心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 726-736 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00726

研究前沿

交互视角下工作重塑干预的影响效应整合模型

李姗姗, 王海宁,, 栾贞增, 王强

青岛大学商学院, 山东 青岛 266100

The influencing effect of job crafting intervention from the interactive perspective: An integrated model

LI Shanshan, WANG Haining,, LUAN Zhenzeng, WANG Qiang

Business School of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266100, China

通讯作者: 王海宁, E-mail: wanghaining_2006@163.com

收稿日期: 2018-07-11   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

基金资助: * 山东省社会科学规划研究项目.  18CTZJ03
山东省软科学研究计划重点项目.  2017RZB01035
青岛市社会科学规划研究项目.  QDSKL1801086

Received: 2018-07-11   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

作为一种引导员工主动改变工作的行为, 工作重塑干预成为近年来组织行为学领域研究的重要主题。基于现有研究成果, 系统梳理了工作重塑干预的概念和分类。依据角色-资源接近-回避模型, 归纳和提炼了工作干预的影响效果, 在此基础上, 借鉴AMO理论, 分别从重塑能力(Ability)、重塑动机(Motivation)和重塑机会(Opportunity)层面, 构建了个体和组织交互情境下的工作重塑干预内在影响机制, 进而提出了一个整合性的理论分析框架, 为当前开展工作重塑干预的相关研究提供一定的借鉴和参考。未来研究应更多关注基于中国情境的工作重塑干预影响因素及作用机制。

关键词: 工作重塑干预 ; 交互视角 ; 角色-资源接近-回避模型 ; AMO理论 ; 工作重塑

Abstract

As an act guiding employees to take the initiative to change jobs, job crafting intervention has become an important research topic in organizational behavior research in recent years. Based on the current research, a systematical literature review has been conducted according to the conceptual aspect and categorization. Meanwhile, on the basis of the Role-resource Approach-avoidance Model, the results of job crafting intervention are summarized and refined in this thesis. Based on this, using the AOM theory, it presents the internal influence mechanism of job crafting intervention in the context of individual and organizational interaction respectively from the perspective of crafting ability, motivation and opportunity, and then proposes an integrated theoretical analysis framework, which can provide a reference for the development of research on job crafting intervention. Therefore, further research should pay more attention to the influencing factors and mechanism research in the Chinese context.

Keywords: job crafting intervention ; interactive perspective ; role - resource approach - avoidance model ; AMO theory ; job crafting

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本文引用格式

李姗姗, 王海宁, 栾贞增, 王强. (2019). 交互视角下工作重塑干预的影响效应整合模型. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 726-736

LI Shanshan, WANG Haining, LUAN Zhenzeng, WANG Qiang. (2019). The influencing effect of job crafting intervention from the interactive perspective: An integrated model. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 726-736

1 引言

由于环境不确定性和复杂性的增加, 组织越来越难设计出员工适用的规范性职务说明, 并且越来越希望员工能够对工作做出积极主动的调整。组织的这一变化直接影响了员工的工作, 员工也意识到他们需要改变工作以满足自身和工作需求。其对工作做出的主动改变就是工作重塑(Job Crafting), 例如, 一个喜欢做分析, 而不爱做销售的员工, 可以对自己的销售工作进行调整, 将原本不在其工作范围之内的活动策划加入进来, 不仅增强了工作满足感和意义感, 积累了工作经验, 也为公司增添了价值。

在工作重塑的概念提出之前, 学者们的研究就已经发现员工可以自发地对工作做出改变(Miner, 1987; Staw & Boettger, 1990), 但认为其最终目的是服务于组织。2001年, Wrzesniewski和Dutton (2001)首次提出了工作重塑的概念, 明确指出员工进行工作重塑是服务于员工个人, 对其工作幸福感、工作意义感知等都有积极影响(Bakker, Muñoz, & Vergel, 2016)。而后Tims, Bakker和Derks (2012)的研究发现工作重塑也是一种员工以工作任务为导向, 主动调整工作要求和资源的行为。自Tims等(2012)适当修改了Wrzesniewski和Dutton (2001)最初的工作重塑概念之后, 众多学者在此基础上进行了相关研究, 并指出工作重塑不仅仅是一种概念或行为, 也是一种干预手段, 即工作重塑干预(Job Crafting Intervention) (Bakker & Demerouti, 2014; van den Heuvel, Demerouti, & Peeters, 2012)。van Wingerden, Derks, Bakker和Dorenbosch (2013)的研究表明工作重塑干预能够引导和鼓励员工积极调整自己的工作, 使工作重塑在应用中更有实践价值。

目前, 国外学者对工作重塑干预的研究在定性和实证方面相对国内更为成熟, 而国内学者的研究仍停留在工作重塑层面。综合来看, 现有文献为工作重塑干预的研究提供了借鉴和参考, 但仍存在些许模糊和不足:(1)缺少从角色-资源接近-回避模型的综合视角, 探讨工作重塑干预的影响效果。以往文献基于工作要求-资源模型指出工作重塑干预对员工的工作幸福感以及工作绩效有积极影响。但当关注员工是通过改变哪一因素(例如, 改变任务关系边界还是资源或要求)最终导致特定结果(工作幸福感还是工作绩效)发生变化的时候, 仅仅从工作要求-资源视角进行分析是不够的(Bruning & Campion, 2018)。且Grant和Ashford (2008)指出工作重塑干预也可能出现效果不明显或负面效应的情况, 仅仅关注其正面效应也是不妥的, 因此需要从角色-资源接近-回避模型的综合视角探讨工作重塑干预的影响效果。角色-资源接近-回避模型融合了角色、资源的分类方法, 并根据接近(积极)、回避(消极)的特征更好地解释具体类型的重塑干预方式对特定结果变量的影响, 同时兼顾了工作重塑干预的积极影响和消极影响。(2)现有工作重塑干预的研究内容分散, 且大多是“点”的研究, 主要表现为学者们基于不同视角, 分别探究了工作重塑干预对工作投入、绩效等的影响(van Wingerden et al., 2013; van Wingerden, Bakker, & Derks, 2017a), 并有学者引入中介变量进行分析, 但仍缺少将工作重塑干预的影响机制整合到一个统一的理论框架中进行综合分析的文献, 然而随着学界对工作重塑干预重视程度的提高, 以及工作重塑干预实践意义的凸显, 有必要提出一个系统的整合模型对当前及未来工作重塑干预的相关研究提供借鉴和思考。

综上, 本文系统梳理了2012~2018年工作重塑干预研究的相关权威期刊, 包括Academy of Management Journal、Human Resource Management、Journal of Vocational Behavior等上的有关文章, 梳理了工作重塑干预的概念、分类以及影响效果。在此基础上, 借鉴AMO理论框架, 建构了工作重塑干预的内在影响机制, 以此进一步丰富工作重塑干预的相关研究, 并希望引起国内学者的关注。

2 工作重塑干预的概念及分类

2.1 概念源起:工作重塑

工作重塑干预的概念来自工作重塑。现有文献从角色和资源视角对工作重塑的概念进行了解释, (1)基于角色视角的定义。Wrzesniewski和Dutton (2001)认为工作重塑是员工根据自身需求对工作设计做出自下而上改变的行为, 包括任务重塑、关系重塑和认知重塑。这种重塑通过调整任务和关系边界改变了员工的工作角色, 且有助于平衡员工的工作和家庭角色(Sturges, 2012), 因而也有学者将其称之为角色重塑(Bruning & Campion, 2018), 对工作满意度等有积极影响(Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001)。(2)基于资源视角对Wrzesniewski和Dutton (2001)最初定义的修改。Tims等(2012)认为工作重塑是个体为寻求资源、降低组织要求而主动对工作做出的行为改变, 这些改变以目标为导向, 强调员工对工作要求和工作资源的调整, 也有学者称其为资源重塑(Bruning & Campion, 2018), 对工作绩效有积极影响(Tims et al., 2012; van Wingerden, 2017a)。

不论采取何种视角, 工作重塑均被视作员工主动改变工作内容、方式或资源、要求的积极行为, 具有以下特点:第一, 自我驱动, 最终服务于重塑者个人; 第二, 有意识、主动进行的自我改变; 第三, 在任务和社交活动上发生明显改变; 第四, 可持续性的改变而非一次性改变(Bruning & Campion, 2018)。

虽然研究发现工作重塑对重塑者个人有利, 但也存在诸多弊端:(1)工作重塑对团队有消极影响。合作工作重塑使得具有相似任务的员工能够共同完成工作内容的改变, 虽更具有可操作性, 但合作工作重塑团队内部员工减少工作任务导致的绩效下降会给处于组织正式团队的员工带来绩效压力和不公平(Leana, Appelbaum, & Shevchuk, 2009), 不利于团队发展。(2)工作重塑也容易损害组织利益。首先, 个人进行工作重塑会加深员工之间的嫉妒, 比如部分员工主动改变了工作内容, 这就为其他员工提供了比较的机会, 加深妒嫉, 进而影响组织凝聚力和绩效。其次, 缩减型工作重塑本身对组织有消极影响, 而扩充型工作重塑虽短期内对组织有利, 但当置于长期时, 扩充带来的较高工作负荷容易导致员工疲倦, 也不利于组织发展(Laurence, 2010)。最后, 如果员工把握不好进行工作重塑的“度”, 一味地追求“快乐的工作”, 最终会损害组织利益。

综上, 员工和组织都应该注意到工作重塑的弊端, 而通过组织管理者适度地干预能够使个人的重塑目标与组织目标趋于一致, 有效地避免了工作重塑带来的问题(Bakker & Demerouti, 2014; Demerouti, van Eeuwijk, Snelder, & Wild, 2011)。

2.2 工作重塑干预的概念及分类

工作重塑干预是站在组织视角, 主张组织管理者参与到员工的工作重塑活动中, 引导和鼓励员工在一定程度上改变自己工作的手段和方式(田喜洲, 彭小平, 郭新宇, 2017; 徐长江, 陈实, 2018)。组织管理者根据员工个人优势和组织目标引导其进行工作重塑, 共同创造了一个既能增强员工幸福感又有利于组织的工作方式(Fruwert, 2014; Petrou, Demerouti, Peeters, Schaufeli, & Hetland, 2012; Schoberova, 2015)。Schoberova (2015)将这种在组织管理者干预情况下进行的工作重塑称之为联合工作重塑(Co-crafting)。他认为联合工作重塑是一种新的工作重塑方式, 组织管理者的参与避免了任由员工进行工作重塑造成的与组织目标冲突问题。表1列出了组织管理者参与工作重塑干预的方式。

表1   组织管理者参与工作重塑干预的方式

管理者参与 好处
承认工作重塑能够自然发生。 更重视工作重塑。
引导并激励员工主动采取一定的工作重塑策略。 引导和帮助那些不知道工作重塑程序和方法的员工。
引导员工建立互利观念(组织鼓励那些与组织目标一致的重塑行为)。 避免任由员工重塑工作导致绩效下降。
传达组织目标, 以避免不正常的重塑行为。 避免员工的重塑行为与组织目标冲突。
清晰明确地告诉员工, 其个人目标与其他员工和团队目标之间相互依赖的关系。 减少任务相互依赖的限制; 避免侵犯他人, 同时能够增强合作。
增强员工对工作的掌控。 避免缺乏必要的自主权带来的问题。
帮助员工寻找进行工作重塑的机会。 强化工作重塑的积极结果。
鼓励员工进行关系重塑以建立高质量的关系。 增强工作重塑给员工带来的幸福感; 增强合作。
鼓励员工进行扩充型工作重塑。 提高员工的工作投入水平。
与员工保持沟通, 不断交流工作重塑的利弊。 能够及时纠正员工错误的重塑行为。

资料来源:修改自Schoberova (2015)

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工作重塑干预融合了工作设计与工作重塑的优点, 提供了一种员工与组织管理者双向互动的工作再设计新形式。依据Bruning和Campion (2018)角色和资源的分类方法, 将工作重塑干预分为角色重塑干预和资源重塑干预。

角色重塑干预基于角色视角, 是组织管理者从任务、认知和关系方面引导和激励员工进行工作重塑的行为(Berg, Dutton, & Wrzesniewski, 2008; Schoberova, 2015; Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001)。这种方式与Wrzesniewski和Dutton (2001)关于工作重塑的定义相对应, 组织管理者引导员工调整工作角色确定的工作内容、工作关系等。Schoberova (2015)设计的工作重塑练习就属于角色重塑干预, 工作重塑练习是一种岗前培训, 员工在讲习班中接受训练, 就工作任务与组织管理者讨论各自的看法, 制定完善工作任务的计划, 在正式进入职场后, 员工将实施制定的计划。角色重塑干预提供了一种互动的视觉工具, 将员工和组织管理者的注意力集中在利用和改善工作要素上, 帮助个体实现工作与其认知、动机和偏好之间的最佳匹配, 增强其工作满意度。

资源重塑干预基于资源视角, 是组织管理者对员工的能力做出正式评价之后, 引导和鼓励员工通过获取资源、减少阻碍性工作要求以提高效率的行为。这种方式与Tims等(2012)对工作重塑的理解一致, 组织管理者引导员工结合组织目标平衡其工作资源和工作要求(Bakker & Demerouti, 2014)。van den Heuvel等(2012)遵循工作要求-资源理论设计并实施的第一项工作重塑干预准实验就是资源重塑干预的研究。在实施过程中, 被干预者需要参加两次培训, 第一阶段的培训包括工作分析、个人分析、综合分析以及制定工作重塑计划。在这一阶段, 干预者需要帮助被干预者明确工作中的风险和阻碍因素, 重塑目标和所采取的行动, 制定出重塑计划。在此之后, 被干预者将在其工作中实施重塑计划。第二阶段的培训发生在重塑计划实施之后, 被干预者就其培训效果做出评价, 并与干预者探讨如何保持持续的重塑行为。而后学者们的干预设计均是在van den Heuvel等(2012)的基础上进行的。

无论何种重塑干预方式, 本质上均属于主动性行为干预的范畴, 遵循Grant和Ashford (2008)提出的未来主动性研究应相互借鉴的原则, 并为了更好地理解工作重塑干预的独特内涵, 将工作重塑干预与“目标设置计划”、“主动成长训练”以及“个人主动性培训”进行比较。

目标设置计划和主动成长训练是主动性行为干预的早期成果, 均为针对大学生的干预措施, 不同的是目标设置计划以目标为导向, 将重点放在目标的制定上(Dalton & Spiller, 2012; Morisano, Hirsh, Peterson, Pihl, & Shore, 2010); 而主动成长训练侧重培养个人成长主动性(在认知和行为上主动提升自己的倾向), 不仅包含设置目标和制定计划, 还注重实施行动, 强调学生走出舒适区(指一个人习惯的心理状态和行为模式), 制定新的应对策略来处理焦虑情绪的重要性(Robitschek et al., 2012), 因而它超越了目标设置计划(Thoen & Robitschek, 2013)。

个人主动性培训和工作重塑干预是近几年主动性行为干预的发展成果, 被干预主体从学生转向企业内部人员, 这就使得目标设置计划和主动成长训练与工作重塑干预存在本质区别, 因而本文着重将个人主动性培训与工作重塑干预进行比较。个人主动性培训是培养受训者自发性和主动性心态的干预方式, 有助于塑造小微企业创始人的企业家精神(Campos et al., 2017)。个人主动性培训和工作重塑干预都会引起被干预者有目的有意识的改变, 在干预场所、干预目的、干预实施方式以及干预内容等方面有所区别(见表2)。

表2   工作重塑干预与个人主动性培训的比较

比较 个人主动性培训 工作重塑干预
被干预者 企业家(组织管理者) 员工
干预场所 小微企业 所有工作
干预目的 主动性心态
创新性思维
与组织目标一致的员工重塑行为
组织管理者的角色 被干预者 干预者
干预实施方式 培训 培训以及引导、鼓励和支持
干预内容 为期4周, 每周3次, 每次半天。
包括自发性行为、创新思维、识别和开发新机会、目标设定、规划、反馈以及克服障碍的培训。
为期6周, 经历6个核心环节, 包括工作分析、个人分析、综合分析、制定个人重塑计划、评价培训效果以及持续工作重塑。

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从个人主动性培训和工作重塑干预的比较中可以得出, 个人主动性培训更应该发生在工作重塑干预之前。对小微企业组织管理者进行的主动性培训, 增强了其企业的可持续盈利能力(Campos et al., 2017), 小微企业更有可能发展成熟, 从而拥有更多的员工。组织管理者经过前期培训具备的主动性思维和心态, 更重视对员工的重塑行为, 更有可能实施工作重塑干预, 因而本文认为对组织管理者进行的个人主动性培训应该发生在工作重塑干预之前, 且有助于工作重塑干预的实施。

3 工作重塑干预的影响效果

3.1 近端影响效果

工作重塑干预实施效果的研究已成为当前组织行为学研究的热点, 但尚处于起步阶段。工作重塑干预本质上是组织管理者引导员工进行工作重塑的行为, 因而直接影响工作重塑。具体而言:

工作重塑干预主要通过影响员工的重塑能力、重塑动机和重塑机会, 从而激发其各种重塑行为。工作重塑干预过程中, 组织管理者需要以案例学习或分享的形式对员工进行培训教育, 通过工作重塑知识的学习能够帮助员工提高重塑能力(徐长江, 陈实, 2018; van den Heuvel et al., 2012; van Wingerden, Bakker, & Derks, 2017b)。且, 组织管理者的干预提高了员工对重塑结果的积极预期, 重塑意义的传递增强了员工重塑工作的兴趣, 从而激发了员工的重塑动机(Bakker & Demerouti, 2014; Demerouti et al., 2011; Petrou & Demerouti, 2015)。同时, 组织管理者在干预中需要与员工就其个体特质、工作任务、工作资源和工作要求进行综合分析, 帮助员工重新审视自己以及所面对的工作, 从而寻找重塑机会。重塑能力的提高、重塑动机的增强以及重塑机会的挖掘促使员工产生实际的工作重塑行为。

诸多学者的研究也证实工作重塑干预能够促进员工的重塑行为。Bakker和Demerouti (2014)指出组织管理者能够引导员工更好地利用其优势, 使得员工更主动地结合组织目标重塑自身工作。van den Heuvel等(2012)做的第一项工作重塑干预准实验研究发现干预能够鼓励员工积极调整工作要求和工作资源。随后2013年van Wingerden等(2013)的另一项研究也表明干预之后员工更加重视工作重塑, 也意识到了工作重塑的重要性, 并能够在工作中保持持续的重塑行为(van Wingerden et al., 2017b)。另有学者特别指出, 工作重塑干预能够帮助员工增加其个人资源, 使他们学会称赞别人并欣然接受别人的赞美, 从而感知工作愉快且富有活力, 更加有“精力”和“灵感”来进行工作重塑(van Wingerden, Derks, & Bakker, 2017)。

3.2 远端影响结果

工作重塑干预能够促进员工的各种重塑行为, 而激发员工的重塑行为并不是组织管理者干预活动的最终目的, 满足员工需求(例如, 提高工作满意度)和实现组织目标(例如, 提高绩效水平)才是重塑干预者追求的结果。为更好地分析不同类型的工作重塑方式对特定结果的影响, 本文基于角色-资源接近-回避模型, 将员工的重塑行为划分为接近角色重塑、接近资源重塑、回避角色重塑和回避资源重塑四种(Bruning & Campion, 2018)。角色重塑和资源重塑对应Wrzesniewski和Dutton (2001)Tims等(2012)对工作重塑的定义, 接近重塑是积极的、努力的、有动力的。回避重塑是消极的、逃避工作的。在此基础上, 归纳和提炼了工作重塑的影响结果, 这一结果是从工作重塑干预出发, 通过员工的重塑行为实现的, 即工作重塑干预的远端影响结果。

3.2.1 工作意义和工作满意度

工作意义和工作满意度是接近角色重塑的核心结果变量。工作意义指的是个体感知到的工作对个人的价值和作用。接近角色重塑通过调整任务和关系边界改变了工作特征, 比如, 选择多样化的任务, 选择自己认为重要的工作内容, 建立有价值的社会关系等。工作特征模型指出, 任务多样性、任务重要性能够提高员工的意义感知(Bruning & Campion, 2018; Tims, Derks, & Bakker, 2016; Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001)。工作满意度指员工对工作的情感或态度。接近角色重塑给与了员工一定的自主权, 使得员工成为自己的“工作建筑师”, 能够对工作任务和关系做出符合个人偏好的调整, 调整之后的工作包含了个人在工作中真正喜爱的部分, 提高了工作满意度(Beer, Tims, & Bakker, 2016)。且一个对工作有话语权的员工比一般员工有更高的工作满意(才国伟, 刘剑雄, 2013)。

3.2.2 工作绩效

工作绩效是接近资源重塑的核心结果变量。员工通过积累、保护资源和减少要求, 有效地达成了工作目标。同时资源的累积和要求的降低增强了个体对工作的心理和情感投入, 这些都有助于工作绩效的提升(Tims et al., 2012)。而目前从工作重塑干预出发, 探讨干预后的资源重塑行为影响工作绩效的研究结论并不一致, 大部分学者认为其对工作绩效有积极影响。Bakker和Xanthopoulou (2013)van Wingerden等(2017)基于教师的研究发现资源重塑能够显著提高员工的角色内绩效。Rai (2018)的研究也发现干预后员工的重塑行为倾向于增加个人资源, 个人资源的增加有助于员工发挥主观能动性, 对工作绩效有积极影响。这些研究均检验的是短期效应, van Wingerden等(2017b)的研究也检验了长期效应, 发现工作重塑对被干预者1年之后的角色内绩效产生积极作用, 而在短期内对绩效却没有积极影响。Tims, Bakker和Derks (2013)van Wingerden等(2017)的研究同样发现短期内干预后的资源重塑不能提高绩效水平。这主要是因为员工增加挑战性的工作要求之后需要时间, 比如, 承担新项目要求员工学习新技能, 因而绩效不会立刻上升, 且学习新技能需要投入更多额外时间, 不仅影响了完成其他任务的时间, 也影响了员工对目前绩效水平的感知, 因此在以自我报告式的检验中绩效没有提升。

3.2.3 工作投入

接近重塑(角色和资源)都会影响工作投入。接近角色重塑对工作设计做出的改善, 增强了员工与工作的匹配度, 提高了工作投入(Chen, Yen, & Tsai, 2014)。van Wingerden等(2017a)认为那些进行角色重塑的员工满足了其基本需求, 员工更愿意投入工作。接近资源重塑通过增加有效资源并减少阻碍性的工作要求对工作投入产生积极影响。van Wingerden等(2017b)的研究发现, 参与重塑干预后的员工更有能力调动自己的资源和工作要求, 而这一调动过程就是工作重塑, 从而有利于个体投入工作以保持其工作要求和资源之间的平衡, 且一旦员工变得投入, 持续的工作重塑行为能够帮助其维持较高的投入水平(Tims et al., 2013)。Gordon等(2018)基于医疗行业做的一项研究中发现, 干预后员工通过增加挑战性的工作要求(接近资源重塑)能够对工作投入产生积极影响, 其结果与Sakuraya, Shimazu, Imamura, Namba和Kawakami (2016)的研究结论一致。

3.2.4 工作退缩

回避重塑(角色和资源)容易导致工作退缩。正如Grant和Ashford (2008)的研究所显示的那样, 干预后员工的重塑行为也可能出现效果不明显或者负面效应的情况。van Wingerden等(2017)的研究结果表明干预后员工对其工作要求和工作资源有了更深入的了解和认知, 当他们发现其实际工作要求比干预之前意识到的更多的时候, 可能会削弱其工作动力, 造成职业倦怠, 对工作中的阻碍因素采取忽视或回避态度造成阻碍因素持续存在并不断扩大, 最终导致员工退缩, 比如心理退缩、离职倾向等。

4 工作重塑干预影响效应整合模型

区别于以往“点”的研究, 本文借用AMO的理论框架, 从员工的重塑能力、重塑动机和重塑机会三个方面, 对个体与组织管理者干预交互作用影响工作意义、工作满意度、工作绩效等以及工作场所退缩行为的内在机制做出系统的解释, 并在此基础上, 构建一个整合的理论分析框架(如图1)。

图1

图1   工作重塑干预影响效应整合模型


4.1 近端中介效应

AMO理论来源于Vroom等的个体行为绩效模型, 将机会(O)引入到行为绩效=f(能力×动机)中, 认为个体的绩效不仅取决于能力(A)与动机(M), 还受到组织提供的机会影响, 三者共同决定了个体的行为绩效。个体的行为特质差异自然会影响其能力、动机及获取的机会, 组织管理者干预也会对能力、动机产生影响, 同时会改变组织提供的机会因素(Parker, Bindl, & Strauss, 2010)。基于此, 从组织管理者的重塑干预以及个体行为特质为出发点, 探讨两者交互情境下对个体重塑行为的内在影响机制, 必然会受到AMO因素的影响。

4.1.1 以重塑能力为核心的内在解释机制

Appelbaum, Bailey, Berg, Kalleberg和Bailey (2000)认为影响员工行为与绩效的能力指个体有效从事一项活动的心理和认知能力, 包括专业领域的知识和技能, 比如较强的主动性思维、打破束缚的能力、积极采纳新观点或新见解等。具备这些知识和技能的员工相比普通员工, 其重塑能力更强。因此, 基于AMO理论的模型框架, 从工作重塑产生的能力视角出发, 高重塑能力的个体能够熟练运用上述知识与技能, 主动打破“束缚”,重塑自身工作。

在重塑干预情境下, 组织管理者干预也会影响员工的重塑能力。比如, 组织管理者通过重塑干预帮助员工重新认识自我与工作; 学习工作重塑相关知识; 分析个体优势及工作中的阻碍因素等, 都在不同程度上提高了员工的重塑能力。因而进行工作重塑的个体, 不仅会受到个体因素(比如, 知识和技能)的影响, 还受到工作重塑干预这一组织情境因素的交互影响, 二者的交互作用有助于激发员工的重塑行为。

4.1.2 以重塑动机为核心的内在解释机制

个体的重塑动机指的是影响员工完成重塑活动的心理和情绪因素。根据自我评价理论对动机的划分, 个体的重塑动机有内在重塑动机和外在重塑动机两类。相比外在重塑动机, 当员工被内在重塑动机激励时, 个体更善于持续的探索, 并在面临困难、失败时能够坚持下来。自我决定理论也认为, 个体倾向于保持自我一致性, 即如果个体追求的目标的理由是自己的内在兴趣, 那么他实现目标的可能性更大。因而自我评价理论和自我决定理论都认为, 当个体被内在动机激励时, 他们会增加投入帮助个体维持这种状态。

基于AMO理论的模型框架, 从工作重塑产生的动机视角出发, 个体的某些行为特质, 比如, 自我效能感(个体相信自己能够完成某项任务的程度)会影响其重塑动机。社会认知理论认为, 个体的自我效能感越高, 其从事某项活动的积极性也越高。因此, 高自我效能感的员工会增加投入重塑活动的时间、注意力等, 以保持这种积极情绪, 从而促进了重塑行为的发生。

但是, 受个体所处环境的影响, 有时候员工的内在重塑动机不会直接产生重塑行为, 而组织管理者重塑干预能够有效地促成员工的重塑行为。在重塑干预过程中, 组织管理者的期望、互动和支持等因素都会直接或间接对工作场所中的员工内在动机产生影响。同时, 组织管理者在重塑干预过程为员工创造的相对自由的工作情境, 给与的奖励和反馈等因素会影响员工的外在重塑动机。自我决定理论和期望理论都认为, 当个体感知到外部动机符合自我偏好, 对目标实现有帮助时, 会自动将外部激励转化为内在动机或强化内在动机。因而组织管理者足够的外部激励会充分影响员工的内在动机, 促使员工产生所期望的行为。比如, 个体感知组织管理者的奖励是对自己重塑行为的认可, 且奖励和重塑行为都有助于满足自我需求时, 会采取行动(工作重塑)以维持这种被激励的状态。因而个体和组织管理者重塑干预的交互作用会直接影响员工的内在动机, 或影响外在动机而间接影响内在动机, 最终对个体的重塑行为产生积极影响。

4.1.3 以重塑机会为核心的内在解释机制

个体的重塑机会指的是推动个体重塑行为的不可控的外部环境因素, 包括自主权、信息、组织支持等。自主权指的是员工在工作中对所从事的事情不受他人干涉和影响, 自行支配的权利, 员工从事自主性强的工作比自主性差的工作拥有更多机会(吴启涛, 栾贞增, 2017)。信息指的是员工获取和处理多样化信息的能力, 特质系统交换理论指出个体积极行为的产生是在现有知识基础上, 对获得的多样化信息不断加工处理实现的, 因此信息的多样化有利于员工的重塑行为。组织支持指的是组织管理者对员工的引导和激励作用。

结合上述分析, 基于AMO理论的模型框架, 从工作重塑产生的机会视角出发, 个体的特征因素(开放性特质、积极情绪)与组织管理者重塑干预的交互作用会影响个体所获取得自主权、信息和组织支持, 从而为个体的重塑行为创造更多“机会”。工作重塑干预是组织管理者引导和鼓励员工重塑行为的手段, 直接增强了员工获得的“机会”因素, 与此同时, 个体的稳定特质(主动性人格、社会关系)差异也会影响其重塑机会。比如具备主动性人格的个体更擅长沟通及获取支持, 也更愿意采取积极的态度解决工作中的阻碍因素; 倾向于建立强社会关系的个体, 其个人资源和获取的信息多于弱联系的个体, 这些因素强化了员工重塑自身工作的机会因素。

4.2 远端结果效应

综上, 工作重塑干预通过增强个体的重塑能力、重塑动机和重塑机会激发了员工的各种重塑行为。个体从事积极的角色重塑有利于提高工作意义感知、工作满意度, 并对工作投入产生积极影响(Bruning & Campion, 2018; Cheng & Yi, 2018)。而从事积极的资源重塑有利于提升绩效和工作投入水平(Beer et al., 2016; van Wingerden et al., 2017)。反之, 也会产生消极影响, 比如工作退缩。

5 工作重塑干预现有研究的局限性及未来展望

5.1 现有研究的局限性

工作重塑干预结合了工作设计与工作重塑的优点, 对组织和个人都有积极影响, 因此引起了国内外学者的关注, 但相关研究仍处于起步阶段, 在影响因素、准实验设计、参与者选取、结果变量、调节效应以及中介机制的研究上还有很多提升空间。具体而言:(1)现有文献缺少对工作重塑影响因素的研究; (2)准实验设计采用非随机分配的方式, 难以区分干预效果是受干预行为影响还是由于一开始的非随机分组造成的; (3)工作重塑干预的参与者均来自同一工作场所, 其面对的社会期望和群体压力可能会影响干预效果; (4)缺少干预的调节效应研究; (5)在中介机制的研究上没有提出多种可能的中介效应。未来研究可重点关注工作重塑干预的影响因素, 工作重塑干预的中介机制和调节效应, 以及基于中国情境的工作重塑干预。

5.2 未来研究展望

5.2.1 影响因素的研究

现有研究表明, 工作重塑干预对员工有积极影响, 那么是否在任何情况下对所有员工, 工作重塑的干预效果都是一样的?如果不一样, 其影响因素是什么?根据现有研究, 我们推测处于不同的职业生涯阶段(年龄)、主动性人格会影响工作重塑干预效果。当员工处于职业生涯的早期(年龄较小), 他更重视个人的未来发展, 更愿意增加工作资源和结构性、挑战性工作要求, 且个体行为更容易被引导, 因此重塑干预的作用更显著; 当员工处于职业生涯的后期(年龄大), 员工在增加结构性工作资源和挑战性工作要求上的关注更少, 相反可能更加关注社会性工作资源(关系)的改善。年龄的差异化影响已经得到了部分支持(Kooij, Van Woerkom, Wilkenloh, Dorenbosch, & Denissen, 2017)。具备主动性人格的个体会积极响应组织管理者的重塑干预, 在提高工作要求及减少组织约束方面表现得更好(Li, Fay, Frese, Harms, & Gao, 2014)。这样容易造成主动性低的员工压力大和面子丢失等问题, 他们也会面临人际关系风险。因此, 组织管理者需要考虑针对不同主动性程度的群体采取有差异的干预方法。未来可开展更多相关的定性和实证研究。

5.2.2 中介机制和调节效应的研究

中介机制:现有研究表明, 在工作重塑干预和工作绩效之间存在中介效应, 比如工作重塑, 那么是否存在更多的中介效应?根据现有研究, 我们推测员工-工作匹配、工作满意等能够中介工作重塑干预与相关结果变量之间的关系, 工作重塑干预引导员工结合自身需求和组织目标调整工作, 从而增强了人岗匹配度。匹配度的提高使得员工投入的知识和技能等满足了工作要求, 同时员工获得了自身成长和组织认可, 因而感知到的工作意义增强, 工作绩效也随之提升。且员工-工作匹配的中介作用已得到了现有研究的关注(Gordon et al., 2018)。调节效应:目前现有文献尚没有涉及调节效应的研究, 借鉴关于工作重塑调节效应的研究, 我们认为领导-成员交换关系(LMX)、主动性人格等能够调节工作重塑干预与相关结果变量之间的关系。LMX具有正向调节作用, 高质量的LMX会提高下属的圈内人身份感知, 从而增强了下属的主人翁意识和责任感等动机因素, 有利于工作重塑干预发挥积极作用; 主动性人格也具有正向调节作用, 具备主动性人格特质的个体能够主动识别工作中存在的潜在问题, 想出解决办法并予以实施, 因而更愿意接受组织管理者重塑干预的引导。未来可开展更多相关的定性和实证研究。

5.2.3 基于中国情境的工作重塑干预

目前为止, 我国还没有出现工作重塑干预的实证研究, 在定性研究方面的文章也很少。未来国内学者可就基于中国情境的工作重塑干预展开调查研究, 具体来说:首先, 我国更重视“集体主义” (田喜洲等, 2017), 集体主义倾向使得员工在重塑干预后更愿意进行的是团队(合作)工作重塑, 即员工通过共同合作改变工作过程。这是因为, 中国人重视集体合作的力量, 且希望避免由于个体的过度积极造成的同事关系僵化等问题, 因此在中国情境下, 合作工作重塑可能比个人工作重塑更具有实践价值。其次, 中国人强调和他人(上级和同事)的关系(职场友谊), 且在关系处理上多以“人情”关系为导向。因而重塑干预后, 员工可能更加重视关系的重塑, 任务重塑和认知重塑也可能因为“和谐”文化而在内容和形式上有所改变, 比如更具有柔性。最后, 权利距离的影响。在中国的企业内部, 管理者与下属之间的权利距离相对西方国家更大, 高权利距离意味着员工参与决策的程度较低, 因而领导的作用显得尤为重要, 如何处理上下级关系, 如何赋权(包括心理赋权), 如何调动下属积极性以最大限度发挥工作重塑干预的积极影响值得进一步深入的探讨。

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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address regulatory focus (promotion vs prevention) as a trait-level variable and a week-level variable linked to employee job crafting behaviors (i.e. seeking resources, seeking challenges and reducing demands). The authors hypothesized that while promotion focus relates positively to seeking resources and seeking challenges, prevention focus relates positively to reducing demands. Furthermore, the authors expected that the links between week-level regulatory focus and crafting would be stronger when the respective trait-level regulatory focus is high. Design/methodology/approach – Two studies were conducted to address the aims, namely, a cross-sectional survey among 580 civil servants and a weekly survey among 81 employees of several occupations. Findings – The hypothesized links between regulatory focus and job crafting were supported at the trait- and the week-level. Only the link between week-level prevention focus and reducing demands was stronger when trait-level prevention focus was high. Unexpectedly, seeking resources positively related to prevention focus at the week-level. Practical implications – While prevention states may enhance reducing demands behaviors especially for prevention focussed employees, organizations and managers may use promotion states to enhance seeking resources and seeking challenges behaviors among all types of employees and, thereby, shape a strategy emphasizing the promotion values of growth and development. Originality/value – The findings shed light to a diverse range of employee motivational orientations (i.e. approach vs avoidance and trait-like vs state-like) behind job crafting and, thus, shed light to individual correlates of job crafting.

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This study focused on daily job crafting and explored its contextual determinants and one motivational outcome (i.e., work engagement). Job crafting was conceptualized as “seeking resources,” “seeking challenges,” and “reducing demands.” Participants were 95 employees from several organizations who completed a 5-day diary survey. As hypothesized, we found a 3-factor structure for the job crafting instrument, both at the general and day levels. We hypothesized and found that the combination of high day-level work pressure and high day-level autonomy (active jobs) was associated with higher day-level seeking resources and lower day-level reducing demands. Furthermore, we found that day-level seeking challenges (but not resources) was positively associated with day-level work engagement, whereas day-level reducing demands was negatively associated with day-level work engagement. Findings suggest that job crafting is a daily employee behavior with implications for management practice and future research. Copyright 08 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Industrial & Commercial Training, 50, (4), 200-208.

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Robitschek C., Ashton M. W., Spering C. C., Geiger N., Byers D., Schotts G. C., & Thoen M . ( 2012).

Development and psychometric evaluation of the personal growth initiative scale-ii

Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, (2), 274-287.

URL     PMID:22352950     

The original Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) was unidimensional, despite theory identifying multiple components (e.g., cognition and behavior) of personal growth initiative (PGI). The present research developed a multidimensional measure of the complex process of PGI, while retaining the brief and psychometrically sound properties of the original scale. Study 1 focused on scale development, including theoretical derivation of items, assessing factor structure, reducing number of items, and refining the scale length using samples of college students. Study 2 consisted of confirmatory factor analysis with 3 independent samples of college students and community members. Lastly, Study 3 assessed test-retest reliability over 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week periods and tests of concurrent and discriminant validity using samples of college students. The final measure, the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II), includes 4 subscales: Readiness for Change, Planfulness, Using Resources, and Intentional Behavior. These studies provide exploratory and confirmatory evidence for the 4-factor structure, strong internal consistency for the subscales and overall score across samples, acceptable temporal stability at all assessed intervals, and concurrent and discriminant validity of the PGIS-II. Future directions for research and clinical practice are discussed.

Sakuraya A., Shimazu A., Imamura K., Namba K., & Kawakami N . ( 2016).

Effects of a job crafting intervention program on work engagement among Japanese employees: A pretest-posttest study

BMC psychology, 4, (1), 49.

URL     PMID:5078879      [本文引用: 1]

Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees’ well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan. The job crafting intervention program consisted of two 120-min sessions with a two-week interval between them. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (Time 1), post-intervention (Time 2), and a one-month follow-up (Time 3). The mixed growth model analyses were conducted using time (Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3) as an indicator of intervention effect. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen’s d. The program showed a significant positive effect on work engagement (t65=652.20,p=650.03) in the mixed growth model analyses, but with only small effect sizes (Cohen’s d65=650.33 at Time 2 and 0.26 at Time 3). The program also significantly improved job crafting (t65=652.36,p=650.02: Cohen’s d65=650.36 at Time 2 and 0.47 at Time 3) and reduced psychological distress (t65=65612.06,p=650.04: Cohen’s d65=65610.15 at Time 2 and 610.31 at Time 3). The study indicated that the newly developed job crafting intervention program was effective in increasing work engagement, as well as in improving job crafting and decreasing psychological distress, among Japanese managers. UMIN Clinical Trials RegistryUMIN000024062. Retrospectively registered 15 September 2016.

Schoberova M . ( 2015).

Job crafting and personal development in the workplace: Employees and managers co-creating meaningful and productive work in personal development discussions (pp. 3-36)

University of Pennsylvania, from https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?referer.

[本文引用: 5]

Staw B.M., &Boettger R.D . ( 1990).

Task revision: A neglected form of work performance

Academy of Management Journal, 33, (3), 534-559.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study addressed the problem of task revision, a virtually unresearched issue in the work performance literature. We defined task revision as action taken to correct a faulty procedure, an inaccurate job description, or a role expectation that is dysfunctional for an organization. Two experiments were constructed to measure task revision and test for its determinants. Results showed that goal setting inhibited task revision: instructions to "do your best" were superior to a specific goal. Facilitators of task revision were the salience of alternatives and being in a supervisory position with accountability pressures. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of the functions of counter-role behavior for organizations and the need to broaden the construct of work performance.

Sturges J . ( 2012).

Crafting a balance between work and home

Human Relations, 65, (12), 1539-1559.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored the unofficial techniques and activities that individuals use to shape their own work–life balance. It theorizes that this behaviour may be usefully conceptualized as physical, relational and cognitive work–life balance crafting. It identifies the physical, relational and cognitive techniques that young professionals employ to manage their work–life balance and shows that distinct approaches to work–life balance crafting exist, each of which features a specific range of techniques.

Thoen M.A., &Robitschek C. ( 2013).

Intentional growth training: Developing an intervention to increase personal growth initiative

Applied Psychology: Health and Well- being, 5, (2), 149-170.

URL     PMID:23292959      [本文引用: 3]

Background: A one-week intervention (Intentional Growth Training; IGT) to increase personal growth initiative (PGI) was created and tested in a series of studies to determine its effect on PGI level. Because PGI predicts psychological well-being and depression, IGT has potential to have considerable benefit on a person's mental health. Methods: Study 1 was the initial assessment of whether IGT increased PGI greater than various control conditions. Study 2 employed an enhanced version of IGT and utilised the singular components of IGT determining which components were most impactful at increasing PGI. Study 3 was a narrative analysis of writing samples from Study 2 determining whether participant language varied by condition in use of negative or positive emotion, or personal growth-related words. Results: In Study 1, PGI increased significantly across conditions. In Study 2, the growth activity only condition, and PGI education coupled with the growth activity, produced significant increases in PGI. In Study 3, those receiving only PGI education used more growth-related words than control conditions. Conclusion: The most effective IGT format appears to include both education about PGI and a growth activity. The benefits of utilising IGT are discussed.

Tims M., Bakker A. B., & Derks D . ( 2012).

Development and validation of the job crafting scale

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, (1), 173-186.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

78 We developed and validated a generic job crafting scale. 78 Job crafting is about self-initiated changes in job demands and job resources. 78 Job crafting is helpful to attain and/or optimize employee's personal (work) goals. 78 Job crafting scale shows convergent validity with proactive behavior constructs. 78 Job crafting scale shows criterion validity with peer-rated outcome measures.

Tims M., Bakker A. B., & Derks D . ( 2013).

The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, (2), 230-240.

URL     PMID:23506549      [本文引用: 1]

This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.

Tims M., Derks D., & Bakker A. B . ( 2016).

Job crafting and its relationships with person-job fit and meaningfulness: A three-wave study

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 92, 44-53.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

61Longitudinal study testing relationships among job crafting, fit and meaningful work61Results show that job crafting predicts person–job fit in the next week.61Moreover, person–job fit in turn predicts meaningful work the following week.61Person–job fit is assessed with demands–abilities fit and needs–supplies fit.61Job crafting indirectly relates to meaningful work via demands–abilities fit only.

van den Heuvel M., Demerouti E., & Peeters, M. C. W . ( 2012).

Succesvol job craften door middel van een groepstraining

Scherp in werk, 5, 27-49.

[本文引用: 5]

van Wingerden J., Bakker A. B., & Derks D . ( 2017 a).

Fostering employee well-being via a job crafting intervention

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100, 164-174.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This study examined the impact of an intervention based on Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory. We hypothesized that the intervention would influence participants' job crafting behaviors, as well as their basic need satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized a positive impact on participants work engagement. In addition to the proposed intervention effects, we expected that job crafting would have a positive relationship with work engagement, through basic need satisfaction. The study used a quasi-experimental design with an experimental group and a control group. Teachers completed measures pre- and post-intervention. Results of analyses of variance were largely in line with our predictions. In the intervention group, job crafting, basic need satisfaction, and work engagement increased over time. In the control group, no significant changes were found on all variables. In addition, the results of the analysis confirmed the hypothesized mediation. We discuss the implications of these findings for both JD-R theory and practice.

van Wingerden J., Bakker A. B., & Derks D . ( 2017 b).

The longitudinal impact of a job crafting intervention

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, (1), 107-119.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

(2016). The longitudinal impact of a job crafting intervention. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2016.1224233

van Wingerden J., Derks D., & Bakker A. B . ( 2017).

The impact of personal resources and job crafting interventions on work engagement and performance

Human Resource Management, 56, (1), 51-67.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Abstract This study examined the impact of organizational interventions on work engagement and performance. Based on the job demands–resources model, we hypothesized that a personal resources intervention and a job crafting intervention would have a positive impact on work engagement and performance. We used a quasi-experimental design with a control group. Primary school teachers participated in the study at two time points with six weeks between the measurements ( N = 102). The results showed that the personal resources intervention had a positive causal effect on work engagement. Additionally, the joint personal resources and job crafting intervention had a positive impact on self-ratings of job performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice. 08 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

van Wingerden J., Derks D., Bakker A. B., & Dorenbosch L . ( 2013).

Job crafting in schools for special education: A qualitative analysis

Gedrag en Organisatie, 26, (1), 85-103.

[本文引用: 1]

Wrzesniewski A., Dutton J.E .( 2001).

Crafting a Job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work

Academy of Management Journal, 26, (2), 179-201.

[本文引用: 9]

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