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心理学报
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价值导向元记忆中价值顺序效应初探
严燕;姜英杰;杨玲
(东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024)
The Effect of Value Sequence on Value-directed Metamemory
YAN Yan;JIANG Yingjie;YANG Ling
(School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China)
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摘要 采用选择性记忆任务, 通过价值顺序2(价值在前、价值在后)×价值高低3(低、中、高)的被试内实验设计考察价值导向元记忆的价值顺序效应。结果发现:(1)空间维度上, 价值顺序在前时被试的价值导向元记忆与价值在后无显著差异(实验1); (2)时间维度上, 价值顺序优先时被试价值导向元记忆水平显著高于价值随后呈现, 并且价值顺序对不同学习阶段价值导向元记忆有显著影响, 出现价值顺序效应(实验2)。研究结果为探讨价值顺序对元记忆的影响提供了实证依据, 对教学实践有参考价值。
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严燕
姜英杰
杨玲
关键词 价值导向元记忆价值顺序效应元记忆    
Abstract:Value-directed metamemory allows individuals to choose more important information to encode, preserve and retrieve in order to allocate their attention resources reasonably and maximize their effective memory performance when they are exposed to some information with different value. Previous research has mainly focused on the differences in value-directed metamomery between young and old people, as well as the impairment of value-directed metamemory in Alzheimer’s disease and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, there is little research concerning the factors affecting the level of value-directed metamomery. Value-directed metamemory improves memory efficacy by emphasizing high-value information. Therefore, it is of great importance to explore the factors promoting the Value-directed metamemory, such as the influence of value sequence on Value-directed metamemory. Value sequence refers to the Spatial or temporal sequence of value and words. In the present study, two experiments using a selectivity task were conducted to investigate the effect of value sequence on Value-directed metamemory, namely whether there was a value-sequence effect: one was to measure the memory capacity (mean number of words recalled), the other the memory efficiency/selectivity (the recall of high-value items relative to low-value items is the selectivity index, or SI). Subjects were told that they would be presented with six different lists of words, and that each list contained 12 words. They were informed that each word was paired with a number, and that this number indicated how much the word was “worth.” They were told that the values ranged from 1 to 12. Their tasks were to study and recall high-value words as many as possible in order to maximize their score in the experiment. Two experiments were conducted with 2 (value sequence: value-item/item-value) × 3 (value category: high-value/medium-value/low-value) within-subject factorial design. Experiment 1 explored that whether there was a value-sequence effect on SI in spatial sequence of words and value, and the results showed that the main effect of value sequence was not significant on SI. Experiment 2 explored that whether there was a value-sequence effect on SI in temporal sequence of words and value, and the results showed that value-word sequence produced a better value-directed metamemory, compared with word-value sequence when item and value were presented sequentially, and the diffidence reached a distinct level. The results of 2 experiments are as follows: 1) there is no value-sequence effect when value and words are presented spatially; 2) there is a value-sequence effect when value and words are presented temporally. To be specific, the priority of value improves the level of value-directed metamemory, and also the subjects could make use of the task experience to encode, retrieve and utilize high-value words more efficiently. By contrast, the subjects’ value-directed metamemory is relatively stable on the “words-value” condition, and they are not sensitive to updated task experience. In conclusion, our results reveal that there is an effect of value sequence on value-directed metamemory. The present findings do not only demonstrate how to promote people’s metamemory during the learning process, but also extend the research method of value-directed metamemory.
Key wordsvalue-directed metamemory    value-sequence effect    metamemory
收稿日期: 2013-02-05      出版日期: 2013-10-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金青年项目(31100730), 教育部人文社科规划基金项目(12YJA90008), 吉林省哲学社会科学规划项目(2011B069), 吉林省教育科学规划重点项目(ZC11012)资助。

通讯作者: 姜英杰   
引用本文:   
严燕;姜英杰;杨玲. 价值导向元记忆中价值顺序效应初探[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01094.
YAN Yan;JIANG Yingjie;YANG Ling. The Effect of Value Sequence on Value-directed Metamemory. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(10): 1094-1103.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01094      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2013/V45/I10/1094
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