ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 546-555.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00546

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同趋近动机强度积极情绪对认知控制的影响

王振宏;刘亚;蒋长好   

  1. (1陕西师范大学心理学院; 陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062) (2首都体育学院 运动与脑科学重点实验室, 北京 100191)
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-15 出版日期:2013-05-25 发布日期:2013-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 王振宏;刘亚
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(30970912); 教育部人文社会科学基金项目(11YJA190008); 陕西师范大学研究生创新基金项目(2011CXS020)资助。

The Effect of Low versus High Approach-Motivated Positive Affect on Cognitive Control

WANG Zhenhong;LIU Ya;JIANG Changhao   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi Province Key Laboratory of Behavior & Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi’an 710062, China) (2 Key Laboratory of Motor and Brain Science, Capital College of Physical Education, Beijing 100191, China)
  • Received:2012-01-15 Online:2013-05-25 Published:2013-05-25
  • Contact: WANG Zhenhong;LIU Ya

摘要: 情绪的动机维度模型认为, 积极情绪对认知加工的影响受其趋近动机强度的调节, 高、低趋近动机积极情绪对认知加工的影响不同。本研究运用情绪图片诱发被试高、低趋近动机积极情绪, 采用停止信号任务和任务转换作业考察了不同趋近动机强度积极情绪对认知控制的影响。结果发现:(1)与中性条件相比, 高趋近动机积极情绪促进了停止信号任务中Go任务和任务转换作业中重复任务的反应执行。(2)在停止信号任务中, 相对于中性条件, 低趋近动机积极情绪条件下的停止信号反应时显著缩短; 在任务转换作业中, 低趋近动机积极情绪条件下的反应时转换损失和错误率转换损失均显著降低, 而高趋近动机积极情绪条件下的反应时转换损失显著增加。因此, 积极情绪对认知控制的影响受其趋近动机强度的调节, 即低趋近动机积极情绪增强认知灵活性, 提高停止反应与任务转换的速度; 而高趋近动机积极情绪增强认知稳定性, 加快停止信号任务中Go任务和任务转换作业中重复任务的反应执行, 增加了反应时转换损失。

关键词: 积极情绪, 趋近动机, 认知控制, 停止信号任务, 任务转换

Abstract: The motivational dimensional model of affect, proposed by Gable and Harmon-Jones (2010), posits that approach motivational intensity of positive affect modulates the influence of positive affect on cognition. In line with this model, accumulating evidences have supported this hypothesis. Studies have found that low approach-motivated positive affect (e.g., serenity) broadens, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect (e.g., desire) narrows cognitive breadth, such as the breadth of attention, memory, and cognitive categorization. However, little is known about whether the influence of positive affect on cognitive control, which partly reflects the temporality of cognitive processes, is modulated by the approach motivational intensity of positive affect. Therefore, two experiments in this study were conducted to investigate this issue. In experiment 1, a modified stop-signal task was used to explore the influence of approach motivational intensity of positive affect on inhibition control. The stop signal task involved two concurrent tasks, a primary go task and a secondary stop task. The go task was a two-choice reaction time task that required participants to discriminate the location of black squares (2.4 cm × 2.4 cm) positing on the center of the left or right part of the screen. The stop task, which occurred pseudo-randomly and infrequently (25% of the total trials), involved presentation of a red circle (stop signal) that countermanded the go signal by instructing participants to inhibit their planned response to the go task on that trial. Ninety-one undergraduates were randomly assigned to the three conditions: low approach-motivated positive affect (31, 17 females), high approach-motivated positive affect (30, 16 females), and neutral (30, 16 females) conditions. One-way ANOVAs demonstrated that the effects of emotional pictures on response execution and inhibition were significant. Scheffe tests revealed that, relative to the neutral condition, response inhibition was faster in low approach-motivated positive affect condition, while response execution was faster in high approach-motivated positive affect condition. In experiment 2, we used typical numerical classification tasks to examine the influence of approach motivational intensity of positive affect on task switching. Eighty-four new undergraduates (48 females) were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions. Participants had to judge whether a digit (1~9, excluding 5) was smaller or larger than five (smaller–larger task) or whether it was odd or even (odd–even task). We used either a square or diamond frame with sides that were 4.8 cm in length as task cues to indicate the smaller–larger task or odd–even task, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs on reaction time and error rate showed that low approach-motivated positive affect facilitated switched task, while high approach-motivated positive affect facilitated repeated task. Results also indicated that low approach-motivated positive affect reduced reaction time and error switch costs, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect increased reaction time switch costs. In summary, this research suggests that low approach-motivated positive affect enhances cognitive flexibility, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect enhances cognitive stability. The current research extends previous work on cognitive breadth to cognitive control which partly reflects the temporality of cognitive processes. Taken together, this line of research suggests that the effects of positive affect on cognitive processes are modulated by its approach motivational intensity.

Key words: positive affect, approach motivation, cognitive control, stop signal task, task switching