心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 700-710 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00700

研究前沿

不道德传染的心理机制及其影响

王悦1, 龚园超1,2,3, 李莹,1

1郑州大学教育学院, 郑州 450001

2中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101

3中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049

The mental mechanism of immoral contagion and its effects

WANG Yue1, GONG Yuanchao1,2,3, LI Ying,1

1 School of Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China

2 Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

3 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

通讯作者: 李莹, E-mail: liying@zzu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-06-5   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

基金资助: * 河南省哲学社会科学规划项目.  2018BYY024
河南省教育厅人文社会科学项目.  2018-ZZJH-Z527
河南省教师教育课程改革项目支持.  2017-JSJYYB-037

Received: 2018-06-5   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

不道德传染, 是指道德违法者作为传染源将消极道德品质直接传递给传染对象, 或先传递给道德中性物品, 再由此物品传递给受传染对象, 引起其情绪、认知、生理等方面变化的过程。本文主要讨论了不道德传染发生的心理机制——厌恶, 围绕不道德传染对道德心理领域(道德情绪以及道德认知过程)产生的影响进行梳理; 进而将视角拓宽到非道德层面, 如具身认知、组织管理以及人际互动, 探究其对人类社会的广泛影响。最后, 从不同文化视阈、不同个体差异、传染过程的动态神经机制及正向道德传染等方面为研究提供新的思路。

关键词: 不道德传染 ; 厌恶 ; 道德心理学 ; 非道德视角

Abstract

Immoral contagion refers to the process where a moral transgressor as a source of contagion directly or with the help of a morally neutral agent indirectly transfers the negative moral essence to a target, causing emotional, cognitive or physiological changes. The present review aims to, firstly, clarify the mental mechanism under immoral contagion -- disgust, on the basis of which the impact immoral contagion has on the field of moral psychology (moral emotion and moral cognition) is illustrated; then we expand the perspective to embodied cognition, organization and management as well as interpersonal interaction in order to explore the universal impact of immoral contagion on human society. Finally, future research is guided toward cross-cultural comparison, personal differences, the neural mechanism of dynamic process of contagion and positive moral contagion for a more thorough understanding of moral contagion.

Keywords: immoral contagion ; disgust ; moral psychology ; non-moral perspective

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本文引用格式

王悦, 龚园超, 李莹. (2019). 不道德传染的心理机制及其影响. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 700-710

WANG Yue, GONG Yuanchao, LI Ying. (2019). The mental mechanism of immoral contagion and its effects. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 700-710

心理传染(psychological contagion)是指一种心理本质特性(essences)在人与物体、人与人之间的传递。心理传染通常以某一个体为传染源, 另一个体作为传染对象, 二者通过物体、言语甚至想象等媒介联系起来(Hejmadi, Rozin, & Siegal, 2004; Nemeroff & Rozin, 2000)。这种本质特性可以带有具体的生物学特征, 如相比于非艾滋病人穿过的衣服, 人们更愿意接受属于艾滋病人但却没有被其穿过的衣服, 且这种选择倾向不受传染时间及接触的身体部位而发生变化(Nemeroff & Rozin, 1994; Rozin, Markwith, & Nemeroff, 1992)。本质特性也可以是抽象的能力表现及情绪情感——如学生更愿意穿成绩优异者的运动衫以期自己在考试中有更好的表现(Albas & Albas, 1989); 消极情绪如内疚、积极情绪如喜悦等也都可以通过人际互动得以传递(Gino, Gu & Zhong, 2009; Fowler & Christakis, 2009)。

当传递的本质特性关乎道德品质时, 就发生道德传染(moral contagion)。道德传染是传染法则的一种具体表现形式, 它可以用Mauss (1972)的一句话来概括:“Once in contact, always in contact”。其中, 消极道德品质的传染过程又被称为不道德传染(immoral contagion), 它是指道德违法者(moral transgressor)作为传染源将消极道德品质直接传递给传染对象, 或先传递给道德中性物品, 再由此物品传递给受传染对象, 引起其情绪、认知、生理等方面产生变化的过程(Tapp & Occhipinti, 2016)。国外对不道德传染的研究已进行了20多年, 成果较丰富, 相比之下, 国内对此领域的研究开展尚少。本文将在梳理国内外不道德传染相关研究基础上, 对未来研究提供新的视角与思路。

1 道德厌恶在不道德传染中的独特作用

大量的研究结果表明, 无论是在不道德传染过程中还是在传染后作出的相应行为中, 厌恶(Disgust)都起着独一无二的作用(Schur, 2008; Danovitch & Bloom, 2009; 李鸿展, 2014)。Tapp和Occhipinti (2016)运用中介效应分析了愤怒、愉悦、厌恶、悲伤、惊讶等情绪, 结果表明只有厌恶在不道德传染中起中介作用。依据引起厌恶的刺激不同, Rozin, Haidt和Mc Cauley (2000)将厌恶分为四个类别——核心厌恶、动物提醒厌恶、人际厌恶和道德厌恶。从进化的角度看, 厌恶最初表现为人们对入口食物的生理和心理排斥, 因为引发厌恶的刺激通常都涉及病菌感染的威胁, 比如腐败的食物和肮脏的场地; 而后在社会文化和制度发展中, 从身体五官感受引发的身体厌恶通过认知评价逐渐泛化至对接近人体的其他事物及人际、道德排斥, 这是有适应意义的(Rozin, 1999; 叶红燕, 张凤华, 2015)。Rozin, Haidt和Fincher (2009)据此提出厌恶评价系统(Disgust Evaluation System), 认为个体通过该系统评价厌恶源, 位于系统顶端的厌恶源使个体产生受冒犯感和厌恶感, 同时它使得个体对接触过厌恶源的物体(即受“污染”物体)产生具有传染性的信念, 进而引发特定的面部表情、生理体验和行为倾向。正如对苦味的厌恶引发保护性的回避行为, 社会性的厌恶同样有利于表达消极感受从而避免不适当的社会行为, 促进个人社会适应和社会文化发展。所以无论是最原始的核心厌恶源, 还是具有高级社会意义的道德厌恶源, 都可通过厌恶评价系统的心理机制直接对厌恶源做出反应, 或者通过一定媒介受到传染, 并产生相应的应对方式。如同不愿意穿曾被艾滋病或肺结核病人穿过(但已清洗消毒干净)的衣服一样, 人们更不愿意穿具有道德污点的人穿过的衣服(Rozin, Markwith, & McCauley, 1994), 甚至仅仅在脑海中设想将要接近导致厌恶感的传染源, 都会使人产生污染担忧(contamination concern), 进而给予传染源消极评价(Olatunji, Cisler, McKay, & Phillips, 2010; Inbar & Pizarro, 2013)。道德厌恶在认知评价中具有表达道德意图和促进自我调节的功能(Giner- Sorolla, Kupfer, & Sabo, 2018), 因此道德厌恶既是不道德传染产生的前提, 又是其效果(情绪、认知、生理)得以体现的保证。

研究显示, 不同类型的厌恶有不同的神经结构表征(Simpson, Carter, Anthony, & Overton, 2006), 激活的生理反应也不相同(Rohrmann & Hopp, 2008), 层次越低的厌恶所涉及的脑区越单一, 却越有可能在高级厌恶产生过程中被激活。如Ying (2018)等人运用fMRI对脑岛在厌恶分离性功能的研究显示, 前部脑岛(Anterior Insula, AI)在道德厌恶中的作用建立在后部脑岛(Posterior Insula, PI)原始的厌恶功能基础上, 前部脑岛具有更强的整合、调节、不道德裁决的能力, 具有更抽象的心理表征。这可以说明在厌恶评价系统中, 不道德传染既能通过激活“厌恶”语言标签间接通达输出反应, 这是一种隐喻式的联结(Rozin et al., 2009), 也可以通过该系统以认知评价加工输出反应, 综合传染源多维特征作出行为决策(如中性传染媒介承载的道德违法程度的严重性越高, 受“污染”程度越深, 对此媒介的消极评价和回避行为更显著)。来自ERP的证据也表明, 原始的核心厌恶激活最大波幅的N1和P2, 而N2波幅在道德厌恶中最大(Zhang, Guo, Zhang, Lou, & Ding, 2015), 且P3和LPP波幅均在核心厌恶时激活程度更大, 反映出核心厌恶的加工优先性; 受核心厌恶污染源引起的传染效果有较高的一致性, 如人们无论如何不愿意接受浸了蟑螂的饮料(Rozin et al., 2009), 但若把受到“道德污染”的实物摆在面前, 人们不一定拒绝触摸(Tapp & Occhipinti, 2016), 因为道德厌恶源的生存威胁性相对较小, 且综合的认知过程使得不道德传染心理加工更具有不确定性。

2 不道德传染在道德领域的影响

2.1 道德情绪

研究表明, 由不道德行为或事件引起的情绪不同于由常规行为或事件所触发的情绪, 即不道德行为能够产生特定的情绪反应, 这些情绪称为道德情绪(moral emotion) (Smetana, 1995; Zhong & Liljenquist, 2006), 如厌恶、后悔、内疚、羞耻、困窘、气愤等(Zhong et al., 2006); 与之相对应的与道德无关的情绪称为非道德情绪(non-moral emotion), 如自信、平静、激动、愁苦等(Zhong et al., 2006)。两者甚至在神经机制上也存在差异(Harenski & Hamann, 2006)。其中, 鄙视、愤怒和厌恶(contempt, anger, disgust, CAD)等道德情绪对道德违法行为非常敏感(Grappi, Romani, & Bagozzi, 2013; Pham, 2006), 一旦不道德传染发生, 人们会立即体验到这些情绪(Greene & Haidt, 2002); 同时这些道德情绪也反映出人们对他人道德违法行为的担忧, 比如, 由目睹他人对第三方实施道德排斥行为所引起的不道德传染会使人体验到气愤(Tangney, Stuewig, & Mashek, 2006), 而涉及侮辱人权(种族主义、虐待、侵犯等)的不道德传染则让人体验到厌恶和鄙视(Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999)。

不道德传染对情绪的影响是持久而深入的, 如Nemeroff和Rozin (1994)发现人们对邪恶之人所穿过的衣服表现出不愉悦, 即便该衣服已被“物理转化” (physical transformation) (如已经过清洗), 这种情绪依然存在, 甚至可以维持很长一段时间。对于事关性命的器官捐赠, 人们也会对不道德个体捐赠的器官表现出更多消极情绪(Hood, Gjersoe, Donnelly, Byers, & Itajkura, 2011)。在Eskine, Novreske和Richards (2013)的研究中, 他们安排助手扮演道德违法者在实验中途进入实验室, 随后要求部分被试坐在道德违法者坐过的椅子上, 这部分被试在随后的状态内疚量表上得分更高, 不道德传染效果更明显; 接着, 他们让被试在戴手套或不戴手套的情况下与道德违法者握手, 结果显示未戴手套的被试产生更多的状态内疚。这说明无论直接接触还是间接接触, 道德违法者都将不道德特质传递给了受传染者, 并引起了其内疚情绪。Tapp等人(2016)让被试想象使用道德违法者的餐具, 随后的情绪评定结果表明, 不论道德违法程度如何, 被试均产生了显著的愤怒情绪。不仅如此, 不道德传染还与颜色道德隐喻通过道德情绪建立关联, 即道德违法行为引起的消极道德情绪使人偏好黑色, 这是一种快速的自动化联系(Sherman & Clore, 2010)。

2.2 道德判断和推理

不道德传染不但可以使人产生消极的情绪体验, 还可影响个体对特定情景下他人行为的道德判断和道德推理(Eskine et al., 2013; Caldwell et al., 2015)。不道德传染通过道德厌恶在厌恶评价系统加工后的认知输出作用于道德推理, 提高道德判断标准, 比如研究者发现人们更不愿意接受不道德者的心脏或肝脏移植, 也会将不道德者的记忆力评价得更差, 而对道德者的评价则呈现了相反的趋势(Hood et al., 2011)。

Mcdermott和Langdon (2016)对不道德传染者自身进行考察, 分别选取有或无道德违法行为的智力障碍被试(intellectual disabilities, IDs), 对其智力、道德推理、情绪及行为问题进行测量, 结果显示道德违法者有“发展得更成熟的道德推理”, 这说明不道德传染也能反过来对传染者自身产生道德认知层面上的影响; 而且研究进一步表明, 道德推理可以预测情绪和行为问题, 由此可见不道德传染对传染者的认知、情绪、行为都会产生影响。根据道德的双加工模型, 不道德传染营造的消极道德情境同时引发了道德推理和道德情绪, 而道德情绪又对道德判断和道德行为产生影响(Greene, Morelli, Lowenberg, Nystrom, & Cohen, 2008; Leffel, 2008; Paxton & Greene, 2010)。Eskine, Kacinik和Webster (2012)发现在被试阅读了道德恶习(moral vice)相关事件后, 把一杯相同的饮料评价得更令人恶心, 更不愿意接受并饮用, 即不道德传染在情绪、认知、行为上都表现出了效果。

研究者们指出, 由不道德传染所引发的消极道德情绪会还对道德决策过程起重要作用(Joon sung, Dae hee, & Braunstein-minkove, 2016)。他们以美国国家橄榄球联合会中著名运动员的道德违法行为视频作为不道德传染的启动材料, 随后测量被试对运动员的认同感、道德情绪(CAD)、对运动员所代言品牌的态度以及道德推理策略的选择, 包括评价道德违法者的行为、从道德判断中分离出对行为的评价、整合道德判断和行为评价从而对道德违法者进行谴责。结果发现球迷会有效调节消极道德情绪, 并且随着对运动员认同感的提高而倾向于“无视”运动员的道德违法行为, 采取与认同一致的道德推理策略, 这使得他们可以保持对运动员和其代言品牌的积极情绪和认同。由此可见, 不道德传染会受传染者与被传染者之间相互关系的影响从而影响有意识的道德推理过程。

3 不道德传染在非道德领域的影响

近年来越来越多的研究开始探讨不道德传染在道德领域以外所产生的效应, 如在具身认知、经济行为、人际互动及组织管理中的作用, 代表了当下道德研究与多学科方向融合的趋势, 更全面地揭示出不道德传染的现实意义。

3.1 具身认知——身体清洁

具身认知理论(Embodied Cognition Theory)是近年来认知心理学研究的新领域(叶浩生, 2011), 它强调心智或认知对身体及感觉系统具有依赖性。阎书昌(2011)在身体洁净、厌恶与道德认知、道德行为的关系研究中首次提出”具身道德”, 它是指身体经验同道德认知与判断等心理过程相互渗透和相互影响。由于厌恶的进化观指出道德厌恶可能与身体厌恶存在脑机制的重叠, 脑成像研究也发现单纯的厌恶与道德厌恶会产生类似的面部表情和心理活动, 当身体沾染脏物时人们会进行身体清洁, 那么当道德受到传染时, 人们同样可能会进行身体的清洁活动, 缓解社会和道德事件引起的厌恶感(Schaich Borg, Lieberman, & Kiehl, 2008; Chapman, Kim, Susskind, & Anderson, 2009)。Zhong等人(2006)的研究表明, 个人道德洁净受到威胁之后的确会产生清洁身体的需要, 即“麦克白”效应(Macbeth Effect), 而身体清洁是否真的对受到不道德传染的个体具有缓解作用可以通过身体清洁后其道德判断的严厉程度反映出来。Schnall, Haidt, Clore和Jordan (2008)发现, 在清洁启动条件下, 人们的“道德污点”被“洗去”, 道德自我概念提升, 因此会降低道德判断标准; 但是清洁启动并非对所有道德违法行为同等适用, 如Helzer和Pizarro (2011)的研究表明, 清洁启动会导致人们对违反性准则的行为(如一对情侣在其祖母的床上进行性活动)更为严厉, 这可能是因为对纯净性的感知与对禁忌性行为(taboo sexual actions)的道德态度间的特殊联结有关(Koleva, Graham, Ditto, Iyer, & Haidt, 2012)。此外, 叶红燕和张凤华(2015)还探讨了不同的清洁方式与道德判断间复杂的关系, 发现并非所有的清洁启动都会使个体降低道德判断标准, 由清洁导致道德判断变化的具体机制还未有定论。

3.2 经济心理——金钱支配

金钱在生活中有重要作用, 不仅可以满足人们的安全和健康等基本生理需要, 也有助于自尊和快乐等高级心理需求的满足(Diener & Seligman, 2004)。同时金钱还是特殊的商品和一般等价物, 作为传染媒介, 其特殊性在于不仅可以观察人们对受不道德传染物品价值的估计(是否会受到影响而贬值), 还可以通过人们对其使用意向衡量不道德传染效果。

一般来说, 消费者会贬低那些与厌恶传染源有过接触的商品的价值, 而且消费者与该商品的接触越直接、越亲密, 贬低程度越大。Stellar等人(2013)发现, 接受被不道德传染的奖券后, 被试对相同物品的价值评定比前测要显著降低, 而接受正常奖券的被试则没有表现出这一差异; Newman和Bloom (2014)研究也发现人们对一件曾属于道德违法者的物品只愿意支付更少的钱, 表明人们的确贬低了受不道德传染的物体的内在价值。

而作为商品交换一般等价物的金钱, 是否同样会受到影响?Tasimi和Gelman (2016)发现, 与无道德违法行为的人给予的“中性”的钱而言, 被试更不愿意接受这些人提供的偷来的钱, 这种拒绝倾向在这个“坏钱”是由道德违法者本人给予时表现得尤其明显。在这里, 道德联系(moral association) (即施钱者与受钱者的关系)和道德历史(moral history)一起增强了被试对被污染金钱的抵触, 这也表明金钱既可以传递前主人的消极道德品质, 也可以因为自身来源使自己带有消极道德品质从而实现不道德传染。Levav和McGraw (2009)发现, 当金钱给予者带有消极情绪时, 被试愿意花的钱更少, 然而当被试自身有消极情绪时, 并不会对金钱使用造成影响, 证明消极情绪会通过金钱这个媒介进行传染从而影响人们对它的支出意愿; Tasimi等人(2016)发现人们不愿意将受到道德污染的钱用于个人消费, 而更愿意将其用于利他消费, 如买礼物、做慈善, 这与Nemeroff和Rozin (1994)的结论一致, 即人们更希望用美德去“中和”道德污染对自身道德自我形象的“玷污”。

金钱的特殊性还在于人们对它的态度会随数额变化而改变。Xie, Yu, Zhou, Sedikides和Vohs (2014)检验了受到不道德传染后对他人行为不道德程度评定的差异。结果发现, 当道德违法者以欺骗手段获得金钱且涉及的金钱数目较少的时候, 被试更可能对其进行谴责; 而道德违法者通过敲诈获得金钱时, 被试也对其给出了相同的反应, 即敲诈最少金钱的人被指责得最多, 小数额的金钱强化了道德违法者的不道德行为。Bem (1972)由归因理论作出解释, 认为个体会推测道德违法者是受内部动机驱使而产生了不道德行为。在敲诈大数额金钱的情况下, 即使道德违法者的行为损害了他人的合法利益, 把这一行为归咎于金钱就减轻了道德责任, 金钱形成了一个无懈可击的借口, 因为人们相信它是生活中一大“罪恶之源” (Xie et al., 2014)。Tasimi等人(2016)使用了1美元和100美元金钱进行对比研究, 发现不论金钱给予者带有怎样的消极道德品质, 较之1美元, 被试更愿意接受100美元, 再一次证明金钱数额增大会减轻被试对金钱给予者道德违法程度严重性的判断, 从而对金钱的接受和使用程度及意愿提高。

3.3 人际互动过程

3.3.1 群体情绪与行为

群际情绪理论(Intergroup Emotion Theory)认为当个体对其所属某一社会群体的身份产生认同、将自己和群体整合为一个有机体时, 个体会从内群体的视角出发, 评价和解释与该群体相关的事件, 在此基础上产生群体情绪(Smith, 1993)。Smith, Seger和Mackie (2007)指出, 群体情绪不同于个体情绪, 并非产生于亲身经历。如果个体对内群体的认同感较强, 即使对于发生在群体其他成员身上的事, 他们也会因自己的群体成员身份而产生特定的情绪体验。特定的群体情绪会导致相应的行为倾向, 调节个体对内、外群体的态度和行为, 尤其是具有很强的群体传染性的道德情绪, 如羞耻感或内疚感。个体容易通过日常接触而被内群体成员的不道德行为传染, 产生羞耻情绪, 进而做出一些补救措施, 既能缓解受不道德传染后产生的消极心理体验, 也弥补了内群体的整体道德水平。群体内疚也是一种常见的群体情绪, 只要个体对内群体有较强的认同感, 就会在人际接触与互动中受到不道德传染而产生内疚感, 并且也会伴随补偿行为(Ferguson & Branscombe, 2014)。以上两种常见的群体情绪既有联系又有区别, 两者都会引发群体成员一致的行为如道歉、补偿、援助等(Sharvit, Brambilla, Babush, & Colucci, 2015), 但是研究者指出, 群体内疚只是意味着内群体成员对外群体成员造成了伤害, 需要对其进行补偿, 但是作为一整个群体的凝聚力和群体认同感并没有受到影响; 群体羞愧则更为严重, 除了会对外群体造成的伤害做出补救措施外, 还意味着群体的地位、名誉、凝聚力已经受到严重负面影响, 也即群体内成员受到的不道德传染事件严重程度之大动摇了成员对群体的根本信念根基(Gausel, 2012; Pivetti, Camodeca, & Rapino, 2016)。

3.3.2 组织管理

腐败是任何组织都深恶痛绝的毒瘤, 对企业绩效有十分消极的影响(徐细雄, 刘星, 2013)。一般情况下, 人们会由于对腐败个人或组织的不道德行为产生强烈的厌恶而避免自身受到传染, 但是在个体道德自我形象得到保证以后(如周围的人都是腐败集团的一份子, 腐败似乎并不是一件“可耻”的事, 相反, 它是实现个体乃至群体目的主要手段), 不道德传染产生的效果就致使个体也随之陷入不道德的泥潭。从社会认同理论的角度, 这是积极区分的一种表现形式。积极区分是个体在特定维度上夸大群体间差异并对群体内成员给予更积极评价的倾向(李琼, 刘力, 2011), 它可能会改变群体自身的规范。即使当群体成员卷入腐败中, 群体也会认为他们的规范是合理的, 导致群体与外部环境隔绝, 腐败越来越严重。与之相反, 若道德准则是组织管理者与员工日常及工作交流中的重要话题, 不道德传染会起到应有的积极行为促进作用。Zanin, Bisel和Adame (2016)在对道德沉默效应(moral mun effect)的研究中发现, 乐于与员工就道德问题进行谈话的组织管理者, 通过道德谈话传染(moral talk contagion)使传染能力更强; 若领导者发布了不合道德规范的命令, 那么他的员工更能对这一不道德的命令进行拒绝(dissent), 员工更愿意为维护自身道德形象发表异议而不畏惧潜在不良后果(potential face threats)。

亲组织不道德行为(Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior, UPB)是为促成组织的有效运作而违背社会核心价值观、法律、道德准则的行为(Umphress, Bingham, & Mitchell, 2010), 包括个体UPB和组织UPB (王晓辰, 高欣洁, 郭攀博, 2018)。个体UPB是组织成员自发进行的为提高组织运作效能而违背社会道德准则的行为, 这是一种自下而上、由个人不道德行为传染至组织整体进而导致组织 UPB蔓延的现象, 它会给组织带来短期利益, 但也可能威胁组织的长期发展; 组织UPB则是一种自上而下的不道德传染, 当组织中功利主义及不道德氛围甚嚣尘上时, 组织成员容易受到此氛围的“污染”并进一步地产生认同、为了组织的利益而与集体步调一致地实施不道德行为, 即“近墨者黑”。

3.3.3 亲密关系中的忠诚与纯净

根据道德基础理论(Moral Foundations Theory), 一般人际关系中引导道德认知、确认道德违法行为的标准包括关心(care)、公正(fairness)、忠诚(loyalty)、权威(authority)、纯净/神圣(purity/sanctity) (Graham et al., 2013), 若是违背了这些原则, 行为者就具有了不道德传染的可能。但Selterman, Moors和Koleva (2018)指出亲密关系间的不道德传染及道德判断不一定遵循一般的模式。关系调节理论(Relationship Regulation Theory, RRT; Rai & Fiske, 2011)认为, 维护亲密关系的动机会超越对道德违法者不纯净及伤害性行为的消极感受; 道德联盟战略理论(Moral Alliance Strategies Theory, MAST; Marczyk, 2015)指出, 即使不道德传染者的不道德行为(如伤害他人)意图明显, 维护重要社会关系的欲望使传染效果(如消极道德情绪和严格的道德判断)可能不会出现, 甚至道德判断还会显示出积极的趋势。它们都体现了亲密人际关系对不道德传染的制约作用。Selterman等人(2018)设置了三种亲密程度不同的关系(友谊关系、浪漫关系、性关系), 结果证明亲密关系中影响人们对不道德行为感知的因素不同于一般人际关系中对多种因素的综合考虑, 一般仅涉及纯净和忠诚因素, 尤其是忠诚。涉及不忠诚因素的道德违法行为在亲密关系中具有最强的传染能力, 而涉及伤害、痛苦的道德违法行为传染效果则较弱; 甚至道德违法者的坦白(confession)行为还能进一步限制不道德传染发生的可能性。

4 研究展望

4.1 关注小脑结构与不道德传染的关系

以往对不道德传染神经机制的探讨中, 侧重对厌恶感脑功能的研究(Moll et al., 2005; Sanfey et al., 2003; Simpson et al., 2006; 黄好, 罗禹, 冯廷勇, 李红, 2010; 吴宝沛, 张雷, 2012)。然而不道德传染是一个过程, 尤其是通过物质媒介所进行的不道德传染涉及传染双方的身体接触。关联系统理论(Associated Systems Theory, AST; Carlston, 2010)认为初级的感知、语言、行为、评价表征会在高水平的认知整合区(convergence zones)里进行交互作用成为次级表征, 并且任何形式的信息都可以相互转化。近年来有学者在此基础上提出在具身认知研究中应该关注检验感知运动信息对理解社会信息的影响(Lakens, 2014), 甚至认为小脑可能会调节人们的道德行为。已有研究发现道德违法者(如囚犯)的小脑结构会发生改变(Leutgeb et al., 2016), 道德行为倾向与正常人不同的临床病人在小脑结构上也存在异常(Caldwell et al., 2015)。因此, 对不道德传染发生前、发生时和结束后的小脑激活状况进行研究, 或关注不道德传染者的小脑激活状况而考察其是否会因为身体接触的表征模拟引起小脑相应部位的活动, 可以帮助我们更好地认识小脑的结构与功能与道德心理、行为、情绪的联结关系。

4.2 重视文化背景差异对不道德传染的影响

不同文化背景下, 人们对人际感染和社会道德违法的厌恶感知不同, 这与具身图式(embodied schemata)有密不可分的联系(Haidt, Rozin, Mccauley, & Imada, 1997)。身体清洁与道德纯净的隐喻研究灵感起源于宗教, 如基督教、曼达尼派、锡克教、伊斯兰教和印度教中都有明确的通过“身体清洗”净化心灵的宗教仪式(Zhong, & Liljenquist, 2006), 这种道德与身体清洁的联结——“麦克白效应”——得到了众多研究结论的支持(e.g., Zhong, Strejcek, & Sivanathan, 2010; Helzer & Pizarro, 2011), 但严格的重复实验没能在西班牙人身上发现“麦克白效应” (Gámez, Díaz, & Marreo, 2011)。中国文化长期受儒家思想影响, 而其非常重视伦理道德(黄玺 等, 2018), 在此文化氛围熏陶下, 中国人最在意的是面子(林语堂, 1988)。Lee和Schwarz (2010)对亚洲人进行不道德传染后, 发现相较于西方被试的洗手, 清洁面部更能减少个体的不道德感, 这种现象可能就与这种的“面子文化”有关。作为中国唯一本土化的道教因“自然”、“无为”和“责任心”这三个具有典型文化表征的概念及其内涵而蕴含重要的心理学价值(廖敏, 2012), 那么中国人是否会与西方人表现出不同的传染效果?

此外, 不道德传染受权力距离的影响程度也存在文化差异。Ho和Lin (2014)使用问卷对领导人与下属之间道德判断的关系进行研究, 发现中国大陆的下属对“购买教授职称”这一道德违法行为的道德判断受其领导人道德判断的结果影响更大, 更趋向于与其领导人做出相同的道德判断, 受道德违法行为传染的程度比中国台湾被试更显著。研究表明, 西方文化背景下的个体倾向于脱离整体的情境看待个人行为, 更多地将行为原因归结于内在品质而非外在情境; 而中国文化背景下的个体倾向于将个人行为置于整体情境中看待, 更多地将行为原因归结于外在情境而非内在品质 (Choi, Nisbett, & Norenzayan, 1998), 那么不同权力距离的情境可能对中国被试的道德判断影响更显著, 或是处于同等权利地位的被试受不道德传染时, 中国被试传染效果更明显。这些还有待进一步检验。

4.3 关注不道德传染的个体差异

当前研究较多关注成年人的不道德传染效应, 然而5岁儿童就已开始表现出对道德传染敏感性的个体差异(Legare, Wellman, & Gelman, 2009)。对处于童年中期儿童道德发展状态的研究显示, 对道德违法故事的不道德传染独立于儿童一般智力的发展, 这与成人和青少年的智力-道德关系模式存在较大差异(Hanna & Marcus, 2016); 此外, 青少年时期是抽象思维能力发展的关键期, 使得道德原则和价值能够开始被完整地整合进自我概念中(Hardy & Carlo, 2011), 那么处于不同年龄阶段人群的不道德传染是否存在规律和机制上的本质差异?研究可从纵向追踪角度对儿童智力、人格的发展与道德能力发展以及不道德传染效果间建立预测模型, 并同时整合各种可能的外界因素如成长环境、教育条件、家庭社会经济地位等的影响。

此外, 个体特质差异也会对不道德传染产生影响, 如厌恶敏感性(disgust sensitivity)。高厌恶敏感性的个体内隐地更倾向于将同性间的浪漫关系视为不道德的(Inbar, Pizarro, Knobe, & Bloom, 2009), 这种对不道德感知的不合理偏差倾向甚至可能扭曲不道德传染。而且, 不同厌恶敏感性的个体感知厌恶能力的差异分别体现在三个维度上——对病菌厌恶、性厌恶和道德厌恶的敏感性(Travis & Fergus, 2015), 可能会产生不同的影响, 尤其是与道德直接相关的道德厌恶敏感性。未来研究可从个体道德情绪敏感性差异角度出发, 探讨包括厌恶在内的各种消极道德情绪的敏感性是否对不道德传染均会产生类似的影响。

4.4 侧重正向道德传染的效果

长期以来, 人们普遍认为不道德传染的严重性和社会影响更大, 因而将研究重心放在不道德传染机制及其影响上(Rozin et al., 1992; Rozin & Royzman, 2001; Tapp & Occhipinti, 2016), 而对正向道德传染的研究相对缺乏。研究发现, 人们潜意识中对负效价事件和消极情绪会产生“清除”倾向, 而对正效价事件和积极情绪产生“保留”倾向(夏天生, 徐雪梅, 李贺, 俞梦霞, 莫雷, 2018); 回忆不开心的事情及预期不开心的未来时, 人们会产生更远的时间距离感, 而在回忆开心的事情及预期快乐的未来时则产生更近的时间距离感(Lee & Ji, 2014)。未来研究可以探讨不道德传染与正向道德传染对传染后的行为倾向(清除还是回避, 或是不同于一般正、负效价事件引起的行为)以及在不同效价的道德传染发生后对时间的感知上是否存在差异。

道德提升感(moral improvement)指个体看到他人道德行为、欣赏他人美德并感到自己的道德情操被提升而产生的一种积极道德情绪, 正向道德传染后产生的道德提升感具有提高亲社会行为、引发积极的社会认知和产生对自身的积极作用三个主要的心理效应(黄玺 等, 2018)。那么, 道德提升感在道德传染中究竟扮演什么角色?又会对道德判断及道德推理产生怎样的影响?教化假设(pedagogical hypothesis) (Martin & Cushman, in press)认为对他人进行道德判断是为了教化他人以强化积极行为或纠正错误行为, 那么正向道德传染从受传染者角度来看是否是主动接受教化的过程, 这也值得后续研究进行相关的探讨。

总之, 不道德传染涉及认知、情绪、行为、社会人际交往等多个领域, 在生活中占有重要地位, 对它的研究应继续深入, 以期对其有更为深刻的理解, 从而推动道德心理学理论和实践的发展。

参考文献

黄玺, 梁宏宇, 李放, 陈世民, 王巍欣, 林妙莲, 郑雪 . ( 2018).

道德提升感: 一种提升道德情操的积极道德情绪

心理科学进展, 26, (7), 1253-1263.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

道德提升感,是指个体看到他人的道德行为时,欣赏他人的美德并感到自己的道德情操被提升,而产生的一种积极道德情绪。道德提升感具有情感、身体、认知和行为等四个成分。道德提升感可采用材料与情境进行诱发,采用标识词与量表进行测量。道德提升感的产生需要积极的内归因与积极的上行社会比较两个关键环节,还会受他人道德行为特点与个体自身特点的影响。道德提升感的产生还引起了脑神经、自主神经和内分泌反应。亲社会行为、积极的社会认知和对自身的积极作用是道德提升感所拥有的心理效应。未来对道德提升感的研究,可探讨它的神经与生理机制,探索它的扩展与建构效应,开展跨文化和本土化研究,并将它应用于道德教育中。

黄好, 罗禹, 冯廷勇, 李红 . ( 2010).

厌恶加工的神经基础

心理科学进展, 18, (9), 1449-1457.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

厌恶是由令人不愉悦、反感的事物诱发的情绪。根据刺激类型的不同,厌恶可以分为不同的类型。 脑岛和基底节是厌恶加工的主要脑区,前扣带回、杏仁核、丘脑、内侧前额叶也参与厌恶加工。对已有研究的总结发现,不同类型的厌恶、不同感觉通道的厌恶加工 可能具有不同的神经基础。在未来的研究中,应当注重研究厌恶加工的认知机制、神经基础以及与厌恶相关的神经递质等问题。

李鸿展 . ( 2014).

近墨者黑: 不道德传染对道德判断的影响 (硕士学位论文)

广西师范大学.

[本文引用: 1]

李琼, 刘力 . ( 2011).

低地位群体的外群体偏好

心理科学进展, 19, (7), 1061-1068.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

内群体偏好是群际关系中较为普遍现象。但是,近来研究发现,在低地位群体中存在着外群体偏好现象。社会认同理论、社会优势理论和系统公正理论从不同角度对这一现象进行了解释。社会认同理论关注情境因素的作用,它描述了在何种情境下,外群体偏好可能会出现。社会优势理论认为,低地位群体成员的社会优势取向水平会决定其究竟是反抗现状还是接受现状。系统公正理论提出,系统公正动机会使低地位群体成员支持与其内群体利益相违背的现存等级系统。每个理论各有优劣之处,将各理论进行整合是值得考虑的研究方向。本文提出,在解释低地位群体的外群体偏好现象时,社会认同与社会优势取向之间可能会存在交互作用。

廖敏 . ( 2012).

道家文化的当代心理学价值及其实现

社会心理科学,( 9), 107-114.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

通过分析“自然”、“无为”和“责任心”这三个具有典型道家文化表征的概念及其内涵,阐述了 其中蕴含的重要心理学价值:“自然”有助于认识人的心理发展因素的内在性与间接性,把握人的心理发展状态的冲突性与和谐性,理解人的心理发展过程的变亿性 与恒常性;“无为”有助于动态性地认识人的行为内涵,以自主性的态度处理日常生活中的冲突,以超越性的原则把握社会和个体的行为;“责任心”重视责任对象 的心理状态而不仅仅囿于行为的得失,重视个体对自我发展及其心理状态的管理。心理学对道家文化身份的重新建构以及文化研究方法的重新接合将促进优心态社会 和健康人格公民的进一步实现。

王晓辰, 高欣洁, 郭攀博 . ( 2018).

亲组织不道德行为的多层次模型

心理科学进展, 26, (6), 1111-1120.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

亲组织不道德行为(unethical pro-organizational behavior,UPB)是指旨在促成组织有效运作,而违背社会的核心价值观、法律、或道德标准的行为。这一概念从一个全新的角度解释不道德行为的心理机制,引起各界广泛关注。研究者梳理了UPB的概念与测量,分析了与其他相关概念之间的比较,建立了多层次的整合模型。未来研究应进一步完善UPB的概念、维度与测量,开展其跨层次研究,关注UPB的本土化研究。

吴宝沛, 张雷 . ( 2012).

厌恶与道德判断的关系

心理科学进展, 20, (2), 309-316.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

来自问卷调查和认知神经科学的证据表明,厌恶与道德判断可能存在 密切关系,但是研究者对两者之间的关系是一般性的还是特异性的尚无定论.有若干证据表明厌恶影响一般的道德判断,也有研究认为厌恶主要影响人们对纯洁领域 的道德判断.未来研究需要明确界定厌恶的类别,区分厌恶与道德厌恶两种不同的构念,从疾病防御的角度理解厌恶的进化根源,以及测量厌恶启动之后人们对不同 道德冒犯的内隐态度.

夏天生, 徐雪梅, 李贺, 俞梦霞, 莫雷 . ( 2018).

洗掉不愉快的经历, 留住幸福的时刻——回忆情绪事件对人们清洗/保留倾向的影响

心理科学, 41, (1), 105-111.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

基于道德与清洗的联系,我们假设,人们可能在经历非道德范畴的负效价事件后也会引发出"清洗"的倾向,而在经历正效价事件后则会引发"保留"的倾向。三个实验来验证这个假设,结果表明,被试在回忆道德或非道德范畴的负效价事件时,都会更多地选择具有清洗功能的物品,表现出"清除"负效价事件的倾向;相反,被试回忆正效价事件时,则会倾向选择具有保留功能的物品,表现出将正效价事件"保留"的倾向。

徐细雄, 刘星 . ( 2013).

放权改革、薪酬管制与企业高管腐败

管理世界, 3, 119-132.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本文针对频繁发生的企业高管腐败现象,以我国20世纪80年代启动的政府放权改革为制度背景,从权力寻租视角考察了企业高管权力配置与腐败行为之间的内在联系,并检验了政府薪酬管制、市场化改革进程等特殊制度因素对其产生的影响。实证结果表明,CEO的权力强度越大,企业越有可能发生高管腐败;在其他因素不变的情形下,政府薪酬管制恶化了企业高管腐败,而市场化改革则有利于缓解其所在地区上市公司的高管腐败行为。此外,研究结果还发现,高管腐败对企业绩效产生了消极影响。本文将腐败问题的研究对象与范畴从政府官僚拓展至企业层面,深化了对企业高管腐败潜在制度诱因及其经济后果的理论认知;同时,关于CEO权力强度与腐败关系的研究也为管理层权力理论贡献了新的知识。而且,本研究还为合理地评估政府薪酬管制、市场化改革等政策引发的微观治理效果提供了一个新的分析视角。

阎书昌 . ( 2011).

身体洁净与道德

心理科学进展, 19, (8), 1242-1248.

[本文引用: 1]

叶浩生 . ( 2011).

有关具身认知思潮的理论心理学思考

心理学报, 43, (5), 589-598.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

具身认知强调了心智或认知对身体及其感觉运动系统的依赖性.与传统认知心理学的符号加工模式不同的是,它认为身体的构造和状态、身体的物理属性及其大脑与身体的特殊感觉-运动通道对认知具有塑造作用.认知既是具身的,也是嵌入的,大脑嵌入身体、身体嵌入环境,构成了一体的认知系统.最初,具身认知仅仅是一种反对笛卡尔身心二元论的哲学思潮,经由认知科学哲学和理论心理学而逐渐进入了实验领域.具身认知研究充分利用了神经科学的方法和技术、数据和结论,但是它并不主张把心理还原为生理或物理,同时,具身认知的神经科学取向仅仅给传统心理研究提供一个认识心智的新视角,其目标并非取消行为水平的心理研究,因此不会损害心理学的独立地位.

叶红燕, 张凤华 . ( 2015).

从具身视角看道德判断

心理科学进展, 23, (8), 1480-1488.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Moral judgment is a kind of evaluation and judgment about certain types of behaviors which individuals make to distinguish good from evil and right from wrong. With the rise of embodied cognition theory, the studies of embodiment in moral judgment are subsequently carried out. Researchers on embodiment in moral judgment mainly focus on three aspects, namely physical cleanliness and disgust, physical temperature and body movement. Researchers explain embodied effect in moral judgment from the perspective of Psychological Development proposed by Piaget and Vygotsky respectively, Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Evolutionary Psychology. Considering the fact that physical variables can influence moral judgment through emotion and cognition, future research should integrate embodied approach of moral judgment with existed theories of moral judgment. And researchers should make clear of the relationship between embodiment in moral judgment and moral intuition. Future research should further explore the timeliness and dynamic, discuss the relevant moderator variables and individual differences, and make cross-cultural comparisons under the perspective of embodied effect.

Albas D., &Albas C. ( 1989).

Modern magic: The case of examinations

The Sociological Quarterly, 30, (4), 603-613.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The suggestion that students at present day universities participate in magic at exam time may seem unusual. This study views "magic" as behavior directed toward achieving an outcome, involving many everyday and commonplace acts, but seeming to rely for success on some mystical element. Hundreds of personal accounts from students describing their exam-related behaviors provide the basis for a classification system of their "magical practices." The classification yields findings regarding the use of magic for luck and the avoidance of bad luck. Student magic is found to be idiosyncratic, inconsistent, and never malevolent as it often is in preliterate societies. Such differences between preliterate magic, other modern forms, and student magic are related to the complexity and heterogeneity of the larger society, the cultural norms, and the degree of collective action involved.

Bem D.J . ( 1972).

Constructing cross-situational consistencies in behavior: Some thoughts on Alker's critique of Mischel

Journal of Personality, 40, (1), 17-26.

URL     PMID:5013145      [本文引用: 1]

Bem DJ.

Caldwell B. M., Harenski C. L., Harenski K. A., Fede S. J., Steele V. R., Koenigs M. R., & Kiehl K. A . ( 2015).

Abnormal frontostriatal activity in recently abstinent cocaine users during implicit moral processing

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 565.

URL     PMID:4608360      [本文引用: 2]

Investigations into the neurobiology of moral cognition are often done by examining clinical populations characterized by diminished moral emotions and a proclivity toward immoral behavior. Psychopathy is the most common disorder studied for this purpose. Although cocaine abuse is highly co-morbid with psychopathy and cocaine-dependent individuals exhibit many of the same abnormalities in socio-affective processing as psychopaths, this population has received relatively little attention in moral psychology. To address this issue, the authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record hemodynamic activity in 306 incarcerated male adults, stratified into regular cocaine users (n= 87) and a matched sample of non-cocaine users (n= 87), while viewing pictures that did or did not depict immoral actions and determining whether each depicted scenario occurred indoors or outdoors. Consistent with expectations, cocaine users showed abnormal neural activity in several frontostriatial regions during implicit moral picture processing compared to their non-cocaine using peers. This included reduced moral/non-moral picture discrimination in the vACC, vmPFC, lOFC, and left vSTR. Additionally, psychopathy was negatively correlated with activity in an overlapping region of the ACC and right lateralized vSTR. These results suggest that regular cocaine abuse may be associated with affective deficits which can impact relatively high-level processes like moral cognition.

Carlston D .( 2010). Models of implicit and explicit mental representation. In B. Gawronski & K. Payne (Eds.), Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement, theory and applications. (pp. 38-61). Guilford Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Chapman H. A., Kim D. A., Susskind J. M., & Anderson A. K . ( 2009).

In bad taste: Evidence for the oral origins of moral disgust

Science, 323, (5918), 1222-1226.

[本文引用: 1]

Choi I., Nisbett R. E., & Norenzayan A . ( 1998).

Causal attribution across cultures: Variation and universality

Psychological Bulletin, 125, (1), 47-63.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Growing cross cultural evidence suggests that East Asians are less likely to show the correspondence bias, or a preference for explanations of behavior in terms of traits, dispositions, or other internal attributes of the target. The scope of this evidence spans several research paradigms and diverse methodologies. The cultural difference, however, appears not to be caused by an absence of dispositional thinking in East Asian cultures. Indeed, extensive ethnographic and psychological data indicate that "dispositionism" is a cross-culturally widespread mode of thinking, although East Asians believe dispositions to be more malleable and have a more holistic conception of the person as being situated in a broad social context. The East est split in attribution thus originates primarily from a stronger "situationism" or belief in the importance of the context of behavior in East Asia. Consequently, East Asians are more likely than Westerners to avoid the correspondence bias as long as situational constraints are salient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Danovitch J., &Bloom P. ( 2009).

Children's extension of disgust to physical and moral events

Emotion, 9, (1), 107-112.

URL     PMID:19186922      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Adults use the terms revolting, gross, and disgusting to describe entities and actions, such as feces, rotten food, and sex with corpses, which elicit a certain visceral response. But adults also apply such expressions to certain sociomoral transgressions, such as cheating on one's spouse or stealing from the poor. Here, the authors explore whether young children associate disgust with physical and moral events by endorsing either verbal or facial expressions of disgust. Results indicate that children in Grades K, 2, and 4 (N = 167) label moral violations "disgusting" more often than nondisgusting physical acts or neutral negative acts but less often than physically disgusting acts. Likewise, children associate facial expressions of disgust with moral violations. These findings are discussed in the context of different theories about the relationship between physical disgust and moral disgust. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

Diener E., &Seligman M. E.P . ( 2004).

Beyond money toward an economy of well-being

Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5, (1), 1-31.

[本文引用: 1]

Ferguson M. A., &ranscombe B, N. R .( 2014) . The social psychology of collective guilt. In C. von Scheve, & M. Salmela (Eds.), Collective emotions: Perspectives from psychology, philosophy, and sociology (pp. 251-265) . Oxford, UK: Oxford Uni-versity Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Fowler J.H., &Christakis N.A . ( 2009).

Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis of the Framingham heart study social network

BMJ: British Medical Journal, 338, (7685), 23-27.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Objectives: To evaluate whether happiness can spread from person to person and whether niches of happiness form within social networks. Design: Longitudinal social network analysis. Setting: Framingham Heart Study social network. Participants: 4739 individuals followed from 1983 to 2003. Main outcome measures: Happiness measured with validated four item scale; broad array of attributes of social networks and diverse social ties. Results: Clusters of happy and unhappy people are visible in the network, and the relationship between people's happiness extends up to three degrees of separation (for example, to the friends of one's friends' friends). People who are surrounded by many happy people and those who are central in the network are more likely to become happy in the future. Longitudinal statistical models suggest that clusters of happiness result from the spread of happiness and not just a tendency for people to associate with similar individuals. A friend who lives within a mile (about 1.6 km) and who becomes happy increases the probability that a person is happy by 25% (95% confidence interval 1% to 57%). Similar effects are seen in coresident spouses (8%, 0.2% to 16%), siblings who live within a mile (14%, 1% to 28%), and next door neighbours (34%, 7% to 70%). Effects are not seen between coworkers. The effect decays with time and with geographical separation. Conclusions: People's happiness depends on the happiness of others with whom they are connected. This provides further justification for seeing happiness, like health, as a collective phenomenon.

Eskine K. J., Kacinik N. A., & Webster G. D . ( 2012).

The bitter truth about morality: Virtue, not vice, makes a bland beverage taste nice

Plos One, 7, (7), e41159.

URL     PMID:3399822      [本文引用: 2]

To demonstrate that sensory and emotional states play an important role in moral processing, previous research has induced physical disgust in various sensory modalities (visual, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory modalities, among others) and measured its effects on moral judgment. To further assess the strength of the connection between embodied states and morality, we investigated whether the directionality of the effect could be reversed by exposing participants to different types of moral events prior to rating the same neutral tasting beverage. As expected, reading about moral transgressions, moral virtues, or control events resulted in inducing gustatory disgust, delight, or neutral taste experiences, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between embodied cognition and processing abstract conceptual representations.

Eskine K. J., Novreske A., & Richards M . ( 2013).

Moral contagion effects in everyday interpersonal encounters

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, (5), 947-950.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61Contact with moral transgressors induces experiences of immorality (i.e., guilt).61Moral contagion can occur through indirect and direct interpersonal contact.61Moral contagion is moderated by disgust sensitivity.

Gámez E., Díaz J. M., & Marreo H . ( 2011).

The uncertain universality of the Macbeth effect with a Spanish sample

Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14, (1), 156-162.

URL     PMID:21568173      [本文引用: 1]

Recientemente se ha propuesto un proceso psicológico que vincularía la limpieza corporal y la limpieza moral: el efecto Macbeth. De acuerdo con él, lavarse las manos nos ayudaría a liberarnos del sentimiento de culpa. Sin embargo, la universalidad de este fenómeno no está suficientemente acreditada y debe ser sometida a escrutinio empírico. Con ese fin, se replicaron con sujetos espa09oles los cuatro experimentos de Zhong y Liljenquist (2006). Los resultados no van en la línea de los originales, de modo que no se ha podido confirmar el carácter liberador de la culpa que tendrían los actos de lavado. Así, no se observó un incremento en la accesibilidad de los conceptos relacionados con la limpieza. Tampoco un incremento en el atractivo de los productos propios de esta actividad, ni un cambio en la probabilidad de elegir una toallita antiséptica. Por último, no se pudo observar que el acto de lavarse las manos aliviara las emociones negativas asociadas a un acto moralmente inadecuado. Los sujetos espa09oles, que sí son sensibles a las necesidades del prójimo, no parecen relacionar la limpieza con el alivio de esas emociones negativas.

Gausel N. ( 2012).

Facing in-group immorality: Differentiating expressed shame from expressed guilt

Review of European Studies, 4, (4), 1-7.

[本文引用: 1]

Giner-Sorolla R., Kupfer T., & Sabo J . ( 2018).

What makes moral disgust special? An integrative functional review

Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 223-289.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The role of disgust in moral psychology has been a matter of much controversy and experimentation over the past 20 or so years. We present here an integrative look at the literature, organized according to the four functions of emotion proposed by integrative functional theory: appraisal, associative, self-regulation, and communicative. Regarding appraisals, we review experimental, personality, and neuroscientific work that has shown differences between elicitors of disgust and anger in moral contexts, with disgust responding more to bodily moral violations such as incest, and anger responding more to sociomoral violations such as theft. We also present new evidence for interpreting the phenomenon of sociomoral disgust as an appraisal of bad character in a person. The associative nature of disgust is shown by evidence for nreasoning disgust, in which associations to bodily moral violations are not accompanied by elaborated reasons, and not modified by appraisals such as harm or intent. We also critically examine the literature about the ability of incidental disgust to intensify moral judgments associatively. For disgust's self-regulation function, we consider the possibility that disgust serves as an existential defense, regulating avoidance of thoughts that might threaten our basic self-image as living humans. Finally, we discuss new evidence from our lab that moral disgust serves a communicative function, implying that expressions of disgust serve to signal one's own moral intentions even when a different emotion is felt internally on the basis of appraisal. Within the scope of the literature, there is evidence that all four functions of Giner-Sorolla (2012) integrative functional theory of emotion may be operating, and that their variety can help explain some of the paradoxes of disgust.

Gino F., Gu J., & Zhong C-B . ( 2009).

Contagion or restitution? When bad apples can motivate ethical behavior

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, (6), 1299-1302.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

When there is a “bad apple” in the group, are we more likely to follow the example or compensate for their sins? Three experiments showed that whether a group member’s unethical actions lead to contagion or restitution depends on the presence of out-group observers. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to compensate for the transgression of an in-group member than an out-group member when there were out-group observers. Experiment 2 varied the presence of out-group observers and showed that such compensatory behaviors occur only in the presence of out-group members. We suggest that the presence of out-group observers trigger a self-categorization process that induces guilt in individuals for their group members’ transgressions. Indeed, associated guilt mediated the relationship between in-group member’s unethical behavior and participants’ compensatory behavior (Experiment 3). These results suggest that norms implied by others’ behavior and group categorization are important determinants of ethical behavior.

Graham J., Haidt J., Koleva S., Motyl M., Iyer R., Wojcik S. P., & Ditto P. H.. ( 2013). Moral foundations theory: The pragmatic validity of moral pluralism. In P. Devine & A. Plant (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 47, pp. 55-130). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

Grappi S., Romani S., & Bagozzi R. P . ( 2013).

Consumer response to corporate irresponsible behavior: Moral emotions and virtues

Journal of Business Research, 66, (10), 1814-1821.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

A unique theoretical framework for explaining consumer word of mouth and protest behaviors against corporate irresponsibility is developed and tested. Through field surveys with adult consumers, this study demonstrates how consumers' negative moral emotional responses to corporate infractions instigate, in combination with other-regarding virtues, negative word of mouth and protest toward the corporation. Negative moral emotions include contempt, anger, and disgust; whereas other-regarding virtues entail justice, beneficence, equality, and communal cooperation. The results provide scholars and managers with means of improving their understanding and handling of consumers' reactions to corporate irresponsibility.

Greene J., &Haidt A.J . ( 2002).

How (and where) does moral judgment work?

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, (12), 517-523.

URL     PMID:12475712      [本文引用: 1]

Recent work in cognitive neuroscience suggests that moral judgment is more a matter of emotion and affective intuition than deliberate reaoning.

Greene J. D., Morelli S. A., Lowenberg K., Nystrom L. E., & Cohen J. D . ( 2008).

Cognitive load selectively interferes with utilitarian moral judgment

Cognition, 107, (3), 1144-1154.

URL     PMID:18158145      [本文引用: 1]

Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions that maximize good consequences) with controlled cognitive processes and associates non-utilitarian moral judgment with automatic emotional responses. Consistent with this theory, we find that a cognitive load manipulation selectively interferes with utilitarian judgment. This interference effect provides direct evidence for the influence of controlled cognitive processes in moral judgment, and utilitarian moral judgment more specifically.

Haidt J., Rozin P., Mccauley C., & Imada S . ( 1997).

Body, psyche, and culture: the relationship between disgust and morality

Psychology and Developing Societies, 9, (1), 107-131.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

"Core disgust" is a food related emotion that is rooted in evolution but is also a cultural product. Seven categories of disgust elicitors have been observed in an American sample. These include food, animals, body products, sexual de viance, body-envelope violations, poor hygiene, and contact with death. In addition, social concerns such as interpersonal contamination and socio- moral violations are also associated with disgust. Cross-cultural analyses of disgust and its elicitors using Israeli, Japanese, Greek and Hopi notions of disgust were undertaken. It was noted that disgust elicitors have expanded from food to the social order and have been found in many cultures. Expla nations for this expansion are provided in terms of embodied schemata, which refer to imaginative structures or patterns of experience that are based on bodily knowledge or sensation. A mechanism is suggested whereby disgust elicitors are viewed as a prototypically defined category involving many of the embodied schemata of disgust. It is argued that each culture draws upon these schemata and its social and moral life is based on them.

Hanna M.B., &Marcus H. ( 2016).

Individual differences in moral development: Does intelligence really affect children’s moral reasoning and moral emotions?

Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1961.

URL     PMID:28066287      [本文引用: 1]

This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children’s daily lives. Participants (N= 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that – at least in middle childhood – moral developmental status seems to be independent from children’s general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

Hardy S.A., &Carlo G. ( 2011).

Moral identity: What is it, how does it develop, and is it linked to moral action?

Child Development Perspectives, 5, (3), 212-218.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract— The study of moral identity may be one of the more promising new trends in moral psychology. Moral identity is the degree to which being a moral person is important to a person’s identity. This article reviews the various ways in which moral identity is understood, discusses predictors and processes of moral identity, and presents evidence regarding links between moral identity and various moral actions. The article closes with a critical evaluation of the moral identity concept and a discussion of future research directions.

Harenski C.L., &Hamann S. ( 2006).

Neural correlates of regulating negative emotions related to moral violations

Neuroimage, 30, (1), 313-324.

URL     PMID:16249098      [本文引用: 1]

Previous neuroimaging studies have identified several brain regions associated with regulating emotional responses. Different kinds of emotional stimuli, however, may recruit different regulatory processes and, in turn, recruit different regions. We compared emotion regulation for two types of negative emotional stimuli: those involving moral violations (moral stimuli), and those not involving moral violations (non-moral stimuli). In addition, we investigated whether activation in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a region implicated previously in specifically moral processing, may instead reflect greater social and emotional content. Ten female subjects were scanned using fMRI while they passively viewed or were instructed to decrease emotional reactions to moral and non-moral pictures closely matched on social and emotional content. Passive viewing of both picture types elicited similar activations in areas related to the processing of social and emotional content, including MPFC and amygdala. During regulation, different patterns of activation in these regions were observed for moral vs. non-moral pictures. These results suggest that the neural correlates of regulating emotional reactions are modulated by the emotional content of stimuli, such as moral violations. In addition, the current findings suggest that some brain regions previously implicated in moral processing reflect the processing of greater social and emotional content in moral stimuli.

Hejmadi A., Rozin P., & Siegal M . ( 2004).

Once in contact, always in contact: Contagious essence and conceptions of purification in American and Hindu Indian children

Developmental Psychology, 40, (4), 467-476.

URL     PMID:15238036      [本文引用: 1]

Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as being fit to drink were probed to determine whether their rejection was based on material essence (reduced by boiling), association (reduced by color change), or spiritual essence (reduced by sipping by the mother). A majority of 4- to 5-year-olds showed some form of contamination response, as did the great majority of 8-year-olds. Younger children's judgments were often based on spiritual essence or association, whereas material essence was more important for the older children, particularly Americans. However, for many children in both cultures, no purifiers were effective. In keeping with Hindu culture, the Indian children responded significantly more strongly to stranger or cockroach contamination and, with increasing age, viewed contamination as more impervious to any kind of purification.

Helzer E.G., &Pizarro D.A . ( 2011).

Dirty liberals!: Reminders of physical cleanliness influence moral and political attitudes

Psychological Science, 22, (4), 517-522.

URL     PMID:21421934      [本文引用: 2]

Many moral codes place a special emphasis on bodily purity, and manipulations that directly target bodily purity have been shown to influence a variety of moral judgments. Across two studies, we demonstrated that reminders of physical purity influence specific moral judgments regarding behaviors in the sexual domain as well as broad political attitudes. In Study 1, individuals in a public setting who were given a reminder of physical cleansing reported being more politically conservative than did individuals who were not given such a reminder. In Study 2, individuals reminded of physical cleansing in the laboratory demonstrated harsher moral judgments toward violations of sexual purity and were more likely to report being politically conservative than control participants. Together, these experiments provide further evidence of a deep link between physical purity and moral judgment, and they offer preliminary evidence that manipulations of physical purity can influence general (and putatively stable) political attitudes.

Ho Y-H., &Lin C-Y. ( 2014).

The moral judgment relationship between leaders and followers: A comparative study across the Taiwan strait

Journal of Business Ethics, 134, (2), 299-310.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Ethics is central to leadership because of the impact leaders have on establishing organizational values and engaging followers to accomplish mutual goals. The ethical concerns of leaders may influence ethical decision-making of their followers. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship between leaders and followers on moral judgment, and make a comparison between China and Taiwan on the leader ollower moral judgment relationship. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on purchasing professionals in China and Taiwan. The development of moral judgment was measured using the defining issues test. Research findings indicate that followers exhibit higher level of moral judgment while their leaders have higher level of moral judgment. A positive moral judgment relationship exists between leaders and followers. The comparative study between China and Taiwan reveals that Chinese purchasing professionals are more easily influenced by their workplace leaders than their Taiwanese counterparts. Power distance would strengthen the leader ollower moral judgment relationship. The present research makes contributions toward the ethics literature by providing empirical insight into the relationship between leader moral judgment and follower moral judgment. This paper also suggests implications and opportunities for future research.

Hood B. M., Gjersoe N. L., Donnelly K., Byers A., & Itajkura S . ( 2011).

Moral contagion attitudes towards potential organ transplants in British and Japanese adults

Journal of Cognition & Culture, 11, (3/4), 269-286.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In two studies we investigated whether people evidence an effect of moral contamination with respect to hypothetical organ transplants. This was achieved by asking participants to make judgements after presenting either positive or negative background information about the donor. In the first study, positive/negative background information had a corresponding effect on three judgements with attitudes to a heart transplant most pronounced by negative background information relative to good information and controls. This effect was replicated in the second study with both heart and liver transplantation. Negative effects were stronger than positive effects in all conditions consistent with a negativity bias, but again stronger with regards to organs than controls. These results confirm findings from surveys that reveal real patients are concerned about moral contamination following organ transplantation and show that this bias in evident even in hypothetical, non-life-threatening scenarios. In a third study we found a significantly stronger moral contagion effect in Japanese relative to English participants, suggesting that concerns about moral contagion may be moderated by culture.

Inbar Y., &Pizarro D. ( 2013).

Pollution and purity in moral and political judgment

Advances in Experimental Moral Psychology, 111-129.

[本文引用: 1]

Inbar Y., Pizarro D. A., Knobe J., & Bloom P . ( 2009).

Disgust sensitivity predicts intuitive disapproval of gays

Emotion, 9, (3), 435-439.

URL     PMID:19485621      [本文引用: 1]

Two studies demonstrate that a dispositional proneness to disgust ("disgust sensitivity") is associated with intuitive disapproval of gay people. Study 1 was based on previous research showing that people are more likely to describe a behavior as intentional when they see it as morally wrong (see Knobe, 2006, for a review). As predicted, the more disgust sensitive participants were, the more likely they were to describe an agent whose behavior had the side effect of causing gay men to kiss in public as having intentionally encouraged gay men to kiss publicly-even though most participants did not explicitly think it wrong to encourage gay men to kiss in public. No such effect occurred when subjects were asked about heterosexual kissing. Study 2 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2006) as a dependent measure. The more disgust sensitive participants were, the more they showed unfavorable automatic associations with gay people as opposed to heterosexuals. Two studies demonstrate that a dispositional proneness to disgust ("disgust sensitivity") is associated with intuitive disapproval of gay people. Study 1 was based on previous research showing that people are more likely to describe a behavior as intentional when they see it as morally wrong (see Knobe, 2006, for a review). As predicted, the more disgust sensitive participants were, the more likely they were to describe an agent whose behavior had the side effect of causing gay men to kiss in public as having intentionally encouraged gay men to kiss publicly-even though most participants did not explicitly think it wrong to encourage gay men to kiss in public. No such effect occurred when subjects were asked about heterosexual kissing. Study 2 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2006) as a dependent measure. The more disgust sensitive participants were, the more they showed unfavorable automatic associations with gay people as opposed to heterosexuals.

Jong sung L., Dae hee K., & Braunstein-minkove J . ( 2016).

Coping with athlete endorsers' immoral behavior: Roles of athlete identification and moral emotions on moral reasoning strategies

Journal of Sport Management, 30, (2), 176-191.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Athlete endorsers' transgressions pose a dilemma for loyal fans who have established emotional attachments toward the individual. However, little is known regarding how fans maintain their support for the wrongdoer. Drawing on moral psychology and social identity theory, the current study proposes and examines a conceptual model incorporating athlete identification, moral emotions, moral reason...

Koleva S. P., Graham J., Iyer R., Ditto P. H., & Haidt J . ( 2012).

Tracing the threads: How five moral concerns (especially purity) help explain culture war attitudes

Journal of Research in Personality, 46, (2), 184-194.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Commentators have noted that the issue stands taken by each side of the American “culture war” lack conceptual consistency and can even seem contradictory. We sought to understand the psychological underpinnings of culture war attitudes using Moral Foundations Theory. In two studies involving 24,739 participants and 20 such issues (e.g. abortion, immigration, same-sex marriage), we found that endorsement of five moral foundations predicted judgments about these issues over and above ideology, age, gender, religious attendance, and interest in politics. Our results suggest that dispositional tendencies, particularly a person’s moral intuitions, may underlie, motivate, and unite ideological positions across a variety of issues and offer new insights into the multiple “moral threads” connecting disparate political positions.

Lakens D .( 2014).

Grounding social embodiment

Social Cognition, 32, 168-183.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Lee A., &Ji L.J . ( 2014).

Moving away from a bad past and toward a good future: Feelings influence the metaphorical understanding of time

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, (1), 21-26.

URL     PMID:23506086      [本文引用: 1]

People move close to things they like and away from things they dislike. Can the same be applied to temporal events? Through alternating between the ego-moving and time-moving metaphorical perspectives of time, people can manage the psychological distance between themselves and various temporal events by staying away from unpleasant experiences and bringing pleasant ones within reach. Consistent with theoretical predictions, 4 studies showed that recalling an unpleasant event from the past prompted the ego-moving perspective, whereas recalling a pleasant past event prompted the time-moving perspective. In contrast, anticipating a pleasant future invoked the ego-moving perspective, whereas anticipating an unpleasant future invoked the time-moving perspective. The valence of feelings explained the systematic shifts in how time is metaphorically understood. These findings highlight the role of basic psychological processes in temporal reasoning. Clinical implications for rumination and mood disorders are discussed.

Lee S. W.S., &Schwarz N. ( 2010).

Washing away postdecisional dissonance

Science, 328, (5979), 709-709.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The act of scrubbing clean one’s hands also removes the tendency to justify prior decisions.

Leffel G.M . ( 2008).

Who cares? Generativity and the moral emotions, part 2: A "social intuitionist model" of moral motivation

Journal of Psychology & Theology, 36, (3), 182-201.

[本文引用: 1]

Legare C. H., Wellman H. M., & Gelman S. A . ( 2009).

Evidence for an explanation advantage in naïve biological reasoning

Cognitive Psychology, 58, (2), 177-194.

URL     PMID:18710700      [本文引用: 2]

The present studies compare young children’s explanations and predictions for the biological phenomenon of contamination. In Study 1, 36 preschoolers and 24 adults heard vignettes concerning contamination, and were asked either to make a prediction or to provide an explanation. Even 3-year-olds readily supplied contamination-based explanations, and most children mentioned an unseen mechanism (germs, contact through bodily fluids). Moreover, unlike adults who performed at ceiling across both explanation and prediction tasks, children were significantly more accurate with their explanations than their predictions. In Study 2, we varied the strength of cues regarding the desirability of the contaminated substance ( N = 24 preschoolers). Although desirability affected responses, for both levels of desirability participants were significantly more accurate on explanation than prediction questions. Altogether, these studies demonstrate a significant “explanation advantage” for children’s reasoning in the domain of everyday biology.

Leutgeb V., Wabnegger A., Leitner M., Zussner T., Scharmüller W., Klug D., & Schienle A . ( 2016).

Altered cerebellar-amygdala connectivity in violent offenders: A resting-state fMRI study

Neuroscience Letters, 610, 160-164.

URL     PMID:26523791     

It has repeatedly been reported, that there are differences in grey matter volume (GMV) between violent offenders and non-violent controls. However, it remains unclear, if structural brain abnormalities influence resting-state functional connectivity (RS-fc) between brain regions. Therefore, in the present investigation, 31 male high-risk violent prisoners were compared to 30 non-criminal controls with respect to RS-fc between brain areas. Seed regions for resting-state analysis were selected based on GMV differences between the two groups. Overall, inmates had more GMV in the cerebellum than controls and revealed higher RS-fc between the cerebellum and the amygdala. In contrast, controls relative to prisoners showed higher RS-fc between the cerebellum and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, controls showed more GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Inmates relative to controls had higher RS-fc within the DLPFC. Results are discussed with respect to cerebellar contributions to a brain network underlying moral behavior and violence. Enhanced cerebellar-amygdala connectivity in violent offenders might reflect alterations in the processing of moral emotions. Heightened functional connectivity between cerebellar hemispheres and the OFC in controls could be a correlate of enhanced emotion regulation capacities. Higher functional intra-DLPFC connectivity in violent offenders might represent an effort to regulate emotions.

Levav J., &McGraw A.P . ( 2009).

Emotional accounting: How feelings about money influence consumer choice

Journal of Marketing Research, 46, (1), 66-80.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Mental accounting posits that people track their expenditures using cognitive categories or "mental accounts." The authors propose that this cognitive process can be complemented by an approach that examines how feelings about a sum of money, or the money's "affective tag," influence its consumption. When people receive money under negative circumstances, this tag can include a negative affect component, which people aim to reduce by engaging in strategic consumption. The authors investigate two such strategies, laundering and hedonic avoidance, and demonstrate their effect on consumption of windfalls. The authors find that people avoid spending their negatively tagged money on hedonic expenditures and prefer to make utilitarian or virtuous expenditures to reduce, or "launder," their negative feelings about the windfall. The authors call this tagging process and strategic consumption "emotional accounting."

Marczyk J. .( 2015).

Moral alliance strategies theory

Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1, (2), 77-90.

Martin J. W., &Cushman F .(in press).

The adaptive logic of moral luck

A Companion to Experimental Philosophy.

URL    

Summary Moral luck is a puzzling aspect of our psychology: Why do we punish outcomes that were not intended (i.e. accidents)? Prevailing psychological accounts of moral luck characterize it as an accident or error, stemming either from a re-evaluation of the agent's mental state or from negative affect aroused by the bad outcome itself. While these models have strong evidence in their favor, neither can account for the unique influence of accidental outcomes on punishment judgments, compared with other categories of moral judgment. Why might punishment be particularly sensitive to moral luck? We suggest that such sensitivity is easily understood from the broader perspective of punishment's ultimate adaptive goal: Changing others鈥 behavior by exploiting their capacity to learn. This pedagogical perspective accounts for the exceptional influence of outcomes on punitive sentiments and makes predictions for additional moderators of punishment. We review evidence supporting the pedagogical hypothesis of punishment and discuss fruitful directions for future research.

Mauss M. ( 1972).

A general theory of magic (R. Brain, Trans.). New York: W. W. Norton

( Original work published 1902)

[本文引用: 1]

Mcdermott E., &Langdon P.E . ( 2016).

The moral reasoning abilities of men and women with intellectual disabilities who have a history of criminal offending behaviour

Legal and Criminological Psychology, 21, (1), 25-40.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Purpose. The current study had the following two aims (a) to examine the moral reasoning abilities of four groups of people: (i) men and women with IDs who had a documented history of criminal offending, and (ii) men and women with IDs with no known history of criminal offending, and (b) to examine the relationship between emotional and behavioural problems and moral reasoning. It was predicted that (a) there would be no significant difference between the moral reasoning of men and women with IDs, (b) men and women with IDs who are not offenders will have “developmentally immature” moral reasoning in comparison to offenders, and (c) moral reasoning will significantly predict emotional and behavioural problems. Methods. Sixty-eight people with IDs were invited to take part in this study and spread across four groups: (a) men with IDs who had committed criminal offences, (b) women with IDs who had committed criminal offences, (c) men with IDs who had no known history of criminal offending, and (d) women with IDs who had no known history of criminal offending. Participants were asked to complete measures of intelligence, moral reasoning, and emotional/behavioural problems. Results. As predicted, men and women did not have different moral reasoning, but offenders did have “developmentally more mature” moral reasoning than non-offenders. Women had higher levels of physical and verbal aggression, while offenders, generally, had higher levels of psychopathology. Women with a history of criminal offending had higher levels of sexually inappropriate behaviour compared to men and women in the community. Moral reasoning significantly predicted emotional and behavioural problems. Conclusions. Further work in this area is needed, and interventions that aim to address a moral developmental “delay” may be beneficial in reducing recidivism amongst this population.

Moll J., de Oliveira-Souza R., Moll F. T., Ignácio F. A., Bramati I. E., Caparelli-Dáquer E. M., & Eslinqer P. J . ( 2005).

The moral affiliations of disgust: A functional MRI study

Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 18, (1), 68-78.

URL     PMID:15761278     

Recent investigations in cognitive neuroscience have shown that ordinary is guided by emotions that are uniquely in their experiential and interpersonal aspects. These "moral emotions" contribute importantly to social and derive from the neurobehavioral reorganization of the basic plan of emotions that pervade mammalian life. Disgust is one prototypic emotion with multiple domains that include viscerosomatic reaction patterns and subjective experiences linked to (a) the sensory properties of a class of natural stimuli, (b) a set of aversive experiences and (c) a unique mode of experiencing morality. In the current investigation, we tested the hypotheses that (a) the experience of disgust devoid of moral connotations ("pure disgust") can be subjectively and behaviorally differentiated from the experience of disgust disguised in the moral emotion of "indignation" and that (b) pure disgust and indignation may have partially overlapping neural substrates. Thirteen normal adult volunteers were investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they read a series of statements depicting scenarios of pure disgust, indignation, and neutral emotion. After the scanning procedure, they assigned one basic and one moral emotion to each stimulus from an array of six basic and seven moral emotions. Results indicated that (a) emotional stimuli may evoke pure disgust with or without indignation, (b) these different aspects of the experience of disgust could be elicited by a set of written statements, and (c) pure disgust and indignation recruited both overlapping and distinct brain regions, mainly in the frontal and temporal lobes. This work underscores the importance of the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices in moral judgment and in the automatic attribution of morality to social events. disgust encompasses a variety of emotional experiences that are ingrained in frontal, temporal, and limbic networks.

Nemeroff C., & Rozin P. ( 2000) . The makings of the magical mind: The nature and function of sympathetic magical thinking In K S Rosengren, C N Johnson, & P L Harris (Eds), Imagining the impossible: Magical, scientific, and religious thinking in children (pp 1-34) New York: Cambridge University Press .

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Nemeroff C., &Rozin P. ( 1994).

The contagion concept in adult thinking in the United States: Transmission of germs and of interpersonal influence

Ethos, 22, (2), 158-186.

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Jimenez E, Unger M, Bl01ss G, Sch01fer A.

Newman G.E., &Bloom P. ( 2014).

Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, (10), 3705-3708.

URL     PMID:24567388      [本文引用: 1]

Contagion is a form of in which people believe that a person's immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people's expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions.

Olatunji B. O., Cisler J., McKay D., & Phillips M. L . ( 2010).

Is disgust associated with psychopathology? Emerging research in the anxiety disorders

Psychiatry Research, 175, (1-2), 1-10.

URL     PMID:19969378      [本文引用: 1]

Recent evidence indicates that the propensity towards experiencing disgust may contribute to the development and maintenance of some anxiety disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence with emphasis on illuminating potential mediators, moderators, and mechanisms of the disgust鈥揳nxiety disorder association that may inform the development of an integrative conceptual model. Early research using neuroimaging methods suggest that disgust processing is associated with activation of the insula. This research has the potential to facilitate progress in developing an empirically informed psychobiological theory on the causal role of disgust in the anxiety disorders.

Paxton J.M., &Greene J.D . ( 2010).

Moral reasoning: Hints and allegations

Topics in Cognitive Science, 2, (3), 511-527.

URL     PMID:25163874      [本文引用: 1]

Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both deontological and utilitarian moral principles, and counteracting automatic tendencies toward bias that would otherwise dominate behavior. We argue that little is known about the psychology of moral reasoning and that it may yet prove to be a potent social force.

Pham M.T . ( 2006).

Emotion and rationality: A critical review and interpretation of empirical evidence

Review of General Psychology, 11, (2), 155-178.

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ABSTRACT The relation between emotion and rationality is assessed by reviewing empirical findings from multiple disciplines. Two types of emotional phenomena are examined incidental emotional states and integral emotional responses and three conceptions of rationality are considered logical, material, and ecological. Emotional states influence reasoning processes, are often misattributed to focal objects, distort beliefs in an assimilative fashion, disrupt self-control when intensely negative but do not necessarily increase risk-taking. Integral emotional responses are often used as proxies for values, and valuations based on these responses exhibit distinct properties: efficiency, consistency, polarization, myopia, scale- insensitivity, and reference-dependence. Emotions seem to promote social and moral behavior. Conjectures about the design features of the affective system that gives rise to these seeming sources of rationality or irrationality are proposed. Therefore, any categorical statement about the overall rationality or irrationality of emotion would be misleading.

Pivetti M., Camodeca M., & Rapino M . ( 2016).

Shame, guilt, and anger: Their cognitive, physiological, and behavioral correlates

Current Psychology, 35, (4), 690-699.

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Abstract Within the framework of the Component Process Model, the present study focuses on the emotions of shame, guilt, and anger, and aims at exploring their cognitive, physiological, and behavioral correlates. The participants were 124 Italian undergraduate students, who were asked to report an episode, from their autobiographical memory, about a self-conscious emotion that had occurred to them in the recent past. After that, they were asked to rate a large number of possible reactions about thoughts, bodily sensations, and action tendencies that they experienced during that episode. Our results generally support the idea that shame, guilt, and anger elicit different cognitive, physical, and behavioral patterns. These reactive systems may influence emotional and social adjustment in young adults. In particular, shame did not appear to be associated with aggressive tendencies, but it was characterized by the sensation of being a failure, gaze aversion, and by a low awareness of hurting and transgressing. Both guilt and anger were characterized by norm violation, whereas guilt alone was related to a tendency to repair.

Rai T.S., &Fiske A.P . ( 2011).

Moral psychology is relationship regulation: Moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality

Psychological Review, 118, (1), 57-75.

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Rohrmann S., &Hopp H. ( 2008).

Cardiovascular indicators of disgust

International Journal of Psychophysiology, 68, (3), 201-208.

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Rozin P. ( 1999).

The process of moralization

Psychological Science, 10, (3), 218-221.

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Rozin P., Haidt J., & Fincher K . ( 2009).

From oral to moral

Science, 323, (5918), 1179-1180.

Rozin P., Haidt J., & Mc Cauley C . ( 2000).

Disgust. In M

Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions( 2nd ed., pp. 637-653). New York: Guilford.

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Rozin P., Markwith M., & Mccauley C . ( 1994).

Sensitivity to indirect contacts with other persons: AIDS aversion as a composite of aversion to strangers, infection, moral taint, and misfortune

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, (3), 495-504.

URL     PMID:7930049      [本文引用: 2]

College students and their parents rated their willingness to wear sweaters previously worn by a target person described as having AIDS, another infectious illness (), a misfortune (maimed in automobile accident), moral taint (convicted murderer), or simply as a healthy but unknown . Parallel ratings were obtained with respect to beds slept in or automobiles previously owned by the same set of target persons. Results indicated that there are strong individual differences in sensitivity to 4 sources of aversion to indirect interpersonal contagion: , misfortune, immorality, and unfamiliarity. Individual sensitivity to any one of these sources predicts sensitivity to the others (rs in the.30s). Aversion to indirect contact with a person with AIDS (by sweater, bed, or car) includes all 4 sources of aversion.

Rozin P., Markwith M., & Nemeroff C . ( 1992).

Magical contagion beliefs and fear of AIDS

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, (14), 1081-1092.

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Rozin P., &Royzman E.B . ( 2001).

Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion

Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, (4), 296-320.

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Sanfey A. G., Rilling J. K., Aronson J. A., Nystrom L. E., & Cohen J. D . ( 2003).

The neural basis of economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game

Science, 300, (5626), 1755-1758.

URL     PMID:12805551      [本文引用: 1]

The nascent field of neuroeconomics seeks to ground economic decision-making in the biological substrate of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of Ultimatum Game players to investigate neural substrates of cognitive and emotional processes involved in economic decision-making. In this game, two players split a sum of money; one player proposes a division and the other can accept or reject this. We scanned players as they responded to fair and unfair proposals. Unfair offers elicited activity in brain areas related to both emotion (anterior insula) and cognition (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Further, significantly heightened activity in anterior insula for rejected unfair offers suggests an important role for emotions in decision-making.

Schaich Borg J., Lieberman D., & Kiehl K. A . ( 2008).

Infection, incest, and iniquity: Investigating the neural correlates of disgust and morality

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, (9), 1529-1546.

URL     PMID:3969035     

Disgust, an emotion related to avoiding harmful substances, has been linked to moral judgments in many behavioral studies. However, the fact that participants report feelings of disgust when thinking about feces and a heinous crime does not necessarily indicate that the same mechanisms mediate these reactions. Humans might instead have separate neural and physiological systems guiding aversive behaviors and judgments across different domains. The present interdisciplinary study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (n = 50) and behavioral assessment to investigate the biological homology of pathogen-related and moral disgust. We provide evidence that pathogen-related and sociomoral acts entrain many common as well as unique brain networks. We also investigated whether morality itself is composed of distinct neural and behavioral subdomains. We provide evidence that, despite their tendency to elicit similar ratings of moral wrongness, incestuous and nonsexual immoral acts entrain dramatically separate, while still overlapping, brain networks. These results (i) provide support for the view that the biological response of disgust is intimately tied to immorality, (ii) demonstrate that there are at least three separate domains of disgust, and (iii) suggest strongly that morality, like disgust, is not a unified psychological or neurological phenomenon.

Schnall S., Haidt J., Clore G. L., & Jordan A. H . ( 2008).

Disgust as embodied moral judgment

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, (8), 1096-1109.

URL     PMID:18505801      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In four experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants' sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance-and specificity-of gut feelings in moral judgments.

Schur A . ( 2008).

Beyond moral evangelism: On the rejection of punishment in Late Tolstoy

Tolstoy Studies Journal, 20, 38.

[本文引用: 1]

Selterman D., Moors A. C., & Koleva S . ( 2018).

Moral judgment toward relationship betrayals and those who commit them

Personal Relationships, 25 (1), 65-86.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract In three experimental studies (total N 65=651,056), we examined moral judgments toward relationship betrayals, and how these judgments depended on whether characters and their actions were perceived to be pure and loyal compared to the level of harm caused. In Studies 1 and 2, the focus was on confessing a betrayal, whereas in Study 3, the focus was on the act of sexual infidelity. Perceptions of harm/care were inconsistently and less strongly associated with moral judgment toward the behavior or the character, relative to perceptions of purity and loyalty, which emerged as key predictors of moral judgment across all studies. Our findings demonstrate that a diversity of cognitive factors play a key role in the moral perception of relationship betrayals.

Sharvit K., Brambilla M., Babush M., & Colucci F. P . ( 2015).

To feel or not to feel when my group harms others? The regulation of collective guilt as motivated reasoning

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41, (9), 1223-1235.

URL     PMID:26130597      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Four studies tested the proposition that regulation of collective guilt in the face of harmful ingroup behavior involves motivated reasoning. Cognitive energetics theory suggests that motivated reasoning is a function of goal importance, mental resource availability, and task demands. Accordingly, three studies conducted in the United States and Israel demonstrated that high importance of avoiding collective guilt, represented by group identification (Studies 1 and 3) and conservative ideological orientation (Study 2), is negatively related to collective guilt, but only when mental resources are not depleted by cognitive load. The fourth study, conducted in Italy, demonstrated that when justifications for the ingroup's harmful behavior are immediately available, the task of regulating collective guilt and shame becomes less demanding and less susceptible to resource depletion. By combining knowledge from the domains of motivated cognition, emotion regulation, and intergroup relations, these cross-cultural studies offer novel insights regarding factors underlying the regulation of collective guilt. 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

Sherman G.D., &Clore G.L . ( 2010).

The color of sin: White and black are perceptual symbols of moral purity and pollution

Psychological Science, 20, (8), 1019-1025.

URL     PMID:19619180      [本文引用: 2]

http://pss.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02403.x

Simpson J., Carter S., Anthony S. H., & Overton P. G . ( 2006).

Is disgust a homogeneous emotion?

Motivation and Emotion, 30, (1), 31-41.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Many theoretical accounts consider disgust to be a unitary emotion, although others have challenged this notion. We predict that if core disgust and socio-moral disgust are different constructs, then their co-associated elicited emotions are likely to be different, and time as well as gender are likely to differentially affect their intensity (via a greater reliance of socio-moral disgust on cognitive appraisal). To test these predictions, participants were shown photographs of core and socio-moral disgust elicitors and asked to provide a wide ranging rating of their emotional response to each at 3 time points. Each elicitor generated a significantly different emotional response. Furthermore, the disgust response to core elicitors weakened over time whereas socio-moral responses intensified. Males and females showed similar levels of disgust to socio-moral elicitors, but females showed higher levels to core elicitors. Overall, the results suggest that a different emotional construct was activated by each type of elicitor.

Smetana J.G . ( 1995).

Morality in context: Abstractions, ambiguities and applications

In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development ( Vol 10, pp. 83-130). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT the central thesis of this chapter is that there are still compelling reasons to place moral cognition at the center of the psychological study of moral development (while still acknowledging the role of affect and behavior) / [propose] that divergent social practices, conflictual social issues, and apparent variations in moral values can be reconciled with a rational and universalistic approach to moral development / reviews research from a domain-specificity perspective on moral development that accounts for both variations and commonalities in children's, adolescents', and adults' moral thinking suggests that morality must be understood in relation to and as differentiated from other forms of social knowledge / begins by defining morality, distinguishing it from other social knowledge domains, and describing methods for its study / [discuss] development within and across domains and the experiential bases for development / focus on the application of morality to divergent social issues and different social and cultural contexts (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Smith E.R . ( 1993).

Chapter 13-Social identity and social emotions: Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice

Affect Cognition and Stereotyping, 297-315.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This chapter discusses social identity and social emotions. Specific stereotypic beliefs may be positive or negative in evaluative tone, and may be thought to characterize virtually all members of the group or just a few of them. This definition of stereotype is widely accepted. Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination—ranging from economic exploitation of outgroup members through genocide—have been among the central historical themes of the 20th century. Social psychologists have been at the forefront among social scientists attempting to understand the nature and sources of intergroup conflicts. The chapter also discusses some of the problems in the traditional conceptualization and some of the theoretical strengths and novel hypotheses implicit in the new one. It describes some directions for research that could provide further empirical support for this new viewpoint on prejudice and related phenomena.

Smith E. R., Seger C. R., & Mackie D. M . ( 2007).

Can emotions be truly group level? Evidence regarding four conceptual criteria

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, (3), 431-446.

URL     PMID:17723058      [本文引用: 1]

Recent advances in understanding prejudice and intergroup behavior have made clear that emotions help explain people's reactions to social groups and their members. Intergroup emotions theory (D. M. Mackie, T. Devos, & E. R. Smith, 2000; E. R. Smith, 1993) holds that intergroup emotions are experienced by individuals when they identify with a social group, making the group part of the psychological self. What differentiates such group-level emotions from emotions that occur purely at the individual level? The authors argue that 4 key criteria define group-level emotions: Group emotions are distinct from the same person's individual-level emotions, depend on the person's degree of group identification, are socially shared within a group, and contribute to regulating intragroup and intergroup attitudes and behavior. Evidence from 2 studies supports all 4 of these predictions and thus points to the meaningfulness, coherence, and functionality of group-level emotions.

Stellar J.E., &Willer R. ( 2013).

The corruption of value: Negative moral associations diminish the value of money

Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, (1), 60-66.

[本文引用: 1]

Tangney J. P., Stuewig J., & Mashek D. J . ( 2006).

Moral emotions and moral behavior

Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 345-372.

PMID:16953797      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy.

Tapp C., &Occhipinti S. ( 2016).

The essence of crime: Contagious transmission from those who have committed moral transgressions

British Journal of Social Psychology, 55, (4), 756-772.

URL     PMID:27480621      [本文引用: 5]

Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between moral contagion and disgust. Study 1 established that the contamination effect is unique to transgressions that fall within the moral domain. Study 2 replicated this effect and further showed that the underlying mechanism is intimately related to disgust, as disgust was found to uniquely mediate the relationship between moral transgressions and contamination responses. In Study 3, disgust was again found to mediate this relationship. In addition, the results of Study 3 show that the moral contagion effect was not dependent upon the presence of a core disgust cue within the transgression. In Study 4, we investigated whether or not moral contagion leads to behavioural avoidance. RESULTS show that behavioural avoidance only occurred when the moral transgression contained a core disgust cue. Taken together, the results of our studies show that disgust plays a key role in moral contagion processes. However, the difference in findings between the thought experiments (Studies 1-3) and the behavioural experiment (Study 4) identifies a need for further research to examine the conditions under which moral contagion leads to behavioural avoidance. 2016 The British Psychological Society.

Tasimi A., &Gelman S.A . ( 2016).

Dirty money: The role of moral history in economic judgments

Cognitive Science, 41, (S3), 523-544.

URL     PMID:28000966      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history (i.e., stolen money). Experiments 3-5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequences of accepting stolen money rather than moral sensitivity. Experiment 6 examines whether an aversion to stolen money may reflect contamination concerns, and Experiment 7 indicates that people report they would donate stolen money, thereby counteracting its negative history with a positive act. Finally, Experiment 8 demonstrates that, even in their recall of actual events, people report a reduced tendency to accept tainted money. Altogether, these findings suggest a robust tendency to evaluate money based on its moral history, even though it is designed to participate in exchanges that effectively erase its origins. Copyright 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

Travis R., &Fergus T.A . ( 2015).

The potentiating effect of disgust sensitivity on the relationship between disgust propensity and mental contamination

Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 6, 114-119.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61Further examined associations between disgust and mental contamination.61Examined disgust propensity (DP) and disgust sensitivity (DS).61DP and DS evidenced an interaction in relation to mental contamination.61Interaction was unaccounted for by negative affect or broader contamination fears.

Umphress E. E., Bingham J. B., & Mitchell M. S . ( 2010).

Unethical behavior in the name of the company: The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior

Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, (4), 769-780.

URL     PMID:20604596      [本文引用: 1]

We examined the relationship between organizational identification and unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB)--unethical behaviors conducted by employees to potentially benefit the organization. We predicted that organizational identification would be positively related to UPB and that positive reciprocity beliefs would moderate and strengthen this relationship. The results from 2 field studies support the interaction effect and show that individuals who strongly identify with their organization are more likely to engage in UPB when they hold strong positive reciprocity beliefs. Given the nature of reciprocity, our findings may suggest that highly identified employees who hold strong reciprocity beliefs may conduct UPB with an anticipation of a future reward from their organization. Theoretical and managerial implications of our results for understanding unethical behaviors are discussed.

Xie W., Yu B., Zhou X., Sedikides C., & Vohs K. D . ( 2014).

Money, moral transgressions, and blame

Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24, (3), 299-306.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Two experiments tested participants' attributions for others' immoral behaviors when conducted for more versus less money. We hypothesized and found that observers would blame wrongdoers more when seeing a transgression enacted for little rather than a lot of money, and that this would be evident in observers' hand-washing behavior. Experiment 1 used a cognitive dissonance paradigm. Participants (N=160) observed a confederate lie in exchange for either a relatively large or a small monetary payment. Participants blamed the liar more in the small (versus large) money condition. Participants (N=184) in Experiment 2 saw images of someone knocking over another to obtain a small, medium, or large monetary sum. In the small (versus large) money condition, participants blamed the perpetrator (money) more. Hence, participants assigned less blame to moral wrong-doers, if the latter enacted their deed to obtain relatively large sums of money. Small amounts of money accentuate the immorality of others' transgressions.

Ying X. P., Luo J., Chiu C. Y., Wu Y. H., Xu Y., & Fan J . ( 2018).

Functional dissociation of the posterior and anterior insula in moral disgust

Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 860.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Much recent research has sought to uncover the gender difference in neural mechanism of moral judgment; however, very few researches study the neural gender differences in a specific area of moral judgment. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine possible gender difference in neural response to (sexual) disgusting pictures versus neutral pictures.... [Show full abstract]

Zanin A. C., Bisel R. S., & Adame E. A . ( 2016).

Supervisor moral talk contagion and trust-in-supervisor: mitigating the workplace moral mum effect

Management Communication Quarterly, 30, (2), 147-163.

[本文引用: 1]

Zhang X., Guo Q., Zhang Y., Lou L., & Ding D . ( 2015).

Different timing features in brain processing of core and moral disgust pictures: An event-related potentials study

Plos One, 10, (5), e0128531.

URL     PMID:4444107      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust.

Zhong C.B., &Liljenquist K. ( 2006).

Washing away your sins: Threatened morality and physical cleansing

Science, 313, (5792), 1451-1452.

[本文引用: 3]

Zhong C-B., Strejcek B., & Sivanathan N . ( 2010).

A clean self can render harsh moral judgment

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, (5), 859-862.

[本文引用: 3]

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