心理科学进展, 2020, 28(9): 1551-1563. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01551

研究前沿

正念对亲密关系的影响

陈国典, 杨通平,

四川师范大学心理学院, 成都 610068

The influence of mindfulness on intimate relationships

CHEN Guodian, YANG Tongping,

School of Psychology, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610068, China

通讯作者: 杨通平, E-mail: tongping.yang@qq.com

收稿日期: 2019-04-28   网络出版日期: 2020-09-15

基金资助: * 国家社会科学基金项目资助.  16BMZ044

Received: 2019-04-28   Online: 2020-09-15

摘要

亲密关系中的正念, 是指个体有意识地关注可能影响关系的感觉或想法。由于其有助于提高关系满意度并缓解关系冲突, 因而逐渐在理论和应用上受到关注。二元互动过程理论有助于在二元框架下理解正念影响亲密关系的过程和结果, 研究者通常采用测量法、实验诱导法和正念干预探究正念对亲密关系的影响。鉴于正念干预对亲密关系具有防护和补救功能,因此被应用于相对幸福、面临挑战和陷入危机等不同关系状态。未来的研究可根据关系的阶段特征和可能的反向作用建构理论; 根据亲密关系的二元互动和阶段特点, 从多维、动态发展的视角界定概念, 通过互评法和观察编码法进行测量; 采用更严谨的设计明确干预效果; 并且关注潜在的消极影响。

关键词: 亲密关系 ; 正念 ; 冥想 ; 干预

Abstract

Mindfulness in an intimate relationship indicates the conscious attention to feelings or thoughts paid by individuals that may affect the relationship. It has gradually attracted academic attention in theory and applications research because of its contributions to improve relationship satisfaction and buffer conflicts. The theoretical framework of interaction patterns between partners helps to understand the process and outcomes of intimate relationships at the level of the dyad. Researchers usually use self-report questionnaires, laboratory-based inductions and mindfulness interventions to explore the effects of mindfulness on intimate relationships. Since mindfulness intervention has a protective and remedial function for intimate relationships, it is applied to different relationship states such as relative happiness, facing challenges, and falling into crisis. Future research consists of four aspects. Firstly, constructing the theory based on the staged characteristics and possible reverse effects; secondly, conceptualizing the theoretical definition from multi-dimensional as well as dynamic perspective by relying on the interaction pattern and staged characteristics of the intimate relationship following by the measurement through the mutual evaluation or observational coding; thirdly, using robust designs to clarify the effects of interventions and finally paying attention to potential adverse effects.

Keywords: intimate relationships ; mindfulness ; meditation ; intervention

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本文引用格式

陈国典, 杨通平. (2020). 正念对亲密关系的影响 . 心理科学进展, 28(9), 1551-1563

CHEN Guodian, YANG Tongping. (2020). The influence of mindfulness on intimate relationships. Advances in Psychological Science, 28(9), 1551-1563

1 引言

广义的亲密关系泛指个体间的重要情感联结, 如亲子、朋友、伴侣关系。狭义的亲密关系专指婚姻和恋爱关系, 本文针对狭义的亲密关系。圆满的亲密关系有益身心, 但不可避免地伴随着冲突, 传统上的主要干预方式是训练沟通技巧。近年来, 学界逐渐意识到正念对亲密关系的益处, 相关应用可追溯到2004年, 研究者发现, 系统的正念干预能增强伴侣间的关系满意度, 提高接纳和亲密感(Carson, Carson, Gil, & Baucom, 2004)。随着研究的深入, 越来越多的证据显示, 正念不仅能增强关系满意度(Harvey, Crowley, & Woszidlo, 2019; Jones, Welton, Oliver, & Thoburn, 2011; Kappen, Karremans, Burk, & Buyukcan-Tetik, 2018; Khaddouma, Gordon, & Bolden, 2015; Khaddouma, Gordon, & Strand, 2017; Krafft, Haeger, & Levin, 2017; Lenger, Gordon, & Nguyen, 2017), 也有利于伴侣建设性地应对关系冲突(Brem et al., 2018; Dixon & Overall, 2016; Hertz, Laurent, & Laurent, 2015; Iida & Shapiro, 2017; Karremans et al., 2020; Kimmes, Durtschi, & Fincham, 2017; Laurent, Hertz, Nelson, & Laurent, 2016; Laurent, Laurent, Hertz, Egan-Wright, & Granger, 2013), 而关系满意度和对冲突的应对是衡量亲密关系的主要指标(Patrick, Knee, Canevello, & Lonsbary, 2007)。与此同时, 亲密关系中的正念研究在理论和方法上也有了新的进展。例如, Karremans, Schellekens和Kappen (2017)提出正念影响亲密关系的二元互动过程理论, Kimmes, Jaurequi, May, Srivastava和Fincham (2018)编制针对亲密关系的正念量表。鉴于亲密关系中的正念研究具有较强的理论和应用价值, 且目前国内对此缺乏关注, 因此本文尝试对正念在亲密关系中的理论、研究方法、功能及干预项目进行梳理, 以期为后续研究提供参考。

2 正念影响亲密关系的理论探索

2.1 正念及其对亲密关系的理论解读

正念源于佛教哲学, 以佛教典著《阿毗达磨》(Abhidhamma)及注解为基础(Chiesa & Malinowski, 2011)。禅宗把正念比作一面明镜, 在镜子里, 头脑只是如实反映眼前的事物(Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007)。正念的概念有很多, 目前尚未达成共识。在心理学领域, 被广泛接受的是Kabat-Zinn (2003)对正念的界定, 他认为正念是指有意识地以开放、接纳、不评判的方式去关注此时此刻的经验而产生的意识。Kabat-Zinn 最早将正念开发为系统化的临床干预项目, 创立正念减压疗法(Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Therapy, MBSR)为伴有慢性疼痛的患者缓解压力和情绪困扰(Kabat-Zinn, 2003)。随后正念干预被应用到更多临床领域, 除防治抑郁症复发、缓解焦虑等情绪问题外(任志洪, 张雅文, 江光荣, 2018; Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2013), 也应用于行为问题的干预, 例如治疗与肥胖有关的饮食行为问题(刘玄巾, 王滢茹, 杨斯钰, 周乐山, 2019), 矫正成瘾行为(徐富明, 李燕, 邓颖, 史燕伟, 刘程浩, 2016), 改善儿童的注意缺陷多动障碍(李继波, 陈盈盈, 肖前国, 2019)。随着研究的推进, 学界逐渐将正念拓展到非临床领域, 如家庭教养、学校管理、组织管理等(陈晓, 周晖, 王雨吟, 2017; 段文杰, 冯宇, 2018; 何元庆, 连榕, 全莉娟, 2019; 申传刚, 杨璟, 胡三嫚, 何培旭, 李小新, 2020; 诸彦含, 陈国良, 徐俊英, 2020), 与此同时, 研究对象也从个体层面拓展到人际层面(Pratscher, Wood, King, & Bettencourt, 2019)。而亲密关系作为人际关系的核心, 近几年来也逐渐受到学界关注(Karremans et al., 2017)。

正念包含了意识和接纳这两大核心成分:意识是持续地监控并专注于当下的内外体验, 而接纳则是非评判、开放、接纳的态度(Bishop et al., 2004; Lindsay & Creswell, 2017)。此外, 正念的丰富内涵也可以从特质、状态和干预这三个层面进行理解:特质正念是个体间体验正念状态的能力和倾向上的个体差异; 状态正念是个体内的随情境和时间变化的意识状态(Brown & Ryan, 2003); 正念干预, 是帮助人们达到正念状态的训练方法(Davidson & Kaszniak, 2015), 通过长期训练可以提升特质正念水平。在理论研究中, 学者多将正念视为特质、状态和干预的统称; 而在实证研究中, 由于三者的研究方法不同, 进而有所细分。

在亲密关系领域研究正念是正念研究的具体化, 因此一般性的正念理论也同样适用于亲密关系领域。例如, 正念意义理论(Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, MMT)认为, 生活中的事件是不确定的, 可以是积极的也可以是消极的, 而正念促使个体寻找生活的终极意义, 进而积极地应对负性事件(Garland, Farb, Goldin, & Fredrickson, 2015)。据此可以推断, 当关系出现冲突时, 个体自动化的反应可能是防御性的否认、诋毁或回避, 但对终极意义的寻找可能推动其形成建设性的认知, 洞察冲突背后的潜藏意义。已有研究在一定程度上支持了这一推论, 研究显示, 相比于低特质正念者, 高特质正念者更倾向于以成长的视角看待亲密关系, 而这又进一步预测了其较高的关系满意度(Don, 2019), 并且面临关系冲突时, 高特质正念者也更倾向于采取建设性的应对方式(Barnes et al., 2007)。

一般性的正念理论具有跨情境的普适性, 但研究范围通常停留在个体层面, 因而缺少对亲密关系的针对性。对此, Carson, Carson, Gil和Baucom (2006)最早进行了相应的理论阐释, 分析了正念影响亲密关系的4种过程。

2.2 正念激活亲密关系的四过程

Carson等人(2006)认为, 正念对亲密关系的影响主要体现在下述4种过程的激活:(1)觉察:正念意味着在非评判的状态下关注所有体验, 而不论这些体验愉悦与否, 这有助于增强个体对人际互动的觉察, 即觉察思维、情绪、行为模式的产生过程及其对自身和伴侣带来的影响; (2)接纳:正念强调接纳的态度, 而如其所是的接纳可以增加自我慈悲和对伴侣的共情; (3)放松:正念有助于缓解压力感, 促使个体更为冷静地应对关系中的困境; (4)自我扩张:正念带来的自我扩张感能增强自我与伴侣间的信任和联结感。Carson等人(2006)的分析有利于我们理解正念在亲密关系中的作用过程, 但其仅从个体自身的视角进行阐释, 忽视了亲密关系相互依赖相互影响的特征。

2.3 二元互动过程理论

Karremans等人(2017)从二元互动的视角, 提出正念如何影响亲密关系的过程和结果的理论模型(见图1)。研究者首先将亲密关系中的正念定义为个体有意识地关注可能直接或间接影响关系的感觉或想法。在总结前人的理论和实证研究的基础上, Karremans等人提出, 正念可以通过4种机制影响人际关系:对内在经验的意识、情绪调节、执行控制以及自我与他人的关联。具体而言, 正念强调以非评判的态度专注于所有的体验, 包括外在的身体感受和内在的情绪思维, 而不是扭曲或忽视它们。当个体如其所是地觉察自身的体验时, 便能将感觉仅仅视为感觉, 将想法仅仅视为想法, 从而避免过度的阐释、评估或反应, 而这有助于个体提高自我调节能力和执行控制能力, 帮助其更有效地应对非适应性的情绪和想法, 抑制自动化的、冲动的反应。与此同时, 正念有助于提高共情能力, 帮助个体以他人的视角理解他人行为, 这增强了个体与他人间的联结感和亲密感。

图1

图1   正念影响亲密关系的过程及结果的理论模型

(资料来源:Karremans et al., 2017)


同理, 上述4种机制也影响了个体对亲密关系的认知、情感和行为。Karremans等人进一步从增强积极影响和减少消极影响这两大方面加以阐释。首先, 当个体利益与伴侣利益相冲突时, 其自我保护的冲动是自动化的, 这可能对关系造成破坏。而正念提高个体对冲动行为的觉察, 关注关系的长期发展并通过自我调节建设性地应对冲突, 从而避免关系恶化。在此过程中, 正念既减少了自动化的反应, 也提高了有益关系的反应倾向, 例如牺牲自我利益、克制报复动机、抵抗其他异性的吸引。其次, 正念有利于个体觉察潜在的压力源, 提升应对压力的能力, 进而有助于预防压力外溢(stress spillover), 即减少外界压力对亲密关系造成的威胁。此外, 安全的依恋有利于关系的建立和维持, 大量实证研究证实了正念对安全依恋的正向预测作用(Hertz et al., 2015; Jones et al., 2011; Pepping, O'Donovan, & Davis, 2013)。最后, 现实与理想之间往往存在差距, 个体可能过度美化伴侣, 甚至试图改变对方以使其接近理想标准, 并且个体对亲密关系的感知也并非一成不变, 时而满意时而不满。而正念中的接纳可以提升个体对不完美的伴侣和关系的非评判态度, 进而减少过度美化并预防关系恶化。

Karremans等人(2017)的理论关注了亲密关系的二元互动特点, 该理论假定个体的正念可以通过影响自身的认知、情绪或行为进而影响伴侣的反应, 将正念的理论从个体层面拓展到关系层面, 为我们在二元框架下更好地理解正念提供了理论支撑。后续研究也在一定程度上支持了这一假设, 研究显示, 个体的特质正念可以预测其伴侣对关系的积极感知(Adair, Boulton, & Algoe, 2018; Harvey et al., 2019; Iida & Shapiro, 2019; Khaddouma & Gordon, 2018; Kimmes, Jaurequi, Roberts, Harris, & Fincham, 2019)。

3 亲密关系中正念的研究方法

亲密关系中的正念研究方法可概括为三类:测量法、实验诱导法和正念干预(基于内容完整性, 正念干预将在第5部分呈现)。

3.1 测量法

现阶段研究中, 正念测量是最常见的研究方法(Kappen, Karremans, & Burk, 2019)。既往研究通常采用普适性的特质正念量表, 由于这些量表并不针对亲密关系, 因此难以体现正念在亲密关系中的独特内涵。鉴于此, Kimmes, Jaurequi等人(2018)沿用了Karremans等人(2017)的定义, 将亲密关系中的正念界定为有意识地关注可能影响关系的感觉或想法, 并以此编制关系正念量表(Relationship Mindfulness Measure, RMM)。RMM以正念注意与觉知量表(The Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale, MAAS)的特质分量表为基础, 旨在测量个体在亲密关系中的专注程度。该量表为单一维度, 共5题, 题目诸如“和伴侣在一起时, 我发现自己说话做事都心不在焉。”“和伴侣讨论或解决问题时, 我的行为是无意识的, 没有注意自己说了什么或做了什么。”研究者以处于亲密关系的成人为被试, 发现RMM具有良好的信效度, 且比MAAS更好地预测了关系质量和成人依恋(Kimmes, Jaurequi, et al., 2018; Kimmes et al., 2019)。目前RMM尚未被广泛使用, 因此还需要未来研究的进一步检验。与此同时, 虽然RMM强调了个体在亲密关系背景下的注意和觉知, 但仍然仅以自身的思维和感受为中心, 忽视了亲密关系的二元特征。在现实生活中, 交往双方往往会根据彼此的所言所为适当地调整自己的反应, 不论这种调整是自觉或是不自觉的, 因此仅专注于自身的感受可能不足以体现正念在亲密关系中的内涵。

与之不同的是, Pratscher等人(2019)认为, 互动关系中的正念不仅涵盖个体对自身的觉察, 也包括对交往对象的觉察。基于此, 研究者提出人际正念(Interpersonal mindfulness)的概念, 将其定义为对交往的每时每刻保持接纳的意识, 既意识到自己的思维、情绪、感觉和意图, 也通过交往对象的情绪、语调和姿势去关注对方的所言所为。根据上述定义, 研究者编制了人际正念量表(Interpersonal Mindfulness Scale, IMS), 共27题, 4个维度:(1)当下:即专注于互动的当下, 题目如“我很容易专注于同对方互动的当下, 而不是分心。” (2)对自我和他人的意识:即互动过程中既关注自己的情绪情感, 也关注对方的情绪和非语言线索, 题目如“与对方在一起时, 我意识到了自己的情绪情感。”“倾听时, 我会注意对方的情绪和语调。” (3)非判断性地接纳:不加评判地倾听, 如其所是地接纳互动中的体验, 题目如“即便不同意对方的观点, 我也会认真聆听。” (4)非反应性:有意识地响应, 而非不假思索地反应, 题目如“说话前, 我会先想想这些话可能给对方造成的影响。”虽然IMS以人际关系为研究背景, 但同样适用于亲密关系, 有证据表明, IMS比MAAS更显著地预测了亲密关系的满意度(Pratscher et al., 2019)。作为新开发的量表, IMS尚未得到广泛使用, 其信效度有待未来研究的进一步检验。

3.2 实验诱导法

实验诱导法, 是在实验条件下通过简短的训练使被试进入正念状态的方法, 通常改编自正念干预项目。作为一种新的研究趋势, 其在亲密关系领域中的研究尚少(Heppner & Shirk, 2018), 且部分研究并未阐明诱导的具体内容(如Laurent et al., 2016), 因此接下来主要通过三项研究进行介绍和分析。首先, Pepping, Davis和O’Donovan (2015)的研究采用了4种不同的方法进行诱导, 分别是观呼吸、身体扫描、正念觉察思维和正念觉察情绪, 其目的是确保被诱导的状态正念不受特定方法的影响。其中, 实验组每人接受这4种方法中的其中一种, 而控制组完成无关任务, 实验时长为15分钟。结果发现, 实验组的状态正念有所提升, 但这并未导致状态依恋水平的显著提高。其次, 在Papies, Pronk, Keesman和Barsalou (2015)的研究中, 实验组以正念的视角观察有吸引力的陌生异性的照片, 将观看过程中的内在思维和感受视为头脑中转瞬即逝的事件, 控制组则沉浸式地感受内心体验, 实验时长为12分钟。结果表明, 实验组对陌生异性吸引力的评分显著低于控制组。最后, 在Karremans等人(2020)的研究中, 实验组以正念的方式将注意力集中于被伤害的体验上, 采取去中心化的视角, 以观察者的身份将大脑想象成一块空白的屏幕, 体验感受、思维和情绪在屏幕上的出现和消失。与此同时, 控制组在非去中心化的视角下反复、生动地回忆被伤害的经历, 实验时长为7分钟。结果表明, 在回忆被伤害的经历以后, 实验组被试的状态宽恕水平显著高于控制组。

综合现有的理论和实证研究, 我们可以得出两点推论:第一, 诱导的方法不同可能导致状态正念各成分所占的比重不同。有研究显示, 以观呼吸和身体扫描为主的正念诱导仅提升了身体层面的状态正念, 而对心理层面的状态正念无影响(Bravo, Pearson, Wilson, & Witkiewitz, 2018)。在上述三项研究中, 后两项强调对内心体验的觉察, 第一项则分别以身体感受和内心体验为觉察对象。由此可以推断, 第一项研究结果不显著的可能原因是, 状态依恋更近似于一种内心体验, 因此对身体感受的正念不足以对其产生影响。通常情况下, 内心体验比身体感受更为抽象, 正念地觉察内心体验(特别是消极体验)比觉察身体感受所需要投入的接纳成分更多。同理, 在实践中, 通常是先引导练习者觉察身体感受, 待注意力稳定后再觉察内心体验。由此, 觉察对象的不同可能导致了状态正念的意识和接纳成分所占比重不同, 进而影响实验结果。第二, 接纳可能是正念影响亲密关系的必要成分。有研究显示, 正念中的意识和接纳成分交互作用:接纳程度低时, 意识越强则关系满意度越低(Krafft et al., 2017)。这一结果可以用监控与接纳理论(Monitor and Acceptance Theory, MAT)加以解释, 该理论认为, 监控(也作意识)和接纳是正念的核心成分, 意识促进认知功能的提升, 加重了正性或负性的体验, 而接纳则可以改变自我与所意识到的内容之间的关系, 增强调节情绪的能力并减少消极反应(Lindsay & Creswell, 2017)。并且已有证据显示, 接纳是正念干预增强积极情绪的核心要素(Lindsay et al., 2018), 对伴侣的接纳在特质正念对关系满意度的正向预测中起中介作用(Kappen et al., 2018)。由此可以推断, 接纳可能在正念对亲密关系的积极影响中必不可少, 而以观呼吸和身体扫描为主的短期诱导实验或许不足以影响与亲密关系有关的内心体验。未来的研究可以在诱导程序中通过解构正念元素的方法(如Lindsay et al., 2018)对上述推论进行检验。

4 亲密关系中正念的作用

如前所述, 亲密关系中仅有少量研究采用实验诱导法操纵状态正念。而大部分研究主要集中于两方面:其一是以测量法考察特质正念对亲密关系结果变量的预测作用, 其二是以定期的正念干预考察应用价值。那么, 特质正念和正念干预的作用分别表现在哪些方面呢?

4.1 特质正念的相关研究

首先, 个体的特质正念与自身对关系的感知和对冲突的应对有关。在亲密关系的感知方面, 有研究表明, 特质正念正向预测个体的关系满意度(Jones et al., 2011; Khaddouma & Gordon, 2018; Khaddouma et al., 2015; Lenger et al., 2017; Wachs & Cordova, 2007)、性满意度(Khaddouma et al., 2015; Pepping, Cronin, Lyons, & Caldwell, 2018)、关系稳定性(Khaddouma & Gordon, 2018)、伴侣依恋(Spousal Attachment) (Jones et al., 2011; Pepping et al., 2013)、对伴侣的接纳(Kappen et al., 2018)和感受到的伴侣响应(Adair et al., 2018)。在应对冲突方面, 特质正念可预测个体的身心反应。在生理反应上, 研究显示, 个体的特质正念可负向预测其与伴侣在讨论冲突时的心血管(Kimmes, May, Seibert, Jaurequi, & Fincham, 2018)和皮质醇(Hertz et al., 2015; Laurent et al., 2013)的反应水平。在情绪体验上, 相对于低特质正念者, 高特质正念者体验到更少主观压力感(Hertz et al., 2015)、害怕被拒绝感(Dixon & Overall, 2016)和消极情绪(Hertz et al., 2015; Iida & Shapiro, 2017)。在认知和行为倾向上, 特质正念正向预测个体对伴侣的宽恕倾向(Karremans et al., 2020)和对伴侣越轨行为的良性归因(Kimmes et al., 2017)。面临冲突时, 相对于低特质正念者, 高特质正念者更可能采取建设性的应对策略(Barnes et al., 2007; Harvey et al., 2019), 更少表现出破坏行为(Brem et al., 2018; Dixon & Overall, 2016)。

另一方面, 个体的特质正念还与伴侣对关系的感知以及对冲突的应对有关。在亲密关系的感知上, 个体的特质正念正向预测伴侣的关系满意度(Adair et al., 2018; Harvey et al., 2019; Kappen et al., 2018; Khaddouma & Gordon, 2018; Lenger et al., 2017)。此外, 在日常生活中, 相对于低特质正念者, 高特质正念者的伴侣更可能感受到被宽恕和被响应(Adair et al., 2018; Karremans et al., 2020), 且情绪也更稳定(Iida & Shapiro, 2019)。在应对冲突方面, 个体的特质正念负向预测伴侣在讨论冲突时的心血管反应(Kimmes, May, et al., 2018), 且伴侣也更少选择破坏性的应对策略(Harvey et al., 2019)。

综上, 相对于低特质正念者, 高特质正念者与其伴侣对关系的感知更积极, 在关系冲突中的身心反应也更有建设意义。

4.2 正念干预的效果

正念干预的功能主要体现在两方面:其一, 是防护功能。一方面, 正念干预有利于强化相对和谐的亲密关系, 提升双方的关系满意度(Carson et al., 2004; Khaddouma et al., 2017)、改善情绪调节能力(Gillespie, Davey, & Flemke, 2015; May, Ostafin, & Snippe, 2020)。另一方面, 有利于预防潜在的威胁因素。例如, 有证据表明, 正念干预可以帮助即将成为父母的伴侣完成角色转换(Gambrel & Piercy, 2015a, 2015b; Warriner, Crane, Dymond, & Krusche, 2018), 可以作为辅助手段用于治疗个体的性生理或心理障碍, 减少性回避和性厌恶, 提高身体感受的觉察能力(Kimmes, Mallory, Cameron, & Köse, 2015; Kocsis & Newbury- Helps, 2016)。此外, 正念干预还有益于癌症、抑郁症患者及其伴侣共同面对疾病的挑战, 减少双方的心理困扰(Smith, Jones, Holttum, & Griffiths, 2014; van den Hurk, Schellekens, Molema, Speckens, & van der Drift, 2015)。其二, 是补救功能。一方面, 正念干预可以帮助关系出现危机的伴侣共同改善关系, 例如缓解冲突导致的心理困扰, 改变不良的互动模式(Finney & Tadros, 2018; Nasr Isfahani, Bahrami, Etemadi, & Mohamadi, 2018; Peterson, Eifert, Feingold, & Davidson, 2009)。另一方面, 正念干预被应用于有家庭暴力经历的特殊人群。例如, 针对家庭暴力施暴者, 正念干预有助于减少再犯率, 改善施暴者的情绪失调和人际困难(Rathus, Cavuoto, & Passarelli, 2006; Tollefson & Phillips, 2015; Zarling, Bannon, & Berta, 2019); 而针对遭遇亲密关系暴力且患有创伤后应激障碍的女性, 正念干预有益于改善人际问题, 提高自我慈悲和情绪调节的能力(Bermudez et al., 2013; Dutton et al., 2013)。综上所述, 正念干预的效果作用主要体现在对亲密关系的防护和补救两个方面。

5 亲密关系中的正念干预

5.1 亲密关系中正念干预的基本形式

在具体的干预形式上, 针对亲密关系的正念干预可被归纳为三类:传统的正念干预、综合性的正念与亲密关系疗法、针对亲密关系的正念干预。

首先, 部分研究者直接采用了传统的正念干预项目(Gillespie et al., 2015; Khaddouma et al., 2017; Smith et al., 2014; van den Hurk et al., 2015), 或者对其进行适量简化, 例如去除团体活动、减少干预时长、采用在线形式等(Kappen et al., 2019; May et al., 2020)。此类干预方案并未针对亲密关系的特征进行相应改编, 因此在本质上仍然属于传统的正念干预。

此外, 还有研究者将正念干预与传统的亲密关系疗法进行整合(Atkinson, 2013; Beckerman & Sarracco, 2011; Finney & Tadros, 2018)。例如夫妻情绪聚焦疗法(Emotionally Focused couple Therapy, EFT)和结构家庭疗法(Structural Family Therapy, SFT)是常见的用于改善伴侣间情感疏离或关系冲突的方法。研究者在采用这些方法对矛盾激化的伴侣进行干预时, 发现伴侣间的沟通容易投射彼此的负性情绪, 进而引起强烈的情绪反应, 这阻碍了干预的顺利进行。为此, 研究者将正念融入到传统的亲密关系疗法中, 旨在增强伴侣间识别、沟通和表达情绪的能力, 帮助其更为客观地觉察关系中的不当互动模式, 进而建设性地共同面对关系中的危机(Beckerman & Sarracco, 2011; Finney & Tadros, 2018)。此类干预通常针对关系陷入困境的伴侣, 且伴侣间的矛盾混合了不同的诱发因素(Finney & Tadros, 2018)。因此, 综合性的干预项目在形式上相对灵活, 需要咨询师针对伴侣间的具体情况制定有针对性的干预方案。

针对亲密关系的正念干预是以传统正念干预为基础, 根据亲密关系中的有关问题进行了相应改编而展开的干预形式(如Carson et al., 2004, 2006; Gehart, 2012; Kocsis & Newbury-Helps, 2016; Nasr Isfahani et al., 2018; Rathus et al., 2006; Tollefson & Phillips, 2015; Warriner et al., 2018; Zarling et al., 2019)。在这类项目中, 部分研究以个体为干预对象, 旨在改善可能威胁当前或后续的亲密关系的身心症状, 例如性障碍、家庭暴力等(Kocsis & Newbury-Helps, 2016; Tollefson & Phillips, 2015); 还有研究以伴侣为干预对象, 旨在提升双方的关系质量(Carson et al., 2004, 2006; Carson, Carson, Gil, & Baucom, 2007; Gambrel & Piercy, 2015a, 2015b; Gehart, 2012)。从严格意义上讲, 后者对亲密关系的干预更为直接。因此本文以后者为例, 针对伴侣间的三种不同状态, 详细介绍正念在亲密关系中的应用(见表1)。

表1   亲密关系中的正念干预示例

正念干预项目干预对象干预目的
正念强化关系疗法
(Mindfulness-based Relationship Enhancement, MBRE)
相对幸福、无冲突的伴侣强化亲密关系, 提高压力应对能力。
准父母正念过渡项目
(Mindful Transition to Parenthood Program, MTPP)
即将迎来第一个小孩的准父母预防关系恶化, 帮助伴侣共同面对因小孩的出生而带来的角色转换和潜在的压力。
接纳与承诺疗法
(Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, ACT)
关系出现危机的伴侣减少关系冲突, 提高关系质量。

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5.2 亲密关系中的正念干预示例

5.2.1 正念强化关系疗法(MBRE)

针对相对幸福且尚无危机的伴侣, Carson等人(2004)开发了正念强化关系疗法(Mindfulness-based Relationship Enhancement, MBRE), 强调伴侣间的互动和个体在亲密关系中的思维、感受和行为, 旨在帮助伴侣强化情感联结, 提高应对压力的能力。

MBRE以正念减压疗法为原型, 共持续8周, 每周6天, 每天30~45分钟, 以6~8对伴侣为1组, 每周开展2.5小时小组活动, 第6周参与全天静修。在干预技巧上, 除身体扫描、静坐冥想、瑜伽等常规练习外, MBRE针对亲密关系的特点进行了相应改编, 与正念减压疗法的不同之处主要体现在:(1)更强调仁爱冥想(loving-kindness meditations), 特别是针对伴侣的仁爱冥想; (2)伴侣瑜伽, 伴侣共同参与以彼此身体为支撑的瑜伽练习; (3)正念触碰, 为彼此轻柔按摩背部并讨论身体感受; (4)正念凝视, 理解并迎接彼此深层的善意; (5)将正念运用于关系中的困境, 练习以非判断、接纳的态度应对可能导致争执或疏离的关系冲突; (6)鼓励伴侣有意识地关注彼此的互动过程, 记录对互动过程的理解(该项目的具体实施细节可参见Carson et al., 2004, 2006)。

为验证MBRE的有效性, Carson等人(2004)以44对无冲突的伴侣为被试, 将其随机分配为实验组和控制组。研究结果显示, 与等待控制组相比, MBRE显著强化了实验组的亲密关系, 包括关系满意度、自主性、联结性、亲密感及对伴侣的接纳, 且干预效果在3个月后仍得以维持。然而, MBRE对危机中的伴侣的干预效果不明确, 未来可增加样本的多样性以检验其适用范围。

5.2.2 准父母正念过渡项目(MTPP)

针对即将迎来第一个小孩的伴侣, Gambrel和Piercy 设计了准父母正念过渡项目(Mindful Transition to Parenthood Program, MTPP) (Gambrel & Piercy, 2015a, 2015b)。该项目结合正念干预和心理教育, 重视伴侣间的二元互动和小组支持, 以关系正念为核心, 强调个体的内在协调与人际协调, 旨在发展协调、专注当下、共情和自我调节的能力, 帮助伴侣共同面对因小孩的到来而发生的角色转变, 增强压力应对能力进而预防关系恶化。

MTPP以3~5对伴侣为1组, 每周开展2小时小组活动, 共持续4周。干预期间, 需完成的家庭作业包括每天15分钟正式练习(身体扫描、正念呼吸、开放意识、坐禅和仁爱冥想)和伴侣间的共同练习。每周的小组活动及伴侣共同在家完成的练习分别如下:(1)对自我的正念:小组活动与常规的正念干预项目相似, 旨在帮助练习者理解正念及干预技巧, 如正念饮食、觉察情绪等; 伴侣共同在家练习正念欣赏、五种爱的语言等。(2)对伴侣的正念:小组活动包括接纳与反应、讨论情绪的涌入、正念凝视等; 伴侣共同在家练习正念拥抱、制定暂停策略等。(3)对亲密关系的正念:小组活动包括正念与无念交流、探索并理解交流技巧、讨论并实践彼此的需要与梦想等; 伴侣共同在家练习反思生命的起源、发现并分享彼此的需要与梦想等。(4)对家庭的正念:小组活动包括仁爱冥想、讨论常见的困难以及如何成为父母、正念教养等; 伴侣共同在家练习仁爱冥想、理解婴儿的线索等(具体实施细节可参见Gambrel & Piercy, 2015a, 2015b)。

Gambrel和Piercy (2015a)采用定量与定性研究的混合设计检验MTPP的有效性。定量研究发现, 相对于等待控制组, 实验组的男性显著提高了关系满意度、特质正念和情绪调节能力, 而女性并无明显改善。随后, Gambrel和Piercy (2015b)通过半结构式访谈的分析发现, 参与者的感受可被概括为4个主题:(1)自我的积极变化, 例如自我接纳、自我觉知、自我慈悲; (2)关系的改善, 例如伴侣间的沟通更为深入; (3)对父母身份的准备, 例如积极地面对潜在的挑战; (4)男性的参与, 例如更多地参与家务。与此同时, 上述结论也可能受一些无关变量的影响, 例如在干预前, 男性获得的社会支持更少; 孕期的女性可能对身体变化更敏感。因此未来可探究社会支持、怀孕等因素对干预效果的影响。

5.2.3 接纳与承诺疗法(ACT)

接纳与承诺疗法(Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, ACT)是常见的正念干预项目之一, 其开发的最初目的是增加个体的心理灵活性, 促使个体投入有价值、有意义的生活。后来研究者针对陷入危机的伴侣或家庭对ACT疗法进行改编, 旨在减少伴侣或家庭中的冲突并提高关系质量(Gehart, 2012; Peterson et al., 2009)。ACT特别强调接纳的作用, 鼓励伴侣正念地体验和接纳自己的思维和感受, 进而避免认知融合(cognitive fusion), 即过度受制于思维和情绪的控制。根据ACT的干预理念, 认知解离和接纳可以帮助伴侣以新的视角看待关系中的消极情绪和行为, 而澄清价值取向并承诺以符合价值取向的方式行事, 则可以减少关系中的成见进而改善关系(Peterson et al., 2009)。

如前所述, 矛盾激化的伴侣通常面临多重冲突, 因此与之相应的干预方案也需要更有针对性和灵活性。同理, Gehart (2012)在《夫妻和家庭治疗中的正念与接纳》(Mindfulness and Acceptance in Couple and Family Therapy)一书中详细介绍了如何将ACT灵活地应用于伴侣或家庭中, 包括个案概念化、设置目标与制定计划、设计并实施干预措施等。例如, 在干预过程中, 咨询师会根据伴侣练习正念的动机制定现实可行的计划, 并且根据实际练习情况进行跟进和微调。与此同时, 练习时长也是循序渐进的, 例如第一周每天2~5分钟, 第二周每天5分钟, 第三周每天5~10分钟, 第四周与伴侣讨论哪种练习更为适合, 是否有其他潜在的可能等。在干预技巧上, 除常规练习外, 也包括一系列针对亲密关系的训练方法, 例如正念沟通、正念暂停与反思、倾听隐含之意、仁爱冥想、正念的性与亲密、非暴力沟通等。

在实证研究中, Peterson等人(2009)以ACT为核心技术, 针对两对关系陷入困境的伴侣进行干预。干预过程中, 研究者始终强调以接纳的心态面对关系冲突以及由此引发的自动化反应, 主题的设置为:(1)第1~2次:评估个体及亲密关系; (2)第3~4次:通过正念和接纳使新的关系模式成为可能; (3)第5~6次:解离导致冲突的思维和反应; (4)第7~9次:澄清价值取向; (5)第10~12次:对价值取向做出承诺。结果表明, ACT有助于提高伴侣间的关系满意度, 缓解由关系冲突引发的压力和困扰, 并且干预效果在6个月后仍得以维持。

5.2.4 小结

上述三种干预项目分别对应于相对幸福、即将面临挑战和已经陷入困境的三种关系状态。尽管在干预对象、主题设置、灵活性和标准化程度等方面有所差异, 但三者之间也有相似特征。其一, 三者都关注亲密关系中的互动过程和互动模式。例如在常规练习的基础上, 加入针对亲密关系的正念沟通、正念倾听, 进而引导伴侣觉察彼此的互动模式。研究者普遍认为, 在亲密关系的干预中, 帮助伴侣觉察彼此的互动模式是改善关系的关键(Gehart, 2012), 而这一理念在既往的实证研究中也有所体现, 研究显示, 被伴侣理解、关心和认可的感受在特质正念对关系满意度的正向预测中起中介作用(Adair et al., 2018)。其二, 三者都强调关系中的接纳。例如, 练习以接纳的态度应对可能的冲突, 体验并表达对彼此的慈悲和接纳等。有关接纳的作用, 在前文介绍实验诱导法时也有所探讨, 如前所述, 本文推论接纳在正念对亲密关系的积极影响中必不可少, 而这一观点在某种程度上也得到此处的干预项目的印证。

6 评价与展望

6.1 发展亲密关系中的正念理论

在正念影响亲密关系的理论研究中, 既往的研究虽然强调了关系的二元互动性, 但忽视了关系的阶段性。现实生活中的亲密关系是一个动态发展的过程, 而非绝对静止。从关系的建立、维持, 到(部分)关系的破裂、重构, 亲密关系呈现出阶段性的特征。各发展阶段中影响亲密关系的因素可能不同, 且相同因素在不同阶段所产生的影响及影响程度也可能有差异, 这导致正念在各发展阶段所带来的效果并不等同。以被陌生异性吸引这件事为例, 在关系建立阶段, 被吸引是重要的推动力量。如前所述, 处于状态正念的人更不易被陌生异性吸引(Papies et al., 2015), 这意味着状态正念可能在某种程度上阻碍了关系的建立。但在关系维持阶段, 被陌生异性吸引可能会对既定的关系造成伤害, 而更少被吸引则可能在某种程度上有利于关系的维持。基于此, 未来的理论建构, 可以从亲密关系的阶段特征展开讨论。

此外, 既然个体的正念能影响伴侣双方在关系中的结果变量, 那么亲密关系是否能反过来影响伴侣的正念水平呢?有证据显示, 个体间特质正念水平的差异可能源于儿童期的成长经历和依恋风格(Pepping & Duvenage, 2016), 这意味着个体的特质正念水平受到生活经历的影响。大部分人在一生中会有较长时间处于亲密关系中, 那么圆满的亲密关系能否提升个体的特质正念水平呢?相反, 危机重重的关系是否会降低特质正念呢?基于上述疑问, 未来的理论建构可以尝试从正念与亲密关系互为因果的角度进行探究。

6.2 探究亲密关系中的正念内涵与测量

在不同语境下, 正念各成分的具体内涵及其所占权重有所差异(郭璞洋, 李波, 2017)。因此, 有必要针对亲密关系这一特定领域界定正念概念, 并开发相应的测量工具。如前所述, 目前仅有少数学者对亲密关系中的正念概念(即“关系正念”)进行界定。研究者认为, 关系正念是有意识地关注可能直接或间接影响关系的感觉或想法(Karremans et al., 2017; Kimmes, Jaurequi, et al., 2018)。这一概念及其对应的RMM量表是以个体自身的体验为觉察对象, 且侧重于意识成分, 而忽略了接纳成分, 因此可能在某种程度上窄化了亲密关系中的正念内涵。而人际正念的概念及其对应的IMS量表从4个维度(当下、对自我和他人的意识、非判断性地接纳、非反应性)进行了概念界定和测量, 虽然也适用于亲密关系, 但亲密关系与人际关系有所不同。在亲密关系中, 双方的互动更频繁, 感情投入更多, 且通常伴有高程度的自我卷入和排他性, 亲密关系也更可能激活个体深层次的依恋问题, 而这在一般的人际互动中并不常见(Kimmes, Jaurequi, et al., 2018)。综上所述, 虽然RMM和IMS比特质正念量表更适用于亲密关系, 但可能并不是最佳的测量工具。基于此, 本文尝试对关系正念的内涵及测量工具的开发进行初步探讨。

在内涵上, 结合关系正念和人际正念的概念以及现阶段的理论和实证研究, 可以发现关系正念的内涵与一般性的正念既相互联系又相互区别。关系正念是正念在亲密关系领域的扩展和深化, 因此有其独特内涵。具体体现在三个方面:(1)关系正念意味着将伴侣和关系本身也作为觉察和接纳的对象。这突破了一般性的正念概念将注意力集中于个体自身的这一认知。(2)关系正念具有二元互动的性质。有证据显示, 个体的特质正念能够被重要他人所觉察(May & Reinhardt, 2018), 高特质正念者的伴侣更倾向于觉察到自己的被接纳(Kappen et al., 2018)和被响应(Adair et al., 2018)。这意味着亲密关系中的伴侣能在某种程度上觉察彼此的正念, 进而影响伴侣对亲密关系的感知。(3)就亲密关系的阶段特点而言, 关系正念具有动态发展的特点。在亲密关系的各发展阶段, 关系正念的成分和各成分的权重可能有所不同。因此, 未来可根据亲密关系的二元互动和阶段特点, 以多维的、动态发展的视角对关系正念的概念进行界定。

在测量工具的开发上, 以往的研究均采用自评法的形式, 这在一定程度上限制了测量结果的客观性。如前所述, 个体的特质正念能够被重要他人所觉察(May & Reinhardt, 2018), 这为开发针对关系正念的互评量表奠定了实证基础。此外, 未来还可以从研究者的视角, 采用观察编码法对关系正念进行测量。例如, 对伴侣的交流过程进行录像、观察和编码, 以表情、姿态、语调等外显指标测量关系正念。相比自评法和互评法, 观察编码法可以更为客观地捕捉关系双方在日常互动中所忽略的信息。与此同时, 自评、互评和观察编码法的结合, 有助于研究者从多重视角进行测量, 进而丰富正念在亲密关系中的实证研究。

6.3 明确亲密关系中的正念干预效果

6.3.1 采用更为严谨的对照组设计

尽管有大量研究支持了正念干预对亲密关系的有益影响, 但仍然存在有待改进的地方, 特别是对照组的设计。既往研究大多仅考察正念干预的效果, 而很少加入传统的亲密关系疗法用以进行效果比较, 且对照组以未加干预的等待组为主, 或者甚至没有对照组(Carson et al., 2004; Khaddouma et al., 2017; May et al., 2020; Nasr Isfahani et al., 2018)。这导致了两点问题:其一, 在不同干预方案之间的效果对比上, 研究者难以确定哪一种方案更为有效; 其二, 在正念干预的效果评估上, 有可能削弱研究结论的可靠性。例如, Kappen等人(2019)以处于亲密关系中的个体为被试, 进行为期两周的正念干预, 对照组设计为接受心理教育。结果发现, 两组被试的关系满意度都有所提升且没有显著差异。这是否意味着正念干预的效果受到安慰剂效应、团体支持等无关因素的干扰呢?基于上述疑问, 未来有必要加入更为严谨的对照组设计。

6.3.2 考察正念干预影响亲密关系的调节因素

探究正念干预影响亲密关系的调节因素, 有助于研究者明确正念干预在何时对何种关系更为有效。然而, 现阶段的研究对此知之甚少。就个体因素而言, 有研究显示, 干预前的特质正念水平在正念干预对关系满意度的积极影响中起调节作用, 低特质正念者的干预效果显著, 而高特质正念者不显著(Kappen et al., 2019), 这是否意味着正念干预对亲密关系的影响可能存在着天花板效应呢?此外, 就关系特征而言, 承诺是衡量关系质量的指标之一, 当关系陷入困境时, 或许有所承诺的伴侣会更有动力寻求帮助, 且干预时更为配合, 然而目前尚无研究对此进行探究。基于此, 未来的研究有必要进一步明确影响干预效果的调节变量, 以便制定更具针对性的干预方案。

6.4 关注潜在的消极影响

目前的研究大多关注于正念对亲密关系的积极作用, 而很少考虑其潜在的消极影响。那么, 正念干预是否存在某些潜在的消极面呢?既往研究报告了其在其他领域的副作用, 例如自主神经亢奋、难以控制负面情绪、再次体验创伤经历等(van Dam et al., 2018)。如前所述, 接纳可能是正念影响亲密关系的必要成分, 且意识和接纳交互作用(Krafft et al., 2017)。由此可以推测, 如果在干预过程中, 过度强调意识而忽视接纳, 是否反而会带来负面作用呢, 例如加大练习者陷入消极情绪和想法的可能性?同理, 如果一味地强调接纳而忽视意识, 是否反而会伤害练习者呢?例如在家庭暴力中, 受害者屈服于暴虐且忽视自身感受, 这可能会带来更为严重的身心伤害。上述疑问提示我们, 正念的意识和接纳成分需要维持在恰当的水平, 否则可能适得其反。那么, 何种程度的意识和接纳对练习者来说是恰当的呢?意识和接纳的作用及作用程度分别是什么?对于以上问题, 未来的研究可以结合实验诱导法和解构正念成分的方式进行更为深入的探讨。

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Davidson, R. J., & Kaszniak, A. W. (2015).

Conceptual and methodological issues in research on mindfulness and meditation

The American Psychologist, 70(7), 581-592.

DOI:10.1037/a0039512      URL     PMID:26436310      [本文引用: 1]

Both basic science and clinical research on mindfulness, meditation, and related constructs have dramatically increased in recent years. However, interpretation of these research results has been challenging. The present article addresses unique conceptual and methodological problems posed by research in this area. Included among the key topics is the role of first-person experience and how it can be best studied, the challenges posed by intervention research designs in which true double-blinding is not possible, the nature of control and comparison conditions for research that includes mindfulness or other meditation-based interventions, issues in the adequate description of mindfulness and related trainings and interventions, the question of how mindfulness can be measured, questions regarding what can and cannot be inferred from self-report measures, and considerations regarding the structure of study design and data analyses. Most of these topics are germane to both basic and clinical research studies and have important bearing on the future scientific understanding of mindfulness and meditation.

Dixon, H. C., & Overall, N. C. (2016).

Regulating fears of rejection: Dispositional mindfulness attenuates the links between daily conflict, rejection fears, and destructive relationship behaviors

Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 35(2), 159-179.

[本文引用: 3]

Don, B. P. (2019).

Mindfulness predicts growth belief and positive outcomes in social relationships

Self and Identity, 19(3), 272-292.

[本文引用: 1]

Dutton, M. A., Bermudez, D., Matás, A., Majid, H., & Myers, N. L. (2013).

Mindfulness-based stress reduction for low-income, predominantly African American women with PTSD and a history of intimate partner violence

Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(1), 23-32.

URL     PMID:24043922      [本文引用: 1]

Finney, N., & Tadros, E. (2018).

Integration of structural family therapy and dialectical behavior therapy with high-conflict couples

The Family Journal, 27(1), 31-36.

DOI:10.1177/1066480718803344      URL     [本文引用: 4]

Gambrel, L. E., & Piercy, F. P. (2015a).

Mindfulness-based relationship education for couples expecting their first child — part 1: A randomized mixed-methods program evaluation

Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41(1), 5-24.

URL     PMID:24433518      [本文引用: 5]

Gambrel, L. E., & Piercy, F. P. (2015b).

Mindfulness-based relationship education for couples expecting their first child — part 2: Phenomenological findings

Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41(1), 25-41.

URL     PMID:24443965      [本文引用: 5]

Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A., Goldin, P. R., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2015).

The mindfulness-to-meaning theory: Extensions, applications, and challenges at the attention-appraisal- emotion interface

Psychological Inquiry, 26(4), 377-387.

[本文引用: 1]

Gehart, D. R. (2012). Mindfulness and acceptance in couple and family therapy. New York: Springer.

[本文引用: 5]

Gillespie, B., Davey, M. P., & Flemke, K. (2015).

Intimate partners’ perspectives on the relational effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction training: A qualitative research study

Contemporary Family Therapy, 37(4), 396-407.

[本文引用: 2]

Harvey, J., Crowley, J., & Woszidlo, A. (2019).

Mindfulness, conflict strategy use, and relational satisfaction: A dyadic investigation

Mindfulness, 10(4), 749-758.

[本文引用: 5]

Heppner, W. L., & Shirk, S. D. (2018).

Mindful moments: A review of brief, low-intensity mindfulness meditation and induced mindful states

Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 12(12), e12424.

DOI:10.1111/spc3.v12.12      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hertz, R. M., Laurent, H. K., & Laurent, S. M. (2015).

Attachment mediates effects of trait mindfulness on stress responses to conflict

Mindfulness, 6(3), 483-489.

[本文引用: 5]

Iida, M., & Shapiro, A. (2019).

Mindfulness and daily negative mood variation in romantic relationships

Mindfulness, 10(5), 933-942.

[本文引用: 2]

Iida, M., & Shapiro, A. F. (2017).

The role of mindfulness in daily relationship process: Examining daily conflicts and relationship mood

Mindfulness, 8(6), 1559-1568.

[本文引用: 2]

Jones, K. C., Welton, S. R., Oliver, T. C., & Thoburn, J. W. (2011).

Mindfulness, spousal attachment, and marital satisfaction: A mediated model

The Family Journal, 19(4), 357-361.

[本文引用: 4]

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003).

Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future

Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-156.

[本文引用: 2]

Kappen, G., Karremans, J. C., & Burk, W. J. (2019).

Effects of a short online mindfulness intervention on relationship satisfaction and partner acceptance: The moderating role of trait mindfulness

Mindfulness, 10(10), 2186-2199.

[本文引用: 4]

Kappen, G., Karremans, J. C., Burk, W. J., & Buyukcan-Tetik, A. (2018).

On the association between mindfulness and romantic relationship satisfaction: The role of partner acceptance

Mindfulness, 9(5), 1543-1556.

URL     PMID:30294389      [本文引用: 5]

Karremans, J. C., Schellekens, M. P. J., & Kappen, G. (2017).

Bridging the sciences of mindfulness and romantic relationships

Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21(1), 29-49.

URL     PMID:26563236      [本文引用: 7]

Karremans, J. C., van Schie, H. T., van Dongen, I., Kappen, G., Mori, G., van As, S., ... van der Wal, R. C. (2020).

Is mindfulness associated with interpersonal forgiveness?

Emotion, 20(2), 296-310.

DOI:10.1037/emo0000552      URL     PMID:30652883      [本文引用: 4]

Using a multimethod approach, the current research tested the basic prediction that mindfulness is associated with interpersonal forgiveness. Across 5 studies, we found that mindfulness meditation, trait mindfulness, and an experimental induction of mindfulness, were positively associated with indicators of both dispositional forgiving tendencies, state levels of forgiveness regarding a past offense, and levels of perceived forgiving tendencies as rated by the romantic partner. Two studies examined the roles of perspective taking and rumination as potential mechanisms; results provided most consistent support for the role of perspective taking. The findings are discussed in light of the broader theoretical questions of when and how people forgive and how mindfulness may promote interpersonal functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Khaddouma, A., & Gordon, K. C. (2018).

Mindfulness and young adult dating relationship stability: A longitudinal path analysis

Mindfulness, 9(5), 1529-1542.

[本文引用: 5]

Khaddouma, A., Gordon, K. C., & Bolden, J. (2015).

Zen and the art of sex: Examining associations among mindfulness, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction in dating relationships

Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 30(2), 268-285.

[本文引用: 3]

Khaddouma, A., Gordon, K. C., & Strand, E. B. (2017).

Mindful mates: A pilot study of the relational effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on participants and their partners

Family Process, 56(3), 636-651.

DOI:10.1111/famp.12226      URL     PMID:27226408      [本文引用: 4]

Very little is currently known about how increases in dispositional mindfulness through mindfulness training affect the quality of participants' romantic relationships, and no previous studies have examined how increases in specific facets of mindfulness differentially contribute to relationship health. Additionally, even less is known about how an individual's development of mindfulness skills affects the relationship satisfaction of his or her romantic partner. Thus, the purpose of this pilot study was to examine associations between changes in facets of mindfulness and relationship satisfaction among participants enrolled in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course and their nonenrolled romantic partners. Twenty MBSR participants and their nonenrolled partners (n = 40) completed measures of mindfulness and relationship satisfaction pre- and post-enrolled partners' completion of an MBSR course. Results indicated that enrolled participants significantly improved on all facets of mindfulness and relationship satisfaction, while nonenrolled partners did not significantly increase on any facet of mindfulness or relationship satisfaction. Moreover, enrolled participants' increases in Acting with Awareness were positively associated with increases in their own and their nonenrolled partners' relationship satisfaction, whereas increases in enrolled participants' Nonreactivity were positively associated with increases in their nonenrolled partners' (but not their own) relationship satisfaction. These results suggest that increasing levels of mindfulness (particularly specific aspects of mindfulness) may have positive effects on couples' relationship satisfaction and highlight mindfulness training as a promising tool for education and intervention efforts aimed at promoting relational health.

Kimmes, J. G., Durtschi, J. A., & Fincham, F. D. (2017).

Perception in romantic relationships: A latent profile analysis of trait mindfulness in relation to attachment and attributions

Mindfulness, 8(5), 1328-1338.

[本文引用: 2]

Kimmes, J. G., Jaurequi, M. E., May, R. W., Srivastava, S., & Fincham, F. D. (2018).

Mindfulness in the context of romantic relationships: Initial development and validation of the relationship mindfulness measure

Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 44(4), 575-589.

URL     PMID:29073322      [本文引用: 5]

Kimmes, J. G., Jaurequi, M. E., Roberts, K., Harris, V. W., & Fincham, F. D. (2019).

An examination of the association between relationship mindfulness and psychological and relational well-being in committed couples

Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 46(1), 30-41.

URL     PMID:31162689      [本文引用: 2]

Kimmes, J. G., Mallory, A. B., Cameron, C., & Köse, Ö. (2015).

A treatment model for anxiety-related sexual dysfunctions using mindfulness meditation within a sex-positive framework

Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 30(2), 286-296.

[本文引用: 1]

Kimmes, J. G., May, R. W., Seibert, G. S., Jaurequi, M. E., & Fincham, F. D. (2018).

The association between trait mindfulness and cardiovascular reactivity during marital conflict

Mindfulness, 9(4), 1160-1169.

[本文引用: 2]

Kocsis, A., & Newbury-Helps, J. (2016).

Mindfulness in sex therapy and intimate relationships (MSIR): Clinical protocol and theory development

Mindfulness, 7(3), 690-699.

[本文引用: 3]

Krafft, J., Haeger, J., & Levin, M. E. (2017).

The interaction of mindful awareness and acceptance in couples satisfaction

Personality and Individual Differences, 113, 20-23.

DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.064      URL     [本文引用: 3]

Laurent, H. K., Hertz, R., Nelson, B., & Laurent, S. M. (2016).

Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses

Hormones and Behavior, 79, 45-51.

URL     PMID:26795454      [本文引用: 1]

Laurent, H. K., Laurent, S. M., Hertz, R., Egan-Wright, D., & Granger, D. A. (2013).

Sex-specific effects of mindfulness on romantic partners’ cortisol responses to conflict and relations with psychological adjustment

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(12), 2905-2913.

URL     PMID:23988478      [本文引用: 2]

Lenger, K. A., Gordon, C. L., & Nguyen, S. P. (2017).

Intra-individual and cross-partner associations between the five facets of mindfulness and relationship satisfaction

Mindfulness, 8(1), 171-180.

[本文引用: 3]

Lindsay, E. K., Chin, B., Greco, C. M., Young, S., Brown, K. W., Wright, A. G. C., ... Creswell, J. D. (2018).

How mindfulness training promotes positive emotions: Dismantling acceptance skills training in two randomized controlled trials

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(6), 944-973.

URL     PMID:30550321      [本文引用: 2]

Lindsay, E. K., & Creswell, J. D. (2017).

Mechanisms of mindfulness training: Monitor and acceptance theory (MAT)

Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 48-59.

DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.011      URL     PMID:27835764      [本文引用: 2]

Despite evidence linking trait mindfulness and mindfulness training with a broad range of effects, still little is known about its underlying active mechanisms. Mindfulness is commonly defined as (1) the ongoing monitoring of present-moment experience (2) with an orientation of acceptance. Building on conceptual, clinical, and empirical work, we describe a testable theoretical account to help explain mindfulness effects on cognition, affect, stress, and health outcomes. Specifically, Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT) posits that (1), by enhancing awareness of one's experiences, the skill of attention monitoring explains how mindfulness improves cognitive functioning outcomes, yet this same skill can increase affective reactivity. Second (2), by modifying one's relation to monitored experience, acceptance is necessary for reducing affective reactivity, such that attention monitoring and acceptance skills together explain how mindfulness improves negative affectivity, stress, and stress-related health outcomes. We discuss how MAT contributes to mindfulness science, suggest plausible alternatives to the account, and offer specific predictions for future research.

May, C. J., Ostafin, B. D., & Snippe, E. (2020).

Mindfulness meditation is associated with decreases in partner negative affect in daily life

European Journal of Social Psychology, 50(1), 35-45.

DOI:10.1002/ejsp.v50.1      URL     [本文引用: 3]

May, L. M., & Reinhardt, K. M. (2018).

Self-other agreement in the assessment of mindfulness using the five-facet mindfulness questionnaire

Mindfulness, 9(1), 105-116.

[本文引用: 2]

Nasr Isfahani, N., Bahrami, F., Etemadi, O., & Mohamadi, R. A. (2018).

Effectiveness of counseling based on mindfulness and acceptance on the marital conflict of intercultural married women in Iran

Contemporary Family Therapy, 40(2), 204-209.

[本文引用: 3]

Papies, E. K., Pronk, T. M., Keesman, M., & Barsalou, L. W. (2015).

The benefits of simply observing: Mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(1), 148-170.

URL     PMID:25347126      [本文引用: 2]

Patrick, H., Knee, C. R., Canevello, A., & Lonsbary, C. (2007).

The role of need fulfillment in relationship functioning and well-being: A self-determination theory perspective

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 434-457.

DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.92.3.434      URL     PMID:17352602      [本文引用: 1]

Self-determination theory posits 3 basic psychological needs: autonomy (feeling uncoerced in one's actions), competence (feeling capable), and relatedness (feeling connected to others). Optimal well-being results when these needs are satisfied, though this research has traditionally focused on individual well-being outcomes (e.g., E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 2000). Three studies examined the role of need fulfillment in relationship functioning and well-being. Study 1 found that fulfillment of each need individually predicted both individual and relationship well-being, with relatedness being the strongest unique predictor of relationship outcomes. Study 2 found that both partners' need fulfillment uniquely predicted one's own relationship functioning and well-being. Finally, in Study 3, the authors used a diary recording procedure and tested a model in which the association between need fulfillment and relationship quality was mediated by relationship motivation. Those who experienced greater need fulfillment enjoyed better postdisagreement relationship quality primarily because of their tendency to have more intrinsic or autonomous reasons for being in their relationship.

Pepping, C. A., Cronin, T. J., Lyons, A., & Caldwell, J. G. (2018).

The effects of mindfulness on sexual outcomes: The role of emotion regulation

Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(6), 1601-1612.

URL     PMID:29453643      [本文引用: 1]

Pepping, C. A., Davis, P. J., & O’Donovan, A. (2015).

The association between state attachment security and state mindfulness

Plos One, 10(3), e0116779.

DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116779      URL     PMID:25786134      [本文引用: 1]

Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

Pepping, C. A., & Duvenage, M. (2016).

The origins of individual differences in dispositional mindfulness

Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 130-136.

[本文引用: 1]

Pepping, C. A., O'Donovan, A., & Davis, P. J. (2013).

The differential relationship between mindfulness and attachment in experienced and inexperienced meditators

Mindfulness, 5(4), 392-399.

[本文引用: 2]

Peterson, B. D., Eifert, G. H., Feingold, T., & Davidson, S. (2009).

Using acceptance and commitment therapy to treat distressed couples: A case study with two couples

Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16(4), 430-442.

[本文引用: 4]

Pratscher, S. D., Wood, P. K., King, L. A., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2019).

Interpersonal mindfulness: Scale development and initial construct validation

Mindfulness, 10(6), 1044-1061.

[本文引用: 3]

Rathus, J. H., Cavuoto, N., & Passarelli, V. (2006).

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): A mindfulness-based treatment for intimate partner violence

In R. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications (pp. 333-358). Boston: Academic Press.

[本文引用: 2]

Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D(2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Smith, E. L., Jones, F. W., Holttum, S., & Griffiths, K. (2014).

The process of engaging in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a partnership: A grounded theory study

Mindfulness, 6(3), 455-466.

[本文引用: 2]

Tollefson, D. R., & Phillips, I. (2015).

A mind-body bridging treatment program for domestic violence offenders: Program overview and evaluation results

Journal of Family Violence, 30(6), 783-794.

[本文引用: 3]

van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., ... Meyer, D. E. (2018).

Mind the hype: A critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation

Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(1), 36-61.

DOI:10.1177/1745691617709589      URL     PMID:29016274      [本文引用: 1]

During the past two decades, mindfulness meditation has gone from being a fringe topic of scientific investigation to being an occasional replacement for psychotherapy, tool of corporate well-being, widely implemented educational practice, and

van den Hurk, D. G. M., Schellekens, M. P. J., Molema, J., Speckens, A. E. M., & van der Drift, M. A. (2015).

Mindfulness-based stress reduction for lung cancer patients and their partners: Results of a mixed methods pilot study

Palliative Medicine, 29(7), 652-660.

URL     PMID:25701663      [本文引用: 2]

Wachs, K., & Cordova, J. V. (2007).

Mindful relating: Exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships

Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 464-481.

URL     PMID:17935530      [本文引用: 1]

Warriner, S., Crane, C., Dymond, M., & Krusche, A. (2018).

An evaluation of mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting courses for pregnant women and prospective fathers/partners within the UK NHS (MBCP-4-NHS)

Midwifery, 64, 1-10.

DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2018.05.004      URL     PMID:29843001      [本文引用: 2]

An evaluation of mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting courses for pregnant women and prospective fathers/partners within the UK NHS (MBCP-4-NHS). OBJECTIVE: To explore the usefulness within the National Health Service (NHS) of a brief (four week, ten hour) course based upon the Mindfulness Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) programme (Duncan and Bardacke, 2010) described here as MBCP-4-NHS. BACKGROUND: The National Maternity Review (2016) and report of The Independent Mental Health Taskforce to the NHS (2016a, 2016b) in England highlight the need for significant investment into perinatal mental health services, with the Government pledging funding to improve such services through a range of measures. Whilst the field of mindfulness during the perinatal period is in need of well controlled trials and studies exploring the mechanisms of action (Hall et al., 2016) the limited research to date supports the potential for mindfulness based interventions in pregnancy and the need for further scientific study in this area (Dhillon et al., 2017; Shi and Macbeth, 2017). Particularly because it may broaden women's repertoire of coping strategies with the potential to improve the developmental trajectory of both parents and infants (Dunn et al., 2012; Duncan and Bardacke, 2010; Vieten and Astin, 2008). However, most of the studies to date have involved lengthy courses of around 8-9 weeks (24 h) duration, which may not be feasible or economical within a UK NHS setting and therefore, would be unlikely to be adopted as routine practice. DESIGN: An initial pilot study to discover if MBCP-4-NHS is acceptable and feasible within NHS maternity services, comparing maternal and paternal pre and post intervention self-report measures of mental health to begin to explore the effectiveness of this intervention. SETTING: NHS antenatal education classes held in children's centres for expectant parents across Oxfordshire. PARTICIPANTS: All expectant parents receiving Oxfordshire maternity services between October 2014 and January 2015 were invited to self-refer into the intervention, of which 155 individuals (86 women and 69 men) took part. INTERVENTION: 'MBCP-4-NHS' - A brief (four week, ten hour) course developed from the nine week Mindfulness Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) intervention. MEASURES: Self-report measures of mental health including low mood/depression, mindfulness, stress, anxiety, pregnancy related distress and experiences. FINDINGS: The results showed a significant increase in both maternal and paternal mental health with women demonstrating a significant improvement in symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, pregnancy-related distress, labour worry and positive and negative pregnancy experiences; and men improving significantly in symptoms of anxiety, depression and showing a trend for improvement in self-reported symptoms of perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: This is a promising antenatal intervention that can be feasibly implemented within NHS which might have the potential to impact upon parental mental health and, therefore, possibly also the health of next generation. However, caution is needed interpreting these findings given that this study did not include an active control group. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This research provides a clear rationale and justification for a large randomised control trial of this intervention within the NHS, which should include a more diverse population, across multiple centres and should explore both the potential health benefits for parents and infants/children as well as potential economic costs/benefits.

Zarling, A., Bannon, S., & Berta, M. (2019).

Evaluation of acceptance and commitment therapy for domestic violence offenders

Psychology of Violence, 9(3), 257-266.

[本文引用: 2]

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