ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (6): 680-693.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00680

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

生涯适应力的作用:个体与组织层的跨层面分析

于海波;郑晓明   

  1. (1北京师范大学管理学院, 北京 100875) (2清华大学经济管理学院, 北京 100084)
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-01 出版日期:2013-06-25 发布日期:2013-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 于海波
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金面上项目(71171020, 71272022); 教育部人文社会科学研究青年项目(09YJC630012); 全国教育科学“十一五”规划教育部青年项目资助(EIA080280)。

The Impact of Employee Career Adaptability: Multilevel Analysis

YU Haibo;ZHENG Xiaoming   

  1. (1 School of Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China) (2 School of Economic and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China)
  • Received:2012-08-01 Online:2013-06-25 Published:2013-06-25
  • Contact: YU Haibo

摘要: 生涯适应力(career adaptability)是生涯建构理论提出的自我职业生涯管理的核心概念, 但国外理论和实践一直认为生涯适应力是一把双刃剑(生涯适应力高的员工工作绩效高, 但其离职意向也高), 本研究将对此进行检验; 同时, 生涯适应力作为个体职业生涯开发的核心变量, 它在组织职业生涯管理跨层面作用中的价值也未曾研究。通过员工在两个时间点自评和管理者他评问卷, 获得54家单位的485份有效调查问卷。结构方程模型分析的结果表明, 生涯适应力不仅与工作绩效有显著正相关, 而且也与离职意向有显著负相关。层次回归分析结果表明, 工龄是生涯适应力与离职意向、工作绩效关系的调节变量; 也就是说, 工龄短员工的生涯适应力与工作绩效呈显著正相关, 与离职意向呈显著负相关, 但工龄长员工的生涯适应力与二者的关系都不显著。基于跨层面研究设计, 多层线性模型(HLM)分析的结果表明, 生涯适应力是组织职业生涯管理与个体工作绩效之间的完全中介变量, 但在组织职业生涯管理与离职意向之间的中介作用不显著。这不但回答了生涯适应力对组织价值的管理困境问题, 也解决了组织职业生涯管理与个体工作绩效的连接纽带问题。

关键词: 生涯适应力, 组织职业生涯管理, 多层线性模型(HLM), 离职意向, 工作绩效

Abstract: With high speed of mobility and end of life-long employment of Chinese employees, it is critical to investigate the impact of employee’s career adaptability on organizational success. However, the relationship between career adaptability and organizational success is mixed due to the so-called management dilemma of career adaptability (when the employee’s career adaptability is high, his job performance and turnover intention are also high.). Moreover, the role of career adaptability as the core of self-career management capacity among the relationships between organizational career management and individual turnover intention/job performance have not been known. So, in this study, we investigated the relationships between employee’s career adaptability and their turnover intention, and job performance, and the moderating role of tenure over these relationships. And based on the multilevel theory, we propose that career adaptability is a mediator between organizational career management and individual turnover intention/job performance. We collected data from 485 employees in 54 Chinese enterprises. Employees completed the career adaptability questionnaire at the first time wave, and completed the turnover intention questionnaire two weeks later, while one direct supervisor of each employee was also invited to complete the job performance questionnaire and organizational career management questionnaire. For data analyses, we used SEM (structural equation model), HRA (hierarchical regression analysis) and HLM (hierarchical linear model). The results of SEM showed that career adaptability was negatively correlated to turnover intention, and positively associated with supervisor-rated performance. The results of HRA showed that tenure moderated the relationships between career adaptability and turnover intention/supervisor-rated job performance. This means that the correlation between career adaptability and turnover intention was significantly negative for employees with short-tenure, but not for employees with long-tenure. The correlation between career adaptability and supervisor-rated job performance was significantly positive for employees with short-tenure, but not for employees with long-tenure. So the findings were different from the current literature. The HLM results indicated that career adaptability fully mediated the relation between organizational career management and supervisor-rated job performance, but had no mediating effect on the relation between organizational career management and turnover intention. Therefore, individual career adaptability is the key mediating variable between organizational career management and self-career management. According to the career construction theory, the complex relationships between employee’s career adaptability and organizational success (for example turnover, job performance) and individual career success (for example subjective and objective success) should be tested in the future. More moderators of the relationships between career adaptability and organizational success / individual career success should be explored. Meanwhile the mediating role of career adaptability among the relationships between organizational career management/self-career management and individual career success /organizational performance could be further explored, so that organizations could establish the career adaptability-based human resource development system by integrating organizational career management and self-career management.

Key words: career adaptability, organizational career management, hierarchical linear model, turnover intention, job performance