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12个月中国婴儿熟悉词表征中声调的语义特性
陶冶;徐琴美
(1浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028) (2浙江师范大学杭州幼儿师范学院, 杭州 310012)
Phonological Specificity of Lexical Tones in 12-month-old Chinese-speaking Infants
TAO Ye;XU Qinmei
(1 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China) (2 Hangzhou College of Early Childhood Teachers’ Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Hangzhou 310012, China)
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摘要 12个月婴儿能否表征母语的音位语义特性(phonological specificity)是资源有限理论和表征不连续理论争议的焦点。本研究通过跨通道注视偏好范式(IPLP), 对熟悉词进行正确命名和声调错读2种任务, 发现不论任务以何种先后顺序呈现, 12个月中国婴儿都在正确命名时出现命名效应, 在声调错读时出现错读效应。这表明12个月中国婴儿能表征普通话声调的语义特性, 资源有限理论适用于声调。
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陶冶
徐琴美
关键词 婴儿声调音位语义特性资源有限理论错读效应    
Abstract:By about 12 months of age, infants show sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words when asked to identify a referent. These findings indicate that infants are able to access the phonological detail of words when engaged in lexical recognition. However, most of this work has focused on mispronunciations of consonants and vowels. Very little is known about the role that lexical tones play in constraining lexical access during the early stages of lexical development. In tonal languages (e.g., Chinese), over and above vowel and consonant variations, words are distinguished by lexical tone. Over half the world’s population speak a tonal language. The current study aims to answer the question: Do Chinese infants treat tones as phonological information in their lexical representations as early as 12 months old? Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm with the mispronunciation task, the current study examined whether Chinese infants at 12 months were sensitive to mispronunciations of lexical tones in monosyllabic, familiar words. 12 infants were in group1, 8 infants were in group2. For group 1, the familiar words were pronounced correctly in block1, while mispronounced with the falling tone in Mandarin (Tone 4) in block 2. The block order was reversed for the infants in group 2. The proportion of target look (PTL) and the difference between infants' longest look at target and distracter images (LLD) before and after naming were calculated. Systematic increment in PTL or LLD across pre- and post-naming phases indicates infants' association of the target label and object. The results showed that both groups of infants could associate the target labels and objects when the labels were correctly pronounced (PTL: group 1, t(11) = 1.78, p = 0.103; group 2, t(7) = 2.95, p = 0.021), while the associations were not found when the labels were mispronounced (PTL: group 1, t(11) = -0.79, p = 0.45; group 2, t(7) = -0.41, p = 0.70). In other words, the mispronunciation effects were found for both groups. But infants’ sensitivity to tonal mispronunciations was not influenced by their receptive vocabulary size. In conclusion, the results indicate that sufficient phonological information of tones is encoded by 12-month-old Chinese infants.
Key wordsinfant    tone    phonological specificity    resource limitation theory    mispronunciation effect
收稿日期: 2012-11-08      出版日期: 2013-10-25
基金资助:

浙江省自然科学基金院士基金项目(编号J20060590)资助。

通讯作者: 徐琴美   
引用本文:   
陶冶;徐琴美. 12个月中国婴儿熟悉词表征中声调的语义特性[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01111.
TAO Ye;XU Qinmei. Phonological Specificity of Lexical Tones in 12-month-old Chinese-speaking Infants. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(10): 1111-1118.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01111      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2013/V45/I10/1111
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