ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 1180-1188.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01180

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

正念训练的去自动化效应:Stroop和前瞻记忆任务证据

王岩;辛婷婷;刘兴华;张韵;卢焕华;翟彦斌   

  1. (首都师范大学心理系, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048)
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-29 出版日期:2012-09-28 发布日期:2012-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 王岩;刘兴华
  • 基金资助:

    北京市教委人文社科面上项目(SM201010028005)、国家自然科学基金项目(30900411)、中国科学院心理健康重点实验室经费资助项目(KLMH2011G01)资助。

Mindfulness Can Reduce Automatic Responding: Evidences from Stroop Task and Prospective Memory Task

WANG Yan;XIN Ting-Ting;LIU Xing-Hua;ZHANG Yun;LU Huan-Hua;ZHAI Yan-Bin   

  1. (Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition. Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China)
  • Received:2011-07-29 Online:2012-09-28 Published:2012-09-28
  • Contact: WANG Yan;LIU Xing-Hua

摘要: 研究显示正念训练对心理认知和健康有改善作用, 但少有研究用认知实验进行检验并探讨心理机制, 本研究将正常成人分为正念(训练)和对照组(等待)、使用Stroop任务和前瞻记忆任务, 进行前、后测考察。结果发现, 两种任务正念组后测反应时均低于前测, 且不一致条件下更显著, 对照组无差异。对前瞻记忆前后进行中任务的差值进行前、后测比较发现, 对照组后测显著小于前测, 正念组差异不显著。结果表明, 正念训练促进了Stroop和前瞻记忆任务的完成, 起到了抗自动化干扰、及阻止随任务熟悉加工更为自动化的作用。

关键词: 正念训练, 去自动化, 冥想, Stroop任务, 前瞻记忆

Abstract: Mindfulness Meditation Practices (MMPs), defined by Kabat-Zinn (2003) that the awareness that emerges through paying attetnion on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally to the unfolding experience monment by moment, are a subgroup of mediation practices which are receiving growing attention. Although cognitive aspects of meditation underlie much of its clinical application, the processes underlying these clinical and intervention effects are presently not well understood. This study provides cognitive experimental supports for the idea that mediation leads to a reduction in habitual responding using randomly selected subjects, a secular form of meditation, and a full experimental design. Healthy adults were tested before and after random assignment to an 8-week course of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-based cognitive theropy (MBCT), or a wait-list control. Testing included measures of Stroop task and prospective memory task, with prospective memory task embedded in a classic Stroop task in Chinese character. Results demonstrated that subjects completing the mindfulness training showed a significant reduction on RTs on both of the two tasks compared to pre- test by post-test, especially under the condition of Stroop incongruent, while the control subjects did not show the reduction. The RT difference between the ongoing task of before and after-PM was significantly decreased in control group in post-test relative to pre-test, but no difference was found in mindfulness group. Results suggested that mindfulness meditation practices can improve the achievement of Stroop task and prospective memory task, and cope with the interference of automatication and restraint the automatiation processing of prospective memory as the familiarity with the tasks by the subjects. Our results provides empirical support for the contention that mindfulness meditation practices leads to the deautomatization of response. No research on mindfulness exploited by prospective memory were found published until now.

Key words: Mindfulness Meditation Practices (MMPs), Deautomatization, meditation, Stroop task, Prospective memory