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心理学报
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字谜顿悟任务中限制解除和组块分解的机制及其原型启发效应
邢强;张忠炉;孙海龙;张金莲;王菁
(广州大学心理学系, 广州 510006)
The Mechanism of Constraint Relaxation and Chunk Decomposition and the Related Prototype Elicitation Effect in Logogriph Tasks
XING Qiang;ZHANG Zhonglu;SUN Hailong;ZHANG Jinlian;WANG Jing
(Department of Psychology, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China)
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摘要 通过3个实验考察了汉字字谜任务中的限制解除和组块分解机制及其原型启发效应。实验1a表明, 字谜的常规型语义比字谜型语义更容易激活, 实验1b采用“学习-测试”范式, 结果表明在学习阶段启动字谜语义比启动常规语义更有利于测试阶段的常规语义限制的解除。因此实验1表明常规语义和字谜语义的通达性差异是限制形成和限制解除的认知机制。实验2表明, 涉及镶嵌或者笔画单元分解的紧组块比相应的松组块解答率更低, 反应时更长, 这表明组块分解是字谜顿悟的机制之一。实验3通过实验3a和实验3b分别揭示了在限制解除和组块分解上原型启发比非原型启发以及无启发有更大的促进作用。总之, 本研究揭示, 汉字字谜任务中存在限制解除和组块分解机制并且原型启发可以促进二者的发生。
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邢强
张忠炉
孙海龙
张金莲
王菁
关键词 限制解除组块分解原型启发汉字字谜    
Abstract:The representational-change theory proposes two mechanisms for insight: constraint relaxation and chunk decomposition, which has been supported in many studies using matchstick as test materials. It is however unclear whether these two mechanisms can explain insight in Chinese logogriph tasks and if so, how the two mechanisms are triggered by external hints. In Experiment 1a and 1b, the normal reading meaning and the logogriph meaning of the logogriph were compared when participants were asked to understand the two. Experiment 1a showed that the normal reading meaning of the logogriph was easier to understand than the logogriph meaning. In Experiment 1b, a study - test paradigm was used where the normal reading meaning and the logogriph meaning were both provided. The results showed that the logogriph meaning helped relax the constraint from the normal reading meaning. Together, Experiment 1 demonstrates that semantic discrepancies between the normal reading meaning and the logogriph meaning caused difficulties in constraint relaxation. Experiment 2 examined two types of logogriph chunks. Tight chunks were logogriph chunks with embedded sub-chunks or chunks involving decomposition at the stroke level. Loose chunks were logogriph chunks without any embedded sub-chunks or chunks involving decomposition at the radical level. The results showed that it was more difficult to decompose tight chunks than loose ones as shown in the longer reaction time in the former than the latter. Experiment 3 examined how different types of elicitation affect constraint relaxation and chunk decomposition in the incubation period using a single factor design in 3a (type of elicitation: prototype, non-prototype or no elicitation) and a 2 × 3 design in 3b (type of chunk: tight or loose by type of elicitation: prototype, non-prototype or no elicitation). The results showed that prototype elicitation facilitated constraint relaxation and chunk decomposition more than non-prototype elicitation or no elicitation did. In conclusion, the cognitive mechanism of insight in Chinese logogriph can be explained in the framework of representational-change theory emphasizing constraint relaxation and chunk decomposition, both of which can be facilitated by prototype elicitation.
Key wordsconstraint relaxation    chunk decomposition    prototype elicitation    Chinese logogriph
收稿日期: 2012-07-07      出版日期: 2013-10-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金(31070918)和广州市属高校人文社会科学重点项目(10A108)资助。

通讯作者: 邢强   
引用本文:   
邢强;张忠炉;孙海龙;张金莲;王菁. 字谜顿悟任务中限制解除和组块分解的机制及其原型启发效应[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01061.
XING Qiang;ZHANG Zhonglu;SUN Hailong;ZHANG Jinlian;WANG Jing. The Mechanism of Constraint Relaxation and Chunk Decomposition and the Related Prototype Elicitation Effect in Logogriph Tasks. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(10): 1061-1071.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01061      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2013/V45/I10/1061
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