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心理学报
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前瞻记忆类型差异及动机与任务序列对前瞻记忆的影响
胡彬;冯成志
(教育部人文社科重点研究基地-苏州大学中国特色城镇化研究中心, 苏州 215006) (苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123)
The Different Effects of PM Types, Motivation, and Task Sequence on Prospective Memory
HU Bin;FENG Chengzhi
(Key Research Institute of Education Ministry-Center for Chinese Urbanization Studies, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China) (Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China)
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摘要 本文采用“模拟星期”范式通过3个实验分别考察了前瞻记忆任务类型的差异以及动机与任务序列对前瞻记忆的影响。结果表明:(1)规律性前瞻记忆任务的正确率显著高于非规律性的, 即使本研究条件下对非规律性前瞻记忆任务进行奖励与惩罚, 仍没有消除两者间的差异。(2)不论是惩罚还是奖励都可以显著提高非规律性前瞻记忆的成绩, 而且动机促进作用会蔓延至非直接强化的前瞻记忆任务。(3)固定序列前瞻记忆成绩显著优于随机序列的, 且在实验过程中固定序列前瞻记忆的成绩呈上升趋势, 而随机序列的基本不变, 固定序列在一定程度上反映了行为习惯的建立过程。(4)不论前瞻记忆任务规律与否, 惩罚或奖励, 任务序列如何, 基于时间的前瞻记忆成绩均优于基于事件的前瞻记忆的成绩。(5)时间确认任务中, 被试翻看时钟的次数与其正确率间呈显著正相关, 且越临近规定时间翻看次数越多, 呈J型分布。
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胡彬
冯成志
关键词 前瞻记忆动机任务序列模拟星期    
Abstract:Prospective memory (PM) is the memory for actions to be performed in the future. Previous prospective memory studies often use calculation and character recognition tasks, rather than everyday life events, which may limit the implication of the result. Here we use prospective memory tasks that occur in everyday life in the “Virtual Week” paradigm, forming a board game that mimics many features of daily living, and investigate the effects of prospective memory types, motivation and task sequence on prospective memory of undergraduate students. In Experiment 1, we focused on the effects of different types of prospective memory tasks with a 2 (regular and irregular) × 2 (time-based prospective memory and event-based prospective memory) design. The experiment explored the effect of the regularity of prospective memory tasks on behavioral performance in the time-based prospective memory and event-based prospective memory. In Experiment 2, we investigated the influence of motivation (reward vs. penalty) on prospective memory performance with a 2 (regular and irregular) × 2 (time-based prospective memory and event-based prospective memory) × 3 (no motivation, reward, and penalty) design. The purpose of this experiment was to exam whether both reward and penalty could improve the accuracy of prospective memory tasks, and whether this improvement was different between regular and irregular prospective memory task. In Experiment 3, we studied the effects of task sequence on prospective memory performance with a 2 (fixed and random sequence) × 2 (time-based prospective memory and event-based prospective memory) design to exam whether the prospective memory performance would be better in fixed sequence than in random sequence. The results showed that the accuracy of regular prospective memory tasks was higher than that of irregular prospective memory tasks, even of those with motivation. Meanwhile, both reward and penalty facilitated the performance of irregular prospective memory tasks. In addition, the performance of the fixed prospective memory task sequences, which improved significantly over time, was better than that of random sequences, which remained unchanged. Finally, the performance of time-based prospective memory was better than that of event-based prospective memory, regardless of the regularity of prospective memory tasks, reward or penalty, and task sequence. In conclusion, our study uses a novel “virtual week” paradigm that involves prospective memory tasks in everyday life, and provides evidence that regular prospective memory tasks, high motivation and fix sequences can all enhance the performance of prospective memory tasks, with implication of improving prospective memory performance in real life.
Key wordsprospective memory    motivation    task sequence    virtual week
收稿日期: 2012-08-23      出版日期: 2013-09-25
基金资助:

教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地苏州大学中国特色城镇化研究中心资助课题、江苏省社科基金(BH206901)、江苏省“青蓝工程” (Bu206801)、留学回国启动基金(A5206802)项目资助。

通讯作者: 冯成志   
引用本文:   
胡彬;冯成志. 前瞻记忆类型差异及动机与任务序列对前瞻记忆的影响[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00944.
HU Bin;FENG Chengzhi. The Different Effects of PM Types, Motivation, and Task Sequence on Prospective Memory. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(9): 944-960.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00944      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2013/V45/I9/944
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