ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (6): 599-613.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00599

• 论文 •    下一篇

汉语口语句子产生的语法编码计划单元

赵黎明;杨玉芳   

  1. (1中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101) (2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-18 出版日期:2013-06-25 发布日期:2013-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨玉芳

Grammatical Planning Scope in Sentence Production: Evidence from Chinese Sentences

ZHAO Liming;YANG Yufang   

  1. (1 Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China) (2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)
  • Received:2012-12-18 Online:2013-06-25 Published:2013-06-25
  • Contact: YANG Yufang

摘要: 语法编码的计划单元作为口语句子产生领域的一个重要命题, 近年来备受心理语言学者的关注。本研究利用词图干扰范式下的语义效应, 通过两个行为实验探讨了汉语口语句子产生中的语法编码计划单元。实验中要求被试用介词短语做主语的句子或者并列名词短语做主语的句子来命名两个竖直排列的图片, 并视觉呈现干扰词。结果表明, 对于两个句式而言, 在第二个名词上都没有潜伏期的语义干扰效应, 只有错误率上的语义干扰效应, 而且这个结果并没有随着SOA (目标图片和干扰词开始呈现的时间间隔)的改变(0、150或300 ms)而改变。当干扰词与图片同时呈现时(SOA=0)在并列名词短语做主语的句子中, 第二个名词上出现了潜伏期的语义促进效应。这些结果说明, 语法编码的说法较为宽泛, 应具体描述为:词汇选择是严格递进的, 而概念激活的计划单元可能是功能短语。

关键词: 口语句子产生, 计划单元, 语法编码, 词汇选择, 词图干扰范式

Abstract: The grammatical planning scope in sentence production is an important issue and investigated by many psycholinguists. Regarding the grammatical level proper, the planning scope is often considered to be constrained by certain grammatical units, such as a clause (a sentence fragment consisting at least of a subject and a predicate), a subject noun phrase (the phrase including all nouns associated with the grammatical role of subject), or just a content word. Recently this planning scope was specified as a functional phrase. This issue, however, remains controversial. The goal of the current study is to thus clarify the scope of planning at the grammatical processing level of sentence production, especially to test the functional phrase hypothesis. In the current study the functional phrase hypothesis was tested with the picture-word interference paradigm. Native Mandarin Chinese speakers were asked to produce sentences with a prepositional phrase modified subject (e.g., ‘‘the dog under the flower is red’’) or sentences with a conjoined noun phrase as the subject (e.g., ‘‘the dog and the flower are both red’’) in response to vertical pairs of objects, and each display was accompanied by a visual distractor. The distractor could be categorically related or unrelated to the target picture on which it was presented, and was always unrelated to the other picture. Forty-three undergraduate and graduate students in total participated in this study and were asked to name pictures with the required syntactic structures as accurately and quickly as possible while ignoring the distractor. Two separate analyses were carried out with participants and items as random factors for onset latencies and error rates. There was a semantic interference effect for the first noun in both utterance formats, showing longer latencies in categorically related conditions compared to unrelated conditions. For the second noun of both utterance formats, the semantic interference effect was found in error rates rather than in onset latencies, no matter which SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) the condition was (0, 150, or 300ms). Meanwhile in the condition of SOA=0, a semantic facilitation effect in onset latencies was observed on the second noun of sentences with a conjoined noun phrase as the subject. These results suggest that the grammatical planning scope should be specified as that the lexical selection is radically incremental while the conceptual planning scope may encompass the functional phrase.

Key words: sentence production, planning scope, grammatical encoding, lexical selection, picture-word interference paradigm