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(北京大学光华管理学院, 北京 100871)
Dual Motives of Harmony and Negotiation Outcomes in an Integrative Negotiation
ZHANG Zhixue;YAO Jingjing;HUANG Mingpeng
(Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)
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摘要 人们追求人际和谐的动机具有双重性, 一方面是为了促进和谐, 另一方面是为了避免破裂, 两种动机驱使人们在面对冲突时采取不一样的应对策略。那么, 谈判作为一种与冲突密不可分的情境, 谈判者的和谐的动机将会对他们的谈判结果产生什么影响呢?本研究整合和谐动机和谈判两方面的文献, 探讨了在整合性谈判中两种不同的和谐动机与谈判者的行为以及谈判结果之间的关系。研究结果表明, 1)在个体层面上, 谈判者的促进和谐动机与其个体收益以及对谈判双方关系的评价正相关, 而避免破裂动机与其个体收益以及对谈判双方关系的评价负相关; 2)在谈判对子层面上, 谈判双方总体的促进和谐与谈判双方的联合收益正相关。本研究不仅进一步论证了和谐动机的概念效度, 而且从理论上论证了和谐动机与谈判的关系, 对于谈判者具有实践意义。
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关键词 整合性谈判促进和谐避免破裂经济收益关系评价    
Abstract:Individuals may consider negotiation as either an interpersonal process with conflicts or an effective approach to resolve conflicts. How individuals consider negotiation and how they engage in the negotiation process are closely related to their internal motives, particularly, their harmony motives. Recent scholars have defined two kinds of harmony motives--harmony enhancement and disintegration avoidance. Individuals with the two kinds of harmony motives are found to resolve conflicts in different ways. The major purpose of this study was to examine the influences of the two harmony motives on negotiation outcomes. Negotiators with high harmony enhancement motive are likely to view their counterparts in a positive way and play a proactive role in initiating and facilitating information sharing with their negotiating partner. In contrast, negotiators with high disintegration avoidance motive consider harmony as a means to protect and obtain profits, thereby acting passively in sharing information with the negotiating partner. We predicted that negotiators’ harmony enhancement motive would positively relate to both their economic gain and the assessment of the relationship between the negotiating parties; in contrary, negotiators’ disintegration avoidance motive would negatively relate to the two negotiation outcomes. As an integrative negotiation consists of both integrative issues and distributive issues, we attempted to examine both individual gain at the individual level and the joint gain at the dyad level as the measures of economic gain. A simulated one-to-one negotiation was used to collect data, and 212 undergraduate students forming 106 negotiation dyads participated in the negotiation exercise. Four weeks before the negotiation, their harmony motives were measured. After the negotiation, participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire which measured the relationships between the negotiating parties. Data from both negotiating parties were used to create the variables at the dyadic level. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was employed to test our hypotheses. The results supported most of our hypotheses. Individual negotiators’ harmony enhancement motives were positively related to their individual gains, whereas their disintegration avoidance motives were negatively related to their individual gains. We also found that, negotiators’ harmony enhancement motives were positively related to the assessments of the relationships between negotiation partners, but the disintegration avoidance motives were negatively related to the assessments of the relationships between negotiation partners. Finally, the dyadic harmony enhancement motives of negotiation pairs were positively related to the joint gains from the two negotiation partners, but the dyadic disintegration avoidance motives were not significantly related to the joint gain. Harmony and negotiation are two important areas in conflict resolution literatures. By incorporating these two areas of research, this study contributes to both harmony and negotiation literatures by: 1) showing how harmony motives affect the way individuals deal with conflicts in a negotiation context; 2) providing meaningful insights on how negotiator achieve both economic and relational gains in negotiations. In addition, this study also provides empirical evidence on the distinction between the two harmony motives which were theoretically conceptualized in recent research. In sum, the present study not only provides empirical evidence for the conceptual validity of the two harmony motives, but also suggests the mechanism of the relationship between harmony motives and negotiation process. The findings have practical implications for negotiators.
Key wordsintegrative negotiation    harmony enhancement    disintegration avoidance    economic gain    relationship evaluation
收稿日期: 2012-09-01      出版日期: 2013-09-25


通讯作者: 张志学   
张志学;姚晶晶;黄鸣鹏. 和谐动机与整合性谈判结果[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.01026.
ZHANG Zhixue;YAO Jingjing;HUANG Mingpeng. Dual Motives of Harmony and Negotiation Outcomes in an Integrative Negotiation. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(9): 1026-1038.
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