心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 657-665 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00657

研究前沿

青少年饮食失调:同伴的表现形式及作用机制

张天羽, 张向葵,

东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024

Eating disorders among adolescents: The form and mechanism of peer influence

ZHANG Tianyu, ZHANG Xiangkui,

School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China

通讯作者: 张向葵, E-mail: zhangxiangkui@126.com

收稿日期: 2018-05-8   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

Received: 2018-05-8   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

饮食失调在青少年群体中非常普遍, 同伴被认为是一种重要的影响因素。梳理其作用机制, 对青少年饮食失调的预防和干预有重要意义。研究表明, 同伴对青少年饮食失调具有消极影响, 主要表现为感知到的同伴行为、实际的同伴行为、身体不满意的中介作用、以及同伴质量的影响。研究者从直接、间接的角度就同伴对青少年饮食失调的作用机制及影响进行了阐释。未来的研究应深化研究内容, 如增加关于同伴影响的长期效应、同伴属性划分、影响路径作用大小以及同伴与饮食失调的其它社会影响因素间的交互作用等方面的研究。

关键词: 饮食失调 ; 青少年 ; 同伴影响

Abstract

Peer influence is considered to be an important influential factor to eating disorders which are common among adolescents. Identifying the mechanism of adolescents’ eating disorders has great significance for the prevention and intervention. Peer influence which manifest as the mediating effects of the perceived peer behaviors, the actual peer behaviors and the body dissatisfaction, and as the peer quality has a negative impact on adolescents’ eating disorders. Researchers have explored and interpreted the mechanism of peer influence on adolescents’ eating disorders directly and indirectly. They should deepen the research content, such as increasing the studies on the long-term effects of peer influence, the division of peer attributes, the effect size of peer influence pathways, and the interactions between peer influence and other social factors of eating disorders in the future.

Keywords: eating disorders ; adolescents ; peer influence

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本文引用格式

张天羽, 张向葵. (2019). 青少年饮食失调:同伴的表现形式及作用机制. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 657-665

ZHANG Tianyu, ZHANG Xiangkui. (2019). Eating disorders among adolescents: The form and mechanism of peer influence. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 657-665

1 引言

饮食失调(eating disorders)也叫进食障碍, 是一种由不正常的饮食习惯或一组以异常进食行为为主的精神障碍, 它对人的身体或心理健康产生负面影响(Berkman, Lohr, & Bulik, 2010)。其临床性主要表现为神经贪食症(bulimia nervosa, BN)、神经性厌食症(anorexia nervosa, AN)、暴食障碍(binge-eating disorder, BEN)。其亚临床主要表现为节食(diet)、贪食(bulimia)。临床性的饮食失调主要是由亚临床性发展、演变而来的。临床性的饮食失调相对少见, 而亚临床的饮食失调现象却十分常见, 影响了60%的女孩和30%的男孩(Eisenberg & Neumarksztainer, 2010), 并有进一步增加的趋势。研究发现, 媒体、家庭、同伴是饮食失调的三个最初影响源(Alison et al., 2008), 而以往的研究多开展于对媒体和家庭作用的探讨, 却忽视对同伴的研究(Hutchinson & Rapee, 2007; Woelders et al., 2010; Ferguson, Muñoz, & Garza, 2014)。

同伴(peer)是指那些有相同身份地位的人, 例如同龄人。相对于幼儿阶段和成人阶段, 青少年期的个体在社会化过程中受同伴影响的程度更大(Spear, 2000; Steinberg & Monahan, 2007; Neumark, Sztainer, Wall, Larson, Eisenberg, & Loth, 2011)。青少年有被同伴接受的需要, 会花费大量的时间与同伴在一起, 同时也有属于自己的圈子和小团体。但同伴也被认为是影响青少年出现风险行为的重要因素(Boyce, Davies, Gallupe, & Shelley, 2008), 因为“社会比较”的负面效应主要集中在同伴, 而非父母或媒体。

那么, 同伴是否会影响青少年发生饮食失调?同伴如何影响青少年饮食失调的发展?以及同伴影响青少年饮食失调的机制是怎么样的?这些都得到了饮食失调研究者的关注, 并开展了一系列研究加以讨论。本研究旨在系统地总结以往研究的结果, 梳理、归纳同伴影响青少年饮食失调的途径, 为未来系统地探讨同伴对青少年饮食失调的作用机制提供依据。

2 同伴对青少年饮食失调影响的表现形式

关于“同伴对青少年饮食失调影响”为主题的实证研究, 大多以横断研究为主, 纵向研究为辅, 但却“各自为政”、非常零散。本研究旨在总结以往的研究成果, 以一种全新的框架, 更为清晰地呈现出同伴对青少年饮食失调影响的表现形式。其中包括同伴行为对青少年饮食失调的直接影响、间接影响以及同伴质量对饮食失调的影响。

2.1 同伴对青少年饮食失调的直接影响

大量研究表明, 同伴对于青少年的饮食失调存在着直接的影响, 归纳、总结已有研究, 如图1所示。这种影响又可以进一步划分为感知到的和实际的同伴影响。感知到的(自我报告)和实际的(同伴报告)同伴的态度和行为是截然不同的风险预测因素(Rayner, Schniering, Rapee, & Hutchinson, 2013)。

图1

图1   同伴对青少年饮食失调的直接影响


2.1.1 感知到的同伴影响

感知到的同伴影响, 即青少年对同伴关于“体重相关的态度、行为或社会交往等(如取笑、外表对话)”的自我感知、自我评价。简而言之, 即你认为同伴是否存在节食、贪食行为。然而, 通过其自我报告的问卷形式收集数据, 往往具有单一性, 容易出现偏见和高估作用。

相关研究发现, 感知到的同伴在饮食失调, 即青少年认为其同伴在节食、贪食, 也会大大加深自身节食、贪食行为的发生率(Hutchinson & Rapee, 2007)。同时, 感知到同伴对瘦身和减肥的关心, 或感知到减肥的压力与青春期女孩的身体不满意和饮食失调呈高水平正相关(Jacobi, Hayward, De, Kraemer, & Agras, 2004)。追踪研究也发现了这种预测作用, 如Blodgett和Gondoli (2011)以12个月为时间间隔两次测量了初中女生感知到的同伴对瘦身和减肥的关心对身体不满意的影响, 结果发现, 感知到的同伴对瘦身和减肥的关心能够正向预测12个月后的身体不满意。Rayner, Schniering, Rapee和Hutchinson (2013)也发现感知到的同伴影响对节食行为有直接的影响, 即感知到的同伴影响越大, 节食行为越可能增加, 但感知到的同伴影响和贪食行为之间的关系存在身体不满意这一中介变量。此外, 有研究证明, 青少年感知到的体重相关的嘲笑对个体的饮食失调也有正向预测作用(Hutchinson, Rapee, & Taylor, 2010), 即青少年有时会敏感地误解同伴间的玩笑或言语, 把其当成一种嘲笑, 进而引发了节食等不健康的体重控制行为。

2.1.2 实际的同伴影响

实际的同伴影响, 即同伴自身对其体重相关的态度和行为(节食、贪食)的评价对青少年饮食失调的影响。通常通过同伴报告的问卷形式来收集数据。与感知到的同伴影响相比, 实际的同伴影响克服了偏见及高估的缺点, 更能代表同伴实际的态度, 进而可以更加精确的考察同伴对青少年饮食失调方面的影响。实际的同伴行为对青少年饮食失调的影响, 分两个方面, 一方面, 同伴的饮食失调(节食、贪食)会直接影响青少年饮食失调(节食、贪食)行为的发生。但目前而言, 此方面的研究较少, 仍待考证。另一方面, 同伴的谈论行为同样会潜移默化地造成个体的饮食失调, 同伴的谈论行为主要包括:瘦身策略、外表对于社会接受度的谈论; 取笑身材的谈论; 肥胖谈论。

外表对于社会接受度的谈论是指同伴间关于“与理想身材一致有利于实现社会接纳”的谈论, 即同伴团体间传递着外表对受欢迎度及人际关系有着重要作用的说法。质性研究发现, 青春期中期的女孩之所以认为瘦身重要, 是因为她们认为瘦身会影响同伴的接纳(Mooney, Farley, & Strugnell, 2009)。同样, 对“女孩”的两项横断研究中, 发现身体不满意与“瘦身对人际关系有利或对吸引男孩注意力有益”的看法相关, 并且在控制了一系列变量后仍然显著(Paxton, Schutz, Wertheim, & Muir, 1999; Schutz & Paxton, 2007)。追踪研究也有同样的发现, Jones, Vigfusdottir和Lee (2004)以12个月为时间间隔两次测量了初中女生的外表社会接纳度与节食情况, 发现外表的社会接纳度能够正向预测12个月后的节食行为。总的来说, 经常性的外表交谈会形成一个“同伴的外表背景”, 那些把外表看的过于重要的青少年会报告更多的身体不满意和不良的饮食行为。

取笑身材的谈论是指对外表及体重相关的取笑(Jung, 2009; Menzel et al., 2010)。诸多相关研究考察了取笑身材与身体不满意和饮食失调的关系, 研究结果也颇为一致。在控制了一系列变量后, 两者的关系仍然显著(Jones et al., 2004; Paxton et al., 1999; Taylor et al., 1998; Vander, Wal, & Thelen, 2000)。但纵向研究却存在两种不同结果。Jones等(2004)发现取笑不能预测青少年1年后的身体不满意; 而Paxton, Eisenberg, Neumark-Sztainer (2006)发现取笑可以正向预测青少年5年后的身体不满意。此外, Jackson和Chen (2014)发现取笑可能只发生在青春期的早期, 但不可置否的是, 取笑身材的谈论与身体不满意和饮食失调存在正相关。总之, 与正常的青少年相比, 那些经常受到同伴取笑(外表、体重)的个体往往会报告出更多的身体不满意, 也最容易出现饮食失调行为。

肥胖谈论(Fat Talk)是一种文化中常见的谈话现象, 女性经常对自己的身体不满意, 并且在同伴间谈论这种不满意。Nichte和Vuckovic (1994)认为这种谈论是具有程序性的, 所以他们将这种谈论命名为“肥胖谈论”, 是指女性之间对自己的身体外貌的信息交流, 特别是关于身体肥胖、体重、体型、类型和舒适度等方面的谈论。女性会将在肥胖谈论过程中获得的关于理想身体的信息进行内化, 纳入到自己对身体的认知中, 但是很少有人能够达到这种理想身体的标准, 所以女性之间进行肥胖谈论, 会造成瘦理想内化而产生身体不满意, 进而会引发饮食失调(吴双双, 吕振勇, 陈红, 王玉慧, 肖子伦, 2016)。对肥胖谈论和饮食失调的直接研究发现, 在青少年女性中, 暴露在同伴之间的消极的身体谈论以及一些跟节食行为相关的话题能够增加身体不满意、节食行为、对食物的关注程度以及暴食症状(Compeau & Ambwani, 2013; Woelders et al., 2010)。如Eisenberg和Neumarksztaine (2010)关于初中生的一项五年的追踪研究显示:同伴间公开的交流, 如对体重和外貌的批评性评论, 能够正向预测青少年的节食等不健康的饮食行为。同时, Jackson和Chen (2008b)针对593名非西方样本的一项9个月的前瞻性研究也发现, 青少年对于肥胖的担忧(即体重正常或偏瘦却认为自己超重)以及同伴对外表的负面反馈会造成身体不满意和饮食失调。以上说明肥胖谈论是影响饮食失调的因素之一。

2.2 同伴对青少年饮食失调的间接影响

除了同伴对青少年饮食失调的直接影响外, 大量研究显示, 同伴对青少年饮食失调也具有间接影响, 即以身体意象为中介(Bearman, Presnell, Martinez, & Stice, 2006; Jung, 2009)。归纳、总结已有研究, 如图2所示。

图2

图2   同伴对青少年饮食失调的间接影响


2.2.1 身体意象失调

身体意象(body image)是指个体形成的对自己身体的心理图画, 包括对身体生理心理功能的认知、态度(如情感、评价)以及对行为的影响(陈红, 2006)。

身体意象失调(body image disturbance, BID), 又称负面身体自我(negative physical self, NPS), 是个体对身体的消极认知、消极情感体验和相应的行为调控(陈红, 2006)。消极的身体意象表现为过度地关注身体、身体不满意、低自尊、消极情绪以及饮食失调等(陈红等, 2007; Carlson, 2004)。

2.2.2 身体意象失调的中介作用

有关饮食失调的研究表明, 身体不满意是引起饮食失调的重要原因(王玉慧, 吕振勇, 陈红, 吴双双, 肖子伦, 2016; Jacobi, Hayward, De, Kraemer, & Agras, 2004; Stice, 2002; Woelders et al., 2010), 由身体不满意引起的饮食失调在女性中十分普遍(羊晓莹, 陈红, 2006; Gerbasi et al., 2014; Taylor et al., 2006)。近年来, 男性身体意象失调开始引起学者的关注, 相关研究逐渐增多。研究发现, 在西方社会中, 男性身体不满意变得越来越普遍(Adams, Turner, & Bucks, 2005; Webb & Zimmer, 2014), 不同于女性对苗条身材的追求, 男性对于身体的关注点主要是肌肉感和身高(施启琰, 寇慧, 陈红, 2017)。

关于同伴-身体意象失调(身体不满意)-饮食失调这一路径, Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe和Tantleff-Dunn (1999)提出了三种影响模型(the tripartite influence model), 用于解释女性身体不满意和饮食失调, 同时该模型也被应用于男性群体(Karazsia & Crowther, 2009; Rodgers, Ganchou, Franko, & Chabrol, 2012)和非西方样本(Jackson & Chen, 2010)。该模型假设:社会文化因素, 即媒体、家庭、同伴是身体不满意和饮食失调的三个最初影响源; 外貌比较(appearance comparison)和瘦理想内化(internalization of thin ideal)是社会文化因素和身体满意度之间的中介变量。外貌比较是指个体通过与他人进行比较, 以获得对自己身体外貌评价的过程。而同伴为青少年进行外貌比较提供了对象。Myers和Crowther (2009)针对社会比较的元分析表明:经常性的社会比较能够正向预测身体不满意, 相比男性和成人, 女性和青少年更容易发生身体不满意。瘦理想内化是指女性将媒体中所呈现的模特的苗条身材内化为标准, 以此来评价自己的体型, 并力求达到那样的身材 (唐锐, 陈红, 鲁小芳, 2006; Chang et al., 2013), 而朝夕相处的同伴无疑是比较的最佳对象。如Jackson和Chen (2008a, 2008b)针对非西方样本为期9、18个月的两项追踪研究显示:在9个月的时候, 感知到的社会压力正向预测了青少年的身体不满意, 但在18个月时效果却不明显, 而瘦身理想的内化却有了显著的正向预测作用。造成这种情况的原因可能是感知到的社会压力是暂时的、短期的、不稳定的。而瘦理想内化带来的“深入人心”的效应可能是长期的、稳定的。此外, 另有研究证明, 消极情绪是身体不满意和饮食失调之间的中介变量(Schulte & Thomas, 2013), 支持这一路径的为情绪调控模型(effect regulation model) (Mccarthy, 1990), 一方面, 由身体不满意所引发的低自尊会唤醒青少年的节食行为, 以实现不切实际的瘦身理想。另一方面, 贪食和补偿性行为有助于调节苦恼、恐惧、愤怒等消极情绪。Jackson和Chen (2014)对影响青少年饮食失调风险因素的纵向研究中也发现了类似的结果, 即消极情绪会正向预测饮食失调的发生, 诸如节食、暴食和补偿行为可能是用于分散情绪困扰或提供情绪释放的一种手段。同时, 消极情绪的中介作用可能解释了部分而非全部的身体不满意个体会经历饮食失调(Jackson & Chen, 2011)。

2.3 同伴质量对青少年饮食失调的影响

对于同伴如何影响青少年饮食失调, 存在着两条可能的路径, 第一, 同伴间的互动的影响, 即前文所提及的同伴对青少年饮食失调的直接影响、间接影响。大量的相关研究、纵向研究对其提供了支持。第二, 同伴的社会支持的影响, 即同伴的质量和数量对青少年饮食失调的影响。研究发现:较差的同伴质量也是同伴影响的一种特殊表现形式, 同时, 消极的同伴质量又会抑制同伴选择的特定功能, 如亲密关系、同伴依赖、同伴互助等(Sharpe, Schober, Treasure, & Schmidt, 2014)。仅有少量的研究考察了路径二, 结果也不尽相同。如Gerner和Wilson (2005)发现低同伴质量与身体意象关注显著相关, 但与身体不满意和限制性饮食无关。Schutz和Paxton (2007)则发现低同伴质量与身体不满意、限制性饮食、极端的体重控制行为和暴食行为有关, 但当抑郁被考虑进来时, 这些联系的强度被降低了, 基本达到了无意义的程度。Sharpe等(2014)发现友谊的消极、特殊方面与身体不满意和饮食失调有关。即与朋友交往存在更多困难的(包括更多的冲突和感觉到与朋友疏远)女孩报告更多的身体不满意和饮食失调。此外, 他们还发现这种联系与抑郁有关, 但不确定其是否为调节变量, 且未确定因果关系, 即是“抑郁导致身体不满意、饮食失调”还是“身体不满意、饮食失调导致抑郁”。一项追踪研究也得到了类似的结果, Helfert和Warschburger (2011)发现社会排斥、消极的社会关系能够预测一年后男孩的身体不满意情况, 但这种效应在女孩中并未发现。总的来说, 要更好地对青少年的饮食问题进行干预, 有效地解决同伴关系中消极的同伴质量及社交焦虑是至关重要的(Schutz & Paxton, 2007)。

3 同伴对青少年饮食失调影响的作用机制

关于同伴对青少年饮食失调影响的作用机制, 以往的研究结果存在较大的争议, 主要包括三个方向的研究结果。第一, 青少年饮食失调行为的同伴影响效应显著, 而同伴选择效应不显著。如Crandall (1988)发现年轻女性的贪食水平会随着时间的推移, 与亲密的朋友愈发相似, 他认为这样的结果主要来自于社会化过程而不是选择过程。在此基础上, Paxton等人(1991)发现青春期女孩在身体意象问题和节食上会变的相似, 其结果主要源于同伴影响而非同伴选择效应。此外, 另一项研究也发现, 青春期女孩把节食看成一种集体活动, 为了满足群体归属感, 同伴团体成员都从事节食以避免“与众不同”, 这来源于同伴影响作用, 而不是同伴选择作用(Carey, Donaghue, & Broderick, 2011)。第二, 青少年饮食失调行为的同伴选择效应显著, 而同伴影响效应不显著。如Meyer和Waller (2001)发现, 随时间的推移, 节食和身体不满意度逐渐变的相似, 而贪食行为并没有变的相似, 社会化作用不显著。Rayner, Schniering, Rapee, Taylor和Hutchinson (2013)也发现在同时检验选择和社会化过程时, 选择作用可以更好地解释女性在身体不满意、节食和贪食的相似性, 而非影响作用。此外, 另一项对651名青少年饮食失调的研究中也发现:青春期女孩的同伴团体在身体不满意和饮食失调行为上往往相似, 这不是同伴影响的作用, 而是同伴选择作用造成的(Kirsch, Shapiro, Conley, & Heinrichs, 2016)。第三, 青少年饮食失调行为的同伴选择和同伴影响效应都显著。如Hutchinson和Rapee (2007)发现青春期女性友谊团体内的成员在节食和暴饮暴食上具有相似性, 同时同伴的饮食态度和行为又会影响到个体从事相似或相同的行为。相似的是, Zalta和Keel (2006)发现贪食倾向于受社会化影响, 但此研究结果仅适用于那些有相似特征(自尊、完美主义和冲动)的同伴之间, 而这种特征又恰好是影响饮食失调的重要因素, 即同伴选择和同伴影响过程并非对立存在, 而是共存共生的关系。

3.1 “同伴选择”的作用机制

“同伴选择”也称为“同类趋近”、“选择过程”。 即在人格特征、心理状况、外貌身体、职业等方面相似的人更容易相互选择, 成为朋友, 这可能进一步强化了心理和行为属性上的相似性, 即所谓“物以类聚, 人以群分” (张镇, 郭博达, 2016)。该过程是导致友谊关系形成和维持的关键(Hallinan & Williams, 1989; Hamm, 2000; McPherson, Smithlovin, & Cook, 2001)。简而言之, 青少年会倾向于选择与自己态度、行为相似的个体成为同伴。

关于同伴选择效应的理论解释主要有Byrne和Nelson (1965)提出的相似性吸引理论(similarity attraction theory)。相似性吸引理论认为个体倾向选择与自己在态度、行为等方面相似的人群建立友谊, 即因为相似性而产生了人际关系的吸引。不仅在性别、种族、社会经济地位等人口学特征会出现相似性吸引(McPherson, Smithlovin, & Cook, 2001), 而且在人格特质、态度以及问题行为等多个领域也会出现相似性吸引(Jeon & Goodson, 2015; Montoya & Horton, 2012)。根据该理论, 青少年倾向于选择那些与自身身体不满意和饮食失调方面相似或相同的人做朋友(Woelders et al., 2010)。

3.2 “同伴影响”的作用机制

“同伴影响”也称为“诱导”、“影响过程”, 即“近朱者赤, 近墨者黑”, 指一个人在某种状态下的认知、表情、姿态、动作会感染周围的人, 进而通过近距离的人际关系(如家人和亲密朋友)影响远距离的人际关系(如同伴的同伴或朋友的朋友) (张镇, 郭博达, 2016)。在青少年同伴交往中, 这种“影响过程”的作用体现在行为和心理特征的彼此同化(assimilation) (Veenstra, Dijkstra, Steglich, & Van, 2013)。简而言之, 在同伴关系存在的前提下, 同伴之间的相互影响会使得青少年彼此愈加相似。

关于同伴影响效应的理论解释主要有社会学习理论、社会比较理论、社会文化理论等。社会学习理论(social learning theory)的核心是模仿学习, 并强调普遍性和诱因对模仿的重要性。在同伴交往的社会背景下, 个体通过建模、奖励和惩罚, 以及替代强化(通过观察学习)等能够改变行为。媒体中普遍存在的完美身材的模特, 以及由完美身材所带来的好处或同伴因理想身材而在人际关系中受欢迎程度高, 是诱发模仿学习的主要原因。社会比较理论(social comparison)强调个体通过将自己的能力、观点与他人进行比较, 获得稳定的自我评价, 如果比较对象与自我具有许多相似之处, 这种效应就会尤为显著。个体与媒体模特、同伴的外貌比较引起瘦身理想的内化, 进而导致身体不满意、饮食失调。社会文化理论(sociocultural theory)强调社会文化因素在人类认知功能的发展中发挥着核心作用, 研究社会文化价值观如何影响个人的价值观和行为。基于社会文化理论, Thompson等(1999)进行理论拓展, 提出了三重影响模型(the tripartite influence model), 如前所述, 该模型专门用于解释男性、女性身体不满意和饮食失调, 得到了诸多研究的支持(Keery, Van, Thompson, 2004; Shroff & Thompson, 2006)。

以往关于青少年饮食失调行为的同伴选择效应和同伴影响效应的研究结果出现较大的差异可能与被试样本的社会文化差异、受教育程度、性别等人口学因素有关, 也可能是在测量工具、饮食失调行为类型、无关变量控制上的选择不同而导致的。未来的研究应选择更为合适的研究方法, 以更好地分离出选择和影响作用。

4 研究展望及启示

综上所述, 同伴通过选择或影响作用对青少年的饮食失调存在着直接、间接的影响, 在相关研究和追踪研究中都取得许多有价值的成果, 但在其研究内容上, 仍存在一些有待完善和探讨的方面:

第一, 同伴影响长期效应有待研究。以往的研究考察了感知到的同伴行为、谈论行为以及同伴质量对青少年饮食失调的影响。但随时间的推移, 同伴的饮食失调是否会直接影响青少年饮食失调行为的发生?同时, 相对于青春期而言, 成年初期的饮食失调发展趋势如何?是增强或是减弱?此外, 本研究系统地总结了“同伴对青少年饮食失调的消极影响”, 同伴是否存在积极的作用呢?如同伴的健康饮食态度能否通过影响效应来改变青少年个体的饮食问题?以及积极的同伴关系能否改善个体的饮食失调行为?另外, 在对非西方样本的研究中, 增加追踪次数后, 与西方的研究结果是否一致?这些仍有待探讨和进一步研究, 未来研究可采用纵向研究范式或增加追踪次数来讨论同伴影响的长期效应。

第二, 同伴属性划分有待深化。首先, 以往研究关于同伴数量对青少年饮食失调的影响研究相对较少(Sharpe et al., 2014), 未来研究应增加对这一方面的探讨。其次, 尽管以往研究已经明确同伴质量与青少年的饮食失调存在相关, 但这种相关的时间前后和因果关系仍不明确(Dejong et al., 2013), 即是同伴质量差而导致的饮食失调、身体不满意, 还是饮食失调、身体不满意引发社交退缩进而导致了较差的同伴质量?仍有待探讨, 未来研究可进一步考察其因果关系。再次, 同伴对青少年饮食失调的影响是贯穿于整个青春期还是在某个特定时期起作用(Jackson & Chen, 2014), 未来可深化研究。最后, 以往研究对同伴的界定是泛化的, 没有区分好朋友和一般朋友。未来的研究可对同伴类别做进一步的划分。

第三, 影响路径作用大小有待探讨。目前关于同伴影响青少年饮食失调的路径有两条:(1)同伴的社会互动路线, 即前面所述, 同伴的直接、间接影响; (2)同伴的社会支持路线, 即前面所述, 同伴的质量、数量的影响。那么, 这两条路径, 哪一路径对青少年饮食失调的作用更大呢?未来可增加这一方面的研究。

第四, 同伴与饮食失调的其它社会影响因素间的交互作用有待考察。研究表明父母和媒体对青少年的身体不满意和饮食失调有重要的影响作用(Ata, Ludden, & Lally, 2007; Field et al., 2001; Kirsch et al., 2016; Mccabe & Ricciardelli, 2005), 未来的研究可以关注在同伴环境下, 媒体所宣扬的瘦身理想是如何在个体间传播的, 以及在饮食失调上, 同伴和父母是否存在着交互作用。此外, 已有研究者开始关注互联网新媒体对女性身体意象失调的影响(王玉慧, 谢笑春, 陈红, 雷雳, 2017), 未来的研究可拓宽角度, 将新媒体细化, 如同伴在微信、微博的线上交流对青少年饮食失调的影响等。

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ongitudinal research designs on effects of fat talk and broadening the standard research methods.

羊晓莹, 陈红 . ( 2006).

饮食失调的相关影响因素分析

中国临床康复, 10, (10), 152-154.

[本文引用: 1]

目的:从社会文化、个体两个方 面分析影响饮食失调的各种因素,并展望未来的研究方向。资料来源:应用计算机检索ProQuest数据库 (PsychologyJournals)1995-01/2005-08和EBSCOhost数据库1995-01/2005-08中与饮食失调影响因 素相关的文献,检索词“eatingdisorders,riskfactors”,并限定语言种类为英文。资料选择:从资料中选取与饮食失调影响因素相 关度高的文献。纳入条件:①包括实验研究和综述文章。②饮食失调因果性风险因素的相关研究。排除标准:①两个数据库的重复文献。②文献中的重复研究。资料 提炼:共收集到80篇关于饮食失调影响因素分析方面的英文文章,排除重复文献、重复研究以及相关度较低的文章后,纳入32篇,21篇用于综述,其中有关社 会因素13篇,有关个体因素8篇。资料综合:全球化的瘦理想趋势形成瘦的社会压力,是饮食失调的一个背景性影响因素。社会不公正和同伴本身的饮食失调行为 导致个体易出现身体不满意和身体投资,而此投资就可能造成饮食失调。家庭氛围和父母教养方式、家庭的社会经济地位对饮食失调也有一定影响。饮食失调具有生 理基础,是可以遗传的。当个体通过节食来控制自己的体质量提高身体满意度的过程中易形成饮食失调。抑郁和焦虑等消极情绪、对外貌重要性的过高评估、完美主 义也是饮食失调的影响因素。结论:造成个体饮食失调的原因是多方面的,可从社会、家庭、同伴、个体中的一个或多个的角度来分析饮食失调的影响因素。

张镇, 郭博达 . ( 2016).

社会网络视角下的同伴关系与心理健康

心理科学进展, 24, (4), 591-602.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

近年来,从社会网络视角考察同伴关系与心理健康的相互作用正成为发展心理学和健康心理学研究的热点。研究者多借助整体网和纵向数据,通过两种作用机制,即选择过程(selection process)(强调心理和行为变量对社会网络和同伴关系的影响,如关系的形成、维持和解除)和影响过程(influence process)(强调社会网络和同伴关系对心理和行为变量的影响),来分析同伴关系与心理健康协同演进的动态过程。实证研究关注的领域集中在青少年健康风险行为(如吸烟、喝酒、药物滥用)和情绪问题(如抑郁、焦虑、孤独感)。未来研究应该注重拓展社会网络的类型和样本、加强理论建构、增加对积极心理和消极关系的研究,并有望在互联网领域及社会网络的生物学基础等方面取得进展。

Adams G., Turner H., & Bucks R . ( 2005).

The experience of body dissatisfaction in men

Body Image, 2, (3), 271-283.

URL     PMID:18089194      [本文引用: 1]

Evidence suggests that the prevalence of body dissatisfaction (BD) is increasing amongst men. However, research has commonly examined the phenomenon in predominantly female groups. In view of this, the current study used a qualitative methodology to explore the experience of BD in men. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 men. The data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis yielded themes across four domains (societal, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social presentation). Whilst participants exhibited a range of appearance concerns, there was commonality in the processes by which these were experienced and managed. These generic issues are the focus of the themes, and could usefully be incorporated into a new assessment tool. Findings are considered in relation to existing (cognitive behavioural, self-discrepancy, and sociocultural) theories, and implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

Ata R. N., Ludden A. B., & Lally M. M . ( 2007).

The effects of gender and family, friend, and media influences on eating behaviors and body image during adolescence

Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 36, (8), 1024-1037.

[本文引用: 1]

Bearman S. K., Presnell K., Martinez E., & Stice E . ( 2006).

The skinny on body dissatisfaction: A longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys

Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 35, (2), 217-229.

URL     PMID:16912810      [本文引用: 1]

The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for various psychiatric disturbances. Body dissatisfaction showed significant increases for girls and significant decreases for boys during early adolescence. For both genders, parental support deficits, negative affectivity, and self-reported dietary restraint showed significant relations to future increases in body dissatisfaction. Ideal body internalization and body mass index did not demonstrate significant relations to future increases in body dissatisfaction; peer support deficits showed a marginal relation to this outcome. Gender did not moderate these relations, despite adequate power to detect interactive effects.

Berkman N. D., Lohr K. N., & Bulik C. M . ( 2010).

Outcomes of eating disorders: A systematic review of the literature

International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40, (4), 293-309.

URL     PMID:17370291      [本文引用: 1]

The strength of the bodies of literature was moderate for factors associated with AN and BN outcomes and weak for BED. 08 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007

Blodgett Salafia, E. H., &Gondoli D.M . ( 2011).

A 4-year longitudinal investigation of the processes by which parents and peers influence the development of early adolescent girls' bulimic symptoms

The Journal of Early Adolescence, 31, (3), 390-414.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Bulimic symptoms are fairly common among adolescent girls, and the dual pathway model outlines one possible etiological chain leading to bulimic symptoms. The present study seeks to longitudinally examine the pathways proposed by this model while focusing on the relative contribution of parents and peers (via direct encouragement or pressure to be thin and indirect discussion of dieting). Four years of self-report data were collected from 85 early adolescent girls during fifth through eighth grades. Results indicated that mothers, fathers, and peers each played an important role in the development of girls' bulimic symptoms by affecting their body dissatisfaction, which was related to later dieting behaviors, depressive symptoms, and bulimic symptoms. Furthermore, results suggested that peers were a stronger influence than mothers and fathers. The authors conclude that both parents and peers play important roles in girls' development of bulimic symptoms, and future work should

Boyce W. F., Davies D., Gallupe O., & Shelley D . ( 2008).

Adolescent risk taking, neighborhood social capital, and health

Journal of Adolescent Health, 43, (3), 246-252.

URL     PMID:18710679      [本文引用: 1]

PurposeTo assess the roles of a neighborhood measure of social capital, family affluence, and risk taking on adolescent self-rated health.MethodsThis study uses data from the 2384 Canadian students in Grades 9 10 (56.5% female) from the World Health Organization's Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey 2001/2002, a nationwide representative sample.ResultsUsing binary logistic regression models, it is found that higher levels of risk taking and lower levels of neighborhood social capital and family affluence are independently associated with worse overall perceptions of health. These influences are not found to interact with each other.ConclusionsNeighborhood social capital, risk taking, and family affluence are important factors to consider when addressing the health of adolescents. Results are discussed in terms of possible health promoting interventions.

Byrne D., &Nelson D. ( 1965).

Attraction as a linear function of proportion of positive reinforcements

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, (6), 659-663.

URL     PMID:14300244      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In various investigations of the effects of the similarity of a stranger's attitude on attraction toward him, the proportion of similar attitudes has not been distinguished from the number of similar attitudes. In a 4 X 3 factorial design, 4 levels of proportion and 3 levels of number were employed. Each of 168 Ss was asked to read an attitude scale purportedly filled out by an anonymous stranger and to evaluate him on a number of variables including attraction toward him. As hypothesized, analysis of variance indicated that attraction was significantly (p < .001) affected only by proportion. Utilizing these and other data for a total of 790 Ss, the functional relationship between proportion of similar attitudes and attraction was found to be a linear one. The conceptualization of attitude similarity as constituting positive reinforcement was strengthened by the finding of a linear relationship in McDonald's (1962) data between proportion of high creativity ratings given to 192 Ss and their attraction toward the rater. (20 ref.)

Carey R. N., Donaghue N., & Broderick P . ( 2011).

‘what you look like is such a big factor’: Girls’ own reflections about the appearance culture in an all-girls’ school

Feminism & Psychology, 21, (3), 299-316.

[本文引用: 1]

Carlson J.D . ( 2004).

Body image among adolescent girls and boys: A longitudinal study

Developmental Psychology, 40, (5), 823-835.

URL     PMID:15355169      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they were either in 7th grade or 10th grade and again 1 year later. The results for the boys revealed a singular pathway to body dissatisfaction through internalized commitment to muscularity ideals. The prospective analyses of change in body dissatisfaction among the girls reflected the contributions of appearance conversations with friends, appearance social comparisons, and body mass. There was no evidence of mediation among the boys and limited support for it among the girls. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

Chang F. C., Lee C. M., Chen P. H., Chiu C. H., Pan Y. C., Huang T. F . ( 2013).

Association of thin-ideal media exposure, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents in Taiwan

Eating Behaviors, 14, (3), 382-385.

URL     PMID:23910785      [本文引用: 1]

61Media pressure and thin-ideal internalization increased body dissatisfaction.61Media pressure and body dissatisfaction predicted restrained eating.61Media pressure and body dissatisfaction predicted unhealthy weight control behaviors.

Compeau A., &Ambwani S. ( 2013).

The effects of fat talk on body dissatisfaction and eating behavior: The moderating role of dietary restraint

Body Image, 10, (4), 451-461.

URL     PMID:23726516      [本文引用: 1]

Although research suggests that fat talk, the normalized conversations that involve degrading one's body shape/weight and size, can increase body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior, the extent to which dietary restraint may moderate these relationships remains uncertain. A pilot study (N=30) comparing online videos with researcher-developed vignettes as prospective manipulations for fat talk exposure suggested use of the vignettes as potent yet subtle stimuli. In the main study, women undergraduates (N=116) were randomized to read a fat talk or neutral vignette and then completed standardized measures of body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint while being concurrently presented with food stimuli. Results suggest significant moderation effects for dietary restraint: whereas fat talk exposure was associated with increased body dissatisfaction among low dietary restrainers, it appeared to reduce food consumption among high dietary restrainers. Findings highlight the importance of individual differences in shaping responses to fat talk.

Crandall C.S . ( 1988).

Social contagion of binge eating

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, (4), 588-598.

URL     PMID:3193348      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A social psychological account of the acquisition of binge eating, analogous to the classic social psychological work, "Social Pressures in Informal Groups" (Festinger, Schachter, & Back, 1950), is suggested and tested in two college sororities. In these sororities, clear evidence of group norms about appropriate binge-eating behavior was found; in one sorority, the more one binged, the more popular one was. In the other, popularity was associated with binging the right amount: Those who binged too much or too little were less popular than those who binged at the mean. Evidence of social pressures to binge eat were found as well. By the end of the academic year, a sorority member's binge eating could be predicted from the binge-eating level of her friends (average r = .31). As friendship groups grew more cohesive, a sorority member's binge eating grew more and more like that of her friends (average r = .35). The parsimony of a social psychological account of the acquisition of binge eating behavior is shown. I argue that there is no great mystery to how bulimia has become such a serious problem for today's women. Binge eating seems to be an acquired pattern of behavior, perhaps through modeling, and appears to be learned much like any other set of behaviors. Like other behaviors, it is under substantial social control.

Dejong H., Van Den Eynde F., Broadbent H., Kenyon M. D., Lavender A., Startup H., & Schmidt U . ( 2013).

Social cognition in bulimia nervosa: A systematic review

European Psychiatry, 28, (1), 1-6.

URL     PMID:21920709      [本文引用: 1]

Objective. - Clinical accounts and previous evidence suggest that socio-emotional impairments may be present in people with bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this paper was to systematically review studies of social cognition, and to evaluate whether social cognitive deficits exist in BN.Method. - Keywords were identified using an existing model of social cognition (Green et al., 2007) [16], and used to search for relevant papers in three online databases. Records were then screened according to a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria.Results. - Five papers reporting seven social cognition tasks were identified as pertinent to the review. All involved either theory of mind ability or emotional processing skills. Participants with BN had impaired performance on the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale and showed greater attentional bias than controls on an emotional Stroop task. There were no overall group differences for any other tasks, although there were small differences for some specific test items.Conclusions. - Basic social cognition does not appear to be impaired in people with BN. Future research should make use of more complex, ecologically valid measures, and consider the relationship between task performance and everyday social functioning. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Eisenberg M.E., &Neumarksztainer D. ( 2010).

Friends' dieting and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents five years later: Findings from project eat

Journal of Adolescence Health, 47, (1), 67-73.

URL     PMID:20547294      [本文引用: 2]

ObjectiveUse of disordered eating behaviors is common among adolescents, and cross-sectional research has suggested that friends may be an important influence, especially among females. The current study seeks to expand upon this literature using a longitudinal design and a large, diverse sample of male and female youth.MethodsA total of 2,516 adolescents provided survey data at baseline (1998–1999) and follow-up (2003–2004) regarding their friends' involvement in dieting and their own experience of chronic dieting, unhealthy weight control, extreme weight control, and binge eating. General linear modeling was used to generate predicted probabilities of disordered eating at follow-up across four levels of friends' dieting at baseline, adjusting for baseline use of disordered eating, and other covariates. Interaction terms were used to determine whether the association between friends' dieting and disordered eating differed across age cohorts.ResultsOne-third of participants reported that their friends were “not at all” involved in dieting at baseline, and 8.8% reported that their friends were very involved in dieting. Friends' dieting at baseline was positively associated with chronic dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, extreme weight control behaviors, and binge eating 5 years later among females, and with extreme weight control behaviors five years later among males. For both males and females, these associations were similar across age groups.ConclusionsInterventions targeting friendship groups rather than focusing solely on individuals may be an important strategy for the prevention of disordered eating. Health care providers may wish to ask adolescents about their friends' eating and dieting practices so as to address these issues in a clinical setting.

Ferguson C. J., Muñoz M. E., Garza A., & Galindo M . ( 2014).

Concurrent and prospective analyses of peer, television and social media influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in adolescent girls

Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 43, (1), 1-14.

URL     PMID:23344652      [本文引用: 1]

The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure.

Field A. E., Camargo C. A., Taylor C. B., Berkey C. S., Roberts S. B., & Colditz G. A . ( 2001).

Peer, parent, and media influences on the development of weight concerns and frequent dieting among preadolescent and adolescent girls and boys

Pediatrics, 107, (1), 54-63.

[本文引用: 1]

Field A. E., Javaras K. M., Ms Aneja P., Ms Kitos N., Dr Camargo C. A., Dr Taylor C. B., Dr Laird. N. M . ( 2008).

Family, peer, and media predictors of becoming eating disordered

Jama Pediatrics, 162, (6), 574-579.

URL     PMID:3652375     

To identify predictors of becoming eating disordered among adolescents.

Gerbasi M. E., Richards L. K., Thomas J. J., Agnewblais J. C., Thompsonbrenner H., Gilman S. E., Becker A. E . ( 2014).

Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47, (7), 727-737.

URL     PMID:4211968      [本文引用: 1]

The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change.We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q).We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p < .001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model.Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk.

Gerner B., &Wilson P.H . ( 2005).

The relationship between friendship factors and adolescent girls' body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating

International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37, (4), 313-320.

URL     PMID:15856495      [本文引用: 1]

Objective: This study examined whether poorer friendship relations predict weight concerns and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 131 Year 9 and Year 10 girls to assess the relationship between acceptance by friends, perceived social support, friendship intimacy, and perceived impact of thinness on male (PITOF-M) and female (PITOF-F) friendships on the one hand, and body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating on the other. Results: Friendship variables contributed significantly to the prediction of body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating. The largest unique contribution to prediction was from the PITOF-M. Poor acceptance by friends significantly predicted the PITOF-M and PITOF-F. Whereas heavier girls were more likely to believe being thinner would improve their friendships, they did not experience poorer friendships. Discussion: Results suggest sociocultural risk factors for disordered eating and underline the importance of perceived peer affiliation on girls' body image-concern and dieting. &COPY; 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hallinan M.T., &Williams R.A . ( 1989).

Interracial friendship choice in secondary schools

American Sociological Review, 54, (1), 67-78.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Examination of data from the sophomore and senior cohorts of the High School and Beyond survey reveals that students are only one-sixth as likely to choose a cross-race than a same-race peer as a friend. Controls for school and individual variables account for only a third of this differential. (Author/BJV)

Hamm J.V . ( 2000).

Do birds of a feather flock together? the variable bases for African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents' selection of similar friends

Developmental Psychology, 36, (2), 209-219.

URL     PMID:10749078      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and low for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but more similar with respect to ethnic identity. For all three ethnic groups, personal endorsement of the dimension in question and selection of cross-ethnic-group friends heightened similarity. Similarity was a relative rather than an absolute selection criterion: Adolescents did not choose friends with identical orientations. These findings call for a comprehensive theory of friendship selection sensitive to diversity in adolescents' experiences. Implications for peer influence and self-development are discussed.

Helfert S., &Warschburger P. ( 2011).

A prospective study on the impact of peer and parental pressure on body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys

Body Image, 8, (2), 101-109.

URL     PMID:21354379      [本文引用: 1]

The current study explores the role of appearance-related social pressure regarding changes in body image in adolescent girls ( n = 236) and boys ( n = 193) over a 1-year-period. High school students aged 11鈥16 completed measures of body dissatisfaction (i.e., weight and muscle concerns) and appearance-related social pressure from peers and parents. Three aspects proved to be particularly crucial: Parental encouragement to control weight and shape was a strong predictor of weight concerns in boys and girls alike; influences of friends affected gender-specific body image concerns by leading to weight concerns in girls and muscle concerns in boys; finally appearance-based exclusion was a predictor of weight concerns in boys. The findings provide longitudinal evidence for the crucial impact of appearance-related social pressure and suggest that a detailed assessment of different types of social impacts can identify concrete targets for effective prevention and therapy for weight-related problems among adolescents.

Hutchinson D.M., &Rapee R.M . ( 2007).

Do friends share similar body image and eating problems? The role of social networks and peer influences in early adolescence

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, (7), 1557-1577.

URL     PMID:17258173      [本文引用: 3]

This study examined the role of friendship networks and peer influences in body image concern, dietary restraint, extreme weight loss behaviours (EWLBs) and binge eating in a large community sample of young adolescent females. Based on girls’ self-reported friendship groups, social network analysis was used to identify 173 friendship cliques. Results indicated that clique members shared similar scores on measures of dieting, EWLB and binge eating, but not body image concern. Average clique scores for dieting, EWLB and binge eating, were also correlated significantly with clique averages on measures of perceived peer influence, body mass index and psychological variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived peer influences in weight-related attitudes and behaviours were predictive of individual girls’ level of body image concern, dieting, EWLB use and binge eating. Notably, an individual girl's dieting and EWLB use could be predicted from her friends’ respective dieting and EWLB scores. Findings highlight the significance of the peer environment in body image and eating problems during early adolescence.

Hutchinson D. M., Rapee R. M., & Taylor A . ( 2010).

Body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances in early adolescence: A structural modeling investigation examining negative affect and peer factors

Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, (4), 489-517.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract: This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative affect mediated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic behaviors. Body dissatisfaction also contributed independently to the concurrent prediction of bulimic behaviors. The proposed pathways from dieting to negative affect and dieting to bulimic behaviors were not supported. However, perceived peer influence, perceived weight-related teasing, and the self-reported eating behaviors of friendship clique members all contributed significantly to the concurrent prediction of individual eating pathology. These findings highlight the importance of negative affect and both perceived and actual peer attitudes and behaviors in early adolescent eating pathology. (Contains 1 note, 1 table, and 2 figures.)

Jackson T., &Chen H. ( 2008 a).

Predicting changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in China: An 18-month prospective study

Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, (4), 874-885.

URL     PMID:18991136      [本文引用: 1]

This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal endorsements; negative affect; and appearance-based social pressure, teasing, and comparison. For girls, baseline levels of negative affect, preference for a thin appearance ideal, and fatness concern made unique contributions to reported eating disturbances at the 18-month follow-up. For boys, baseline body mass index and fatness concerns were the only significant univariate predictors of changes in eating pathology.

Jackson T., &Chen H. ( 2008 b).

Predicting changes in eating disorder symptoms among Chinese adolescents: A 9-month prospective study

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, (1), 87-95.

URL     PMID:18158004      [本文引用: 2]

ObjectivesBody image and eating disturbances have become global phenomena, yet prospective designs have rarely been employed in research on non-Western samples. This study tested the extent to which select features of the dual-pathway account of bulimic disturbances contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms reported among adolescents from China.MethodsA sample of 593 Chinese middle school and high school students (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms, body image concerns, internalized physical appearance ideals, negative affect, and appearance-based social pressure, teasing, and comparison and returned 9 months later to complete the same measures.ResultsFor both girls and boys, increases in eating disorder symptoms between Times 1 and 2 were predicted by higher baseline levels of fatness concern and perceived social pressure. Among the girls, negative affect also contributed marginally to changes in eating disorder symptoms.ConclusionsFindings suggest specific risk factors including personal concerns about being fat and negative social feedback about physical appearance, may help to explain changes in eating disturbances of adolescents over time and across specific cultures.

Jackson T., &Chen H. ( 2010).

Sociocultural experiences of bulimic and non-bulimic adolescents in a school-based Chinese sample

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, (1), 69-76.

URL     PMID:19707866      [本文引用: 1]

From a large school-based sample ( N 65=653,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those in the BN group reported higher levels of appearance pressure from their network of close relationships and mass media, appearance comparisons and conversations, and fear of negative appearance evaluation. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis based seven predictors resulted in the correct identification of 82.7% of respondents, including 83.7% of the BN group and 81.7% of controls. Responses on sociocultural measures, especially those reflecting appearance pressure, added to the classification rate, after controlling for body mass index and household socioeconomic status. When repeated within each sex, classification accuracy was 90.3% for girls and 86.1% for boys. This study establishes clear links between sociocultural influences and BN among urban adolescent girls and boys living in the People’s Republic of China.

Jackson T., &Chen H. ( 2011).

Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: Prospective evidence from mainland Chinese boys and girls

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, (2), 454-464.

URL     PMID:21319924      [本文引用: 1]

Despite evidence that sociocultural and psychological factors contribute to disordered eating, researchers have yet to examine the extent to which putative risk factors influence vulnerability for girls versus boys within and across phases of adolescence, particularly in non-Western cultures. In this study, early and middle adolescent samples from China (N = 2,909) completed measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and were reassessed 12 months later. Among both younger and older girls, elevations in appearance-focused interactions with friends, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction predicted increases in symptomatology at follow-up. In contrast, there was more discontinuity in risk factors relevant to samples of boys. Although media and friendship influences contributed to later disturbances among early adolescent boys, psychological factors, including body dissatisfaction and negative affect, had stronger effects in the multivariate model for older boys. Implications of finding are discussed in relation to adolescent development and a Chinese cultural context.

Jackson T., &Chen H. ( 2014).

Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: A two year longitudinal study of mainland Chinese boys and girls

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, (5), 791-802.

URL     PMID:24221725      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n090009=0900091,271) and girls (n090009=0900091,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 20002years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence.

Jacobi C., Hayward C., De Zwaan. M., Kraemer H. C., & Agras W. S . ( 2004).

Coming to terms with risk factors for eating disorders: Application of risk terminology and suggestions for a general taxonomy

Psychological Bulletin, 130, (1), 19-65.

URL     PMID:14717649      [本文引用: 2]

The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, full vs. partial syndromes), and additional factor characteristics (specificity, potency, need for replication). Few of the putative risk factors were reported to precede the onset of the disorder. Many factors were general risk factors; only few differentiated between the 3 eating disorder syndromes. Common risk factors from longitudinal and cross-sectional studies were gender, ethnicity, early childhood eating and gastrointestinal problems, elevated weight and shape concerns, negative self-evaluation, sexual abuse and other adverse experiences, and general psychiatric morbidity. Suggestions are made for the conceptualization of future risk factor studies.

Jeon K.C., &Goodson P. ( 2015).

Us adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: A systematic review of studies using social network analysis and add health data

Peerj, 3, (1), e1052.

URL     PMID:4493707      [本文引用: 1]

Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point.

Jones D. C., Vigfusdottir T. H., & Lee Y . ( 2004).

Body image and the appearance culture among adolescent girls and boys: An examination of friend conversations, peer criticism, appearance magazines, and the internalization of appearance ideals

Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, (3), 323-339.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through 10 responded to several measures on a self-report questionnaire. The results of path analyses indicated that Internalization mediated the relationship between Appearance Conversations With Friends and Body Dissatisfaction for both boys and girls. In addition, Internalization, Peer Appearance Criticism, and BMI made direct contributions to Body Dissatisfaction for boys and girls, although the strength of the relationships varied by gender. The proposed mediated relation between Appearance Magazine Exposure and Body Dissatisfaction was confirmed only for the girls. The findings provide needed information about the contributions of the peer appearance culture to internalization and body image disturbances for adolescent boys and girls.

Jung J., Forbes G. B., & Lee Y. J . ( 2009).

Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among early adolescents from Korea and the us

Sex Roles, 61, (1-2), 42-54.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Multidimensional measures of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating were studied in samples of 12–1502years old middle school children. Consistent with feminist theories associating body dissatisfaction with rapid social change, Korean girls ( n 65=65272) exhibited the greatest body dissatisfaction and the most behaviors associated with disordered eating and were followed in order by Korean boys ( n 65=65276), US girls ( n 65=65251), and US boys ( n 65=65220). The results, which replicated Jung and Forbes ( 2006 ) report of greater body dissatisfaction among Korean than among US college women, suggest that (1) these differences originate prior to adolescence, and (2) the sociocultural variables producing greater body dissatisfaction in Korean girls and women also influence body dissatisfaction among boys.

Karazsia B.T., &Crowther J.H . ( 2009).

Social body comparison and internalization: Mediators of social influences on men's muscularity-oriented body dissatisfaction

Body Image, 6, (2), 105-112.

URL     PMID:19244001      [本文引用: 1]

Research suggests that body dissatisfaction (BD) is prevalent among males and associated with unhealthy outcomes. Consistent with the well-validated Tripartite Influence Model, internalization of an ideal body figure and social body comparison have received support as predictors of men's dissatisfaction with their muscularity. However, empirical investigations with males that include both constructs are lacking. The current study examined the associations of both constructs with muscularity-oriented BD in a sample of college men ( = 204). Results from hierarchical regression analyses revealed that internalization and social body comparisons had unique relations with men's muscularity-oriented BD. A structural equation model indicated that both constructs mediated the relationship between social influences and muscularity BD. Preliminary data on targets of male body comparisons also were presented. These findings provide evidence for extension of the Tripartite Influence Model to males, particularly when constructs are assessed in ways that are reliable and valid for this population.

Keery H., Van Den. Berg. P., & Thompson J. K . ( 2004).

An evaluation of the tripartite influence model of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance with adolescent girls

Body Image, 1, (3), 237-251.

[本文引用: 1]

Kirsch A. C., Shapiro J. B., Conley C. S., & Heinrichs G . ( 2016).

Explaining the pathway from familial and peer social support to disordered eating: Is body dissatisfaction the link for male and female adolescents?

Eating Behaviors, 22, 175-181.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

61Lower familial social support predicted greater disordered eating but not body dissatisfaction61Lower peer social support predicted greater body dissatisfaction but not disordered eating61Body dissatisfaction did not mediate the relation between familial support and disordered eating.61Body dissatisfaction mediated the relation between peer support and disordered eating.61Gender further moderated the relation between peer support and disordered eating.

McCabe M.P., &Ricciardelli L.A . ( 2005).

A prospective study of pressures from parents, peers, and the media on extreme weight change behaviors among adolescent boys and girls

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, (5), 653-668.

URL     PMID:15865919      [本文引用: 1]

The current study was designed to evaluate the role of sociocultural influences over a 16 month period on strategies to lose weight, extreme weight loss strategies, and strategies to increase muscles among adolescent boys (=344) and girls (=246). All participants completed measures of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, strategies to lose weight, extreme weight loss strategies, and strategies to increase muscles. Measures of perceived pressure to lose weight or increase muscles from mother, father, best male friend, best female friend and the media were also evaluated. Data were gathered on three occasions, 8 months apart. The results demonstrated that boys showed a decrease in strategies to lose weight and increase muscles over time, whereas girls showed an increase. Both boys and girls showed an increase in extreme weight loss strategies with girls demonstrating a greater increase than boys. The sociocultural influences generally were perceived by girls to relate to messages to lose weight, whereas for boys they were perceived to relate to increasing muscles. Messages from parents, particularly fathers, were strong predictors of both strategies to lose weight and increase muscles among boys, with the media and best male friend playing a limited role. For girls, the strongest influences were mothers and best female friends, with few influences from fathers or the media. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the importance of the various sociocultural influences in shaping body change strategies among young adolescent boys and girls, and the implications of these findings for intervention programs for adolescents.

Mccarthy M. ( 1990).

The thin ideal, depression and eating disorders in women

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, (3), 205-214.

URL     PMID:2196049      [本文引用: 1]

It is proposed that a cultural ideal of thinness for women causes depression at a higher rate among women than among men. This model accounts for five currently unintegrated trends in the epidemiology of depression. It explains why: (1) twice as many women as men are likely to be depressed; (2) this sex difference emerges at puberty; (3) this sex difference is only found in western countries; (4) there is more depression today; (5) the average age of onset for depression is younger now than in the past. Four parallel trends in eating disorders can also be accounted for by the same factor.

McPherson M., Smithlovin L., & Cook J. M . ( 2001).

Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks

Annual Review of Sociology, 27, (1), 415-444.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Similarity breeds connection. This principle-the homophily principle-structures network ties of every type, including marriage, friendship, work, advice, support, information transfer, exchange, comembership, and other types of relationship. The result is that people's personal networks are homogeneous with regard to many sociodemographic, behavioral, and intrapersonal characteristics. Homophily limits people's social worlds in a way that has powerful implications for the information they receive, the attitudes they form, and the interactions they experience. Homophily in race and ethnicity creates the strongest divides in our personal environments, with age, religion, education, occupation, and gender following in roughly that order. Geographic propinquity, families, organizations, and isomorphic positions in social systems all create contexts in which homophilous relations form. Ties between nonsimilar individuals also dissolve at a higher rate, which sets the stage for the formation of niches (localized positions) within social space. We argue for more research on: (a) the basic ecological processes that link organizations, associations, cultural communities, social movements, and many other social forms; (b) the impact of multiplex ties on the patterns of homophily; and (c) the dynamics of network change over time through which networks and other social entities co-evolve.

Menzel J. E., Schaefer L. M., Burke N. L., Mayhew L. L., Brannick M. T., & Thompson J. K . ( 2010).

Appearance- related teasing, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating: A meta-analysis

Body Image, 7, (4), 261-270.

URL     PMID:20655287      [本文引用: 1]

A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between appearance and weight-based teasing and three outcome measures: body dissatisfaction, restrictive eating, and bulimic behaviors. Four meta-analyses were conducted. Fifty effect sizes (02=0210,618) resulted in a moderate effect size of .39 for the relationship between weight teasing and body dissatisfaction; 24 effect sizes (02=027190) resulted in an effect size of .32 for the relationship between appearance teasing and body dissatisfaction; 20 effect sizes (02=024792) resulted in an effect size of .35 for the relationship between weight teasing and dietary restraint; and 22 effect sizes (02=025091) resulted in an effect size of .36 for the relationship between weight teasing and bulimic behaviors. Significant moderators that emerged were teasing measure type, publication type, study type, age group, and gender. The findings offer further support for the inclusion of strategies in body image and eating disorders’ prevention and intervention programs that focus on handling negative, appearance-related commentary.

Meyer C., &Waller G. ( 2001).

Social convergence of disturbed eating attitudes in young adult women

Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, (2), 114-119.

URL     PMID:11225684      [本文引用: 1]

It has been suggested that a broad range of social factors influence disturbed eating attitudes, but there has been relatively little investigation of the role of peer influence. Drawing from social identity theory, this longitudinal study of a nonclinical group of women examined whether social proximity results in a convergence of eating psychopathology over time. Forty-one nonclinical women (living in 11 communal apartments) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) at three time points (1 week after moving in, 10 weeks later, and a further 14 weeks later). The women's eating and related attitudes were compared across the three time points. Then divergence scores were calculated (showing the spread of EDI scores within each apartment) and compared across the three time points. The spread of scores within the apartments changed significantly, indicating some convergence in those attitudes that are socially valued (restrictive attitudes; body concerns) and divergence in those attitudes that are not socially valued (bulimia). There was also an increase in convergence of levels of perfectionism. The findings support the suggestion that social proximity promotes convergence of socially valued eating characteristics but divergence of socially stigmatised characteristics. Further research is suggested to establish the generalizability of these findings and to identify those who are most at risk of such social effects on eating disturbance.

Montoya R.M., &Horton R.S . ( 2012).

A meta-analytic investigation of the processes underlying the similarity- attraction effect

Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30, (1), 64-94.

[本文引用: 1]

Mooney E., Farley H., & Strugnell C . ( 2009).

A qualitative investigation into the opinions of adolescent females regarding their body image concerns and dieting practices in the republic of Ireland (ROI)

Appetite, 52, (2), 485-491.

URL     PMID:19154765      [本文引用: 1]

The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of female adolescents living in the ROI on issues relating to body image and dietary practice. A qualitative study was selected to enable the issues to be explored in depth. Sixteen focus groups were executed with adolescent females ( n = 124) aged 15–16 years. Data collection took place during class time in both rural and urban schools in the ROI. Data were analysed using a qualitative thematic methodology, namely framework analysis. High levels of body dissatisfaction existed and dieting was found to be prevalent. The influence of media celebrities was significant. The girls not only aspired to be like them in terms of physique but also followed their alleged dieting regimes in detail. Peers also influenced body dissatisfaction and dieting practices. Consequently, eating habits were altered to accommodate this quest for thinness with a tendency to skip main meals as part of the dieting practice while maintaining an unhealthy snacking pattern. The results are of concern as the adolescent females were utilising unhealthy methods of weight control such as skipping meals and fasting in their quest to obtain a thin physique. A slim body image was deemed important for peer acceptance; hence ‘crash’ dieting was in existence. This mindset and the resultant dietary practices may have negative health consequences during both adolescence and later life. School interventions targeting adolescent females and focusing on healthy eating and body image are therefore urgently required.

Myers T.A., &Crowther J.H . ( 2009).

Social comparison as a predictor of body dissatisfaction: A meta-analytic review

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, (4), 683-698.

URL     PMID:19899839      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The relationship between social comparison and body dissatisfaction was examined using meta-analysis. Several demographic and methodological variables were examined as potential moderators. Data from 156 studies (189 effect sizes) showed that social comparison was related to higher levels of body dissatisfaction. The effect for social comparison and body dissatisfaction was stronger for women than men and inversely related to age. This effect was stronger when social comparison was directly measured rather than inferred. No differences emerged for the presence of eating psychopathology, study design, or object of comparison. Results confirm theory and research suggesting that comparing oneself unfavorably to another on the basis of appearance may lead to dissatisfaction with one's own appearance. Moderator variables refine our understanding of the social comparison-body dissatisfaction relationship. These constructs and their relationship should be explored further in future studies. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

Neumark-Sztainer D., Wall M., Larson N. I., Eisenberg M. E., & Loth K . ( 2011).

Dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study

Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111, (7), 1004-1011.

URL     PMID:3140795      [本文引用: 1]

Disordered eating behaviors are prevalent in adolescence and can have harmful consequences. An important question is whether use of these behaviors in adolescence sets the pattern for continued use into young adulthood. To examine the prevalence and tracking of dieting, unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, and binge eating from adolescence to young adulthood. Population-based, 10-year longitudinal study (Project EAT-III: Eating Among Teens and Young Adults, 1999-2010). The study population included 2,287 young adults (55% girls, 52% nonwhite). The sample included a younger group (mean age 12.8 0.7 years at baseline and 23.2卤1.0 years at follow-up) and an older group (mean age 15.9卤0.8 at baseline and 26.2 0.9 years at follow-up). Longitudinal trends in prevalence of behaviors were tested using generalized estimating equations. Tracking of behaviors were estimated using the relative risk of behaviors at follow-up given presence at baseline. In general, the prevalence of dieting and disordered eating was high and remained constant, or increased, from adolescence to young adulthood. Furthermore, behaviors tended to track within individuals and, in general, participants who engaged in dieting and disordered eating behaviors during adolescence were at increased risk for these behaviors 10 years later. Tracking was particularly consistent for the older girls and boys transitioning from middle adolescence to middle young adulthood. Study findings indicate that disordered eating behaviors are not just an adolescent problem, but continue to be prevalent among young adults. The tracking of dieting and disordered eating within individuals suggests that early use is likely to set the stage for ongoing use. Findings suggest a need for both early prevention efforts before the onset of harmful behavioral patterns as well as ongoing prevention and treatment interventions to address the high prevalence of disordered eating throughout adolescence and young adulthood.

Nichter M., &Vuckovic N. ( 1994).

Fat talk: Body image among adolescent girls. In N. Sault (Ed.), Many Mirrors: Body Image and Social Relations (pp. 109-131).

New Brunswick,NJ: Rutgers University Press

[本文引用: 1]

Paxton S. J., Eisenberg M. E., & Neumark-Sztainer D . ( 2006).

Prospective predictors of body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys: A five-year, longitudinal study

Developmental Psychology, 42, (5), 888-899.

URL     PMID:16953694      [本文引用: 1]

This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N=440) and boys (N=366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N=946) and boys (N=764). Participants were followed up 5 years later (Time 2). Potential prospective risk factors examined included body mass index, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, parent dieting environment, peer environment, and psychological factors. Predictors of Time 2 body dissatisfaction were Time 1 body dissatisfaction, body mass index, socioeconomic status, being African American, friend dieting and teasing, self-esteem, and depression. However, the profile of predictors differed across the samples.

Paxton S. J., Schutz H. K., Wertheim E. H., & Muir S. L . ( 1999).

Friendship clique and peer influences on body image concerns, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors, and binge eating in adolescent girls

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, (2), 255-266.

URL     PMID:10369035      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract This study explored friendship variables in relation to body image, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors (EWEBs), and binge eating in adolescent girls. From 523 girls, 79 friendship cliques were identified using social network analysis. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed body image concerns, eating, friendship relations, and psychological family, and media variables. Similarity was greater for within than for between friendship cliques for body image concerns, dietary restraint, and EWLBs, but not for binge eating. Cliques high in body image concerns and dieting manifested these concerns in ways consistent with a high weight/shape-preoccupied subculture. Friendship attitudes contributed significantly to the prediction of individual body image concern and eating behaviors. Use of EWLBs by friends predicted an individual's own level of use.

Paxton S. J., Wertheim E. H., Gibbons K., Szmukler G. I., Hillier L., & Petrovich J. L . ( 1991).

Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, (3), 361-379.

[本文引用: 1]

Rayner K. E., Schniering C. A., Rapee R. M., & Hutchinson D. M . ( 2013).

A longitudinal investigation of perceived friend influence on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction and disordered eating

Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42, (5), 643-656.

URL     PMID:23215623      [本文引用: 2]

Although major etiological models highlight the importance of friends in the development of adolescent body image and eating problems, longitudinal research that comprehensively investigates possible direct and mediational relationships between these variables is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine prospective interrelationships between perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in early adolescent girls, and whether these relationships differed across levels of body mass. A large Australian community sample of female high school students (N = 1,094; Time 1 M age = 12.3 years) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived friend influence, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating at 3 yearly intervals. Height and weight were also measured at each time point. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate two separate models, in which Time 2 body dissatisfaction was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between Time 1 perceived friend influence and Time 3 dieting and bulimic behaviors. No significant direct or indirect pathways were found between friend influence and disordered eating. Unexpectedly, however, body dissatisfaction was found to prospectively predict girls' perception of friend influence. These findings were remarkably similar in both healthy and overweight girls. The findings suggest that friends may be more influential for those adolescents who have higher levels of body image concern, rather than contributing directly to the development of body dissatisfaction. The peer environment represents an important consideration in adolescent prevention and intervention programs.

Rayner K. E., Schniering C. A., Rapee R. M., Taylor A., & Hutchinson D. M . ( 2013).

Adolescent girls' friendship networks, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating: Examining selection and socialization processes

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, (1), 93-104.

URL     PMID:22867115      [本文引用: 1]

Previous research has shown that adolescent girls tend to resemble their friends in their level of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, no studies to date have attempted to disentangle the underlying peer selection and socialization processes that may explain this homophily. The current study used longitudinal stochastic actor-based modeling to simultaneously examine these two processes in a large community sample of adolescent girls (N = 1,197) from nine Australian girls' high schools. Friendship nominations and measures of body dissatisfaction, dieting and bulimic behaviors were collected across three annual waves. Results indicated that selection rather than socialization effects contributed to similarity within friendship groups when both processes were examined simultaneously. Specifically, girls tended to select friends who were similar to themselves in terms of body dissatisfaction and bulimic behaviors, but dissimilar in terms of dieting. Network and individual attribute variables also emerged as significant in explaining changes in adolescents' friendships and behaviors. As well as having important clinical implications, the findings point to the importance of controlling for friendship selection when examining the role of peers in adolescent body image and eating problems.

Rodgers R. F., Ganchou C., Franko D. L., & Chabrol H . ( 2012).

Drive for muscularity and disordered eating among French adolescent boys: A sociocultural model

Body Image, 9, (3), 318-323.

URL     PMID:22494958      [本文引用: 1]

The pursuit of muscularity is an important body image concern among boys which has been described within sociocultural models of risk for eating disorders. This study explored a sociocultural model of disordered eating in which drive for thinness and pursuit of muscularity were both pathways to disordered eating among French adolescent boys. A sample of 146 adolescents completed a questionnaire assessing drive for thinness, drive for muscularity, media-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and sociocultural pressure. The model was a good fit to the data and both drive for thinness and the pursuit of muscularity were related to disordered eating. Furthermore, internalization and appearance comparison mediated the relationships between pressure to increase muscle and both drive for muscularity and drive for thinness. Longitudinal research could help clarify the role of the pursuit of muscularity in the development of disordered eating and extreme body shape changing behaviors.

Schulte S.J., &Thomas J. ( 2013).

Relationship between eating pathology, body dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms among male and female adolescents in the united Arab emirates

Eating Behaviors, 14, (2), 157-160.

URL     PMID:23557812      [本文引用: 1]

78 Study addresses gap of mixed gender research on eating disturbances in the Gulf. 78 Three quarters of the study population had a poor body image. 78 One in every five indicated eating disturbances of potentially clinical relevance. 78 Depressive symptomatology predicted eating pathology in both genders. 78 Findings increase our knowledge about eating disorders as a west-goes-east-syndrome.

Schutz H.K., &Paxton S.J . ( 2007).

Friendship quality, body dissatisfaction, dieting and disordered eating in adolescent girls

British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, (1), 67-83.

URL     PMID:17472202      [本文引用: 3]

Objectives This study examined relationships between adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, quality of same-sex peer relationships and beliefs about thinness in interpersonal relationships, before and after controlling for depression.Design Correlations between body image, eating and friendship variables were examined before and after controlling for depressive symptoms. Top and bottom quartiles on symptom variables were identified and analyses of variance, with and without depressive symptoms entered as a covariate, were used to compare scores between groups on friendship variables.Methods Grade 10 girls (N=324) completed self-report questionnaires.Results Consistent relationships were observed between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and negative friendship qualities (friend alienation, friend conflict), but not positive friendship qualities (friend communication, friend trust and peer acceptance). The strength of relationships with negative friendship qualities was reduced when depressive symptoms were taken into account. High and low symptom groups differed on perceived friend concern with weight and advantages of thinness in interpersonal relationships before and after controlling for depressive symptoms.Conclusions Results suggest the importance of addressing negative aspects of peer relationships, social anxieties and beliefs about the importance of thinness in the peer environment as well as depressive symptoms, in interventions for body dissatisfaction and eating problems.

Sharpe H., Schober I., Treasure J., & Schmidt U . ( 2014).

The role of high-quality friendships in female adolescents' eating pathology and body dissatisfaction

Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 19, (2), 159-168.

URL     PMID:24668325      [本文引用: 3]

Peers may serve as risk factors for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology through two possible routes: (1) promoting body dissatisfaction through appearance-related interactions (e.g. weight-teasing); (2) a non-specific social support route whereby poor quality peer relations result in depression and consequently eating pathology. The second route has received little attention and, therefore, was the focus of this study.A cross-sectional study in which 216 adolescent girls (aged 13-16 years) completed self-report measures of positive and negative friendship qualities, friendship functions, eating pathology, body dissatisfaction and depression.Those reporting poorer quality friendships tended to show greater eating pathology and greater body dissatisfaction. These associations were reduced to non-significance when covarying depression. There was no evidence that the role of friendships was moderated by the extent to which participants valued close relations.Low-quality friendships are associated with disordered eating and may be suitable targets for prevention.

Shroff H., &Thompson J.K . ( 2006).

The tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance: A replication with adolescent girls

Body Image, 3, (1), 17-23.

URL     PMID:18089205      [本文引用: 1]

The tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance is a recent theoretical approach that includes a test of direct (peer, parental, and media factors) and mediational links (internalization of societal appearance standards, appearance comparison processes) as factors potentially leading to body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance. The theory was evaluated in the current study in a sample of 391 adolescent females. A structural equation model that evaluated the tripartite model replicated previous findings reported by Keery, van den Berg and Thompson (2004) [Keery, H., van den Berg, & Thompson, J. K. (2004). A test of the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance in adolescent girls. Body Image: An International Journal of Research, 1, 237鈥251.]. Additionally, a second model extended these findings, suggesting that peer and media influences are more important than parental influences. The results are discussed in light of the need for prevention programs to incorporate formative influences and mediational processes in the construction of intervention strategies.

Spear L.P . ( 2000).

The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations

Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, (4), 417-463.

[本文引用: 1]

Steinberg L., &Monahan K.C . ( 2007).

Age differences in resistance to peer influence

Developmental Psychology, 43, (6), 1531-1543.

URL     PMID:18020830      [本文引用: 1]

Prior research describes the development of susceptibility to peer pressure in adolescence as following an inverted U-shaped curve, increasing during early adolescence, peaking around age 14, and declining thereafter. This pattern, however, is derived mainly from studies that specifically examined peer pressure to engage in antisocial behavior. In the present study, age differences and developmental change in resistance to peer influence were assessed using a new self-report instrument that separates susceptibility to peer pressure from willingness to engage in antisocial activity. Data from four ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples comprising more than 3,600 males and females between the ages of 10 and 30 were pooled from one longitudinal and two cross-sectional studies. Results show that across all demographic groups, resistance to peer influences increases linearly between ages 14 and 18. In contrast, there is little evidence for growth in this capacity between ages 10 and 14 or between 18 and 30. Middle adolescence is an especially significant period for the development of the capacity to stand up for what one believes and resist the pressures of one's peers to do otherwise.

Stice E. ( 2002).

Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: A meta-analytic review

Psychological Bulletin, 128, (5), 825-848.

[本文引用: 1]

Taylor C. B., Bryson S., Luce K. H., Cunning D., Celio A., Abascal L. B., … Wilfley D. E . ( 2006).

Prevention of eating disorders in at-risk college-age women

Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, (8), 881-888.

URL     PMID:3837629      [本文引用: 1]

Eating disorders, an important health problem among college-age women, may be preventable, given that modifiable risk factors for eating disorders have been identified and interventions have been evaluated to reduce these risk factors.To determine if an Internet-based psychosocial intervention can prevent the onset of eating disorders (EDs) in young women at risk for developing EDs.San Diego and the San Francisco Bay Area in California.College-age women with high weight and shape concerns were recruited via campus e-mails, posters, and mass media. Six hundred thirty-seven eligible participants were identified, of whom 157 were excluded, for a total sample of 480. Recruitment occurred between November 13, 2000, and October 10, 2003. Intervention A randomized controlled trial of an 8-week, Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (Student Bodies) that included a moderated online discussion group. Participants were studied for up to 3 years.The main outcome measure was time to onset of a subclinical or clinical ED. Secondary measures included change in scores on the Weight Concerns Scale, Global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and Eating Disorder Inventory drive for thinness and bulimia subscales and depressed mood. Moderators of outcome were examined.There was a significant reduction in Weight Concerns Scale scores in the Student Bodies intervention group compared with the control group at postintervention (P or =25, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) at baseline and (2) at 1 site, participants with baseline compensatory behaviors (eg, self-induced vomiting, laxative use, diuretic use, diet pill use, driven exercise). No intervention participant with an elevated baseline BMI developed an ED, while the rates of onset of ED in the comparable BMI control group (based on survival analysis) were 4.7% at 1 year and 11.9% at 2 years. In the subgroup with a BMI of 25 or higher, the cumulative survival incidence was significantly lower at 2 years for the intervention compared with the control group (95% confidence interval, 0% for intervention group; 2.7% to 21.1% for control group). For the San Francisco Bay Area site sample with baseline compensatory behaviors, 4% of participants in the intervention group developed EDs at 1 year and 14.4%, by 2 years. Rates for the comparable control group were 16% and 30.4%, respectively.Among college-age women with high weight and shape concerns, an 8-week, Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly reduce weight and shape concerns for up to 2 years and decrease risk for the onset of EDs, at least in some high-risk groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that EDs can be prevented in high-risk groups.

Taylor C. B., Sharpe T., Shisslak C., Bryson S., Estes L. S., Gray N., … Killen J. D . ( 1998).

Factors associated with weight concerns in adolescent girls

International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24, (1), 31-42.

URL     PMID:9589309      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Objective This study examined the association of weight concerns with potential risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Method: A self-report survey was given to 103 elementary (Grades 4 and 5) and 420 middle (Grades 6–8) school students in Arizona and California. Of these, 78 elementary and 333 middle school students provided complete data and were used in the analyses. Results: In a multivariate stepwise regression analysis, the importance that peers put on weight and eating was most strongly related to weight concerns in the elementary school girls, accounting for 34% of the variance after adjusting for site differences. Trying to look like girls/women on TV and in magazines as well as body mass index (BMI) entered the final model that accounted for 57% of the variance in weight concerns. In middle school, the importance that peers place on weight and eating was also the strongest predictor accounting for 33% of the variance followed by confidence, BMI, trying to look like girls/women on TV and in magazines, and being teased about weight. Together these variables accounted for 55% of the variance. Discussion: Prevention programs aimed at reducing weight concerns need to address these factors. 08 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 24:31–42, 1998.

Thompson J. K., Heinberg L. J., Altabe M. N., & Tantleff-Dunn S . ( 1999).

Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance.

Washington, DC:American Psychological Association.

[本文引用: 2]

Vander Wal, J. S., & Thelen, M. H . ( 2000).

Predictors of body image dissatisfaction in elementary-age school girls

Eating Behaviors, 1, (2), 105-122.

URL     PMID:15001054      [本文引用: 1]

Concerns about weight, shape, body image, dieting, and eating are evident among elementary-age school girls [Int. J. Eating Disord. 10 (1991) 199; J. Adolesc. Health 12 (1991) 307; Pediatrics 84 (1989) 482; J. Clin. Psychol. 21 (1992) 41; Addict. Behav. (2000).]. Body image dissatisfaction, found to predict the formation of eating disturbances in longitudinal studies [Eating Disord.: J. Treat. Prev. 2 (1994) 114; Int. J. Eating Disord. 18 (1995) 221.], is likely a necessary precursor of eating disturbance development [J. Abnorm. Psychol. 102 (1993) 438.]. Turning back the etiological clock, this study examines the association between body image dissatisfaction and four potential areas of influence, including peer relationships, family characteristics, personality features, and body mass index, among girls in grades three, four, and five. Each conceptual area significantly contributed to the prediction of body image dissatisfaction. The combination of statistically significant variables, including teasing, peer modeling of weight and shape concerns, daughters' perceptions of parental influence to lose or control weight, appearance comparison, sensitivity, and body mass index, accounted for 50% of the variance in general body image dissatisfaction and 45% in weight and shape dissatisfaction. Implications for prevention, treatment, and future research are discussed.

Veenstra R., Dijkstra J. K., Steglich C., & Van Zalk, M. H. W. ( 2013).

Network-behavior dynamics

The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23, (3), 399-412.

[本文引用: 1]

Webb H.J., &Zimmer-Gembeck M.J . ( 2014).

The role of friends and peers in adolescent body dissatisfaction: A review and critique of 15years of research

Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24, (4), 564-590.

[本文引用: 1]

Woelders L. C. S., Larsen J. K., Scholte R. H. J., Cillessen A. H. N., & Engels R. C. M. E . ( 2010).

Friendship group influences on body dissatisfaction and dieting among adolescent girls: A prospective study

Journal of Adolescent Health, 47, (5), 456-462.

URL     PMID:20970080      [本文引用: 4]

PurposeAlthough some studies among adolescent girls found that friends within friendship groups were rather similar on dieting and/or body image constructs, these studies were limited by their cross-sectional designs. The current prospective study is the first to examine friendship group influences on eating disorder risk factors, including body dissatisfaction, weight concerns, dietary restraint, and dieting in adolescent girls.MethodsDesign was a two-wave prospective study with 1-year interval. Of 863 girls (mean age = 13.8, SD = .7), 344 were members of one of the 103 reciprocal friendship groups identified using social network analysis.ResultsReciprocal friends were similar with respect to body image and dieting constructs. However, initial friendship group levels of body dissatisfaction, weight concerns, dietary restraint, and dieting did not predict individual body image and dieting variables 1 year later.ConclusionsThe current findings attest to the significance of reciprocal friendship group correlates of eating disorder risk factors, but suggest that during early-to-mid-adolescence, levels of body image concerns and dieting within reciprocal friendship groups do not influence adolescents' own body image concerns and dieting over 1 year of time.

Zalta A.K., &Keel P.K . ( 2006).

Peer influence on bulimic symptoms in college students

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, (1), 185-189.

URL     PMID:16492110      [本文引用: 1]

This longitudinal study examined the influence of peer selection and socialization on bulimic symptoms in college students. Ninety-eight participants completed measures of bulimic symptoms, self-esteem, perfectionism, and impulsivity in the spring and fall of 2003. Peer influence was assessed by examining similarity among selected peers, unselected peers, and nonpeers over time. Among selected peers, bulimic symptoms demonstrated patterns of socialization, self-esteem and perfectionism demonstrated patterns of selection, and these personality traits longitudinally predicted changes in bulimic symptoms. Unselected peers demonstrated no similarity for , self-esteem, or perfectionism, but they did evidence socialization for impulsivity. The findings support an etiological model that integrates social and individual risk factors in creating environments that influence disordered eating among college students.

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