ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 1189-1201.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01189

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于面孔知觉的刻板印象激活两阶段模型

张晓斌;佐斌   

  1. 华中师范大学心理学院·青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-21 出版日期:2012-09-28 发布日期:2012-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 佐斌
  • 基金资助:

    教育部哲学社会科学研究重大攻关项目(11JZD006)资助。

Two-Stage Model of Stereotype Activation Based on Face Perception

ZHANG Xiao-Bin;ZUO Bin   

  1. (School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430079, China)
  • Received:2011-07-21 Online:2012-09-28 Published:2012-09-28
  • Contact: ZUO Bin

摘要: 从个体建构研究视角出发, 考察了基于面孔知觉的刻板印象激活过程。实验一比较了性别分类判断、启动范式以及同时呈现范式下刻板印象匹配性判断三者所用反应时的差异, 结果发现, 后者显著地大于前二者, 且等于前二者之和; 面孔倒置呈现使同时呈现范式下刻板印象匹配判断的反应时和错误率显著增大, 但其对启动范式中刻板印象匹配判断的反应时和错误率没有影响。实验二基于同时呈现范式, 通过不同程度的面孔变形来操纵性别类别提取的难度, 更精确地探讨了基于面孔知觉的社会类别信息提取过程对刻板印象激活的影响, 结果表明, 随着从面孔中提取类别信息难度的增加, 刻板印象激活所用的反应时也逐渐增大。研究结果证实了研究者所提出的刻板印象激活两阶段模型, 即基于面孔知觉的社会类别提取阶段和刻板印象信息激活阶段, 证实社会类别激活和刻板印象信息激活是两个分离的过程, 以社会类别信息提取为目的的面孔知觉对刻板印象的激活有显著影响。

关键词: 刻板印象激活两阶段模型, 面孔知觉, 同时呈现范式, 个体建构, 类别提取

Abstract: The mechanism of stereotype activation has been the hot spot in stereotype research. The previous studies indicated the activation of stereotype was not always automatic. Under some conditions, the stereotypes did not activate automatically. Some factors affect automatic activation of stereotypes, such as cognitive load, anticipation, processing purpose and so on. However, there were no decisive conclusion on why stereotype activation was affected by these factors and what the mechanism of these effects was. One major reason causing above-mentioned problems was that the previous studies have ignored the exploration into the mechanism of the stereotype activation through studying the processing process of stereotype activation, such as whether stereotype activation can be divided. There were two reasons causing this negligence. One reason was that previous research paradigm was not suitable to explore the processing process of stereotype activation. The other reason was that, under the framework of social cognition, researchers have neglected the effects of perceptual processing to stereotype activation. Based on the above analysis, from the more ecological validity perspective of person construal, the authors proposed two-stage model of stereotype activation and verified it through two experiments. In Experiment 1, 32 participants were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental treatments. The authors compared the reaction time of gender categorization, the judgment of stereotype match in priming paradigm and the judgment of stereotype match in simultaneous presentation paradigm. In Experiment 2, 33 participants were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental treatments. Based on simultaneous presentation paradigm, operating the difficulty of extracting social category from faces by the face deformation, the authors explored the effect of face perception on stereotype activation. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the reaction time of the judgment of stereotype match under simultaneous presentation paradigm was significantly longer than the reaction time of gender categorization and the judgment of stereotype match in priming paradigm respectively, and it was equal to the sum of the reaction time of gender categorization and the judgment of stereotype match under priming paradigm. The effect of face presentation (inverted) to stereotype activation was different between priming paradigm and simultaneous presentation paradigm. The results of Experiment 2 showed that, with the increase of the difficulty to extract social category from faces, the reaction time of stereotype activation became longer. The results of two experiments confirmed two-stage model of stereotype activation proposed by the authors, that is, the stage of social category activation based on face perception and the stage of stereotype information activation. Category activation and stereotype information activation are two distinct processes. The results also indicated that face perception to extracting social category had significant effect on stereotype activation: the more difficult to extract social category from the faces the longer to the reaction time of stereotype activation is.

Key words: two-stage model of stereotype activation, face perception, simultaneous presentation paradigm, person construal, category extraction