心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 737-747 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00737

研究前沿

善因营销对消费者态度的影响及其理论解释

骆紫薇1,2, 吕林祥,2

1暨南大学企业发展研究所

2暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632

The influence of cause-related marketing on consumers' attitude and its theoretical explanation

LUO Ziwei1,2, LÜ Linxiang,2

1 The Institute of Enterprise Development

2 School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

通讯作者: 吕林祥, E-mail: lvlinxiang@126.com

收稿日期: 2018-05-10   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金青年项目.  71602072
教育部人文社会科学研究项目.  14YJC630094
广东省普通高校人文社会科学重点研究基地暨南大学企业发展研究所2015年度创新培育项目.  2015CP06
广东省普通高校人文社会科学重点研究基地暨南大学企业发展研究所经费资助

Received: 2018-05-10   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

善因营销是一种传播企业社会责任, 提升品牌形象的策略。当企业与善因事件结合时, 消费者可以获得参与慈善的机会。归因理论、SOR理论、自我信号理论、平衡理论可用于解释善因营销对消费者态度的影响。未来研究应进一步探讨在善因营销中是否存在其他影响消费者态度的因素, 从消费者角度深入研究善因营销的影响效果, 尝试从新的理论视角去分析善因营销影响消费者态度的内在机制。

关键词: 善因营销 ; 消费者态度 ; 企业社会责任

Abstract

Cause-related marketing is an important strategy to combine the fulfillment of corporate social responsibility with the improvement of brand image. If a company engage in cause-related activities, the consumers of the company will have the opportunities to participate in philanthropic events when consumption. Base on the current state of knowledge regarding the domain of cause-related marketing, we found that attribution theory, stimulus-organism-response (SOR) theory, self-signaling theory, and balance theory can be used to explain the effects and mechanisms of cause-related marketing on consumer attitude. Future research should further explore new independent variables from the perspective of cause-related marketing that affects consumer attitude, the effect of cause-related marketing from consumer perspective, and even new mechanisms that underlying cause-related marketing effect on consumers' attitude.

Keywords: cause-related marketing ; consumer attitude ; corporate social responsibility

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本文引用格式

骆紫薇, 吕林祥. (2019). 善因营销对消费者态度的影响及其理论解释. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 737-747

LUO Ziwei, LÜ Linxiang. (2019). The influence of cause-related marketing on consumers' attitude and its theoretical explanation. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 737-747

1 引言

2016年8月, 阿里集团利用支付宝平台发起了一款名为“蚂蚁森林”的善因营销(cause-related marketing)活动。在该活动中消费者可以养育一棵虚拟的树, 如果消费者使用支付宝进行在线支付行为如缴纳水电费、购买电影票等, 就可以生成养树所需要的绿色能量。在这棵虚拟的树长大之后, 阿里集团将联合阿拉善SEE基金会, 在现实中种下一棵实体的树, 以保护当地的生态环境。据蚂蚁森林公布的最新数据显示, 截至2017年底, 蚂蚁森林的用户已达到2.8亿, 一共减排205万吨, 累计种植真树1314万棵, 守护保护地12111亩。由中国社会科学院发布的《慈善蓝皮书:中国慈善发展报告(2016)》显示:2016年, 国有企业100强中, 84%的国有企业积极推动下属企业参与或开展公益活动, 20家企业建立了企业公益基金/基金会。对于企业而言, 善因营销已经变成一种越来越受欢迎的增加商业价值的策略(Guerreiro, Rita, & Trigueiros, 2016)。从消费者的角度来看, 在善因营销中他们的消费决策能够满足自尊, 自我满意和荣誉的需要, 对自己和社会都有益处(Kim & Johnson, 2013)。

善因营销带给企业、消费者、社会的积极影响使得它成为了一种受欢迎且有价值的营销工具。随着善因营销策略的成熟, 关于善因营销的学术研究获得了很大的进展, 研究也主要从消费者和企业两个视角进行(Lafferty, Lueth, & Mccafferty, 2016)。Koschate-Fischer, Stefan和Hoyer (2012)认为善因营销将企业对善因事件的捐赠与产品的销售结合在一起, 其成功与否取决于消费者态度。近年来, 善因营销与消费者态度关系的研究日益受到学术界的关注, 一些学者运用社会心理学的相关理论, 如归因理论(Mohr, Webb, & Harris, 2001; Pharr & Lough, 2012; Youn & Kim, 2018)、SOR理论(Guerreiro, Rita, & Trigueiros, 2015; Andrews, Luo, Fang, & Aspara, 2014)、自我信号理论(Savary, Goldsmith, & Dhar, 2015; Hanks, Line, & Mattila, 2016)、平衡理论(Basil & Herr, 2006)对善因营销影响消费者态度的内在机制进行阐述。

从消费者角度出发, 研究善因营销影响消费者态度的理论成果为善因营销的学术研究做出了重要的贡献, 但同时也增加了善因营销相关知识的复杂性。消费者态度最终是由消费者自身加工形成的, 所以在善因营销影响消费者态度的研究领域, 最重要的是要研究消费者态度产生的心理机制。但目前善因营销已有的文献综述(如Guerreiro et al., 2016; Lafferty et al., 2016), 并没有重视从理论层面去分析善因营销影响消费者态度的内在机制。因此为了解决上述问题, 系统地呈现出研究现状, 本文聚焦于善因营销对消费者态度的影响, 构建善因营销影响消费者态度的理论解释框架, 对影响效应背后的有关理论解释进行梳理整合, 并在此基础上提出研究展望, 以供未来研究参考。

2 善因营销对消费者态度的影响

2.1 善因营销中消费者态度的影响因素

善因营销是企业制定和实施营销活动的过程, 其特点是当顾客为满足个人或组织目标参与产品交换时, 企业将其产品销售收益中一定数目或比例的金额捐赠给特定的非营利性组织, 以用于支持相关公益事业的过程(Varadarajan & Menon, 1988)。善因营销是一种将慈善和促销相结合的企业活动, 它的真实目的是为了增强企业的社会效益(如企业的声誉等)或经济效益(如企业的利润水平等)。但在实行善因营销的同时也增进了社会福利。另外, 在善因营销活动中购买善因相关的产品也能够给消费者提供“改变世界”的感觉, 这可以为消费者创造和增加价值(Porter & Kramer, 2011)。

本文将善因营销中消费者态度的影响因素分为五个方面: 企业自身(比如Lafferty, 2007; Moosmayer & Fuljahn, 2013; He, Zhu, Gouran, & Kolo, 2016)、善因事件(比如Hou, Du, & Li, 2008; Vanhamme, Lindgreen, Reast, & Popering, 2012)、企业与善因事件的契合度(比如Rifon, Choi, Trimble, & Li, 2004; Huertas-García, Lengler, & Consolación-Segura, 2017)、产品特点(比如Guerreiro et al., 2015; 江若尘, 郑玲, 2017)、消费者特征(比如Bester & Jere, 2012; Kerra & Das, 2013)。

2.1.1 企业自身

企业作为善因营销活动的发起者和实施者, 在善因营销活动中起着重要的作用。企业自身的特点会影响到消费者的态度。具体来说, 在善因营销中, 企业自身原有的形象、声誉等会对消费者态度产生重要的影响, 如Lafferty (2007)研究发现消费者感知到的企业声誉会影响善因营销活动, 感知企业可靠性积极影响消费者的态度。企业的社会责任行为会影响消费者的满意度从而影响消费者的购买倾向, 但这种机制会受到企业能力的正向影响(Luo & Bhattacharya, 2006)。He等人(2016)也发现已有的品牌社会责任形象会正向影响消费者对善因营销产品的购买意愿。另外, 在善因营销中消费者感知企业动机的不同也会影响消费者的态度。消费者感知企业利他动机会正向地影响消费者的品牌选择和产品评价(Barone, Miyazaki, & Taylor, 2000; Moosmayer & Fuljahn, 2013)。然而, 如果消费者对企业的善因营销活动归因于自我服务动机(如增加利润或公司声誉), 他们可能会对企业产生不信任和负面的态度(Rifon et al., 2004)。

2.1.2 善因事件

善因营销的特点是消费者在进行日常消费的同时也能够参与到善因事件当中。善因事件可提供给消费者自我满足及产生积极情绪的感觉(Andrew et al., 2014)。由于善因事件是消费者参与善因营销活动的重要原因之一, 同时善因事件可以带给消费者积极的情绪体验, 因此在善因营销活动中善因事件的不同会对消费者态度产生重要影响。在善因营销已有的学术研究中, 有学者指出, 善因事件的重要性会积极影响消费者的购买意愿, 感知善因事件重要性的提高会导致购买意愿的提高(Hou et al., 2008)。Vanhamme等人(2012)发现善因事件的紧急性会影响消费者的认同。另外, 善因事件的远近也会影响到消费者的态度。如果善因事件是当地的, 尽管消费者有低的善因参与度, 也会提高消费者对善因营销的积极态度(Grau & Folse, 2007)。

2.1.3 企业与善因事件的契合度

品牌与善因事件联合的目的是为了将消费者支持善因事件时产生的积极情绪转移给品牌(Grohmann & Bodur, 2015)。企业、善因事件、消费者是善因营销活动中的重要主体, 各个主体之间的协调配合会对善因营销效果产生重要的影响。在善因营销活动中, 消费者的态度会受到企业与善因事件契合度的影响, 通常来说, 企业与善因事件的契合度对消费者的态度有积极影响。如Rifon等人(2004)表明企业与善因事件契合度会积极影响消费者对赞助企业的信任和态度。Barone, Norman和Miyazaki (2007)也发现企业与善因事件契合度可以积极影响善因营销的效果。品牌与善因事件的契合度包含5个维度, 即口号契合、任务契合、目标契合、促销契合、地理位置契合(Zdravkovic, Magnusson, & Stanley, 2010; Huertas- García et al., 2017), 这些维度与消费者对品牌的态度显著相关(Zdravkovic et al., 2010)。在研究善因营销广告时, Huertas-García等人(2017)也进一步发现了口号契合和地理位置契合会积极影响消费者的购买意愿。具体而言, 品牌宣传口号与善因事件之间的关联程度, 品牌所在地理位置与善因事件所在地理位置之间的匹配程度都会积极影响消费者对善因广告的情感反应, 从而影响消费者的购买意愿。

2.1.4 产品特点

善因营销往往是企业根据消费者购买或使用产品的行为, 对善因事件进行捐赠和资助。在善因营销活动中, 产品也是消费者关注的重要方面, 产品的特点会影响到善因营销中消费者的态度。相较于实用型产品, 与善因营销相关的享乐型产品, 会更容易引起消费者的情感, 进而提高消费者的选择(Guerreiro et al., 2015)。Barone等人(2000)指出在企业产品与其他竞争产品价格相差不大的情况下, 企业若是实施善因营销活动可以增强自己的竞争优势, 从而提高产品被消费者选中的概率; 然而若产品价格相差较大, 善因营销则不会起到特别的作用, 除非企业实施善因营销的动机具有很大的优势才会在一定程度上提高消费者的购买欲望。另外, 在善因营销中, 相较于低捐赠水平, 消费者对高捐赠水平的产品会产生更积极的态度(江若尘, 郑玲, 2017)。

2.1.5 消费者特征

消费者态度最终是由消费者自身加工形成的, 消费者作为善因营销活动中的参与方和评价方, 消费者特征也会影响到消费者对善因营销的态度。本文将善因营销中消费者的特征归纳为三大方面, 即消费者与善因营销活动的关系、消费者参与善因营销活动的需要及动机、消费者的个人特质。消费者与善因营销活动的关系是影响消费者态度的重要因素, 如Bester和Jere (2012)发现消费者对善因事件的卷入度会积极地影响消费者的态度和购买意愿; 消费者对组织善因营销广告的熟悉度能降低其对企业声称的怀疑(Singh, Kristensen, & Villaseñor, 2009); 消费者-善因事件的匹配度, 消费者-公司的匹配度会对消费者态度产生积极影响(Chowdhury & Khare, 2011; Vanhamme et al., 2012)。消费者参与善因营销活动的需要及动机是影响消费者态度的另一个重要因素, 如Kerra和Das (2013)表明在善因营销活动中, 更高认可度需要的消费者可能会对具有确切捐赠数额的产品产生更强的购买意愿; Koschate- Fischer等人(2012)在研究消费者的温暖光辉动机(warm-glow-motive)时发现, 这一动机能够调节捐赠数额对支付意愿的影响。另外, 消费者的个人特质也会影响到消费者参与善因营销活动。比如Moosmayer & Fuljahn (2010)表明相比男性, 女性对企业的善因营销活动有更加积极地感知; 个人主义思维和消费者的性别差异都会影响到消费者对善因营销广告的怀疑(Chang & Cheng, 2015); Aquino, Freeman, Reed, Lim和Felps (2009)研究发现具有更高道德身份的参与者将会更加支持进行善因营销的品牌, 尤其是当道德身份被启动时。

2.2 善因营销对消费者态度的影响效果

Varadarajan和Menon (1988)提出, 企业采用善因营销主要有两个目的, 一是支持社会慈善事业; 二是提高公司营销绩效。通过梳理善因营销领域的相关文献发现, 一方面善因营销可以促使消费者产生积极的企业评价, 提高消费者对产品的购买意愿; 另一方面, 善因营销如果运用不好, 也会导致较为严重的负面效应。本文从消费者角度, 对善因营销影响消费者态度的效果进行分析, 将其分为正面效果和负面效果两大方面。

2.2.1 善因营销对消费者态度的正面影响效果

在广告中如果品牌宣称其正在支持善因事件, 这种信息会让消费者产生积极的情感(Huertas- García et al., 2017)。Andrews等人(2014)指出善因事件可提供给消费者自我满足及产生积极情绪的感觉。许多研究(比如Koschate-Fischer et al., 2012; Baghi, Rubaltelli, & Tedeschi, 2009; Mcwilliams & Siegel, 2001)都表明善因营销对消费者态度会产生正面影响。本文从消费者的购买意愿, 消费者对企业的态度两个方面分析善因营销对消费者态度的正面影响效果。

在大多数情况下, 善因营销会对消费者的购买意愿产生积极的影响。感知企业利他动机会积极地影响消费者的品牌选择和产品评价(Barone, et al., 2000; Moosmayer & Fuljahn, 2013)。善因事件的重要性, 消费者对善因事件的卷入度, 品牌与善因事件的契合度也会积极影响消费者的购买意愿(Hou, et al., 2008; Huertas-García et al., 2017; Bester & Jere, 2012)。另外, 在善因营销中, 企业捐赠的数量越多会导致消费者产生更高的支付意愿(Koschate-Fischer et al., 2012)。

从消费者对企业的态度方面来看, 企业越来越多地采用善因营销来增加消费者的善意和提高企业的形象(Koschate-Fischer et al., 2012)。Rifon等人(2004)表明更高的企业与善因事件契合度可以积极地影响消费者对赞助企业的信任和态度。公司投资于企业社会责任, 类似于建立一个善意的储备库, 需要把企业社会责任看作长期的战略性投资, 在这些品牌上进行社会责任投资可能转化为长期的积极效果, 如忠诚和支持行为(Torelli, Monga, & Kaikati, 2012)。Mcwilliams和Siegel (2001)认为, 善因营销能够帮助企业树立值得信任的形象, 提高消费者对产品的感知质量。将企业的社会责任与营销战略加以匹配, 希望通过社会责任的履行以提高企业和品牌的接受度和美誉度, 这符合善因营销的做法(Baghi et al., 2009)。

善因营销不仅可以向消费者提供基本的产品效用, 而且还可以促使消费者产生良好的自我感觉。所以在一般情况下, 善因营销会对消费者的态度会产生积极影响。这一影响效果在短期方面主要体现为消费者购买意愿的提高。从长期影响效果来看, 消费者会对实施善因营销活动的企业产生更加积极的态度, 从而有助于提高企业的声誉和形象。

2.2.2 善因营销对消费者态度的负面影响效果

与常见的双赢观点不同, 在某些情况下, 善因营销会导致相反的, 意想不到的影响(Grolleau, Ibanez, & Lavoie, 2016)。从消费者角度来看, 如果运用不当, 善因营销会对消费者的态度以及企业的利益产生严重的负面影响。本文将从消费者怀疑(Chang & Cheng, 2015; Elving, 2013等)、消费者的购买意愿(Müller, Fries, & Gedenk, 2014; Chang & Cheng, 2015等)、消费者对企业的态度(Rifon et al., 2004; Singh et al., 2009等)三个方面系统地梳理善因营销对消费者态度的负面影响效果。

在善因营销活动中, 消费者怀疑通常与消费者感知到的企业动机有关(Barone et al., 2000; 2007; Chang & Cheng, 2015)。企业先前负面的声誉, 低的企业与善因事件契合度也会导致消费者对企业参与善因营销动机的怀疑(Elving, 2013)。当消费者难以判定善因营销的声称时, 消费者对广告的怀疑程度会更高(Singh et al., 2009)。Chang和Cheng (2015)从消费者心理特质的角度去解释消费者对于善因营销广告的怀疑, 当消费者拥有更高的实用主义导向和个体主义思维时, 消费者对善因营销广告的怀疑会增加。

如果运用不当, 善因营销可能会对消费者的购买意愿产生负面影响。在善因营销中, 消费者对企业动机的怀疑会负面影响其购买意愿(Elving, 2013)。当企业拥有负面的企业社会责任声誉时, 相比不捐赠, 低水平的捐赠会对消费者的购买意愿产生更大的负面影响(Müller et al., 2014)。相比集体主义思维, 具有更高个人主义思维的消费者会对善因营销相关广告产生更多的怀疑, 进而导致购买意愿的降低(Chang & Cheng, 2015)。

另外, 消费者可能会对实施善因营销活动的企业产生负面的态度, 进而影响到企业在市场中的良好形象。如果消费者将善因营销归因成企业自我服务动机(如增加利润或增强企业声誉), 消费者会倾向于不信任企业并对赞助企业产生不利的态度(Rifon et al., 2004)。在参与善因营销活动的过程中, 感知企业自利动机会负面影响消费者的品牌评价(Barone et al., 2000; 2007), 如果消费者感知到企业动机不真诚时, 品牌的形象和消费者忠诚度会降低(Pharr & Lough, 2012)。

总之, 在企业拥有负面的声誉、消费者难以判定善因营销的声称、低的企业与善因事件契合度、消费者感知企业利己动机等情境下, 善因营销会对消费者态度产生负面的影响效果。这一负面效果主要体现为善因营销会增加消费者的怀疑, 降低消费者的购买意愿, 促使消费者对企业产生负面的态度。

综上所述, 善因营销对企业来说是一把“双刃剑”。大部分企业进行善因营销活动的目的是借助消费者对善因事件的好感, 进而积极影响消费者对企业和产品的态度。在大多数情况下, 善因营销可以提高消费者的购买意愿和企业评价, 这也是企业发起善因营销活动的重要原因。但这种方式并不总是有效的, 如果在不适当的情况下, 面对不合适的消费者群体进行善因营销, 会产生较为严重的负面效果。企业不可以随意进行善因营销活动, 在此之前必须全面考虑善因营销活动中影响消费者态度的因素, 结合企业、消费者、产品、善因事件等具体情况, 从而设计出对企业、社会、消费者三方都有利的善因营销活动。

3 善因营销影响消费者态度的解释机制:基于不同的理论视角

善因营销如何影响消费者态度的理论成果为善因营销的研究做出了重要的贡献, 但同时也增加了善因营销相关知识的复杂性。为了加深学术界对善因营销如何影响消费者态度的认识和理解, 系统地呈现善因营销学术研究的现状, 本文首次从社会心理学视角出发, 以归因理论、SOR理论、自我信号理论、平衡理论为基础, 梳理善因营销影响消费者态度的解释机制, 进一步构建善因营销影响消费者态度的理论解释框架(见图1)。

图1

图1   善因营销影响消费者态度的理论解释框架


3.1 归因理论(attribution theory)

当消费者参与善因营销活动时, 他们经常将善因营销归因于公司的内部动机(比如支持某项善因事件是为了帮助他人), 或者归因于公司的外部动机(比如提高业绩), 而不是归因于双重动机(Mohr et al., 2001)。消费者对企业动机的感知能够影响他们对于品牌的评价, 利他动机能够积极影响消费者对赞助品牌的反应, 然而感知品牌自利动机会有意想不到的害处(Barone et al., 2000;2007)。在善因营销活动中, 消费者对企业动机不真诚的感知会降低品牌的形象和忠诚度(Pharr & Lough, 2012)。然而, 当消费者感知企业为利他动机时, 他们将更可能会支持善因事件, 从而增加企业的销量(Youn & Kim, 2018)。比如, 善因事件与企业之间高的契合度会导致消费者对企业产生利他性归因, 进而增强消费者对企业的积极态度(Rifon et al., 2004); 在善因营销中, 捐赠数量会积极影响消费者对企业动机的感知, 从而会影响到消费者的参与意愿和品牌态度(Folse, Niedrich, & Grau, 2010)。总之, 归因理论认为在善因营销活动中, 消费者会对企业的相关行为和动机进行归因。如果消费者感知企业为利他动机, 善因营销会对消费者态度产生积极的影响; 相反, 若消费者感知企业为利己动机, 则善因营销会对消费者态度产生负面的影响。

3.2 SOR理论

SOR理论(Stimulus-Organism-Response)即刺激-有机体-反应理论, 该理论主要表明刺激是一种外在影响, 它能影响人们的心理状态, 从而促使其做出反应(Namkung & Jang, 2010)。在一系列的心理反应过程之后, 接受者会对刺激采取一种内在或者外在行为上的反应。内在反应往往是指个体态度, 而行为反应通常是指接近或者回避行为(Eroglu, Machleit, & Davis, 2003)。SOR理论在消费者行为的研究中得到广泛运用, 如当面对享乐选择时, 消费者可能会感到内疚, 从而促使购买决策产生困难(Winterich & Barone, 2011)。在善因营销的研究中, Guerreiro等人(2015)指出, 购买与善因事件相关的产品相当于一种特殊的刺激, 这会影响到消费者随后的态度和选择。善因事件可促使消费者产生积极的情绪(Andrews et al., 2014), 积极的情绪又会导致消费者对善因相关产品进行积极的回应(Kim & Johnson, 2013)。SOR理论认为在善因营销中, 消费者态度的影响因素主要是来源于消费者被动地接受外部刺激, 在此基础上消费者自身会经过一系列的加工处理以产生相关的情感, 进而导致相应的态度和行为。

3.3 自我信号理论(self-signaling theory)

近来, 学者认为消费者也可以从选择中获得超越消费的价值(Gneezy, Gneezy, Riener, & Nelson, 2012)。人们有些参与捐赠的行为会与捐赠所释放出的社会信号相关, 如Lacetera和Macis (2010)指出在公共仪式中赞赏献血者的行为会增加其捐献的频率。Griskevicius, Tybur和Van (2010)发现人们愿意做出消费牺牲, 以提高他们在相关群体中的地位。帮助他人的行为会促进个体建立亲社会的声誉, 从而说明他们是可信任的(Barclay, 2006)。Savary等人(2015)关注私人信号动机, 探讨了选择环境会怎样影响与亲社会行为相连的自我信号以及自我信号的作用, 经过研究发现, 当提及享乐产品时, 选择不捐赠会意味着消费者更加自私, 通过这种自我信号的传导可提高消费者的捐赠意愿。Hanks等人(2016)对比了善因营销活动中的两种捐赠方式(使用自助服务技术和在他人面前进行捐赠)对消费者参与意愿产生的影响。经过实证研究发现, 相比通过自助服务技术, 在他人在场的情况下, 消费者更有可能进行捐赠。因为在他人面前进行捐赠, 消费者可以展示自身的捐赠行为, 这是一种提高社会地位的方式。自我信号理论认为消费者参与善因营销活动的行为是在有意识地向自己或他人释放出一种积极的信号, 从而有利于消费者获得相关利益。传统上, 参与慈善捐赠的动机分为内部动机和外部动机两大类(Savary et al., 2015)。自我信号理论表明, 消费者想要获得社会声誉或地位等外部动机是善因营销能够影响消费者态度的内在机制, 但在某些情况下, 消费者参与善因营销活动是出于想要帮助他人而不求任何的回报的目的, 比如“移情性的利他动机”。自我信号理论并不能很好地解释消费者参与善因营销活动的内部动机。

3.4 平衡理论(balance theory)

平衡理论是从单个个体的视角出发, 去考察三者之间的关系, 该理论认为个体总是在人际关系以及对这些人际关系的态度之间寻求平衡, 三者的平衡不仅仅是人之间的, 同时也包含事物之间(Heider, 1958)。人与人之间的关系被称为情感, 而事物之间的关系则被称为联结式关系(unit relationship) (Heider, 1958)。善因营销是企业与善因事件的联合, 在善因营销活动中, 公司和慈善机构的关系也是一种联结式关系。消费者、企业、慈善机构之间关系的平衡会积极影响消费者对善因营销的回应。具体而言, Basil和Herr (2006)认为消费者感知企业与慈善机构之间的契合度会影响消费者对善因营销的态度, 这一影响过程会被感知关系强度所部分中介。消费者对企业和慈善机构先前的态度也会影响到消费者对善因营销的态度, 如果消费者对企业和慈善机构先前的态度是平衡的且都是积极的, 则消费者对善因营销的态度会更积极; 相反, 若消费者对企业和慈善机构先前的态度都是消极的, 那么消费者对善因营销的态度会更消极(Basil & Herr, 2006)。总体而言, 平衡理论认为在善因营销活动中消费者与其他两个主体, 如企业和慈善机构之间的相互关系会对消费者态度产生重要的影响。

综上所述, 善因营销对消费者态度的影响机制可以通过归因理论、SOR理论、自我信号理论、平衡理论加以解释。这些理论虽然都可用来解释善因营销对消费者态度的影响, 但却拥有各自的特点。本文从理论解释、理论特点、理论不足三个方面对这些理论进行分类和梳理, 以供未来研究参考。具体如下:(1)归因理论认为善因营销对消费者态度的影响主要来源于消费者对企业相关行为归因的结果。若消费者将善因营销归因为企业利他动机, 则会产生积极的态度; 若消费者将善因营销归因为企业利己动机, 则会产生消极的态度。归因理论不仅可以解释善因营销对消费者态度的正面影响, 而且也可以很好地解释负面影响。但归因理论只是简单地将归因结果分为利他动机和利己动机两种类型, 当善因营销活动涉及到众多的企业行为时, 消费者可能会将有些企业行为归因为利他动机, 而将另一些企业行为归因为利己动机。因此, 在复杂情境下归因理论并不能清晰地解释善因营销对消费者态度的影响机制。另外, 在善因营销中, 相比依赖于理性判断的情形, 消费者对企业行为的反应可能会更多地依赖于明显的线索或者已有的经验, 在此情况下归因理论也不适用。(2)从SOR的理论视角来看, 善因营销具有慈善的特点, 消费者接触到善因营销活动就相当于接受了一种外部刺激, 随后消费者将产生快乐等积极情绪, 从而会对善因营销活动进行积极回应。SOR理论侧重从消费者自身情绪方面解释善因营销影响消费者态度的内在机制。在此过程中, 消费者会更多地依赖于善因营销活动当时的线索或已有的经验, 做出更加感性地判断。但消费者的行为往往是有目标导向的, 消费者通常会对行为的结果有一定的预期。在SOR理论中, 消费者更多的是被动地接受外部企业的刺激, 机械地对外部刺激做出刻板地反应, 忽略了消费者在善因营销中的目的性和主动性。(3)自我信号理论认为善因营销可以帮助消费者有意识地向自己或他人释放出一种积极的信号, 从而有利于消费者获得良好的自我感觉、一定的社会声誉和地位等相关利益。该理论认为在善因营销活动中, 消费者会对自身行为有一定的预期, 这可以较好地体现出消费者行为的主动性和目的性, 弥补了SOR理论解释的不足。但自我信号理论认为消费者参与善因营销活动是为了满足自身的利益, 并不能解释在善因营销中有些消费者只是想要帮助他人而不求任何回报的情况。(4)平衡理论运用范围较窄, 但在分析善因营销中三方之间的相互关系对消费者态度的影响方面发挥着重要作用。该理论认为在善因营销活动中, 消费者对其他两个主体态度的平衡如消费者对企业和善因机构态度的平衡会影响消费者对善因营销活动的态度。然而, 在平衡理论中消费者对其他两个主体态度关系强度的大小不能精准地衡量。同时, 在善因营销活动中消费者可能面对多个主体, 对不同的两个主体之间态度的平衡可能会对消费者态度产生不同的影响。

虽然这些理论具有明显的区别, 但理论之间也有一定的关联。具体而言, 归因理论主要适用于消费者进行理性判断的情形, 但当消费者依赖于明显的线索或已有的经验对企业行为进行反应时, 归因理论并不能清晰地解释善因营销对消费者态度的影响机制, SOR理论可以弥补归因理论的这一缺点。然而在SOR理论中, 消费者更多的是被动地接受外部企业的刺激, 机械地对外部刺激做出刻板地反应, 忽略了消费者在善因营销中的目的性和主动性, 自我信号理论可以弥补SOR理论的这一缺陷。在某些情境下平衡理论可以更加清晰地阐述善因营销影响消费者态度的理论机制, 为归因理论、SOR理论、自我信号理论的解释机制提供了重要的补充。

4 未来研究方向与展望

基于以上的文献回顾和分析, 本文发现虽然目前有关善因营销影响消费者态度的学术研究取得了很大进展, 但仍然存在一些尚未解决的研究问题。本文从善因营销中消费者态度的影响因素、善因营销对消费者态度的影响效果及其理论解释方面对未来研究方向进行了探讨和展望。

4.1 善因营销中消费者态度的影响因素

第一, 探讨企业实施善因营销活动的数量以及各个善因营销活动的相关性对消费者态度的影响。以往研究发现善因事件的重要性, 紧急性和善因事件的远近程度会对消费者态度产生影响(Hou et al., 2008; Vanhamme et al., 2012; Grau & Folse, 2007)。已有研究大多聚焦于单个善因营销活动对消费者态度的影响, 而很少研究善因营销活动的数量及相关性对消费者态度的影响。在现实情况中, 实施战略型善因营销的企业是需要长期专注于个别善因营销活动?还是分散进行多个善因营销活动?当进行多个善因营销活动时, 企业也需要知道这些活动怎样协调配合才能最大化地提高消费者对企业和产品的积极态度?已有研究并没有对这些问题进行深入解答。所以未来学者在进行研究时, 可更多地探讨多个善因营销活动及其相关性对消费者态度的影响。

第二, 进一步研究在善因营销活动中消费者差异对于品牌评价的影响。消费者的性别、个体主义思维、道德身份等会对消费者的态度产生显著的影响(Moosmayer & Fuljahn, 2010; Chang & Cheng, 2015; Aquino et al., 2009)。本文认为在善因营销中消费者对企业的社会责任期望也会影响到消费者的态度。相比伦理型期望, 当消费者对企业具有更高的经济型期望时, 消费者可能会产生更加积极的态度。未来研究可进一步探讨在善因营销活动中, 消费者的人格特质以及消费者参与善因营销活动的内在动机对其相关态度的影响, 从而可以帮助企业针对不同细分市场的消费者, 设计出更合适的善因营销活动。

第三, 分析善因营销活动中品牌特征对消费者态度的影响。在与善因营销相关的广告中, 品牌与善因事件的契合度会引起消费者有效的回应, 从而产生购买意愿(Huertas-García et al., 2017)。社会责任是品牌个性的一个独立维度(Madrigal & Boush, 2008)。因此, 探讨品牌个性与善因事件的契合度对消费者态度的影响具有重要的意义。本文认为在善因营销中, 品牌定位和消费者社会责任期望的交互作用如何影响消费者的态度也是未来研究值得关注的方向。

第四, 从受益对象视角研究善因营销对消费者态度的影响。与传统的促销活动相比, 善因营销最大的特点是可以提供给消费者参与慈善的机会。因此, 在参与善因营销的活动中, 消费者会更专注慈善本身, 关注善因营销活动中的受益对象, 故在善因营销中探讨受益对象对消费者态度的影响有重要的意义。未来研究可以深入探讨当善因营销中受益对象与消费者社会距离更近时, 消费者会产生怎样的态度?这一影响过程的内在机制是什么?

第五, 从价值共创视角出发分析善因营销中消费者态度的影响因素。近年来, 阿里集团发起了一项名为“蚂蚁森林”的善因营销活动。在这一活动中, 阿里集团为消费者提供了一个网络平台, 使得消费者可以与其他好友进行互动, 比如相互浇水, 收取对方能量, 组队种树等。本文认为这些方式可能会提高消费者在善因营销中的参与感和体验价值, 从而会对消费者态度产生积极的影响。未来研究可从价值共创的视角出发, 结合企业最新的善因营销案例, 分析善因营销中消费者态度的影响因素, 从而丰富相关的理论研究。

4.2 善因营销对消费者态度的影响效果

第一, 深入探讨在善因营销中, 消费者对活动品牌的态度能不能够拓展到其他相关品牌?已往研究表明, 善因营销对消费者态度会产生影响(Koschate-Fischer et al., 2012; Baghi et al., 2009)。这些影响大多都局限于进行善因营销活动的品牌, 却忽略了考察消费者对相关品牌的感知和评价。Grohmann和Bodur (2015)认为品牌与善因事件的联合, 可以将消费者支持善因事件所产生的积极情绪转移给品牌。对于大型企业而言, 很可能同时拥有多个品牌, 因此有必要考察企业在将某一品牌与善因事件结合时, 会不会影响到其他相关品牌?消费者怎样去评价这些相关品牌?未来学者可以进一步研究母(子)品牌进行的善因营销活动会不会以及怎样影响消费者对子(母)品牌的态度?从企业整体的利益考虑, 在资源有限的情况下, 对高端品牌, 中端品牌, 还是低端品牌进行善因营销才能最大化地提高企业整体的品牌形象?通过这一研究可以指导拥有多个品牌的企业在进行善因营销活动时, 最有效地配置资源以获得消费者更高的认同。

第二, 进一步分析善因营销对消费者态度的长期影响效果。目前大量的研究(Huertas-García et al., 2017; Koschate-Fischer et al., 2012等)都集中于从消费者购买意愿这一角度去分析善因营销对消费者态度的影响效果。然而, 企业需要把社会责任看成长期的战略性投资(Torelli et al., 2012)。未来研究可更多地将长期影响效果比如企业声誉、消费者感知道德资本、消费者忠诚等作为因变量, 以更深入地分析善因营销对消费者态度的长期影响效果。

第三, 深入研究善因营销对消费者态度产生负面影响的原因。在一些情况下, 善因营销会导致相反的、预料之外的影响(Grolleau et al., 2016)。近年来, 企业耗费巨资履行社会责任反遭遇感知伪善, 无疑与其初衷背道而驰, 而现有理论不能充分解释这一现象的原因(骆紫薇, 黄晓霞, 陈斯允, 卫海英, 杨德峰, 2017)。后续的研究应该从消费者视角出发, 进一步分析在善因营销中, 消费者对品牌产生负面评价及感知企业伪善的原因, 从而促使企业在进行善因营销时可以更大程度地避免潜在的负面效果, 激励企业积极地履行社会责任, 在提高企业利润的同时增进社会福利。

4.3 善因营销影响消费者态度的理论解释

对于善因营销影响消费者态度的现有理论解释, 本文通过分析认为这些理论解释做出了重要的贡献, 但仍不可避免地存在某些局限性。比如大部分理论(如SOR理论, 平衡理论等)认为消费者态度的改变主要是由于善因营销活动中一些要素引起的。在这些理论当中消费者大多是被动地接受刺激, 在此基础上产生一系列后续的反应, 因此不能较好地体现出消费者在善因营销活动的主动性。为了弥补已有理论的缺陷, 拓展善因营销的相关研究, 未来学者可试图从其他理论如自我决定理论, 社会交换理论去分析善因营销影响消费者态度的内在机制。

第一, 尝试利用自我决定理论去探讨善因营销影响消费者态度的内在机制, 以更好地体现消费者在善因营销中的主动性和利他性。自我决定理论主要探讨人类自我决定行为的动机过程, 自我决定是在充分认识需要和环境信息的基础上, 个人所做出的自由选择行为(Ryan & Deci, 2000)。在善因营销活动中, 当对受益对象产生共情的情绪时, 消费者可能会产生完全利他而不求任何回报的内部动机。未来研究可以从自我决定理论的视角去探讨当善因营销活动中存在哪些要素以及消费者存在哪些需求时, 消费者会更容易产生参与善因营销活动的内部动机, 以试图弥补自我信号理论的不足。

第二, 试图通过社会交换理论深入探讨善因营销中消费者的自我服务动机对消费者态度的影响。社会交换理论认为在公平原则的指导下, 交换行为体现出互惠性, 交换一方的行为对另一方而言是有益的, 同时有益行为会是相互的(Blau, 1964)。根据社会交换理论, 在善因营销活动中, 消费者可能会希望在有益于他人或社会的同时, 自己也可以获得一定的利益比如自我满足, 自我提升, 他人的认可和称赞等。消费者可能会被这种预期利益所驱动, 从而对善因营销产生积极的态度。之后的学者可以运用社会交换理论视角去深入探讨善因营销影响消费者态度的理论解释。

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A conceptual model for a cause-related marketing (CRM) campaign, which examines the effects of purchase quantity and firm donation amount on consumer perceptions of the firm (i.e., firm motive and corporate social responsibility) and participation intentions, is developed and tested in three separate studies. In Study 1, we find the positive effect of firm donation amount on participation intentions was fully mediated by consumer inferences about the firm and the negative effect of purchase quantity on participation intentions was only partially mediated by these inferences. In Study 2, and consistent with the persuasion knowledge model, we demonstrate that the effects of purchase quantity on firm inferences and subsequent participation intentions are moderated by consumer participation effort where higher participation requirements (e.g., mail-in proof-of-purchase) yield more negative purchase quantity effects. We extend the model in Study 3 to incorporate multiple exchange mechanisms and find that although purchase quantity does affect participation intentions by social exchange, the effects of purchase quantity are primarily the result of the economic exchange. Recommendations for the design of cause-related marketing campaigns and for future research are discussed.

Gneezy A., Gneezy U., Riener G., & Nelson L. D . ( 2012).

Pay-what-you-want, identity, and self-signaling in markets

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, (19), 7236-7240.

URL     PMID:22529370      [本文引用: 1]

We investigate the role of identity and self-image consideration under "pay-what-you-want" pricing. Results from three field experiments show that often, when granted the opportunity to name the price of a product, fewer consumers choose to buy it than when the price is fixed and low. We show that this opt-out behavior is driven largely by individuals' identity and self-image concerns; individuals feel bad when they pay less than the "appropriate" price, causing them to pass on the opportunity to purchase the product altogether.

Grau S.L., &Folse J. A.G . ( 2007).

Cause-related marketing (CRM)

Journal of Advertising, 36, (4), 19-33.

[本文引用: 2]

Griskevicius V., Tybur J. M., & Van, Den. Bergh. B . ( 2010).

Going green to be seen: Status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, (3), 392-404.

URL     PMID:20175620      [本文引用: 1]

Why do people purchase proenvironmental “green” products? We argue that buying such products can be construed as altruistic, since green products often cost more and are of lower quality than their conventional counterparts, but green goods benefit the environment for everyone. Because biologists have observed that altruism might function as a “costly signal” associated with status, we examined in 3 experiments how status motives influenced desire for green products. Activating status motives led people to choose green products over more luxurious nongreen products. Supporting the notion that altruism signals one’s willingness and ability to incur costs for others’ benefit, status motives increased desire for green products when shopping in public (but not private) and when green products cost more (but not less) than nongreen products. Findings suggest that status competition can be used to promote proenvironmental behavior.

Grohmann B., &Bodur H.O . ( 2015).

Brand social responsibility: Conceptualization, measurement, and outcomes

Journal of Business Ethics, 131, (2), 375-399.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Social responsibility is typically examined at the firm level, yet there are instances in which consumers’ social responsibility perceptions of the firm’s product brands differ from social responsibility perceptions with regard to the firm [i.e., corporate social responsibility (CSR)]. This article conceptualizes brand social responsibility (BSR) and delineates it from CSR. Following the development of a BSR scale (Study 1), this research demonstrates variations in consumers’ social responsibility perceptions across product brands even if they are owned by the same corporation and compete in the same product category (Study 2). BSR is distinct from CSR (Studies 3a–3c), and better predicts consumers’ responses to product brands compared to corporate level measures (Study 4). Consistent with the conceptual distinction, this research demonstrates the unique contribution of BSR and CSR in predicting product brand and corporate outcomes, respectively (Study 5). From a theoretical viewpoint, this research is one of the few to examine differences between product brand and CSR. From a managerial viewpoint, the consideration of social responsibility at the product brand level facilitates the assessment of social responsibility perceptions across brands in brand portfolios managed under a mixed-branding or house-of-brands strategy.

Grolleau G., Ibanez L., & Lavoie N . ( 2016).

Cause-related marketing of products with a negative externality

Journal of Business Research, 69, (10), 4321-4330.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Firms increasingly develop partnerships with non-profit organizations (NPO) to support a cause and improve their corporate image. This type of Corporate Social Responsibility, called cause-related marketing, commits firms to fund associations that encourage environmental protection, international development, and other causes by donating part of their profits. In this article, we argue that when cause-related marketing is applied to products with a negative externality, these a priori win in arrangements can generate adverse and unexpected effects. We consider a vertical differentiation model integrating two assumptions. First, consumers may perceive the firm's contribution to be higher than the actual donation. Second, consumers who value highly socially responsible behavior may prefer not to consume rather than consuming products that aren't socially responsible. In this set-up we identify several possible counter-productive effects such as the likelihood of increase of the externality and the crowding out of direct contributions. We also draw policy and managerial implications.

Guerreiro J., Rita P., & Trigueiros D . ( 2015).

Attention, emotions and cause-related marketing effectiveness

European Journal of Marketing, 49, (11-12), 1728-1750.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explain how cognitive and emotional responses may influence decisions to purchase cause-related products. Design/methodology/approach – An experimental design clarifies how autonomic reactions determine altruistic choices in a simulated shopping environment. Eye-tracking and electrodermal response measurements were set to predict choices of hedonic vs utilitarian cause-related vs unrelated products. Findings – Emotional arousal, pleasure and attention to the cause-related bundle are associated with altruistic behaviour in hedonic choices. When facing utilitarian choices, customers focus on brand logo and donation amount while experiencing pleasure, but emotional arousal does not increase marketing effectiveness in this case. Research limitations/implications – The experiment may be replicated in the real-world shopping environment, but spurious influences will be difficult to control. Distracting cues such as background music and scents used to increase positive emotions may affect intensity of emotive and cognitive processes. Practical implications – The results highlight the prominence of automatic reactions in customers’ choices. In the present instance, managers’ effort should be directed to the raising of altruistic visual cues of the donation-based promotion and positive emotional responses through guilt reducing effects. Originality/value – The study pioneers the use of eye-tracking coupled with skin conductance measurement in experimental designs aimed at clarifying the role of autonomic reactions such as emotional arousal, pleasure and attention in the effectiveness of emotionally charged marketing campaigns.

Guerreiro J., Rita P., & Trigueiros D . ( 2016).

A text mining-based review of cause-related marketing literature

Journal of Business Ethics, 139, (1), 111-128.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Cause-related marketing (C-RM) has risen to become a popular strategy to increase business value through profit-motivated giving. Despite the growing number of articles published in the last decade, no comprehensive analysis of the most discussed constructs of cause-related marketing is available. This paper uses an advanced Text Mining methodology (a Bayesian contextual analysis algorithm known as Correlated Topic Model, CTM) to conduct a comprehensive analysis of 246 articles published in 40 different journals between 1988 and 2013 on the subject of cause-related marketing. Text Mining also allows quantitative analyses to be performed on the literature. For instance, it is shown that the most prominent long-term topics discussed since 1988 on the subject are “brand-cause fit”, “law and Ethics”, and “corporate and social identification”, while the most actively discussed topic presently is “sectors raising social taboos and moral debates”. The paper has two goals: first, it introduces the technique of CTM to the Marketing area, illustrating how Text Mining may guide, simplify, and enhance review processes while providing objective building blocks (topics) to be used in a review; second, it applies CTM to the C-RM field, uncovering and summarizing the most discussed topics. Mining text, however, is not aimed at replacing all subjective decisions that must be taken as part of literature review methodologies.

Hanks L., Line N. D., & Mattila A. S . ( 2016).

The impact of self-service technology and the presence of others on cause-related marketing programs in restaurants

Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 25, (5), 547-562.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The Impact of Self-Service Technology and the Presence of Others on Cause-Related Marketing Programs in Restaurants. . ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/19368623.2015.1046536

He H. W., Zhu W. C., Gouran D., & Kolo O . ( 2016).

Moral identity centrality and cause-related marketing: The moderating effects of brand social responsibility image and emotional brand attachment

European Journal of Marketing, 50, (1-2), 236-259.

[本文引用: 2]

Heider F. . ( 1958).

The psychology of interpersonal relations.

New York: Wiley.

[本文引用: 2]

Hou J. D., Du L.Y., & Li J. F . ( 2008).

Cause's attributes influencing consumer's purchasing intention: Empirical evidence from china

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20, (4), 363-380.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

ABSTRACT Purpose – One purpose of this paper is to examine several factors that potentially influence a consumer's purchasing decision to participate in cause-related marketing (CRM) program in the Chinese context. The other is to empirically test the hypothesized relationship between cause's attributes and purchase intention in such environment. Design/methodology/approach – This paper develops a measure for exploring the cause's attributes influencing consumer's purchasing intention. Two groups of valid samples, respectively, with 178 and 376 respondents are collected through questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are employed to extract and test the key influential attributes on the basis of data of two samples respectively, and structural equation model is used to define the structure of influencing attributes and to measure the degree of impact for each attribute on the consumer's purchasing intention. Findings – The results show that the degree of cause's participation for consumer, fit between the brand and the cause, cause importance, congruence between the firm's product and the cause, cause proximity play an important role in consumers’ attitudes toward the product and firm and their intentions to purchase the advertised product and participate in the CRM campaign, which suggests an opportunity for nonprofits to compete for these vital resources by nurturing and leveraging the antecedent factors and an opportunity for firms to select a cause partner. Research limitations/implications – The sample is a convenience sample that is the main limitations of this research. The EFA and CFA is difficult to generalize to a larger audience, and there was a lack of experimental control for the questionnaire investigation, so the quality of questionnaire can not be ensured. Practical implications – This research should help firms determine the best partners for strategic social alliances, and provide an advice on how to make them maximum participation, also should help current and potential consumers ascribe personality traits to nonprofit organizations and differentiate between nonprofits on the basis of the cause's attributes. At the same time, this paper provides several interesting areas for future research that will further aid marketing managers to develop a more effective CRM campaign to fit with goals of corporate, which adds some valuable insights or new ideas to develop essential theory. Originality/value – This paper offers interesting insight into the development of CRM campaigns, and explores the five variables: the degree of cause's participation for consumer; fit between the brand and the cause; cause importance; congruence between the firm's product and the cause; cause proximity also should influence consumer's purchasing attitude, intention and decision behavior in the Chinese context.

Huertas-García R., Lengler J., & Consolación-Segura C . ( 2017).

Co-branding strategy in cause-related advertising: The fit between brand and cause

Journal of Product & Brand Management, 26, (2), 135-150.

[本文引用: 7]

Kerra A.H., &Das N. ( 2013).

Thinking about fit and donation format in cause marketing: The effects of need for cognition

Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 21, (1), 103-112.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

A cause-related marketing exchange model, investigating product-cause fit, donation format, and the moderating effects of need for cognition (on fit and format) on consumer purchase intentions, is tested. The results suggest that individuals who have a low need for cognition do not display a difference in purchase intentions for different permutations of product-cause fit and donation format. Individuals who have a high need for cognition, by contrast, indicate greater purchase intentions for an exact donation format when the product-cause fit is low, while exhibiting no difference when the product cause fit is high, regardless of the donation format.

Kim J.E., &Johnson K. K.P . ( 2013).

The impact of moral emotions on cause-related marketing campaigns: A cross- cultural examination

Journal of Business Ethics, 112, (1), 79-90.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

This research was focused on investigating why some consumers might support cause-related marketing campaigns for reasons other than personal benefit by examining the influence of moral emotions and cultural orientation. The authors investigated the extent to which moral emotions operate differently across a cultural variable (US versus Korea) and an individual difference variable (self-construal). A survey method was utilised. Data were collected from a convenience sample of US (n = 180) and Korean (n = 191) undergraduates. Moral emotions significantly influenced purchase intention for a social-cause product. The influence of an ego-focused moral emotion (i.e., pride) on purchase intention was greater for US than Korean participants. The influence of another-focused moral emotion (i.e., guilt) on purchase intention was greater for high-interdependent participants than for low-interdependent participants. The findings of this research provide important and relevant implications to marketers and policy makers in developing persuasive messages and customer relationship programmes.

Koschate-Fischer N., Stefan I. V., & Hoyer W. D . ( 2012).

Willingness to pay for cause-related marketing: The impact of donation amount and moderating effects.

[J] ournal of Marketing Research, 49, (6), 910-927.

[本文引用: 7]

Lacetera N., &Macis M. ( 2010).

Do all material incentives for pro-social activities backfire? The response to cash and non-cash incentives for blood donations

Journal of Economic Psychology, 31, (4), 738-748.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

A number of experimental studies have documented that financial rewards discourage the performance of altruistic activities because they conflict with intrinsic altruistic motivations. However, it is unclear whether this is evidence of a generalized aversion to rewards or, rather, an aversion to receiving specific material prizes, such as cash. We conducted a randomized-controlled experiment, through a survey administered to 467 blood donors in an Italian town, and found that donors are not reluctant to receive compensation in general; a substantial share of respondents declared that they would stop being donors if given 10聽Euros in , but we do not find such effects when a voucher of the same nominal value is offered instead. The aversion to direct cash payments is particularly marked among women, but does not emerge among individuals who have only recently become donors. All of our findings are robust to regression analyses. Implications for research and public policy are discussed.

Lafferty B.A . ( 2007).

The relevance of fit in a cause-brand alliance when consumers evaluate corporate credibility

Journal of Business Research, 60, (5), 447-453.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0148296307000331

Lafferty B. A., Lueth A. K., & Mccafferty R . ( 2016).

An evolutionary process model of cause-related marketing and systematic review of the empirical literature

Psychology & Marketing, 33, (11), 951-970.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Cause-related marketing (CRM) is almost ubiquitous as brands of all price points participate in this marketing strategy in the United States and internationally, as well. The value that CRM brings to the firm, the consumer, and the nonprofit organization has made it a popular and valuable tool for marketers. Academic research on CRM has gained momentum in recent years as the strategy has matured. However, insights have occurred without a framework to provide structure and direction for this body of research. Given CRM's continued popularity, the purpose of this article is to (1) propose an evolutionary process model (EPM) of CRM to explain the iterative process (2) utilize this model as a framework for (a) organizing the systematic review of the empirical literature on CRM and (b) for identifying some gaps in the literature. Propositions based on these gaps are provided for future research.

Luo X.M., &Bhattacharya C.B . ( 2006).

Corporate social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value

Journal of Marketing, 70, (4), 1-18.

[本文引用: 1]

Madrigal R., &Boush D.M . ( 2008).

Social responsibility as a unique dimension of brand personality and consumers' willingness to reward

Psychology & Marketing, 25, (6), 538-564.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Consumers expect organizations to behave in a responsible fashion and want to be informed about those actions. The current research examines the extent to which consumers are willing to reward brands for their socially responsible behavior. Two studies are reported in which social responsibility (SR) was conceptualized as a unique dimension of brand personality. Participants in both studies were presented advertisements in which the personality dimensions of ruggedness, excitement, and SR for a fictitious brand were manipulated. The results indicate that SR is a distinct brand personality dimension and that willingness to reward moderates the effect of SR on attitudes toward the product, advertisement, and brand. Specifically, in all but one case across both studies, the positive effect of SR on attitude was greater for those most willing to reward. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mcwilliams A., &Siegel D. ( 2001).

Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective

Academy of Management Review, 26, (1), 117-127.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

We outline a supply and demand model of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Based on this framework, we hypothesize that a firm's level of CSR will depend on its size, level of diversification, research and development, advertising, government sales, consumer income, labor market conditions, and stage in the industry life cycle. From these hypotheses, we conclude that there is an "ideal" level of CSR, which managers can determine via cost-benefit analysis, and that there is a neutral relationship between CSR and financial performance.

Mohr L. A., Webb D. J., & Harris K. E . ( 2001).

Do consumers expect companies to be socially responsible? The impact of corporate social responsibility on buying behavior

Journal of Consumer Affairs, 35, (1), 45-72.

[本文引用: 2]

Moosmayer D.C., &Fuljahn A. ( 2010).

Consumer perceptions of cause related marketing campaigns

Journal of Consumer Marketing, 27, (6), 543-549.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Purpose – By replicating two seminal studies on cause-related marketing (CRM) campaigns, this paper aims to investigate the influence of gender and of donation size on consumer perception of firm behavior, consumer attitude to product, consumer goodwill toward the CRM campaign, consumer perception of the benefit to the NPO, and consumer attitude toward CRM. Design/methodology/approach – An online experiment was conducted with 306 students from a German university to evaluate their responses to a CRM campaign. The presented campaign supported a German children's charity, and varied with regard to donation size. Findings – Consumer perception of firm behavior, consumer goodwill toward the CRM campaign, and consumer attitude to product vary significantly by gender. Donation size has a significant influence on consumer goodwill toward the CRM campaign and on consumer perception of the benefit to the NPO. The impact of donation size is rooted in external perceptions, and partly moderated by gender. Research limitations/implications – The chosen non-forced stimulus presentation may overestimate the measured impact. The applied stimuli may underlie specific gender characteristics that influence responses. Further research might thus apply forced stimulus exposure designs to a broader set of causes and products. Practical implications – Results imply that CRM campaigns promise to be particularly suitable for promoting products to women. When addressing men, small donations appear to be sufficient. Originality/value – The authors expand existing research in three ways. Campaign impact is differentiated by consumer attitudes toward the company, toward the product, and toward the NPO. The article shows that the impact of donation size is gender-specific. By investigating CRM response in Germany, the study regionally expands existing research.

Moosmayer D.C., &Fuljahn A. ( 2013).

Corporate motive and fit in cause related marketing

Journal of Product & Brand Management, 22, (3), 200-207.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Abstract Purpose ‐ Cause related marketing (CrM) has gained popularity in Europe within the past decade. Therefore, the authors aim to investigate corporate motive and the fit of a company brand with the CrM cause as determinants of CrM campaign success. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Conjoint analysis is applied to campaign evaluations from 278 students in Germany. Campaigns attached to laptop purchases supporting an African hospital with either medical (low fit) or IT (high fit) infrastructure and were based on altruistic, neutral, or profit-oriented company motives. Findings ‐ The authors find that altruistic motives increase consumer evaluations. In contrast to their hypothesis, campaigns are evaluated more positively, when product cause fit is low. Research limitations/implications ‐ Based on their findings, the authors suggest exploring the fit of CrM campaigns in more detail: future research might explicitly consider the congruence of a CrM donation with a company's product, with the brand's claim and philosophy, and with the supported NPO. Practical implications ‐ Companies should think twice before using CrM as means of profit maximization. When selecting an adequate cause, attention should be paid to the company brand and to a product's potential impact on society. Moreover, the donation type (money versus product) should be chosen in a way to clearly support the cause and to avoid potential allegation of aiming at an increased distribution of own products. Originality/value ‐ The authors apply conjoint analysis to corporate motive and cause-brand fit; this integrated consumer evaluation appears more realistic than most existing studies. Based on their results, the authors develop diverse perspectives on fit in CrM. These may be applied in future research.

Müller S. S., Fries A. J., & Gedenk K . ( 2014).

How much to give? — The effect of donation size on tactical and strategic success in cause-related marketing

International Journal of Research in Marketing, 31, (2), 178-191.

[本文引用: 2]

61We study the impact of donation size on cause-related marketing success.61We analyze the effect of donation size on both brand choice and brand image.61For brand choice, the effect of donation size is moderated by a financial trade-off.61For brand image, the effect of donation size is moderated by donation framing.61The effect of donation size on cause-related marketing success can be nonlinear.

Namkung Y., &Jang S.C . ( 2010).

Effects of perceived service fairness on emotions, and behavioral intentions in restaurants

European Journal of Marketing, 44, (9-10), 1233-1259.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Purpose – This study aims to investigate interrelationships among perceived service fairness, emotions and behavioral intentions in a restaurant context. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from two casual dining restaurants in the USA. The data were analyzed following Anderson and Gerbing's two-step approach, utilizing both a measurement model and a subsequent structural model. Findings – This study shows different roles for each fairness perception in relation to emotions and behavioral intentions based on the Mehrabian-Russell model. Setting reasonable prices and providing efficient services in a timely manner were found to be the key to negate negative emotion. At the same time, the findings suggest that providing high-quality tangible outcomes and intangible services are critical to evoke positive emotions and eventually to generate future favorable behaviors. Research limitations/implications – The data were collected from only casual dining restaurants. Therefore, generalizing the results to other segments of the restaurant industry may not work. Practical implications – The results of this study can help restaurant managers to develop more effective and efficient strategies for ensuring fairness, thus resulting in higher levels of customer retention and profits. Originality/value – Compared with previous fairness studies, which have focused exclusively on the role of justice after service failure and recovery, this study considers all service delivery contexts (with or without service failure) in order to provide a richer portrait of service fairness. Also, this study contributes to the services marketing and consumer behavior literature by shedding light on the issue of “fairness” as an axiom for evaluating services in restaurants.

Pharr J.R., &Lough N.L . ( 2012).

Differentiation of social marketing and cause-related marketing in us professional sport

Sport Marketing Quarterly, 21, (2), 91-103.

[本文引用: 3]

Porter M.E., &Kramer M.R . ( 2011).

The big idea: Creating shared value. How to reinvent capitalism—and unleash a wave of innovation and growth

Harvard Business Review, 89, (1-2), 62-77.

[本文引用: 1]

Rifon N. J., Choi S. M., Trimble C. S., & Li H. R . ( 2004).

Congruence effects in sponsorship: The mediating role of sponsor credibility and consumer attributions of sponsor motive

Journal of Advertising, 33(1), 29-42.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

Corporations sponsoring causes may hope to create the appearance of "good citizenship." Using attribution theory, the authors develop and test a cognitive explanation of sponsorship effects. Results of the experiment suggest that a good fit between a company and the cause it sponsors generates consumer attributions of altruistic sponsor motives and enhances sponsor credibility and attitude toward the sponsor. Mediation analysis results indicate that congruence effects on sponsor attitudes were mediated by sponsor credibility.

Ryan R.M., &Deci E.L . ( 2000).

Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being

The American Psychologist, 55, (1), 68-78.

[本文引用: 1]

Savary J., Goldsmith K., & Dhar R . ( 2015).

Giving against the odds: When tempting alternatives increase willingness to donate

Journal of Marketing Research, 52, (1), 27-38.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Abstract The authors examine how a reference to an unrelated product in the choice context impacts consumers likelihood of donating to charity. Building on research on self-signaling, the authors predict that consumers are more likely to give when the donation appeal references a hedonic product, as compared to when a utilitarian product is referenced or when no comparison is provided. They posit that this occurs because referencing a hedonic product during a charitable appeal changes the self-attributions, or self-signaling utility, associated with the choice to donate. A series of hypothetical and real choice experiments demonstrate the predicted effect, and show that the increase in donation rates occurs because the self-attributions signaled by a choice not to donate are more negative in the context of a hedonic reference product. Finally, consistent with these experimental findings, a field experiment shows that referencing a hedonic product during a charitable appeal increases real donation rates in a non-laboratory setting. The authors discuss theoretical implications for both consumer decision making and the self-signaling motives behind prosocial choice.

Singh S., Kristensen L., & Villaseñor E . ( 2009).

Overcoming skepticism towards cause related claims: The case of Norway

International Marketing Review, 26, (3), 312-326.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Purpose - This study, conducted in Norway, aims to investigate whether increasing consumers' familiarity by repeating cause related marketing (CRM) claims helps in reducing their skepticism towards CRM campaigns. It also seeks to test whether the relationship between familiarity and skepticism may be moderated by skepticism towards advertising in general. Design/methodology/approach - A single factor experimental design with four levels of claim repetition was utilized to test the hypothesized effects between claim repetition, familiarity, skepticism towards advertising and skepticism towards CRM claim. Findings - The findings support the hypothesized effects. Repeating claims helps in overcoming skepticism towards CRM claims and also reduces the adverse effects of skepticism towards advertising. Research limitations/implications - The paper does not measure the kind of thoughts that result from the repetitions nor does it account for the effect of using a variety of sources for providing the information instead of just one. Practical implications - The study demonstrates that marketers can overcome skepticism towards CRM with repetitions of claims, that awareness and credibility can be created by familiarizing the market with the campaign. This is especially beneficial for a lesser known company that can use repeated CRM claims to gain familiarity and create positive attitudes. Originality/value - This paper draws a parallel between general advertising and CRM communications to show that important findings from advertising are not only applicable to CRM campaigns but also critical to its success.

Torelli C. J., Monga A. B., & Kaikati A. M . ( 2012).

Doing poorly by doing good: Corporate social responsibility and brand concepts.

[J] ournal of Consumer Research, 38, (5), 948-963.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Although the idea of brand concepts has been around for a while, very little research addresses how brand concepts may influence consumer responses to corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. Four studies reveal that communicating the CSR actions of a luxury brand concept causes a decline in evaluations, relative to control. A luxury brand’sself-enhancementconcept (i.e., dominance over people and resources) is in conflict with the CSR information’sself-transcendenceconcept (i.e., protecting the welfare of all), which causes disfluency and a decline in evaluations. These effects do not emerge for brands withopenness(i.e., following emotional pursuits in uncertain directions) orconservation(i.e., protecting the status quo) concepts that do not conflict with CSR. The effects for luxury brand concepts disappeared when the informativeness of the disfluency was undermined but were accentuated in an abstract (vs. concrete) mind-set. These findings implicate brand concepts as a key factor in how consumers respond to CSR activities.

Vanhamme J., Lindgreen A., Reast J., & Popering N. V . ( 2012).

To do well by doing good: Improving corporate image through cause-related marketing

Journal of Business Ethics, 109, (3), 259-274.

[本文引用: 4]

Varadarajan P.R., &Menon A. ( 1988).

Cause-related marketing: A coalignment of marketing strategy and corporate philanthropy

Journal of Marketing, 52, (3), 58-74.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Cause-related marketing represents the confluence of perspectives from several specialized areas of inquiry such as marketing for nonprofit organizations, the promotion mix, corporate philanthropy, corporate social responsibility, fund-raising management, and public relations. The authors outline the concept of cause-related marketing, its characteristics, and how organizations, both for-profit and not-for-profit, can benefit from effective use of this promising marketing tool.

Winterich K.P., &Barone M. ( 2011).

Warm glow or cold, hard cash? Social identity effects on consumer choice for donation versus discount promotions

Journal of Marketing Research, 48, (5), 855-868.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Across five studies, the authors investigate how social identification influences consumer preference for discount-based promotions (i.e., cents-off deals) versus donation-based promotions (in which purchase results in a donation to a charitable cause). In doing so, they demonstrate the interplay between self-construal and a specific social identity (i.e., that associated with the particular charity featured in a donation-based promotion) on consumers' preferences for these two types of promotions. The results show that, in general, consumers possessing interdependent self-construals prefer donations to a greater extent than those with independent self-construals. However, the findings further indicate that these effects of self-construal are attenuated if (1) the donation-based promotion does not involve a charity that is identity congruent or (2) a cause-congruent identity is more salient than self-construal at the time of decision making. The authors also identify boundary conditions of charity efficiency and product type for these self-construal effects. In addition to demonstrating how multiple identities interact to influence consumer promotion preferences, the authors discuss important managerial implications regarding the use of discount versus donation-based promotions.

Youn S., &Kim H. ( 2018).

Temporal duration and attribution process of cause-related marketing: Moderating roles of self-construal and product involvement

International Journal of Advertising, 37, (2), 217-235.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Applying the self-construal (SC) temporal match effect to a cause marketing context, this study investigated the conditions under which cause-related marketing campaigns generate stronger altruistic attributions of sponsor motives and subsequently purchase intention. As major factors, temporal duration (long-term vs. short-term), SC (independent vs. interdependent), and product involvement (high vs. low) were incorporated in the integrative model and the three-way interaction effect on altruistic attributions was assessed. With the use of online experimental data from 323 college students, the matching effect of temporal duration and SC was found, such that independent individuals were influenced by the message that was framed with the distant, long-term duration. Our findings further found that this matching effect was more pronounced for the high-involvement product, but not for the low-involvement product. In addition, this study discovered that altruistic attributions mediated the effect of temporal duration on purchase intention in the low-involvement product condition, but not in the high-involvement condition. Theoretical and managerial implications were discussed for researchers and practitioners.

Zdravkovic S., Magnusson P., & Stanley S. M . ( 2010).

Dimensions of fit between a brand and a social cause and their influence on attitudes

International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27, (2), 151-160.

[本文引用: 2]

This paper examines cause-marketing promotions and finds that between social causes and consumer brands can be decomposed into ten “micro” sub-dimensions or two “macro” sub-dimensions (. Results indicate sub-dimensions are significantly related to the attitude toward the sponsorship and the brand, and that attitude toward sponsorship mediates the relationship between and attitude toward the brand. As such, managers should not only rely on natural between cause and brand, but they should also attempt to communicate to the consumers. Importantly, familiarity with the cause interacts with when attitudes toward the sponsorship and the brand are measured, such that matters less to those who are more familiar with the cause.

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