心理科学进展, 2019, 27(8): 1344-1353 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01344

研究构想

儿童期逆境与基因对男性服刑人员攻击性的影响

张洁婷1, 张境锋1, 高楷东2, 文超2, 崔汉卿2, 刘金婷,1

1 深圳大学心理与社会学院, 深圳 518060

2 广东省深圳监狱, 深圳 518118

The effect of childhood adversity and genetic factors on male prisoners’ aggression

ZHANG Jieting1, ZHANG Jingfeng1, GAO Kaidong2, WEN Chao2, CUI Hanqing2, LIU Jingting,1

1 College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China

2 Shenzhen Prison, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518118, China

通讯作者: 刘金婷, E-mail: aislingljt@szu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2019-01-31   网络出版日期: 2019-07-26

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  31700982,31600928
广东省哲学社会科学“十三五”规划项目.  GD17YXL01
深圳市教育科学“十三五”规划招标课题.  zdzz16004

Received: 2019-01-31   Online: 2019-07-26

摘要

暴力再犯危险性评估是当今再犯危险性评估工作中的重点, 其中, 攻击性是服刑人员暴力再犯行为稳定的个体因素。对攻击性进行研究, 有助于预防和降低服刑人员在假释或出狱后的暴力再犯行为风险, 关系社会的长治久安。研究表明, 遭受儿童期逆境和携带易感基因(如MAOA-uVNTR低活性等位基因)是导致攻击行为的重要因素。但在现有的研究中, 儿童期逆境的计分方式局限于简单的线性加总, 或所依据的统计模型忽略逆境各维度之间的交互作用和非线性关系; 在服刑人员攻击性的评估中未考虑攻击性的亚类, 而且多使用自报告的量表测评, 这些问题制约了评估的有效预测力。本研究拟通过建立潜在类别模型, 分析男性服刑人员和普通成年人群在儿童期逆境上的亚类; 以实验与问卷测量结果、司法行为记录作为攻击性指标, 揭示儿童期逆境如何影响个体的主动性攻击、反应性攻击及暴力犯罪行为, 重点探讨儿童期逆境潜在类别对主动性攻击和反应性攻击的影响, 以及MAOA-uVNTR、COMT Val158Met、5-HTTLPR基因多态性在其中的调节作用。研究结果有助于找出高攻击性个体的生物遗传指标, 从而发现受儿童期逆境经历影响的易感人群, 为暴力行为的风险预测以及针对暴力攻击行为的行为矫正和相关药物设计提供理论和实证参考, 提高相关工作的效率。

关键词: 儿童期逆境 ; 基因 ; 攻击性 ; 潜在类别分析

Abstract

The risk assessment of violent recidivism is especially important for the evaluation of risk among prisoners. As aggression is a stable factor of prisoners’ violent recidivism, investigating their aggressive behavior can prevent and reduce risk of violent recidivism after parole or release, and contribute to social security and stable development. Studies have shown that aggressive behavior is influenced by childhood adversities and genetic susceptibility (such as MAOA-uVNTR low activity allele). However, most of the studies only focus on linear association, neglecting the interaction between factors and non-linear relationships. Moreover, the assessment of prisoners’ aggression ignored the subtypes of aggression, and was often conducted by questionnaires. These problems constrain effective prediction of aggression. In the current study, latent class model is applied to identify the classification of childhood adversities among male prisoners and ordinary adults. Using an experiment paradigm and questionnaires, as well as behavioral data as aggressive indicators, we further analyze the relationship between childhood adversity and aggression, and the moderation by MAOA-uVNTR, COMT Val158Met, and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. The findings would help identifying the genetic indicators of highly aggressive individuals and detect susceptible individuals affected by childhood adverse experiences. Moreover, they provide theoretical and empirical reference for predicting violent behavior and building related intervention through training or medication.

Keywords: childhood adversity ; gene ; aggression ; latent class analysis

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本文引用格式

张洁婷, 张境锋, 高楷东, 文超, 崔汉卿, 刘金婷. (2019). 儿童期逆境与基因对男性服刑人员攻击性的影响 . 心理科学进展, 27(8), 1344-1353

ZHANG Jieting, ZHANG Jingfeng, GAO Kaidong, WEN Chao, CUI Hanqing, LIU Jingting. (2019). The effect of childhood adversity and genetic factors on male prisoners’ aggression. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(8), 1344-1353

1 引言

攻击性(Aggression)是指个体进行攻击行为的内部心理特征(叶茂林, 2003), 也有学者将攻击性看作是攻击行为, 即有目的、有意图地伤害或试图伤害另一个体的心理或身体状况, 或破坏其他目标(物体或社会规范)的行为(Crick & Grotpeter, 1995)。暴力行为是指运用暴力手段或者以暴力相威胁, 给他人造成危害后果或者损害危险的攻击行为(张明楷, 2011), 是攻击行为的极端形式。暴力犯罪行为是指以实施暴力行为为基本特征的犯罪行为, 如伤害、杀人、抢劫等犯罪行为(张维, 2014)。攻击行为、暴力行为、暴力犯罪行为均可反映个体的攻击性。暴力攻击行为在人类社会中是一种复杂的社会行为, 它是许多精神疾病的共同特征, 属于严重的社会适应不良。在文明大背景下, 各种暴力事件依然频频见诸报端, 引起了极为广泛的社会关注。如2018年10月, 山东省平度市发生的非法聚集事件, 一些有违法犯罪前科人员实施暴力袭警、打砸车辆等严重违法犯罪行为, 造成严重的人身伤害和重大的经济损失, 对社会公共秩序造成重大危害。可见, 探讨个体的暴力攻击行为成因有助于预防类似的暴力事件的发生, 具有重要的社会经济意义。

个体的攻击性成因可分为环境因素和遗传因素。儿童期逆境是攻击性的重要环境成因。大量研究表明童年期遭受虐待的个体会存在较高的攻击行为(Connor, Steingard, Cunningham, Melloni, & Anderson, 2004; 李宝花 等, 2010)。另一方面, 分子遗传学研究显示, MAOACOMT5-HTT基因与暴力攻击行为的发生发展具有密切的联系(Singh, Volavka, Czobor, & van Dorn, 2012; Ficks & Waldman, 2014)。近年来, 越来越多的研究关注基因与环境(G×E)对攻击行为的交互作用(Byrd & Manuck, 2014; Tielbeek et al., 2016)。然而, 这些研究还存在如下不足:(1)儿童期逆境包含虐待、忽视和家庭功能不良等类型, 不同类型的逆境可能会对攻击行为产生不同影响。但是已有的研究通常仅对各类儿童期逆境的分数或数量进行简单的加总(崔乃雪 等, 2013; Auslander, Sterzing, Threlfall, Gerke, & Edmond, 2016), 从而忽略了儿童期逆境的质性差异, 掩盖了个体在各类逆境经历的叠加组合特点; (2)按照攻击实施者的情绪唤醒程度和攻击的诱因, 可将攻击分为主动性攻击和反应性攻击。这些攻击类型与其影响机制及其行为结果有密切的关系, 但目前未得到大部分研究的关注; (3)攻击行为属于不被社会赞许的行为, 先前研究中大多采用自报告的问卷法来测量个体的攻击性, 这可能难以避免个体的作答掩饰性(孙连荣, 杨治良, 2010)。鉴于此, 本研究拟采用探索性的潜在类别分析对男性服刑人员和普通成年人群的儿童期逆境进行研究, 揭示服刑人员和普通成年人群儿童期逆境的异质性; 并选取MAOA- uVNTR、COMT Val158Met、5-HTTLPR基因多态性, 结合实验法、问卷法和行为指标, 考察上述基因多态性与儿童期逆境对主动性攻击、反应性攻击及暴力犯罪行为的影响。

2 国内外研究现状述评

2.1 儿童期逆境和基因对攻击性的影响

儿童期逆境(Adverse Childhood Experiences, ACE)是18岁以前所遭受的健康、生存、发育、心理或生理方面的实际或潜在的各种损害统称(Felitti et al., 1998)。研究表明影响个体产生暴力攻击行为的儿童期逆境经历包括:虐待(Lansford et al., 2007; Ford, Fraleigh, & Connor, 2009; Shackman & Pollak, 2014)、忽视(van Wert, Mishna, Trocme, & Fallon, 2017; 李宝花 等, 2010)和家庭功能不良(Sternberg, Lamb, Guterman, & Abbott, 2006; Connor et al., 2004; Raine et al., 2006)。个体经历的儿童期逆境越多, 其攻击行为也越频繁(崔乃雪 等, 2013; Auslander et al., 2016)。

在遗传因素上, 前人的综述和元分析的研究总结了影响攻击性的三种重要的候选基因:MAOA (Monoamine Oxidase A, 单胺氧化酶A)、COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase, 儿茶酚氧位甲基转移酶)和5-HTT (serotonin transporter, 五羟色胺转运体)。其中, 低活性MAOA-uVNTR等位基因(以下简称MAOA基因)与攻击(Veroude et al., 2016)、暴力犯罪(Tiihonen et al., 2015; Stetler et al., 2014)以及反社会行为(Ficks & Waldman, 2014)相关。COMT Val158Met多态性的低活性Met等位基因与暴力攻击行为存在关联(王永柏, 王嘉凯, 刚清伟, 刘婧一, 王静, 2014; Singh et al., 2012; 王美萍, 张文新, 2010)。5-HTTLPR多态性 的S等位基因与攻击性和反社会行为存在正相关(Vassos, Collier, & Fazel, 2014; Ficks & Waldman, 2014)。然而, 也有一些中国样本的研究未发现MAOA低活性等位基因(聂爱婷, 2017)、COMT Val158Met (黄雄等, 2010)和5-HTTLPR (曹玉萍, 李龙飞, 赵幸福, 张亚林, 2011)与暴力攻击行为的显著关系。王永柏等(2014)的元分析发现, COMTVal158Met多态性与亚洲人群精神分裂症患者暴力行为存在关联, 而在欧美人群则无明显的相关性。因此, 这些研究结果的差异提示, 来自欧美国家的研究结论可能无法直接适用于中国人群, 因此有必要开展中国样本的研究。此外, 矛盾的研究结果可能源于各个样本的环境因素的系统性差异, 基因和攻击行为的关联可能只在某种环境中存在, 因此有必要研究环境与基因对攻击行为的交互作用。

2.2 儿童期逆境和基因对攻击性的交互作用

近年, 研究发现基因与环境(G×E)在攻击性上存在交互作用(Weeland, Overbeek, de Castro, & Matthys, 2015), 尤其是MAOA基因与童年期虐待在攻击或反社会行为(包含攻击、暴力、违法犯罪行为、品行障碍等)存在交互影响(Buades-Rotger & Gallardo-Pujol, 2014; 刘立敏, 田相娟, 张文新, 王美萍, 2017)。Caspi等人(2002)在长达26年的追踪研究中发现, MAOA基因的主效应不显著, 而MAOA基因与童年期虐待的交互作用显著:在经历童年期虐待的条件下, 携带 MAOA低活性等位基因的男性个体, 相较于携带高活性等位基因的个体在成年时更可能表现出反社会行为甚至犯罪行为。此后, 许多研究也重复了该结论(Reti et al., 2011; Frazzetto et al., 2007), 并得到元分析的验证(Byrd & Manuck, 2014)。但也有少部分研究未发现MAOA基因与儿童逆境的G×E交互作用(Reif et al., 2007)。甚至有研究(Tikkanen et al., 2010)得出相反的结果:经历童年期虐待的男性中, 携带高活性MAOA等位基因的个体比携带低活性MAOA等位基因的个体更可能发生暴力犯罪。对于COMT Val158Met基因多态性, 研究发现, 在经历童年压力事件、忽视、性虐待的个体中, Val/Val基因型或Val等位基因携带者表现出更高的攻击性(Hygen et al., 2015; Perroud et al., 2010), 产生暴力行为的概率更高(Andersson, 2014)。然而, Wagner等人(2010)发现在女性边缘型人格障碍患者Val/Val基因型携带者中, 儿童期性虐待、严重生活事件累积与较低的冲动性攻击有关。Tuvblad等人(2016)也发现当遭受家庭暴力, 但同时体验到积极的亲子关系时, Val/Val基因型携带者的躯体攻击更低。此外, Met等位基因携带者在父母离婚或较低的积极教养行为下表现出更高的攻击性(Zhang, Cao, Wang, Ji, & Cao, 2016; Nederhof, Belsky, Ormel, & Oldehinkel, 2012)。总的来说, 这些研究提示COMT Val158Met基因多态性与儿童期逆境相互作用影响个体的攻击性, 但未能明确哪种基因型更容易受到环境的影响。此外, 研究还发现, 携带5-HTTLPR基因多态性S等位基因的男性在遭受高逆境或性虐待后更容易出现暴力攻击行为(Reif et al., 2007; 张芸, 明庆森, 姚树桥, 陈旺盛, 2012)。元分析的结果显示, 5-HTTLPR基因多态性与儿童期逆境对反社会行为(包含暴力攻击行为)存在交互作用, 但未说明哪种等位基因的攻击行为风险更高(Tielbeek et al., 2016)。

2.3 对现有研究的反思

2.3.1 区分攻击和儿童逆境类型的必要性

根据攻击实施者的情绪唤醒程度和攻击的诱因, 有研究者进一步将攻击分为主动性攻击和反应性攻击(Dodge & Coie, 1987; Wrangham, 2018)。主动性攻击以社会学习理论为基础, 是指个体在未受挑衅的情况下所实施的故意的、有目的的攻击行为; 反应性攻击则以挫折理论为基础, 是指个体面对挑衅或挫折时愤怒的防御性反应(Dodge & Coie, 1987)。实证研究表明, 主动性攻击者和反应性攻击者在社会认知、行为、情绪、人格、家庭、同伴关系等方面都存在明显的差异(Fite, Raine, Stouthamer-Loeber, Loeber, & Pardini, 2010; Dodge & Coie, 1987; 周广东, 冯丽姝, 2014; 曹丛, 王美萍, 张文新, 陈光辉, 2012)。如, 在社会认知方面, 主动性攻击与个体对攻击结果的积极期待有关(Xu & Zhang, 2008), 而反应性攻击与敌意归因偏差有关(Dodge & Coie, 1987); 在同伴关系方面, 主动性攻击个体的同伴地位较高, 具有领导力和幽默感(Dodge & Coie, 1987; Price & Dodge, 1989), 而反应性攻击个体的同伴地位较低, 容易在同伴交往中受到伤害(Xu & Zhang, 2008)。区分两类攻击对法律裁定、不良行为模式的预测、预防和干预有着重要的意义(Ramírez, 2010)。

不同的儿童期逆境类型对两类攻击的影响也有所不同。总体上看, 个体的反应性攻击与虐待经历有关, 如躯体虐待(Dodge, Lochman, Harnish, Bates, & Pettit, 1997; Kolla et al., 2013; Ford et al., 2009)和性虐待(Connor et al., 2004)。而主动性攻击与家庭功能不良有关, 如父母物质滥用(Connor, et al., 2004; Raine et al., 2006)、家庭暴力(Connor, et al., 2004)与父母离异(Raine et al., 2006)。然而, 许多研究只关注逆境数量对攻击性的影响, 对各类逆境作简单的加总而忽略逆境类型(崔乃雪等, 2013; Auslander et al., 2016), 这种简单的加总或求均方法掩盖了个体在各类逆境经历的叠加组合特点。也有研究只分析各类逆境对攻击性的主效应, 忽略逆境之间的交互作用(Connor, et al., 2004; 李宝花等, 2010)。研究逆境的典型组合能更具体地探讨各类逆境如何交互影响两种攻击类型。

2.3.2 G×E交互作用的分析方法探讨

如上所述, 在探讨逆境与攻击性的关系时, 需要考虑逆境的类型及其交互作用。若要进一步探讨基因对二者之间的调节作用, 则会产生更高阶的交互作用, 也会使统计分析变得十分繁琐且计算困难。因此, 许多研究通常将逆境作为单维的变量以探讨其与基因的交互作用, 但这样会大大减少统计模型可解释的变异。在本研究中, 若要探讨儿童逆境的10个维度与基因的交互作用, 则需探讨1024 (210)种有无逆境经历的组合与各基因的交互, 这大大增加了计算量和统计检验次数, 从而削弱了统计功效(Lanza & Rhoades, 2013; Merz & Roesch, 2011)。可见, 有必要引入新的方法来处理儿童期逆境各类型及其与基因繁杂的交互作用。

潜在类别分析(latent class analysis, LCA; 张洁婷, 焦璨, 张敏强, 2010)可以由少数互斥的潜在类别来解释各外显变量之间的关联, 从而简化外显变量之间繁杂的交互作用(Lanza & Rhoades, 2013)。在实际研究中, 并非每种组合都有实质性意义, 因此有必要先通过LCA基于逆境经历对个体分成若干种逆境类型, 以更好地解释个体在各种逆境上的质性差异(Marsh, Lüdtke, Trautwein, & Morin, 2009), 并简化其与基因的交互作用。此外, 相比于传统的聚类分析, LCA有更客观的类别数目的选择指标, 并且能估计分类误差, 有助于后续分析统计模型的准确性(张洁婷, 张敏强, 黎光明, 2017)。目前, 已有研究将儿童期虐待经历进行潜在类别分析, 并探讨各类别在犯罪行为的差异。例如, 在男性青少年或成年罪犯中, 情感躯体虐待类、多重侵害类的再犯和暴力发生率高于无或低虐待类(Aebi et al., 2015; Debowska & Boduszek, 2017)。Zhang和Zheng (2018)在中国罪犯人群有类似的结果, 并发现了高忽视类逆境, 该类个体的A型人格障碍症状比低虐待类更严重, 但其再犯和暴力发生率低于情感躯体虐待类。这再次说明, 儿童逆境经历对个体行为的影响存在类型和质性的差异, 不能对各类逆境的分数或数量进行简单的加总, 否则会掩盖各类逆境的影响特点。此外, 这些LCA实证研究并未考虑家庭功能不良这一影响攻击性的重要因素, 也未对攻击性的类型予以区分。因此, 需要进一步完善分类指标和细化因变量指标。

2.3.3 攻击性测量方法的探讨

先前的研究大多采用自报告的量表法来测量攻击性(如Kolla et al., 2013; Connor et al., 2004)。该方法实证效度存在不足, 而且具有较高的作答掩饰性(孙连荣, 杨治良, 2010)。仅有少数研究采用竞争反应时任务和辣椒酱范式探讨基因与反应性攻击的关系(McDermott, Tingley, Cowden, Frazzetto, & Johnson, 2009; Kuepper, Grant, Wielpuetz, & Hennig, 2013)。其中, 改编后的竞争反应时任务还可有效测量主动性攻击(范磊, 2017)。这些实验范式更贴近真实场景, 更容易诱发反应性攻击行为(如愤怒表达或敌意报复)和主动性攻击行为(恐吓、控制、危险举动) (孙连荣, 杨治良, 2010)。目前尚未见研究采用实验范式探讨儿童期逆境与基因对攻击性的交互影响。此外, 采用司法行为数据作为攻击性的指标, 具有重要的理论意义和现实意义。研究显示, 躯体虐待、情感虐待和性虐待是暴力犯罪的风险因素(Brewer-Smyth, Cornelius, & Pickelsimer, 2015; 王丽芳 等, 2014)。儿童期虐待可能会通过影响个体的反应性攻击, 进而导致其暴力犯罪。司法记录作为重要的行为指标具有较高的生态效度, 有利于对攻击行为进行交叉验证, 进一步找出暴力犯罪的影响因素, 为预防暴力犯罪提供重要的实证依据。

3 研究构想

本研究将探索不同儿童期逆境类型与基因对攻击性和暴力犯罪行为的影响与交互作用, 研究目标分为三点:(1)分析男性服刑人员和普通人群在儿童期逆境上的共同和不同潜在类型; (2)探讨不同儿童期逆境类型对主动性攻击和反应性攻击的影响, 以及基因在影响路径中所起的调节作用; (3)验证儿童期逆境类型与基因对暴力犯罪行为的影响。

3.1 研究一:男性服刑人员和普通人群儿童期逆境的潜在类别分析

研究一拟采用潜在类别分析对男性服刑人员和普通人群的儿童期逆境进行分类。在广东省内选取普通成年男性1000人和某监狱新入监的成年男性服刑人员600人作为被试, 采用问卷调查的形式测量两个群体的儿童期逆境。普通成年男性采样1000人是为了保证研究二的每一种逆境类型均能达到50人以上, 如果普通人群仍有某一种逆境类型少于50人, 那么我们将继续扩大普通成年男性的样本量。基于儿童期逆境的十个维度的得分建立多组潜在类别模型。儿童期逆境的潜在类别分析实证研究在两个群体中均发现低虐待、高情感躯体虐待、高忽视、性虐待、多重侵害型等亚类, 且服刑人员群体在遭受严重逆境类型的比例更高(Debowska, Willmott, Boduszek, & Jones, 2017)。此外, 家庭功能不良会影响主动性攻击, 因此, 本研究将在逆境分类中纳入家庭功能不良。综上, 我们提出如下假设:

假设1:本研究中, 男性服刑人员和普通成年人群的儿童期逆境均可能存在不同的亚类, 例如低虐待、高忽视、多重侵害型等潜在类型; 相比普通成年人群, 服刑人员群体遭受严重逆境类型的比例更高。

3.2 研究二:儿童期逆境类型与基因对攻击性的影响

研究二在研究一的分类基础上, 考察儿童期逆境潜在类型和基因对攻击性的影响。首先, 由被试填写主动性攻击和反应性攻击问卷(Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, RPQ,Raine et al., 2006)以及人口统计学问卷, 同时抽取其血液样本, 对MAOA-uVNTR、COMT Val158Met、5-HTTLPR基因多态性进行分型。鉴于前人的研究中发现服刑人员群体的攻击性水平显著高于普通人群(张洁婷 等, 2019; 李娟, 2008), 数据很可能存在混合分布, 因此将两个水平不一的样本放在一起进行分析(如方差分析、回归分析)时, 很可能违反正态分布的前提假设(张敏强, 2010)。因此, 本研究将分别在服刑人员和普通成人群体两个群体中检验基因多态性与儿童期逆境对两类攻击的主效应与交互效应。然后, 通过行为实验, 进一步验证该主效应和交互效应。在行为实验中, 抽取每种儿童期逆境类型的被试50名, 选用改编的竞争反应时任务测量主动性攻击和反应性攻击。在主动性攻击实验中, 被试要与另一位伪对手(被试不知情)随机配对完成听觉反应时竞赛, 获胜方将得到金钱奖励。在竞赛中, 其中一名参与者(干扰者)会拥有特权, 可以在反应竞速阶段干扰对方, 且自己不会受到对方的任何干扰; 而另一方(被干扰者)没有干扰的特权, 且会受到对方的干扰。在竞赛开始前, 参与者会被随机分配角色。干扰者在每轮反应竞速前需要为被干扰者选择干扰的等级, 然后进行反应竞速, 任务过程中不给予参与者任何反馈。实际上, 所有被试均会被分配为干扰者的角色。通过被试在高、低金钱奖励的条件下所选择的噪音等级作为指标考察其主动性攻击(范磊, 2017)。在反应性攻击的实验中, 被试与另两位伪对手进行反应时竞速比赛, 每一轮只会出现一个对手。要求双方在看到规定的信号出来的时候, 立即按键。每次比赛中按键速度较慢者将接受速度较快者的噪音惩罚。在每轮比赛前, 事先让被试和对手选择本轮的噪音惩罚等级。事实上, 实验中游戏的输赢比率、顺序及对手选择的噪音强度均由研究者在实验程序中预先设定好。通过被试在高、低两个不同挑衅程度下所选择的噪音等级作为指标考察其反应性攻击(Krämer, Jansma, Tempelmann, & Münte, 2007)。

不少研究证实虐待经历与个体的反应性攻击有关, 而家庭功能不良与个体的主动性攻击有关(Dodge et al., 1997; Kolla et al., 2013; Connor et al., 2004; Raine et al., 2006), 且携带MAOA低活性等位基因或5-HTTLPR多态性S等位基因的个体在儿童期遭受虐待后表现出更高的攻击性(Byrd & Manuck, 2014; Hygen et al., 2015; Tielbeek et al., 2016)。鉴于COMT Val158Met多态性与儿童期逆境交互作用的矛盾结果, 本研究在此作为探索, 不作假设。基于前人的研究结果, 本文提出如下假设:

假设2:儿童期逆境经历对攻击性有正向预测作用, 并且存在逆境类型上的差异。

假设3:基因多态性在儿童期逆境类型对攻击性的影响中起调节作用。

3.3 研究三:儿童期逆境类型与基因对暴力犯罪行为的影响

研究三在前两项研究的基础上, 借助司法记录, 采用犯罪及其类型作为攻击性客观的行为结果指标。将普通人群编码为0, 非暴力型罪犯编码为1, 暴力型罪犯编码为2, 建立多项式Logistic回归模型, 检验儿童期逆境潜在类型与基因对犯罪行为的主效应与交互效应。先前的研究显示有逆境经历的个体更容易产生暴力犯罪行为(Debowska & Boduszek, 2017; Zhang & Zheng, 2018), 且大多数研究发现携带MAOA低活性等位基因或5-HTTLPR多态性S等位基因的个体在儿童期遭受虐待后更容易产生暴力犯罪行为(Byrd & Manuck, 2014; Reif et al., 2007)。基于此, 本文提出如下假设:

假设4:儿童期逆境经历对暴力犯罪行为有正向预测作用, 并且存在逆境类型上的差异。

假设5:基因多态性在儿童期逆境类型对暴力犯罪行为的影响中起调节作用。

4 理论建构与创新

半个多世纪以来, 研究者提出了许多不同的理论来解释攻击的来源。反应性攻击的理论基础是挫折攻击理论(Dollard, Miller, Doob, Mowrer, & Sears, 1939), 其核心观点是, 挫折增加了个体做出愤怒和攻击性反应的可能性, 攻击是对所感知到的挫折、威胁或挑衅产生的愤怒或防御性反应; 而个体最终是否做出攻击行为也依赖于他对事件的理解以及个人对挫折的反应方式(Berkowitz, 1989)。在遭受父母冷漠或虐待的生长环境下, 个体倾向于注意情境中的负性信息(Pollak & Tolley-Schell, 2003; Shackman & Pollak, 2014), 遗漏相关的社会性线索, 从而产生敌意归因偏差(Dodge, 2006), 更容易产生反应性攻击(Dodge & Coie, 1987; Vitaro, Brendgen, & Baker, 2006)。主动性攻击的理论基础是社会学习理论(Bandura, 1973), 其核心观点是, 攻击可以通过操作性条件反射或榜样的替代性学习的方式习得, 是一种受预期结果控制的工具性行为。诱发攻击的因素是对行为结果的积极预期, 主动性攻击的个体通常预期实施攻击后可实现自己的目的或愿望, 而不是惩罚。个体的攻击行为是一种习得的社会行为, 是个体从父母榜样行为、家庭环境等途径不断观察到攻击行为而习得的。

现阶段, 越来越多的研究表明, 个体的攻击性不仅仅由环境因素决定, 而是由环境因素与基因相互作用的结果。基于素质-压力模型(Rosenthal, 1963; Bleuler, 1966), 携带某种“风险”或者“易感”基因的个体更加容易受到不良环境因素的影响而产生心理或行为问题, 即问题行为的产生是由个体的风险素质和消极环境经历共同作用的结果。在儿童期遭受过虐待或其他家庭功能不良的群体中, 若携带这类“易感”基因, 则更可能表现出攻击行为。攻击行为是一种复杂的社会行为, 遗传与环境因素以何种方式影响个体的攻击性是一项重要的论题。本文整合社会学习理论、挫折攻击理论、素质-压力模型以及主动性和反应性攻击的影响因素, 探讨儿童期逆境类型和基因对两类攻击的影响机制, 构建出理论框架(图1)。

图1

图1   本研究的理论构建框架

注:实线表示基于前人研究结果对该关系提出的假设; 虚线表示该关系未被前人研究所发现, 故本研究对此提出探索性的假设。


第一, 儿童期逆境类型主要为虐待型(躯体虐待、情感虐待、性虐待)的个体, 若其携带低活性等位基因, 其反应性攻击水平比较高。前人的研究发现儿童期虐待与个体的反应性攻击相关, 与主动性攻击无关(Dodge et al., 1997; Kolla et al., 2013)。那么, 携带风险基因的个体在遭受儿童期虐待后, 更加容易产生敌意归因偏差, 在成人后更容易由于挫折而产生攻击行为, 其反应性攻击的水平可能也会更高。第二, 儿童期逆境类型主要为家庭功能不良类型(家庭暴力、家庭成员物质滥用、父母离异、家庭成员有精神异常或有犯罪记录)的个体, 若其携带低活性等位基因, 其主动性攻击水平较高。前人的研究发现主动性攻击的影响因素更多来自于家庭因素, 如父母物质滥用(Connor et al., 2004; Raine et al., 2006)、家庭暴力(Connor et al., 2014)与父母离异(Raine et al., 2006), 这说明家庭在个体的成长发展中起到了一定的“榜样”作用, 个体发展受到了家庭环境的影响。携带风险基因的个体在受不良的家庭环境影响后, 可能会表现出更高的主动性攻击行为。

总而言之, 本研究将攻击性的生物遗传因素和环境因素整合到同一个理论框架中, 并借助问卷调查、行为实验、客观的行为指标来探讨和验证基因与儿童期逆境的类型分别对两种攻击性的影响, 以期获得不同类型攻击性的逆境成因与遗传学上的易感人群。验证本研究的理论构想, 将有助于从不同角度揭示两类攻击的形成机制。在理论意义上, 本研究为基因与环境的交互作用对服刑人员攻击性的预测提供实证支持, 为将来的攻击行为理论研究提供交叉学科的新视角。在方法上, 本研究结合了新近的统计模型, 为攻击性的预测提供更有效的计算模型。在实践价值上, 本研究旨在找出高攻击性个体的生物遗传指标, 从而发现有儿童期逆境经历的易感人群, 为暴力行为的风险预测以及针对暴力攻击行为的行为矫正和相关药物设计提供理论和实证参考, 提高相关工作的效率, 具有重要的社会经济意义。

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Background: In a seminal study of gene-environment interaction, childhood maltreatment predicted antisocial behavior more strongly in male subjects carrying an MAOA promoter variant of lesser, compared with higher, transcriptional efficiency. Many further investigations have been reported, including studies of other early environmental exposures and female subjects. Here, we report a meta-analysis of studies testing the interaction of MAOA genotype and childhood adversities on antisocial outcomes in predominantly nonclinical samples.
Methods: Included were 27 peer-reviewed, English-language studies published through August, 2012, that contained indicators of maltreatment or other family (e. g., parenting, sociodemographic) hardships; MAOA genotype; indices of aggressive and antisocial behavior; and statistical test of genotype-environment interaction. Studies of forensic and exclusively clinical samples, clinical cohorts lacking proportionally matched control subjects, or outcomes nonspecific for antisocial behavior were excluded. The Liptak-Stouffer weighted Z-test for meta-analysis was implemented to maximize study inclusion and calculated separately for male and female cohorts.
Results: Across 20 male cohorts, early adversity presaged antisocial outcomes more strongly for low-activity, relative to high-activity, MAOA genotype (p = .0044). Stratified analyses showed the interaction specific to maltreatment (p = .00000082) and robust to several sensitivity analyses. Across 11 female cohorts, MAOA did not interact with combined early life adversities, whereas maltreatment alone predicted antisocial behaviors preferentially, but weakly, in female subjects of high-activity MAOA genotype (p = .02).
Conclusions: We found common regulatory variation in MAOA to moderate effects of childhood maltreatment on male antisocial behaviors, confirming a sentinel finding in research on gene-environment interaction. An analogous, but less consistent, finding in female subjects warrants further investigation.

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Abstract

Aggressive behavior is a basic form of human social interaction, yet little is known about its neural substrates. We used a laboratory task to investigate the neural correlates of reactive aggression using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The task is disguised as a reaction-time competition between the subject and two opponents and entitles the winner to punish the loser. It seeks to elicit aggression by provocation of the subject. As each single trial in this task is separated into a decision phase, during which the severity of the prospective punishment of the opponent is set, and an outcome phase, during which the actual punishment is applied or received, the paradigm enables us to analyze the neural events during each of these phases. Specific neural responses in areas related to negative affect, cognitive control and reward processing provide additional information about the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying reactive aggressive behavior and afford us with the possibility to test and expand theories on aggression such as the General Aggression Model.

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The overall goal of this study is to introduce latent class analysis (LCA) as an alternative approach to latent subgroup analysis. Traditionally, subgroup analysis aims to determine whether individuals respond differently to a treatment based on one or more measured characteristics. LCA provides a way to identify a small set of underlying subgroups characterized by multiple dimensions which could, in turn, be used to examine differential treatment effects. This approach can help to address methodological challenges that arise in subgroup analysis, including a high Type I error rate, low statistical power, and limitations in examining higher-order interactions. An empirical example draws on N = 1,900 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Six characteristics (household poverty, single-parent status, peer cigarette use, peer alcohol use, neighborhood unemployment, and neighborhood poverty) are used to identify five latent subgroups: Low Risk, Peer Risk, Economic Risk, Household & Peer Risk, and Multi-Contextual Risk. Two approaches for examining differential treatment effects are demonstrated using a simulated outcome: 1) a classify-analyze approach and, 2) a model-based approach based on a reparameterization of the LCA with covariates model. Such approaches can facilitate targeting future intervention resources to subgroups that promise to show the maximum treatment response.

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Interactions among the dimensions of the Five Factor Model (FFM) have not typically been evaluated in mental health research, with the extant literature focusing on bivariate relationships with psychological constructs of interest. This study used latent profile analysis to mimic higher-order interactions to identify homogenous personality profiles using the FFM, and also examined relationships between resultant profiles and affect, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and coping efficacy. Participants (N = 371) completed self-report and daily diary questionnaires. A 3-profile solution provided the best fit to the data; the profiles were characterized as well-adjusted, reserved, and excitable. The well-adjusted group reported better psychological functioning in validation analyses. The reserved and excitable groups differed on anxiety, with the excitable group reporting generally higher anxiety than the reserved group. Latent profile analysis may be a parsimonious way to model personality heterogeneity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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The effects of divorce on children's behavioral development have proven to be quite varied across studies, and most developmental and family scholars today appreciate the great heterogeneity in divorce effects. Thus, this inquiry sought to determine whether select dopaminergic genes previously associated with externalizing behavior and/or found to moderate diverse environmental effects (dopamine receptors D2 and D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) might moderate divorce effects on adolescent self-reported externalizing problems; and, if so, whether evidence of gene environment (G x E) interaction would prove consistent with diathesis stress or differential-susceptibility models of environmental action. Data from the first and third wave of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1,134) revealed some evidence of G x E interaction reflecting diathesis stress but not differential susceptibility. It is intriguing that some evidence pointed to "vantage sensitivity," which are benefits accruing to those with a specific genotype when their parents remained together, the exact opposite of diathesis stress. The limits of this work are considered, especially with regard to the conditions for testing differential susceptibility, and future directions are outlined.

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Objective: Preclinical and human family studies clearly link monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) to aggression and antisocial personality (ASP). The 30 base pair variable number tandem repeat in the MAOA promoter regulates MAOA levels, but its effects on ASP in humans are unclear.
Methods: We evaluated the association of the variable number tandem repeat of the MAOA promoter with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ASP disorder (ASPD) traits in a community sample of 435 participants from the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorders Study.
Results: We did not find an association between the activity of the MAOA allele and ASPD traits; however, among whites, when subjects with a history of childhood physical abuse were excluded, the remaining subjects with low-activity alleles had ASPD trait counts that were 41% greater than those with high-activity alleles (P < .05).
Conclusion: The high-activity MAOA allele is protective against ASP among whites with no history of physical abuse, lending support to a link between MAOA expression and antisocial behavior. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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A large number of candidate gene studies for aggression and violence have been conducted. Successful identification of associations between genetic markers and aggression would contribute to understanding the neurobiology of antisocial behavior and potentially provide useful tools for risk prediction and therapeutic targets for high-risk groups of patients and offenders. We systematically reviewed the literature and assessed the evidence on genetic association studies of aggression and related outcomes in order to provide a field synopsis. We searched PubMed and Huge Navigator databases and sought additional data through reviewing reference lists and correspondence with investigators. Genetic association studies were included if outcome data on aggression or violent behavior either as a binary outcome or as a quantitative trait were provided. From 1331 potentially relevant investigations, 185 studies constituting 277 independent associations on 31 genes fulfilled the predetermined selection criteria. Data from variants investigated in three or more samples were combined in meta-analyses and potential sources of heterogeneity were investigated using subgroup analyses. In the primary analyses, which used relaxed inclusion criteria, we found no association between any polymorphism analyzed and aggression at the 5% level of significance. Subgroup analyses, including by severity of outcome, age group, characteristics of the sample and ethnicity, did not demonstrate any consistent findings. Current evidence does not support the use of such genes to predict dangerousness or as markers for therapeutic interventions.

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