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心理学报
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真实和虚拟金钱奖赏影响风险决策行为
徐四华;方卓;饶恒毅
 (1广东财经大学应用社会学与心理学系, 广州 510320) (2中山大学心理学系, 广州 510275) (3 Center for Functional Neuroimaging, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA)
Real or Hypothetical Monetary Rewards Modulates Risk Taking Behavior
XU Sihua;FANG Zhuo;RAO Hengyi
 (1 Department of Applied Sociology and Psychology, Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou 510320, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China)(3 Center for Functional Neuroimaging, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA  19104, USA)
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摘要 在风险情境下人类如何决策是长久以来心理学和经济学研究中一个极具挑战性的核心问题。众多研究采用真实或虚拟金钱作为奖赏强化物来探索风险决策行为的过程和机制, 但对金钱奖赏真实性如何影响决策了解很少。仿真气球冒险任务(BART: Balloon Analogue Risk Task)可以在实验室条件下有效评估个体在真实社会中的风险行为。本研究采用BART任务, 通过两个实验探讨和比较了真实与虚拟金钱奖赏对风险决策行为的影响。实验一的结果发现, 与虚拟金钱奖赏相比, 真实金钱奖赏情境下的风险决策更容易受上一次决策结果的影响, 上一次决策失败会导致被试的风险偏好水平显著降低(平均吹气球的次数显著减少), 同时决策失败(气球吹爆)次数也显著减少, 提示真实金钱奖赏下有更强的反馈学习效应。实验二重复了实验一的结果, 并进一步发现, 虚拟金钱奖赏的幅度对被试的风险决策行为没有影响, 而真实金钱奖赏的幅度能显著改变被试的风险决策行为, 较大幅度的真实金钱奖赏可以显著降低被试的风险偏好水平, 但这种奖赏幅度对风险偏好的调控效应只对感觉寻求水平低的被试有效, 感觉寻求水平高的被试不受影响。这些发现表明真实与虚拟金钱奖赏对风险决策行为有不同的影响。我们的结果可以用风险决策的后悔理论或齐当别模型来解释。
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徐四华
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关键词 仿真气球冒险任务风险决策真实金钱奖赏虚拟金钱奖赏    
Abstract:Understanding human risk taking and decision making behavior poses a major challenge for psychological and economical research during the last decades. Although real or hypothetical monetary rewards are commonly used as reinforcers in previous studies, it remains controversial whether real and hypothetical rewards have the same effects to motivate risk taking and decision making behavior. The recently developed balloon analogue risk task (BART) is a laboratory-based risk taking paradigm and offers an ecologically valid model for objective measurement of risk taking propensity and behavior. In the present study, the authors used the BART paradigm in two experiments to compare the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior. We predicted that compared with hypothetical monetary reward, real monetary rewards will show stronger impacts on the risk taking behavior during the BART task. In Experiment 1, forty-four healthy young adults completed both real money and hypothetical monetary versions of the BART task, in which they were required to sequentially inflate a virtual balloon that can either grow larger or explode. The order of two tasks was counter-balanced between subjects. Paired t-tests and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were conducted to compare the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on the BART risk taking behavior, including the mean adjusted number of balloon inflations, the number of balloon explosions, and the number of balloon inflations after positive or negative feedbacks. Experiment 2 added a variable of reward magnitude and used a 2 (authenticity: real, hypothetical) × 2 (magnitude: small, large) factorial design. Thirty healthy young adults completed the experiment 2. The results from Experiment 1 showed that during the real monetary reward BART condition, subjects stopped inflating balloons earlier and were more risk averse for the current balloon trial if they lost the last balloon (i.e., the balloon exploded). This result suggests a significant learning effect from the negative feedback of real monetary reward. However, no such effect was observed for the BART condition with the hypothetical monetary reward. The results from Experiment 2 replicated the findings from Experiment 1 and revealed significant main effects of both reward authenticity and magnitude on risk taking propensity and behavior. Specifically, subjects were more risk averse during the BART condition with large real monetary reward compared with small real monetary reward. However, no differences were found between large and small hypothetical rewards. In addition, subjects were more risk averse for large real monetary reward comparing with hypothetical monetary reward, while no differences were found between small real and hypothetical monetary rewards. Finally, the effect of reward magnitude on risk taking was significant only in subjects with low sensation-seeking scores, whereas subjects with high sensation-seeking scores were insensitive to variation in reward magnitude. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking behavior during the BART task in a different way. The findings could be explained by the regret theory and/or the equate-to-differentiate model of risky decision making. Our results suggest that real and hypothetical monetary rewards may have different external validity, which will inform the utility of real and hypothetical rewards in future studies.
Key wordsBalloon Analogue Risk Task    risk taking and decision making    real monetary reward    hypothetical monetary reward
收稿日期: 2012-09-05      出版日期: 2013-08-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金(31070984, 91124004) 和广东省教育科学”十二五”规划项目(2012JK095)资助。

通讯作者: 饶恒毅   
引用本文:   
徐四华;方卓;饶恒毅. 真实和虚拟金钱奖赏影响风险决策行为[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00874.
XU Sihua;FANG Zhuo;RAO Hengyi. Real or Hypothetical Monetary Rewards Modulates Risk Taking Behavior. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(8): 874-886.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00874      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2013/V45/I8/874
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