expects to find out that education level and task ability are status markers that affect influence. It also predicts that migrant workers identity will act as a status marker and stigma, affecting both influence and social distance. The study also predicts that the influence effects of task ability can imply a strategy to decrease the legitimacy of the existing status order. The status measurement results turned out to be that, ① in cooperative tasks, participants in the migrant workers partner group were more inclined to underestimate the partners’ performance and were less influenced by them than the participants in control group and low education partner group, ② the participants who found out that their partners were migrant workers and the partners’ score were higher than them, referred to the partners’ answers more frequently than those who were only informed of their partners’ migrant worker identity. The stigma measurement results indicated that, ① participants in the migrant workers partner group obviously intended to keep longer social distance with the partners, than the participants in control group and low education partner group, ② emphasizing partners’ significant skills in the task did not decrease the social distance that participants sought from migrant workers. The results indicate that “migrant worker” is a status characteristic and a stigmatized identity that indicates a person’s inferior position in the social hierarchy. The low performance expectation and weak influence brought about by status characteristics can be counterpoise and changed by introducing new status characteristics of the partners. However, this method did not attenuate the social distance that accompanies stigma.

Key wordsperformance expectation    social status    status characteristics    social distance    migrant workers in construction and decoration industry
收稿日期: 2012-12-19      出版日期: 2013-11-25
基金资助:

教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(11JJD840003)、中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(HEUCF20131303)、教育部人文社科青年项目(11YJC630039)支持。

通讯作者: 赵德雷   
引用本文:   
赵德雷. 污名身份对人际影响力和社会距离的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01283.
ZHAO Delei. Effects of Stigmatized Identities on Interpersonal Influence and Social Distance. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(11): 1283-1294.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01283      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2013/V45/I11/1283
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