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心理学报
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依赖于唤醒与效价的情绪记忆增强效应:自动与控制加工
康诚;王振宏
(陕西师范大学心理学院; 陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062)
Emotionally Enhanced Memory Relied on Arousal and Valence: Automatic and Controlled Processes
KANG Cheng;WANG Zhenhong
(School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi Province Key Laboratory of Behavior & Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi’an 710062, China)
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摘要 情绪记忆增强(Emotionally Enhanced Memory, EEM)效应受到刺激的唤醒度和效价的影响。Kensinger 等人提出依赖于唤醒的EEM效应与自动加工相联系, 依赖于效价的EEM效应与控制加工相联系。然而现有研究并不能为这一假设提供充分的证据。本研究的三个实验采用学习—— 再认范式和DA范式(divided attention paradigm)相结合的方法, 分别考察了在两种注意条件下依赖于唤醒和依赖于效价的EEM效应在编码阶段的加工机制。结果发现, 中性词、正性非唤醒词、负性非唤醒词在集中注意条件下的记忆再认成绩显著高于分散注意条件下的记忆再认成绩; 正性唤醒词在集中注意条件下的记忆再认成绩也显著高于分散注意条件下的记忆再认成绩, 但负性唤醒词的记忆再认成绩在两种注意条件下不存在显著差异。这表明依赖于效价的EEM效应与控制加工相联系, 而依赖于唤醒的EEM效应并不总是与自动加工相联系, 其加工还受到情绪效价的调节, 对于负性刺激, 依赖于唤醒的EEM效应与自动加工相联系; 对于正性刺激, 依赖于唤醒的EEM效应则与控制加工相联系。
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康诚
王振宏
关键词 情绪记忆增强效应唤醒效价自动加工控制加工    
Abstract:The valence and arousal of emotional stimuli are thought to be the main factors affecting emotionally enhanced memory (EEM). A large body of neuroimaging evidence has indicated that there is a distinction between arousal dependent amygdala?hippocampal network implicated in automatic encoding processes and valence dependent prefrontal cortex (PFC)?hippocampal network implicated in controlled encoding processes. In a study, Kensinger and Corkin (2004) found that distinct cognitive and neural processes contributed to the enhancement of emotional memory for arousing versus valenced, nonarousing information. However, positive emotional stimuli were not included in their experiments. Accumulating evidence has shown that negative and positive stimuli can involve different cognitive and neural processes, it is therefore that, more evidence, especially about the memory for positive emotional stimuli, is needed to make stronger claims about this hypothesis. Previous studies have proved that attentional resources have a greater impact on the controlled than the automatic processes. If controlled encoding processes were responsible for the enhancement effect for negative nonarousing items but were less important for that for arousing items, the enhancement for the negative nonarousing items should be disproportionately reduced by the divided-attention as compared to that for the arousing items. In this study, three experiments were conducted using the learning?recognition and divided attention (DA) paradigm to explore the cognitive processes contributing to the EEM effects under the condition of valence (negative and positive) or arousal was anchored. All participants performed encoding tasks for emotional and neutral words in two different attentional conditions, FA (full or nondivided attention) or DA (divided attention). After the entire learning phase was completed, they performed a rehearsal prevention task and then a recognition test. Recognition scores were computed by subtracting the false alarm rate from the hit rate (Hits-False alarms). The results suggest that in FA condition, there exist both arousal-dependent and valence-dependent EEM effects. What is particularly important here is that there is no significant difference in the recognition scores for the negative arousing words between the two attentional conditions, but the recognition scores for the positive arousing words, negative and positive nonarousing words were significantly higher in FA condition than in DA condition. In other words, a distraction task during encoding has less influence on memory for negative arousing stimuli, but has an adverse impact on memory for both negative and positive nonarousing stimuli and positive arousing stimuli. Therefore, the EEM effect relied on valence is associated with controlled processes, whereas the EEM effect relied on arousal is mediated by the valence of the stimuli, which is associated with automatic processes for negative stimuli, but controlled processes for positive stimuli. The present findings implied that the EEM effects dependent on valence and arousal do not perfectly correspond with controlled and automatic processing.
Key wordsEmotionally enhanced memory effect    arousal    valence    automatic processes    controlled processes
收稿日期: 2012-09-29      出版日期: 2013-09-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(30970912); 教育部人文社会科学基金(11YJA190008)资助。

通讯作者: 王振宏   
引用本文:   
康诚;王振宏. 依赖于唤醒与效价的情绪记忆增强效应:自动与控制加工[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00970.
KANG Cheng;WANG Zhenhong. Emotionally Enhanced Memory Relied on Arousal and Valence: Automatic and Controlled Processes. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(9): 970-980.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00970      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2013/V45/I9/970
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