心理科学进展, 2019, 27(8): 1394-1403 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01394

研究前沿

面孔可信度加工的时间进程和影响因素

张坤坤, 张珂烨, 张火垠, 罗文波,

辽宁师范大学脑与认知神经科学研究中心, 大连 116029

The time course and influence factors of facial trustworthiness processing

ZHANG Kunkun, ZHANG Keye, ZHANG Huoyin, LUO Wenbo,

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China

通讯作者: 罗文波, E-mail: luowb@lnnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-06-26   网络出版日期: 2019-07-26

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金面上项目.  31871106

Received: 2018-06-26   Online: 2019-07-26

摘要

面孔可信度在表达和理解社会信号中起着关键作用。人们通过微妙的面部线索快速地判断他人的可信度, 从而帮助人们进行日常生活选择。研究者们对面孔可信度加工的时间进程有关的行为和ERP研究都进行了深入地探讨, 并探索了其毕生发展特点, 以及面孔情绪和面孔性别等因素对面孔可信度评估的影响。未来研究可以提高面孔可信度研究材料的生态效度, 进一步拓展青春期和成年晚期对面孔可信度评估的研究, 以及考虑背景信息对面孔可信度评估的影响。

关键词: 面孔可信度 ; 毕生发展 ; 情绪 ; 性别 ; 事件相关电位

Abstract

Facial trustworthiness plays a key role in how we express and understand social signals. During social interactions, people quickly judge the trustworthiness of others through subtle facial cues in order to make choices in daily life. The researchers delved into behavioral and ERP studies related to the time course of facial trustworthiness processing, and explored the life-span development of facial trustworthiness, as well as the influence of face emotions and face gender on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness. Further research is needed to improve the ecological validity of stimuli used in facial trustworthiness studies, to expand the study of facial trustworthiness in adolescents and aging population, and to consider the contextual effects on facial trustworthiness assessment.

Keywords: facial trustworthiness ; life-span development ; emotion ; gender ; ERP

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本文引用格式

张坤坤, 张珂烨, 张火垠, 罗文波. (2019). 面孔可信度加工的时间进程和影响因素 . 心理科学进展, 27(8), 1394-1403

ZHANG Kunkun, ZHANG Keye, ZHANG Huoyin, LUO Wenbo. (2019). The time course and influence factors of facial trustworthiness processing. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(8), 1394-1403

人类是一个高度社会化的物种, 而几乎所有的社会交往都依赖于信任。人们通过相互信任来促进合作与共赢, 从而促进自我成就与种族延续(Dzhelyova, Perrett, & Jentzsch, 2012)。一般来说, 人们对他人的信任判断来源于第一印象(King- Casas et al., 2005; Krueger et al., 2007), 或长期交往后的经验积累(Behrens, Hunt, Woolrich, & Rushworth, 2008; Delgado, Frank, & Phelps, 2005)。当人们在缺乏社交信息时, 通过第一印象来判断他人的可信度显得尤为重要。由于人脸表达了关于他人意图和情绪的大量信息, 因此人们常常基于他人的面部特征来判断其可信度, 即面孔可信度(facial trustworthiness) (Todorov, 2008; Todorov, Said, Engell, & Oosterhof, 2008)。

面孔可信度作为一个重要的可信度评估指标, 对人们的社会交往和社会判断都产生了很大的影响, 其在很大程度上决定了人们在社会交往中的趋避反应(Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008; Radke, Kalt, Wagels, & Derntl, 2018; Slepian, Young, & Harmon- Jones, 2017)。这种由面孔可信度促进的趋避反应可以帮助人们快速地对陌生环境做出反应。例如, 人们倾向于相信那些看起来面孔可信的陌生人, 并与之进行更多的合作与交流(Chang, Doll, van't Wout, Frank, & Sanfey, 2010; Duarte, Siegel, & Young, 2012; Rezlescu, Duchaine, Olivola, & Chater, 2012)。在经济决策时, 对可信面孔投资更多(Li, Liu, Pan, & Zhou, 2017; Zebrowitz, Ward, Boshyan, Gutchess, & Hadjikhani, 2017); 在预测社会选举时, 将可信面孔选为政治候选人的比例要大(Little, Burriss, Jones, & Roberts, 2007; Marzi, Righi, Ottonello, Cincotta, & Viggiano, 2014)。但对面孔可信度的判断有时候却形成一种无形的偏见, 危害到自己或他人的利益。比如, 在刑罚判决中被试更愿意判定不可信面孔的被告为有罪, 判定可信面孔的被告为无罪(Wilson & Rule, 2015, 2016)。

鉴于面孔可信度对人们社会交往活动产生的重要影响, 本文从面孔可信度加工的时间进程和发展性研究两个方面对其进行梳理。首先, 我们回顾了面孔可信度的行为研究和ERP研究, 说明了即使在无意识条件下也可以评估面孔可信度, 但其准确性会随着面孔呈现时间的增加逐渐提升。随后, 本文主要论述了面孔可信度的发展性研究, 以探讨和总结个体在生理和心理发展的过程中对面孔可信度评估的变化。最后, 本文探讨了面孔情绪和面孔性别等因素对面孔可信度评估的影响, 并提出进一步的可研究方向, 以对后续研究提供理论参考和思路启发。

1 面孔可信度加工的时间进程

1.1 行为研究

当面孔呈现时间从100 ms逐渐增加到500 ms时, 人们对面孔可信度评估的准确性也逐渐提高; 当面孔呈现时间从500 ms增加到1000 ms时, 人们对面孔可信度评估的准确性没有较大变化, 但是对评估后的自信度逐渐升高(Engell, Haxby, & Todorov, 2007; Todorov et al., 2009; Walker & Vetter, 2009; Willis & Todorov, 2006)。例如, Palomares和Young (2017)用最小曝光范式(minimal exposure paradigm)来考察人们对面孔可信度的第一印象。实验首先呈现不同曝光时间(33 ms、100 ms和500 ms)的面孔图片, 随后呈现与面孔图片具有相同整体颜色构成、亮度和空间频率内容的掩蔽刺激。当掩蔽刺激呈现时, 被试需要对之前呈现的面孔进行可信度评分, 评分后掩蔽刺激消失。研究结果显示, 随着面孔图片曝光时间的增加, 被试对面孔可信度评估的准确性会得到提高。在另一项根据呈现的面孔照片做出是否信任其他玩家的信任游戏(trust game, TG)中, 研究者通过操纵面孔图片的曝光时间发现, 当面孔呈现100 ms后, 人们可以对面孔的可信度进行准确的评估, 表现在对可信面孔更多的信任投资行为, 对不可信面孔更少的信任投资行为(de Neys, Hopfensitz, & Bonnefon, 2017)。此外, 在Willis和Todorov (2006)的研究中, 首先给被试呈现一张面孔图片, 呈现时间分别为100 ms、500 ms和1000 ms, 随后被试需要对面孔的可信度进行是或否的判断, 然后评估他们对可信度判断的自信程度。研究结果发现, 当面孔呈现100 ms时, 人们做出的可信度判断与无时间限制情况下的可信度判断高度相关; 当面孔呈现时间从100 ms增加到500 ms时, 人们对面孔可信度评估的准确性逐渐提高, 反应时间也更短, 对可信度判断的自信评分也越高; 当面孔呈现时间从500 ms增加到1000 ms时, 人们对面孔可信度评估的准确性和时间没有变化, 自信评分依然升高。这说明人们可以对呈现时间较少的面孔形成较为稳定的特质印象, 而额外的呈现时间只是增强了对这种印象的信心。

还有一些研究表明人们在阈下条件也可以对面孔进行可信度评估(Stewart et al., 2012; Todorov, Pakrashi, & Oosterhof, 2009)。Todorov等人(2009)使用阈下启动范式, 将不同可信度的面孔作为启动刺激呈现20 ms后, 要求被试忽略启动刺激, 并对随后呈现的中性面孔的可信度进行判断。结果显示参与者做出与启动刺激面孔可信度相一致的可信度评估, 即当启动刺激为可信面孔时, 参与者认为中等可信面孔是可信的, 当启动刺激为不可信面孔时, 参与者认为中等可信面孔是不可信的, 且不可信面孔对中性面孔的阈下启动效应更加显著, 这表明人们对面孔可信度的评估可以在阈下知觉水平发生, 并且对不可信面孔更加敏感。采用连续闪烁抑制范式(continuous flash suppression, CFS)的研究也发现了类似的结果。与可信面孔相比, 处于阈下知觉水平的不可信面孔可以更快地突破闪烁抑制, 进入人们的阈上知觉(Stewart et al., 2012; Abir, Sklar, Dotsch, Todorov, & Hassin, 2018)。Abir等人(2018)开发了一种数据驱动的计算方法来研究面孔知觉的决定因素, 其研究结果进一步证明了人们对面孔可信度的评估可以在阈下知觉水平发生, 并且对不可信面孔更加敏感。除此之外, 有研究发现人们也可以对处于阈下知觉的33 ms曝光时间的面孔图片进行可信度评估(de Neys, Hopfensitz, & Bonnefon, 2017; Freeman, Stolier, Ingbretsen, & Hehman, 2014; Palomares & Young, 2017; Vadim, Moshe, & Geraint, 2015)。然而在另一项信任游戏中, 当面孔呈现33 ms后, 被试对可信和不可信面孔的信任投资差异不显著, 表明他们无法检测面孔是否可信(de Neys, Hopfensitz, & Bonnefon, 2017)。这两项研究结果的不一致可能是由于实验任务的复杂程度不同所导致的。在前一项研究中, 被试只需要对面孔的可信度进行主观判断, 但是在后一项研究中, 被试需要做出较为复杂的信任投资行为。因此, 未来研究有必要考虑任务设置对阈下面孔可信度评估的影响。

以上研究结果表明, 当要求参与者对不同可信度的面孔进行可信度评估时(外显任务), 参与者可以对面孔的可信度做出准确的评估, 并且伴随着对可信面孔的信任行为, 对不可信面孔的不信任行为; 当要求参与者对中等可信度的面孔进行可信度评估, 而忽略作为启动刺激的可信或不可信面孔时(内隐任务), 不可信面孔对中性面孔的阈下启动效应更加显著。此外在CFS范式中, 与可信面孔相比, 处于阈下知觉水平的不可信面孔可以更快地突破闪烁抑制, 进入人们的阈上知觉。这说明人们对面孔可信度的评估不仅可以发生在阈上知觉, 也可以发生在阈下知觉。但33 ms的呈现时间是否足以让被试进行可信度评估尚存在争议, 因此需要未来进一步的研究。

1.2 事件相关电位研究

事件相关电位(event-related potentials, ERPs)具有高时间分辨率的特点, 使其在揭示认知的时间进程方面极具优势(Luck, 2014)。许多研究者通过该技术来研究面孔可信度认知加工的时间进程(Lischke, Junge, Hamm, & Weymar, 2018; Yang, Qi, Ding, & Song, 2011)。

人们对面孔可信度的加工发生在视觉阶段的早期。首先, 当面孔呈现50~90 ms之后出现C1成分, 并且相对于不可信面孔, 可信面孔诱发更大的波幅(Yang et al., 2011)。以往研究表明C1成分与面孔类型的加工有关(Pourtois, Grandjean, Sander, & Vuilleumier, 2004)。然而, 有研究表明人们对面孔可信度评估的主要依据是面孔结构性特征, 例如, 眉骨、脸颊颧骨、下巴形状和面孔宽高比。V型的眉毛和∩型的嘴巴被认为是不可信的, Λ型的眉毛和U型的嘴巴被认为是可信的(Stirrat & Perrett, 2010; Todorov, Baron, & Oosterhof, 2008)。另外, 人们是否能够对100 ms以内的面孔进行可信度判断的研究在行为结果中还存在分歧(De et al., 2017; Palomares & Young, 2017; Todorov et al., 2009)。所以, 可信面孔诱发的C1成分需要研究者们的进一步探讨。其次, 当面孔呈现时间为100~200 ms时, 有研究发现当面孔呈现100 ms左右时不可信面孔诱发了更大的P100成分(Marzi et al., 2014), 还有研究通过操纵面孔可信度水平的差异发现, 面孔可信度的比较加工在100 ms (N1)后就能被知觉到, 并且该效应会延续到刺激出现后的200 ms (N2)左右(Ohmann, Stahl, Mussweiler, & Kedia, 2016)。这些结果均表明, 在面孔呈现时间为100~200 ms时, 人们就可以快速地区分面孔的可信度, 并对不可信面孔更加敏感。再次, 作为与面孔结构编码相关的早期N170成分(Bentin, Allison, Puce, Perez, & McCarthy, 1996), 在面孔可信度评估的内隐加工中也作为相关观测指标。比如, Marzi等人(2014)在一项对不同可信度面孔进行政治候选人投票的研究中发现, 一致性的判断任务(对可信面孔投票, 对不可信面孔不投票)比不一致的判断任务(对可信面孔不投票, 对不可信面孔投票)诱发了更大的N170成分。研究者认为, 在复杂的政治性投票任务中, 被试可能需要对面孔分配更多的注意资源, 并进行更复杂的结构编码(Marzi et al., 2014)。最后, 当面孔呈现230~280 ms时, 不可信面孔诱发了更负的EPN (early posterior negativity)成分(Dzhelyova et al., 2012), EPN成分被认为与情绪以及刺激唤醒度有关(Martens, Leuthold, & Schweinberger, 2010; Schupp et al., 2004)。

人们对面孔可信度的加工也发生在视觉阶段的晚期。研究者们发现当面孔呈现时间在400~ 600 ms时, 不可信面孔诱发了更大的LPC (late positive component)成分。同时, 研究结果也发现, LPC可以预测被试对面孔的主观可信度评分, 当LPC的波幅越大时, 被试对面孔可信度的评分越低, 当LPC的波幅越小时, 被试对面孔可信度的评分越高(Lischke, Junge, Hamm, & Weymar, 2018; Yang, Qi, Ding, & Song, 2011)。LPC成分在以往研究中表明与动机引起的注意有关(Schupp et al., 2000; Schupp et al., 2004)。这可能说明在面孔可信度加工的后期, 人们对具有威胁性动机的不可信面孔分配了更多的注意资源, 并伴随有较低的可信度评分。

以上研究结果表明, 在视知觉加工的早期阶段, 成年早期和中期的人们就可以根据面孔特征来区分面孔的可信度。在视知觉加工的晚期阶段, 不可信面孔作为潜在的威胁信息吸引了更多的动机性注意资源, 从而得到优先加工。那么, 个体在生理和心理发展的早期阶段——婴幼儿期, 儿童期和青春期, 以及晚期阶段——成年晚期, 对面孔可信度的加工是如何发展和变化的呢?据此, 本文总结概述了面孔可信度加工的发展性研究。

2 面孔可信度加工的发展性研究

由于个体的社会经验伴随着个体的终生发展不断积累, 所以人们对面孔可信度加工的发展轨迹也引起了研究者的注意。进化论的观点认为, 对面孔可信度的判断能够帮助个体趋利避害, 而这种自我保护的机制应该在人类生命的早期就已具备并且伴随终生(Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby, 1992)。

2.1 行为研究

3岁以上的儿童就可以依据他人的行为表现和人格特质做出接近于成人的信任判断(Cogsdill, Todorov, Spelke, & Banaji, 2014; Lane, Wellman, & Gelman, 2013; Poulin-Dubois & Chow, 2009; 李庆功, 徐芬, 周小梅, 2012; 张兰萍, 周晖, 2009)。例如, 在一项对成人面孔进行可信度评估的3~5岁幼儿实验中, 研究者采用了两点法(可信与否)和迫选法(对偶选择)两种任务。结果发现, 在对偶选择的任务中, 幼儿从3岁开始就能够对不同可信度的面孔进行区分, 并且这种能力随着年龄的增长逐渐提高, 但在可信与否的任务中没有发现此现象。研究者对这一结果的解释是, 相比对偶选择任务, 可信与否的任务难度较大, 3岁幼儿无法完成较大难度的任务(马凤玲, 汤玉龙, 郑婷婷, 徐芬, 2014)。此外, 研究者们在对8~12岁的儿童面孔进行可信度评估的研究中发现, 相对于成人, 儿童对儿童面孔的可信度评分略低, 并且儿童对女童面孔的可信度评分略高于男童面孔(Li, Heyman, Mei, & Lee, 2017)。在较为复杂的TG中, 研究者发现, 5岁和10岁的儿童均对可信面孔有更多的投资偏好, 对不可信面孔有更少的投资偏好, 这一结果与成人在信任游戏中的投资现象相一致(Ewing, Caulfield, Read, & Rhodes, 2015)。

在对13~18岁的青少年进行了面孔可信度加工的研究中, 通过让青少年依据是否信任陌生人的面孔图片做出信任决策, 研究者发现, 随着年龄的增长, 青少年对不可信面孔的投资越来越少, 对可信面孔的投资越来越多(de Neys, Hopfensitz, & Bonnefon, 2015)。并且, 在对17~35岁的成年人的TG研究中发现, 人们除了对面孔可信度的判断更加准确外, 对不同可信度面孔的投资决策也更加稳定, 相对于不可信面孔, 人们对可信面孔有更多的投资偏好(Bailey et al., 2016; Ewing et al., 2015)。

然而, 相对于成年早期, 成年晚期的被试对不可信面孔的评分更趋近于中性面孔(Castle et al., 2012; Zebrowitz, Boshyan, Ward, Gutchess, & Hadjikhani, 2017; Zebrowitz, Franklin, Hillman, & Boc, 2013)。例如, Castle等人(2012)在一项7点评分任务的面孔可信度研究中发现, 相对于成年早期的被试(平均年龄为23.21岁), 成年晚期的被试(平均年龄为68.76岁)对不可信面孔的评分更接近于中性面孔。但是在对可信面孔的评估中, 两组被试的评分没有显著的差异。然而部分研究者对这一结果表示怀疑, 因为研究结果可能反映了不同年龄的被试对面孔图片的年龄和性别产生的差异反应, 而并非是对面孔可信度的差异反应。随后, Zebrowitz等人(2013)在研究中控制了面孔刺激的年龄和性别, 使用相似的7点评分任务探究成年晚期被试对面孔可信度的评估能力, 并得到了相似的结论。

综上所述, 儿童早期对面孔可信度的评估能力已经接近成人, 学前期对面孔可信度的评估则与成人基本相同。这种区分面孔可信度的能力不仅在简单的可信度评估实验中得到证实, 在较为复杂的TG研究中也被发现。这可能说明, 在个体发展的早期阶段人们就可以使用面部信息对不同可信度的面孔进行区分而不需要社会经验的积累(Cogsdill et al., 2014)。在青春期, 人们对面孔可信度评估的准确性逐渐提高, 在成年早期和成年中期则达到相对稳定的状态。有趣的是, 相对于成年期的前两个阶段, 成年晚期对不可信面孔的评价更为积极, 其评分更接近于中性面孔。研究者们认为产生这一结果的可能原因是较高的认知负荷增加了老年人对不可信面孔的信任程度(Zebrowitz et al., 2017)。

2.2 事件相关电位研究

婴儿对面孔可信度的评估可以发生在面孔呈现400~1000 ms之间。例如, 在7个月的时候, 婴儿就可以根据可信度来区分面孔。婴儿对可信面孔注视时间更长, 对不可信面孔注视时间更短。对面孔可信度的区分可以在枕叶区的P400中观察到(Jessen & Grossmann, 2016), 而以往研究表明, P400与面孔情绪加工和面孔可信度的评估过程有关, 反应了面孔的亲社会性(Gredebäck et al., 2015)。Jessen和Grossmann (2019)探索了婴儿期面孔可信度加工的神经机制, 在实验中先呈现50 ms的不同可信度面孔作为目标刺激, 后呈现混杂的面孔作为掩蔽刺激。研究发现当呈现不可信的目标面孔时, 婴儿的额顶叶诱发了更强的负走向慢波(negative slow wave)。

以上研究结果表明, 与成人相似, 婴儿可以对面孔的可信度进行快速有效地区分。具体表现为, 在视知觉加工的早期, 婴儿就可以有效地区分面孔的可信度; 在视知觉加工的晚期, 婴儿对不可信面孔更加敏感, 分配的认知资源也更多。此外, 面孔可信度ERP研究的被试大多是婴儿和成年人, 较少研究者探索青春期和成年晚期对面孔可信度加工的时间进程, 而这两个时期恰恰是个体生理和心理发展的重要转折期。未来可以对这两个阶段开展更为深入的研究。

3 面孔可信度研究中的影响因素

近几年, 对面孔可信度的研究越来越多, 研究方法也越来越成熟, 但面孔可信度研究中依然存在很多的额外因素对研究结果产生影响。例如:面孔情绪、面孔性别、面孔吸引力、注意分配以及种族等因素(Caulfield, Ewing, Burton, Avard, & Rhodes, 2014; Ma et al., 2015; Rule, Slepian, & Ambady, 2012; Treinen, Corneille, & Luypaert, 2012)。在此, 本文重点总结了对研究结果有重要影响的面孔情绪和面孔性别因素。

3.1 面孔情绪对面孔可信度加工的影响

面孔情绪会影响人们对面孔可信度的评估, 其中正性情绪面孔被认为是可信的, 负性情绪面孔被认为是不可信的(Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008; Todorov et al., 2008)。Caulfield, Ewing, Bank和Rhodes (2016)在5~10岁的儿童研究中, 通过让儿童评价具有不同可信度的中性面孔发现, 部分5岁的儿童认为负性情绪面孔结构的面孔是不可信的, 正性情绪面孔结构的面孔是可信的, 并且这一现象在所有的10岁儿童中趋于稳定。在6~12岁的儿童研究中也发现, 中性情绪面孔携带的微妙情绪线索可以影响儿童对面孔可信度的评估(Caulfield et al., 2014)。在可信度评估的成人研究中也发现了与Caulfield等人(2016)相似的结果(Dong, Li, & Sun, 2014; Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008; Todorov, 2008; Todorov et al., 2008)。例如, Todorov (2008)在可信度评估的研究中发现, 人们把可信度评分较高的面孔的情绪评价为正性, 把可信度评分较低的面孔的情绪评价为负性。另外, 在一项使用动态刺激范式(dynamic stimuli paradigm)研究面孔情绪和面孔可信度的关系中, 研究者使用三维面孔建模程序(该程序支持对任一面孔施加不同强度的情绪表达, 其表达强度可以从 0%到 100%)对不同可信度的面孔施加相等强度的正性情绪, 结果发现, 可信面孔比不可信面孔的愉悦度评分更高; 对不同可信度的面孔施加相等强度的负性情绪时, 不可信面孔比可信面孔的愉悦度评分更低(Oosterhof & Todorov, 2009)。之后, Engell, Todorov和Haxby (2010)使用行为适应范式(behavioral adaptation paradigm)先呈现四张相同情绪表情的不同面孔, 后呈现一张中性情绪面孔, 被试需要对中性情绪面孔的可信度进行9点评分(1为非常不可信, 9为非常可信)。研究结果发现, 当被试对正性情绪面孔产生适应后, 对之后呈现的中性情绪面孔的可信度评分越高; 当被试对负性情绪面孔产生适应后, 对之后呈现的中性情绪面孔的可信度评分越低。此外, Sprengelmeyer等人(2016)在一项对亨廷顿氏病(Huntington's disease)患者的研究中发现, 具有情绪识别障碍的亨廷顿氏病患者无法感知面孔的可信度。该研究从另一角度证明了情绪知觉对面孔可信度评估的影响。

3.2 面孔性别对面孔可信度加工的影响

面孔的性别差异影响人们对其面孔可信度的评估, 即女性面孔被认为是可信的, 男性面孔被认为是不可信的(Buckingham et al., 2006; Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008)。例如, Oosterhof和Todorov (2008)发现当中性面孔携带的男性性别特征越明显时, 被试认为该面孔越不可信。Carragher, Thomas和Nicholls (2018)在TG研究中发现, 相对于男性面孔, 被试对女性面孔的投资金额更大。这一结果说明了人们认为女性面孔比男性面孔更加可信。此外, 在一项面孔可信度的再认任务中, 研究者发现, 当只呈现不同可信度的性别面孔时, 被试对不可信面孔的再认效果优于可信面孔, 且没有显著的性别差异。而当呈现不同可信度的性别面孔并匹配不同可信度的行为时, 被试对匹配不可信行为的可信女性面孔的再认效果远胜于同等条件下的可信男性面孔(Rule et al., 2012)。这表明人们通常认为女性面孔比男性面孔的可信度更高, 并伴随有可信任的行为, 但当这种常识被违背时, 人们就会对这种隐藏的威胁信息更加敏感, 产生更高的警惕性(Suzuki & Suga, 2010)。同时, 面孔性别对面孔可信度评估的影响也体现在ERP成分中。例如, 可信的女性面孔和不可信的男性面孔均增强了个体右半球的N170波幅(Dzhelyova et al., 2012)。

3.3 面孔可信度加工的其他影响因素

人们对面孔可信度的评估还受到面孔吸引力、眼睛注视方向、种族等多因素的影响(Kaisler & Leder, 2016; Ma, Xu, & Luo, 2015; Sofer et al., 2017)。例如:当面孔吸引力越高时, 人们对其可信度的评分越高(Ma, Xu, & Luo, 2016)。此外, 眼睛注视的方向和头部的朝向也会影响人们对面孔可信度的评估。Kaisler和Leder (2016)通过对比不同注视方向的面孔发现, 人们对直视面孔的可信度评分更高。随后, 通过呈现不同角度的头部朝向(正面朝向, 3/4朝向, 侧面朝向), 研究者们发现正面朝向的面孔可信度更高(Kaisler & Leder, 2017)。种族因素也会对面孔可信度的评估产生影响。在日本和以色列的跨种族面孔研究中, 让被试对面孔的可信度进行评分。实验结果显示, 同文化背景下的典型面孔比其他文化背景下的典型面孔可信度评分更高(Sofer et al., 2017)。

以上研究结果表明, 人们对面孔可信度的评估受到多方面因素的影响, 这种影响不仅体现在行为反应上, 也能反映在电生理信号中。

4 小结与展望

在面孔可信度加工的早期阶段, 人们就可以对不同可信度的面孔进行快速的加工, 在面孔可信度加工的晚期阶段, 不可信面孔受到更多的认知加工。这种对面孔可信度的识别能力在儿童期就已具备, 且随着年龄的增长而不断增强。此外, 面孔情绪和面孔性别对面孔可信度的评估有着较大影响。人们认为正性情绪面孔是可信的, 负性情绪面孔是不可信的; 女性面孔是可信的, 男性面孔是不可信的。总体上, 研究者对面孔可信度的研究做了广泛而深入的探讨, 但尚有许多待解决的问题。

首先, 研究者们可以通过三维面孔模型对真实面孔图片的刺激特征(如, 面孔对称性)进行矫正, 然后对面孔的可信度进行人工评定后选出合适的面孔材料, 从而提高面孔可信度研究的信度和效度。由于面孔可信度评估带有强烈的主观色彩, 因此不同可信度的面孔刺激材料对实验结果、实验的重复可操作性以及相似实验之间的横向对比都起着举足轻重的作用。然而, 目前只有两种面孔材料来源。一种是对真实的面孔进行评分后, 筛选合适的面孔图片作为实验材料(Rule et al., 2012)。虽然真实的面孔材料具有较高的生态效度, 但其本身的一些刺激特征会影响人们对面孔可信度的评估结果, 如面孔的对称性。有研究发现, 人们对于对称程度不同的面孔刺激具有不同的吸引力评价, 具体表现为面孔越对称, 人们对其吸引力评分越高(Hatch, Wehby, Nidey, & Moreno Uribe, 2017)。而面孔吸引力越高, 人们对其可信度的评分就越高(Ma, Xu, & Luo, 2016; Ma, Xu, & Luo, 2015)。因此我们推测, 面孔对称性可能会影响个体对面孔可信度的评估, 未来研究也可以从这一角度进行更深入的探讨。另一种是基于Oosterhof和Todorov (2008)设计出的三维面孔建模程序(Facegen Modeller)所生成的不同可信度的面孔图片, 这也是近年来较多研究采用的面孔材料(Dzhelyova et al., 2012; Todorov, Said, Oosterhof, & Engell, 2011; Yang et al., 2011)。然而, 有研究发现这一标准模型生成的面孔携带情绪性信息, 其中不可信面孔携带负性情绪信息, 可信面孔携带正性情绪信息(Engell et al., 2010; Oosterhof & Todorov, 2009; Said, Sebe, & Todorov, 2009), 因此对面孔可信度的研究结果就可能受到面孔情绪的影响。所以, 这一标准模型虽然促进了面孔可信度研究的可重复性, 但也正是由于机械的标准模型导致了面孔的不真实性, 因此可能对其实验信度和生态效度产生影响。

其次, 对面孔可信度加工的发展性研究还缺乏充足的研究证据。虽然研究者对个体发展的婴儿期, 成年早期和成年中期都进行了大量的行为研究和ERP研究(Cogsdill et al., 2014; Dzhelyova et al., 2012; Marzi et al., 2014; Shore et al., 2017; South Palomares & Young, 2017), 但是对青春期和成年晚期的行为研究和ERP研究却相对较少。青春期是个体发展过程中生理和心理发展的重要转折期。青春期个体体内的激素含量升高, 例如睾酮素。有研究发现睾酮素增强了杏仁核对不可信面孔的反应(Bird et al., 2017; Bos, Hermans, Ramsey, & van Honk, 2012)。那么睾酮素含量的增加如何在面孔可信度加工的时间进程上影响个体对面孔可信度的评估?是在早期视觉加工阶段增加了对不可信面孔的面孔结构加工, 还是晚期阶段增强了对不可信面孔的动机性注意资源分配?较高睾酮素含量导致的对不可信面孔的强烈反应是否可以解释青春期的男性具有更强的警惕性和攻击性的特点?这些问题都还有待研究。此外, 已有研究表明成年晚期对不可信面孔的可信度评估比成年中期更积极, 评估更偏向于中等可信面孔(Zebrowitz et al., 2017)。但这种偏向是由于老年人逐渐下降的感知觉能力, 还是由于积累的社会经验所导致?老年人的这种偏好是否可以反应在电生理信号上?所以, 未来有必要继续完善这两个阶段的相关研究。

最后, 研究者们可以拓展社会环境或自然环境对面孔可信度影响的相关研究。在Hardin (2002)提出的信任模型中, 信任过程受到信任者、被信任者以及所处情境的影响。以往研究多将重点放在被信任者面孔的研究上, 而较少探讨社会环境或自然环境对面孔可信度的影响(Brambilla, Biella, & Freeman, 2018)。在Brambilla等人(2018)的鼠标追踪范式(mouse-tracking paradigm)中, 屏幕中央首先呈现不同可信度的面孔和不同危险程度的视觉场景的匹配图片, 被试需要判断面孔是否可信, 并通过挪动鼠标来单击屏幕左上角的按钮(可信的)或右上角的按钮(不可信的)进行反应。最后计算被试鼠标运行轨迹的最大垂直偏差(the maximum deviation, MD)和鼠标运行轨迹偏差的面积(the area under the curve, AUC)。研究结果发现, 当不可信面孔匹配危险场景时, 鼠标移动的MD和AUC值都最小; 当可信面孔匹配危险场景时, 鼠标移动的MD和AUC值都最大。这一研究结果表明, 视觉场景影响人们对面孔可信度的评估, 这也是今后亟需扩展的研究领域。

总之, 随着研究者的广泛研究和多种技术手段的利用, 我们期待运用更加科学严谨的方法深入探讨与面孔可信度加工相关的因素, 并进而探讨面孔可信度加工与现实生活中的决策行为的交互作用。

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Abstract

Recent efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying human cooperation have focused on the notion of trust, with research illustrating that both initial impressions and previous interactions impact the amount of trust people place in a partner. Less is known, however, about how these two types of information interact in iterated exchanges. The present study examined how implicit initial trustworthiness information interacts with experienced trustworthiness in a repeated Trust Game. Consistent with our hypotheses, these two factors reliably influence behavior both independently and synergistically, in terms of how much money players were willing to entrust to their partner and also in their post-game subjective ratings of trustworthiness. To further understand this interaction, we used Reinforcement Learning models to test several distinct processing hypotheses. These results suggest that trustworthiness is a belief about probability of reciprocation based initially on implicit judgments, and then dynamically updated based on experiences. This study provides a novel quantitative framework to conceptualize the notion of trustworthiness.

Cogsdill E. J., Todorov A. T., Spelke E. S., & Banaji M. R . (2014).

Inferring character from faces: A developmental study

Psychological Science,25(5), 1132-1139.

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de Neys W., Hopfensitz A., & Bonnefon J.-F . (2015).

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Journal of Economic Psychology,47 17-22.

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de Neys W., Hopfensitz A., & Bonnefon J-F . (2017).

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Experimental Psychology,64(4), 231-239.

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Nature Neuroscience,8(11), 1611-1618.

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Dong Y., Li Y. N., & Sun T. T . (2014).

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Duarte J., Siegel S., & Young L . (2012).

Trust and credit: The role of appearance in peer-to-peer lending

Review of Financial Studies,25(8), 2455-2483.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Although it is well known that appearance-based impressions affect labor market and election outcomes, little is known about the role appearance plays in financial transactions. We address this question using photographs of potential borrowers from a peer-to-peer lending site. Consistent with the trust-intensive nature of lending, we find that borrowers who appear more trustworthy have higher probabilities of having their loans funded. Moreover, borrowers who appear more trustworthy indeed have better credit scores and default less often. Overall, our findings suggest that impressions of trustworthiness matter in financial transactions as they predict investor, as well as borrower, behavior. A man I do not trust could not get money from me on all the bonds in Christendom. -John Pierpont Morgan, 1913.

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Engell A. D., Haxby J. V., & Todorov A . (2007).

Implicit trustworthiness decisions: Automatic coding of face properties in the human amygdala

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,19(9), 1508-1519.

[本文引用: 1]

Engell A. D., Todorov A., & Haxby J. V . (2010).

Common neural mechanisms for the evaluation of facial trustworthiness and emotional expressions as revealed by behavioral adaptation

Perception,39(7), 931-941.

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Ewing L., Caulfield F., Read A., & Rhodes G . (2015).

Perceived trustworthiness of faces drives trust behaviour in children

Developmental Science,18(2), 327-334.

[本文引用: 2]

Freeman J. B., Stolier R. M., Ingbretsen Z. A., & Hehman E. A . (2014).

Amygdala responsivity to high-level social information from unseen faces

Journal of Neuroscience,34(32), 10573-10581.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Previous research shows that the amygdala automatically responds to a face's trustworthiness when a face is clearly visible. However, it is unclear whether the amygdala could evaluate such high-level facial information without a face being consciously perceived. Using a backward masking paradigm, we demonstrate in two functional neuroimaging experiments that the human amygdala is sensitive to subliminal variation in facial trustworthiness. Regions in the amygdala tracked how untrustworthy a face appeared (i.e., negative-linear responses) as well as the overall strength of a face's trustworthiness signal (i.e., nonlinear responses), despite faces not being subjectively seen. This tracking was robust across blocked and event-related designs and both real and computer-generated faces. The findings demonstrate that the amygdala can be influenced by even high-level facial information before that information is consciously perceived, suggesting that the amygdala's processing of social cues in the absence of awareness may be more extensive than previously described.

Gredebäck G., Kaduk K., Bakker M., Gottwald J., Ekberg T., Elsner C., .. Kenward B . (2015).

The neuropsychology of infants' pro-social preferences

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience,12 106-113.

[本文引用: 1]

Hardin R. (2002).

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Russell Sage Foundation.

[本文引用: 1]

Hatch C. D., Wehby G. L., Nidey N. L., &Moreno Uribe L. M., .(2017).

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Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery,75(9), 1958-1970.

[本文引用: 1]

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Neural and behavioral evidence for infants' sensitivity to the trustworthiness of faces

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,28(11), 1728-1736.

[本文引用: 1]

Jessen S. &Grossmann T., (2019).

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Neuropsychologia,126(18), 46-53.

[本文引用: 1]

Kaisler R.., &Leder H., (2016).

Trusting the looks of others: Gaze effects of faces in social settings

Perception,45(8), 875-892.

[本文引用: 2]

Kaisler R.., &Leder H., (2017).

Combined effects of gaze and orientation of faces on person judgments in social situations

Frontiers in Psychology,8(155), 259.

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King-Casas B., Tomlin D., Anen C., Camerer C. F., Quartz S. R., & Montague P. R . (2005).

Getting to know you: Reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange

Science,308(5718), 78-83.

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Krueger F., McCabe K., Moll J., Kriegeskorte N., Zahn R., Strenziok M., .. Grafman J . (2007).

Neural correlates of trust

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,104(50), 20084-20089.

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Lane J. D., Wellman H. M., & Gelman S. A . (2013).

Informants' traits weigh heavily in young children's trust in testimony and in their epistemic inferences

Child Development,84(4), 1253-1268.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

This study examined how informants' traits affect how children seek information, trust testimony, and make inferences about informants' knowledge. Eighty-one 3- to 6-year-olds and 26 adults completed tasks where they requested and endorsed information provided by one of two informants with conflicting traits (e.g., honesty vs. dishonesty). Participants also completed tasks where they simultaneously considered informants' traits and visual access to information when inferring their knowledge and trusting their testimony. Children and adults preferred to ask and endorse information provided by people who are nice, smart, and honest. Moreover, these traits influenced the knowledge that young children attributed to informants. Children younger than 5 years of age reported that people with positive traits were knowledgeable even when they lacked access to relevant information.

Li Q., Heyman G. D., Mei J., & Lee K . (2017).

Judging a book by its cover: Children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers predicts their real-world trustworthiness and peer relationships

Child Development.

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The interactive effect of facial appearance and behavior statement on trust belief and trust behavior

Personality and Individual Differences,117 60-65.

[本文引用: 2]

Lischke A., Junge M., Hamm A. O., & Weymar M . (2018).

Enhanced processing of untrustworthiness in natural faces with neutral expressions

Emotion,18(2), 181-189.

[本文引用: 2]

Little A. C., Burriss R. P., Jones B. C., & Roberts S. C . (2007).

Facial appearance affects voting decisions

Evolution and Human Behavior,28(1), 18-27.

[本文引用: 1]

Ma F. L., Xu F., & Luo X. M . (2015).

Children's and adult's judgments of facial trustworthiness: The relationship to facial attractiveness

Perceptual and Motor Skills,121(1), 179-198.

[本文引用: 3]

Ma F., Xu F., & Luo X . (2016).

Children's facial trustworthiness judgments: Agreement and relationship with facial attractiveness

Frontiers in Psychology,77499.

[本文引用: 2]

Martens U., Leuthold H., & Schweinberger S. R . (2010).

On the temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis: Inferences from event-related brain potentials

Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience,10(4), 505-522.

[本文引用: 1]

Marzi T., Righi S., Ottonello S., Cincotta M., & Viggiano M. P . (2014).

Trust at first sight: Evidence from ERPs

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience,9(1), 63-72.

Magsci     [本文引用: 4]

We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to tap the temporal dynamics of first impressions based on face appearance. Participants were asked to evaluate briefly presented faces for trustworthiness and political choice. Behaviorally, participants were better at discriminating faces that were pre-rated as untrustworthy. The ERP results showed that the P100 component was enhanced for untrustworthy faces, consistently with the view that signals of potential threat are given precedence in neural processing. The enhanced ERP responses to untrustworthy faces persisted throughout the processing sequence and the amplitude of early posterior negativity (EPN), and subsequent late positive potential (LPP) was increased with respect to trustworthy faces which, in contrast, elicited an enhanced positivity around 150 ms on frontal sites. These ERP patterns were found specifically for the trustworthiness evaluation and not for the political decision task. Political decision yielded an increase in the N170 amplitude, reflecting a more demanding and taxing structural encoding. Similar ERP responses, as previously reported in the literature for facial expressions processing, were found throughout the entire time course specifically elicited by faces explicitly judged as untrustworthy. One possibility might be that evolution has provided the brain with a 'special toolkit' for trust evaluation that is fast and triggers ERPs related to emotional processing.

Ohmann K., Stahl J., Mussweiler T., & Kedia G . (2016).

Immediate relativity: EEG reveals early engagement of comparison in social information processing

Journal of Experimental Psychology-General,145(11), 1512-1529.

[本文引用: 1]

Oosterhof N.., &Todorov A., (2008).

The functional basis of face evaluation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,105(32), 11087-11092.

[本文引用: 4]

Oosterhof N.., &Todorov A., (2009).

Shared perceptual basis of emotional expressions and trustworthiness impressions from faces

Emotion,9(1), 128-133.

Poulin-Dubois D. &Chow V., (2009).

The effect of a looker's past reliability on infants' reasoning about beliefs

Developmental Psychology,45(6), 1576-1582.

[本文引用: 2]

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Cerebral Cortex,14(6), 619-633.

[本文引用: 2]

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Implicit and explicit motivational tendencies to faces varying in trustworthiness and dominance in men

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience,12 1-10.

[本文引用: 1]

Rezlescu C., Duchaine B., Olivola C. Y., & Chater N . (2012).

Unfakeable facial configurations affect strategic choices in trust games with or without information about past behavior

PloS One,7(3), e34293.

[本文引用: 1]

Rule N. O., Slepian M. L., & Ambady N . (2012).

A memory advantage for untrustworthy faces

Cognition,125(2), 207-218.

Magsci     [本文引用: 3]

Inferences of others' social traits from their faces can influence how we think and behave towards them, but little is known about how perceptions of people's traits may affect downstream cognitions, such as memory. Here we explored the relationship between targets' perceived social traits and how well they were remembered following a single brief perception, focusing primarily on inferences of trustworthiness. In Study 1, participants encoded high-consensus trustworthy and untrustworthy faces, showing significantly better memory for the latter group. Study 2 compared memory for faces rated high and low on a series of traits (dominance, facial maturity, likeability, and trustworthiness), and found that untrustworthy and unlikeable faces were remembered best, with no differences for the other traits. Finally, Study 3 compared information about trustworthiness from facial appearance and from behavioral descriptions. Untrustworthy targets were remembered better than trustworthy targets both from behavior and faces, though the effects were significantly stronger for the latter. Faces perceived as untrustworthy therefore appear to be remembered better than faces perceived as trustworthy. Consistent with ecological theories of perception, cues to trustworthiness from facial appearance may thus guide who is remembered and who is forgotten at first impression. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Said C. P., Sebe N., & Todorov A . (2009).

Structural resemblance to emotional expressions predicts evaluation of emotionally neutral faces

Emotion,9(2), 260-264.

[本文引用: 1]

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Affective picture processing: The late positive potential is modulated by motivational relevance

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[本文引用: 1]

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Brain processes in emotional perception: Motivated attention

Cognition & Emotion,18(5), 593-611.

[本文引用: 2]

Schupp H. T., Öhman A., Junghöfer M., Weike A. I., Stockburger J., & Hamm A. O . (2004).

The facilitated processing of threatening faces: An ERP analysis

Emotion,4(2), 189-200.

Shore D. M., Ng R., Bellugi U., & Mills D. L . (2017).

Abnormalities in early visual processes are linked to hypersociability and atypical evaluation of facial trustworthiness: An ERP study with Williams syndrome

Cognitive Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience,17(5), 1002-1017.

[本文引用: 1]

Slepian M. L., Young S. G., & Harmon-Jones E . (2017).

An approach-avoidance motivational model of trustworthiness judgments

Motivation Science,3(1), 91-97.

[本文引用: 1]

Sofer C., Dotsch R., Oikawa M., Oikawa H., Wigboldus D. H. J., & Todorov A . (2017).

For your local eyes only: Culture-specific face typicality influences perceptions of trustworthiness

Perception,46(8), 914-928.

[本文引用: 2]

SouthPalomares J.K., &Young A.W . (2017).

Facial first impressions of partner preference traits: Trustworthiness, status, and attractiveness

Social Psychological and Personality Science,9(8), 990-1000.

[本文引用: 2]

Sprengelmeyer R., Young A. W., Baldas E-M., Ratheiser I., Sutherland C. A. M., Müller H. P., .. Orth M . (2016).

The neuropsychology of first impressions: Evidence from Huntington's disease

Cortex,85 100-115.

[本文引用: 1]

Stewart L. H., Ajina S., Getov S., Bahrami B., Todorov A., & Rees G . (2012).

Unconscious evaluation of faces on social dimensions

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,141(4), 715-727.

[本文引用: 2]

Stirrat M.., &Perrett D.I . (2010).

Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust

Psychological Science,21(3), 349-354.

[本文引用: 1]

Suzuki A. &Suga S., (2010).

Enhanced memory for the wolf in sheep's clothing: Facial trustworthiness modulates face-trait associative memory

Cognition,117(2), 224-229.

[本文引用: 1]

Todorov A. (2008).

Evaluating faces on trustworthiness: An extension of systems for recognition of emotions signaling approach/avoidance behaviors

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1124(1), 208-224.

[本文引用: 1]

Todorov A., Baron S. G., & Oosterhof N. N . (2008).

Evaluating face trustworthiness: A model based approach

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience,3(2), 119-127.

[本文引用: 5]

Todorov A., Pakrashi M., & Oosterhof N. N . (2009).

Evaluating faces on trustworthiness after minimal time exposure

Social Cognition,27(6), 813-833.

[本文引用: 6]

Todorov A., Said C. P., Engell A. D., & Oosterhof N. N . (2008).

Understanding evaluation of faces on social dimensions

Trends in Cognitive Sciences,12(12), 455-460.

Magsci     [本文引用: 3]

People reliably and automatically make personality inferences from facial appearance despite little evidence for their accuracy. Although such inferences are highly inter-correlated, research has traditionally focused on studying specific traits such as trustworthiness. We advocate an alternative, data-driven approach to identify and model the structure of face evaluation. Initial findings indicate that specific trait inferences can be represented within a 2D space defined by valence/trustworthiness and power/dominance evaluation of faces. Inferences along these dimensions are based on similarity to expressions signaling approach or avoidance behavior and features signaling physical strength, respectively, indicating that trait inferences from faces originate in functionally adaptive mechanisms. We conclude with a discussion of the potential role of the amygdala in face evaluation.

Todorov A., Said C. P., Oosterhof N. N., & Engell A. D . (2011).

Task-invariant brain responses to the social value of faces

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,23(10), 2766-2781.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

In two fMRI experiments (n = 44) using tasks with different demands-approach-avoidance versus one-back recognition decisions-we measured the responses to the social value of faces. The face stimuli were produced by a parametric model of face evaluation that reduces multiple social evaluations to two orthogonal dimensions of valence and power [Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. The functional basis of face evaluation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U. S. A., 105, 11087-11092, 2008]. Independent of the task, the response within regions of the occipital, fusiform, and lateral prefrontal cortices was sensitive to the valence dimension, with larger responses to low-valence faces. Additionally, there were extensive quadratic responses in the fusiform gyri and dorsal amygdala, with larger responses to faces at the extremes of the face valence continuum than faces in the middle. In all these regions, participants 'avoidance decisions correlated with brain responses, with faces more likely to be avoided evoking stronger responses. The findings suggest that both explicit and implicit face evaluation engage multiple brain regions involved in attention, affect, and decision making.

Treinen E., Corneille O., & Luypaert G . (2012).

L-eye to me: The combined role of need for cognition and facial trustworthiness in mimetic desires

Cognition,122(2), 247-251.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Recent studies showed that stimuli are evaluated more favourably when they are perceived to capture others' attention, an effect coined "mimetic desire". The aim of the present research was to examine the combined role of Need for Cognition and target's facial trustworthiness in this effect. Participants saw movie excerpts of trustworthy and untrustworthy 3D faces (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008) turning their attention towards one art painting and away from another art painting. Results showed that looked-at paintings were preferred to looked-away paintings when associated with a trustworthy face. However, the reversed finding was observed for paintings associated with untrustworthy faces. The latter interaction was in turn moderated by participant's Need for Cognition, with a larger reversal effect for participants scoring lower on the NFC scale. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vadim A., Moshe B., & Geraint R . (2015).

Exploring the unconscious using faces

Trends in Cognitive Sciences,19(1), 35-45.

[本文引用: 1]

Walker M. &Vetter T., (2009).

Portraits made to measure: Manipulating social judgments about individuals with a statistical face model

Journal of Vision,9(11), 1-13.

[本文引用: 1]

Willis J. &Todorov A., (2006).

First impressions: Making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face

Psychological Science,17(7), 592-598.

[本文引用: 2]

Wilson J.., &Rule N.O . (2015).

Facial trustworthiness predicts extreme criminal-sentencing outcomes

Psychological Science,26(8), 1325-1331.

[本文引用: 1]

Wilson J.., &Rule N.O . (2016).

Hypothetical sentencing decisions are associated with actual capital punishment outcomes: The role of facial trustworthiness

Social Psychological and Personality Science,7(4), 331-338.

[本文引用: 1]

Yang D., Qi S. Q., Ding C., & Song Y . (2011).

An ERP study on the time course of facial trustworthiness appraisal

Neuroscience Letters,496(3), 147-151.

[本文引用: 4]

Zebrowitz L. A., Boshyan J., Ward N., Gutchess A., & Hadjikhani N . (2017).

The older adult positivity effect in evaluations of trustworthiness: Emotion regulation or cognitive capacity?

Plos One,12(1), 1-17.

[本文引用: 5]

Zebrowitz L. A., Franklin Jr R. G., Hillman S., & Boc H . (2013).

Older and younger adults' first impressions from faces: Similar in agreement but different in positivity

Psychology and aging,28(1), 202-212.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

People readily form first impressions from faces, with consensual judgments that have significant social consequences. Similar impressions are shown by children, young adults (YA), and people from diverse cultures. However, this is the first study to systematically investigate older adults' (OA) impressions. OA and YA showed similar levels of within-age agreement in their impressions of competence, health, hostility, and trustworthiness. Both groups also showed stronger within- than between-age agreement. Consistent with other evidence for age-related increases in positivity, OA showed more positive impressions of the health, hostility, and trustworthiness of faces. These effects tended to be strongest for the most negatively valenced faces, suggesting that they derive from OA lesser processing of negative cues rather than greater processing of positive cues. An own-age bias in impressions was limited to greater OA positivity in impressions of the hostility of older faces, but not younger ones. Although OA and YA differed in vision and executive function, only OA slower processing speed contributed to age differences in impression positivity. Positivity effects in OA have not been previously linked to processing speed, and research investigating possible explanations for this effect would be worthwhile.

Zebrowitz L. A., Ward N., Boshyan J., Gutchess A., & Hadjikhani N . (2017).

Older adults’ neural activation in the reward circuit is sensitive to face trustworthiness

Cognitive,Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18(51), 21-34.

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