心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 646-656 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00646

研究前沿

基于气质视角的情绪调节与儿童问题行为

刘方, 刘文,, 于腾旭

辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029

Relation between emotion regulation and child problem behaviors based on the perspective of temperament

LIU Fang, LIU Wen,, YU Tengxu

School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China

通讯作者: 刘文, E-mail: wenliu703@126.com

收稿日期: 2018-05-14   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

基金资助: * 国家社会科学基金重大项目资助.  15ZDB138

Received: 2018-05-14   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

问题行为作为儿童期的异常行为妨碍儿童正常的社会适应, 通常包括内化和外化问题行为。儿童情绪调节功能的异常被认为是其主要影响因素, 相关成因亦源于儿童自身的气质特征。在对国内外相关研究梳理的基础上, 从气质的四个维度出发(积极情感/接近、恐惧/行为抑制、愤怒/烦躁、努力控制)分析了情绪调节与常见调节策略对儿童问题行为的影响及相应的情绪调节训练干预。未来研究应结合儿童气质特征, 深入探讨气质各维度之间的交互作用与儿童情绪调节以及问题行为之间的关系, 并在纵向研究中加入神经生理相关技术, 考察三者在儿童发展过程中的关系, 此外还应开展国内本土化研究, 开发适合我国问题行为儿童的实践干预方案, 促进儿童情绪社会化的健康发展。

关键词: 情绪调节 ; 问题行为 ; 气质 ; 儿童

Abstract

Problem behaviors refer to abnormal child behavior including internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, which disturb the normal social adaptation of children. Individual differences in temperament determine the ability and development of child emotion regulation, and is considered as the main influencing factor of child problem behaviors. Based on previous researches, starting from the four dimensions of temperament (Positive Affectivity/Approach, Fear/Behavioral Inhibition, Angry/Irritability, Effortful Control), we summarized the effect of emotion regulation and common regulation strategies on child problem behaviors. We also discussed the emotion regulation interventions from the perspective of temperament. The future study should consider the characteristics of child temperament, discuss the interaction of the temperament dimensions and its relationship with child emotion regulation and problem behaviors, and include the neurophysiological techniques in longitudinal studies to explore the relationship of these three factors in child development. In addition, researchers should deepen domestic research to develop suitable intervention programs for Chinese children and promote the healthy development of children's emotional socialization.

Keywords: emotion regulation ; problem behaviors ; temperament ; children

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本文引用格式

刘方, 刘文, 于腾旭. (2019). 基于气质视角的情绪调节与儿童问题行为. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 646-656

LIU Fang, LIU Wen, YU Tengxu. (2019). Relation between emotion regulation and child problem behaviors based on the perspective of temperament. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 646-656

1 引言

情绪调节是指个体对情绪的发生时间、类型、体验和表达施加影响的过程(Gross, 1998)。个体在情绪调节过程中形成了多种具体的情绪调节策略, 例如认知重评、注意转换、表达抑制、问题解决、回避、沉思等(Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010; Sheppes, Suri, & Gross, 2015)。在情绪调节过程中根据个体是否需要认知努力, 还可以将情绪调节分为内隐的情绪调节和外显的情绪调节(Gyurak, Gross, & Etkin, 2011)。情绪调节的发展是儿童社会化发展过程中的重要一环。成功的情绪调节可以促使儿童发展更好的同伴关系, 减少问题行为的产生, 进而有助于其积极的社会适应及心理健康的良好发展(Otterpohl & Wild, 2015; Sheppes et al., 2015)。然而, 人们并不完全清楚情绪调节是如何影响儿童问题行为的。通过对文献的梳理和分析发现, 儿童情绪调节的异常和困难是造成问题行为的主要原因, 相关成因亦源于儿童自身气质特征(Eisenberg et al., 2001; Heleniak, Jenness, Vander Stoep, McCauley, & McLaughlin, 2016)。

气质是个体在情感、活动性和注意领域、反应性和自我控制方面的个体差异, 这种个体差异具有一定的生理基础(Zentner & Bates, 2008)。研究者指出气质的某些维度构成了儿童情绪调节发展的基础, 而且气质能够解释情绪调节能力所具有的跨时间和情境的稳定性特征(Gross & John, 2003; Rothbart, 2007; Rothbart et al., 2014)。近期的气质相关研究主要集中在积极情感/接近(Positive Affectivity/Approach)、恐惧/行为抑制(Fear/Behavioral Inhibition)、愤怒/烦躁(Angry/Irritability)、努力控制(Effortful Control)四个维度, 且与神经模型有较强的联系(Rothbart & Posner, 2006)。

此外, 双加工模型为讨论气质与情绪调节的内在联系提供了很好的思路。双加工模型广泛用于解释个体涉及至少两种策略的信息加工。一种策略涉及信息的自动化加工, 另一种策略涉及需要控制参与的自主加工。Eisenberg和Morris (2002)基于气质的视角区分了两种情绪调节类型。一种是非自主性情绪调节, 指的是儿童对情绪刺激的自动化反应, 包括对不同强度情绪以及对不同类型情绪的自动化反应。另一种是自主性情绪调节又称努力性情绪调节, 指的是儿童通过注意和抑制控制能力调节自身情绪的过程。这与Gyurak (2011)等人提出的情绪调节双加工模型类似, 该模型根据个体在情绪调节过程中认知努力的参与程度, 将情绪调节分为内隐(自动化)情绪调节和外显(努力性)情绪调节。从概念内涵上厘清气质与情绪调节的关系之后, 我们将从气质的四个维度出发探讨儿童情绪调节与问题行为的关系。下面将结合相关研究证据进行分析和阐述。

2 气质维度视角的情绪调节与儿童问题行为

问题行为作为儿童期的异常行为影响儿童进行正常的社会适应, 它主要包括外化与内化问题行为。外化问题行为是指一组具有外在表现的、反映了儿童对外部环境消极反应的行为, 包括攻击性行为、违纪行为等(Sulik, Blair, Mills-koonce, Berry, & Greenberg, 2015)。内化问题行为主要包括儿童焦虑、抑郁、社会退缩等情绪方面的问题(Hoglund & Chisholm, 2014)。探究情绪调节与外化、内化问题行为的关系有助于我们进一步理解儿童情绪社会化过程。基于气质视角展开的分析有助于揭示情绪调节对儿童问题行为影响的内在机制。接下来, 将从气质的四个维度出发, 具体探讨情绪调节及相应调节策略与儿童问题行为的关系。

2.1 积极情感/接近、情绪调节与问题行为

个体的积极情感/接近系统主要负责对积极情绪以及奖励刺激的加工。Gray (1991)指出, 行为趋近系统(Behavioral Activation System, BAS)与个体的积极情感联系密切。当奖励刺激出现或惩罚刺激撤销时, 杏仁核发出奖励信息并到达伏隔核, 随后开始激活并引发个体的目标导向行为, 同时伴随积极的情感体验。然而该系统的异常激活使得个体难以采用适当的策略调节自身的情感体验, 最终导致某些问题行为的出现。Nigg (2006)以及Eisenberg, Spinrad和Eggum (2010)指出, 儿童对奖励等积极情绪刺激的调节困难是外化问题行为产生的主要原因之一。儿童的外化问题行为至少涉及两条不同的路径。一条路径基于低恐惧反应和低接近性气质, 此类儿童在面对情绪事件时经常忽视潜在的风险, 行为受到限制时又难以采用分心策略, 并时常伴随冲动性行为, 有时甚至还会表现出某些精神病理症状。另一条路径基于对奖励刺激的高接近性气质, 该气质类型的儿童在生活中经常表现出较高的情绪反应性, 且对奖励刺激敏感, 由于难以抑制自身较强的情绪性, 在日常行为中容易忽视他人的权利和社会规则, 做出冲动行为(Eisenberg et al., 2010; Nigg, 2006)。

实证研究也支持上述论断。如对学前儿童的研究发现, 积极情感得分较高的幼儿, 在生活中倾向于不加限制地靠近奖赏刺激, 由于缺乏对情绪的有效控制, 此类儿童常常采用冲动行为调节自身情绪, 因而更容易引发外化问题行为(Gartstein, Putnam, & Rothbart, 2012; Morales, Fu, & Pérez-Edgar, 2016)。此外, 国内研究也表明:较高积极情感水平的儿童在生活中更关注奖赏性刺激, 形成对奖赏刺激的注意偏向, 这种自动化的情绪调节模式使得儿童在生活中难以采用抑制策略有效地控制自身情绪, 因而被看作是儿童外化问题行为的预测因素(He, Li, Wu, & Zhai, 2017)。可见, 儿童一旦对奖励等积极情绪刺激的加工出现问题, 便会引发不当的情绪调节, 造成儿童外化问题行为。

关于情绪调节与内化问题行为的关系, 研究者主要从儿童青少年抑郁的相关成因给出了一定的解释。Clark和Watson (1991)指出, 抑郁涉及情感系统的功能紊乱, 情绪调节的失败是其中的关键因素。抑郁的儿童青少年常伴有较低水平的积极情感, 这类个体对奖励等积极刺激的唤醒程度较低, 因此在面对生活事件时表现出动力不足。低强度的积极情感使得他们在生活中难以维持积极情绪, 而这种慢性的积极情感缺失最终会导致抑郁症状的出现。此外, 积极情感缺失的儿童又会表现出低强度的奖赏寻求以及较差的社会化, 从而加深抑郁症状。抑郁的反应风格理论也指出, 个体对负性情绪感受的天然差异性是抑郁的易损性因素, 低水平积极情感气质的儿童在生活中容易体验到更多的负性情绪, 调节情绪时又常反复地体验负性情绪及结果, 这种沉思策略的过度使用最终会增加患抑郁的风险(Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014)。

如有研究发现, 7年级儿童的积极情感与沉思策略呈负相关, 引入纵向分析后发现, 7年级时的抑郁与积极情感得分共同正向预测1年后的儿童抑郁症状, 此外沉思策略在低水平的积极情感与儿童抑郁之间发挥中介作用(Verstraeten, Vasey, Raes, & Bijttebier, 2009)。另外有研究发现低水平积极情感对儿童青少年抑郁的影响, Van Beveren等人(2016a)指出, 低水平积极情感的儿童在调节自身情绪时易陷入对情绪事件的过度思考而无法抽离, 在调节负性情绪时频繁地采用沉思策略, 进而引发抑郁。近期一项研究也发现, 低水平积极情感气质的儿童在面对负性情绪时较少采用问题解决策略, 而倾向于采用沉思等不适应性调节策略, 因而体验到更多的抑郁情绪(Van Beveren, Harding, Beyers, & Braet, 2018)。可见, 较低水平的积极情感影响了儿童的情绪调节及相应策略的使用, 久而久之构成了儿童抑郁的风险因素。

2.2 恐惧/行为抑制、情绪调节与问题行为

Gray (1991)看来, 行为抑制系统(Behavioral Inhibition System, BIS)与个体的恐惧/行为抑制联系密切。恐惧的生理基础主要包括眶额叶、内侧隔区和海马回, 杏仁核是加工条件性恐惧的关键区域(LeDoux, 1989)。BIS系统对惩罚、非奖励和陌生刺激信号较为敏感, 它会抑制消极结果带来的后续行为, 并让个体产生害怕、沮丧等消极情绪。而该系统的异常激活使个体感受到过多的消极情绪, 进而引发随后的问题行为。Roberton (2012)等人指出, 情绪调节对攻击行为的影响主要包括两个方面, 一是对负性情绪的过度抑制, 个体对负性情绪有较强的抑制倾向导致其难以适当地表达自身情绪, 在调节负性情绪时常采用回避、过度抑制等策略, 当体验到强度更大的负性情绪唤醒而无法回避时会引发强烈的攻击行为; 二是对负性情绪的唤醒和抑制不足, 个体在生活中不能有效地抑制负性情绪体验和规避危险刺激, 当负性情绪干扰到自身行为时会增加攻击性行为出现的风险。

如有研究发现, 青少年对恐惧情绪的调节与攻击行为联系密切。恐惧水平较低且抑制能力较差的青少年, 在面对负性情绪事件时难以控制自身的冲动情绪可能出现外显攻击行为; 而恐惧水平较高且抑制能力较好的青少年尽管较好地抑制了自身的冲动, 但难以正确地表达情绪, 因而表现出更多的关系性攻击, 比如传播谣言、孤立他人等行为(Dane & Marini, 2014)。也有研究考察了儿童的条件性恐惧加工与攻击行为的关系, 实验过程中同时收集儿童的皮肤电数据, 结果发现8岁儿童较低水平的皮肤电与攻击性行为呈正相关(Gao, Raine, Venables, Dawson, & Mednick, 2010)。进一步研究发现, 儿童早期测量的高主动性攻击性可以正向预测其18岁时在条件性恐惧任务中测量的低皮肤电水平(Gao, Tuvblad, Schell, Baker, & Raine, 2015)。由于皮肤电水平与情绪刺激的激活和调节密切相关, 低水平的皮肤电反映了儿童对恐惧等负性刺激的不敏感性, 儿童由于难以体验到惩罚带来的恐惧情绪增加了其随后攻击行为出现的风险。

Henderson, Pine和Fox (2015)等人从信息加工过程角度出发, 探讨了行为抑制与儿童适应性行为的关系。他们认为行为抑制反映了儿童早期对不熟悉刺激的行为倾向。高行为抑制儿童表现为对新异刺激的退缩及过度回避, 此类儿童在调节负性情绪时倾向于采用回避、退缩等被动性调节策略, 日后更容易出现焦虑症状, 尤其是社交焦虑。Henderson进一步指出, 高恐惧/行为抑制儿童对外部信息常常表现出过高程度的抑制, 因而在加工情绪信息时出现异常, 引发问题行为(Henderson et al., 2015; Meyer et al., 2018)。Cisler, Olatunji, Feldner和Forsyth (2010)提出的关于焦虑的情绪调节模型也指出, 个体情绪调节模式的差异, 特别是在恐惧情境下不同的情绪加工过程是形成焦虑的原因。该模型提出了情绪调节影响焦虑的短期和长期两种效应, 短期效应指在恐惧情境下即时的情绪调节诱发了焦虑情绪, 同时还增强了个体的生理、认知及行为改变。长期效应指个体发展出长期且相对稳定的不适应情绪调节策略, 从而引发了焦虑。如有研究表明, 儿童2岁时气质的恐惧维度得分可以正向预测4岁时母亲报告的焦虑症状, 探究其原因发现, 高水平恐惧气质的儿童在调节自身情绪时更多地采用回避策略, 以致在社会交往中失去结交新朋友的机会, 增加了随后的焦虑风险。研究结果还发现, 那些情绪调节能力较好的幼儿即使体验到较高的恐惧情绪也可以适当地进行表达, 发展出适应性的社会行为(Buss, 2011)。还有研究结合问卷与行为实验考察了幼儿的行为抑制与儿童期的情绪调节以及社会能力之间的关系, 结果发现高水平的行为抑制儿童更倾向于采用被动性情绪调节策略(比如对破损玩具的长时间注视而非主动维修), 在与同伴交往中更多地选择沉默和回避, 而如果此类儿童能够更多地采用主动性调节策略(比如主动寻求帮助), 那么在两年后会表现出较好的社会能力(Penela, Walker, Degnan, Fox, & Henderson, 2015)。由此可知, 儿童对恐惧情绪的不适当加工构成了某些问题行为的成因。此外, 对新异刺激的过度敏感和回避损害了儿童正常的情绪调节过程, 加深了儿童对负性刺激的关注, 最终导致问题行为的出现。

2.3 愤怒/烦躁、情绪调节与问题行为

在Gray (1991)的斗争-逃避系统(Fight/Flight system)中, 负责处理无条件惩罚信息的脑机制是杏仁核、视丘下部的腹内侧核、中脑的中央灰质及脑干下部的体细胞效应器。一旦个体觉察到痛苦或挫折信息, 大脑这些区域就会做出攻击或防御的反应。研究者认为该系统是个体攻击性的基础。Frick和Morris (2004)认为, 童年早期的愤怒情绪以及不良的情绪调节是形成童年中期问题行为以及青少年期反社会行为的主要原因。儿童体验过多的愤怒情绪容易造成内心对外部世界的不满, 当儿童的需求得不到回应或受到惩罚时, 会伴有攻击性行为出现。Wilkowski和Robinson (2010)也指出, 沉思策略的过度使用是高愤怒个体形成攻击行为的原因, 对冲动想法的反复思考延长并强化了自身的情绪状态, 在受到他人激惹时易表现出攻击性行为。另外, 高愤怒水平的个体难以采用努力性情绪调节策略控制愤怒情绪, 在面对敌意事件时无法有效地进行重评, 因而加速了攻击性行为的出现。

如有研究表明, 愤怒情绪较高的儿童表现出较差的注意控制能力和更高的冲动性, 因而与外化问题行为呈正相关(Eisenberg et al., 2001)。近期的一项研究采用自我报告和同伴提名的方法考察了沉思与问题行为之间的关系, 结果发现, 对愤怒情绪经常采用沉思策略的儿童被同伴认定有更多的攻击行为出现, 此外较频繁地采用沉思策略调节愤怒情绪的儿童在抑郁量表上也有较高的得分(Harmon, Stephens, Repper, Driscoll, & Kistner, 2017)。可见, 高水平的愤怒特质是儿童青少年形成沉思策略的主要原因, 高强度的愤怒情绪限制了儿童青少年的抑制能力, 无法将注意力从愤怒事件或愤怒想法中及时抽离出来, 因而陷入了对愤怒的沉思, 最终形成攻击行为(Caprara, Paciello, Gerbino, & Cugini, 2007)。

Rothbart和Sheese (2007)指出, 经常体验愤怒、悲伤等负性情绪不仅妨碍了儿童自身的认知加工过程, 还使得儿童自身情绪调节能力受到限制, 形成不适应性情绪调节策略, 从而引发焦虑等内化问题行为。实证研究给出了相应的支持, 如有研究选取了两所中学的1065名青少年考察其情绪调节与内化问题行为的关系, 结果发现那些经常表达负性情绪的青少年在抑郁量表得分上更高; 经常采用沉思策略调节负性情绪则与青少年的社会焦虑和抑郁呈正相关(Klemanski, Curtiss, McLaughlin, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2017)。也有研究考察了14~16岁女中学生的烦躁、情绪调节与内化问题行为的关系, 结果发现较高水平的烦躁不仅直接作用于内化问题行为, 而且还以较差的情绪调节能力为中介具有间接作用(Malhi, Byrow, Outhred, T., Das, & Fritz, 2017)。

2.4 努力控制、情绪调节与问题行为

努力控制是气质中较为自主性的成份。主要包括注意的集中和控制以及抑制不适当行为的能力(Rothbart & Sheese, 2007)。努力控制通常包含两个方面, 一是抑制控制, 个体根据当前需要及行为目标主动抑制自身行为, 比如在延迟满足任务中主动抑制对新奇物品的关注, 从而降低自身情绪强度; 二是注意控制, 个体可以主动地集中或转移自身注意力, 比如主动将注意力集中到相对积极的情绪信息中, 避免过多的负性刺激偏向。由于努力控制涉及儿童自身对情绪刺激的注意和控制, 因而构成了儿童情绪调节的基础。Nigg (2006)认为, 努力控制在情绪调节中发挥重要作用, 努力控制通过完成与适应性功能相关的信息加工以及对情绪性经验和行为的调控来影响儿童的行为表现。当多种情绪刺激共同出现时, 低水平努力控制的儿童不能很好地抑制与目标无关的情绪带来的冲动, 行动时往往陷入困难无法做出适当的选择, 从而导致问题行为的产生。有研究发现, 如果儿童2岁时不能很好地采用分心策略调节负性情绪, 在5岁时会表现出更多的外化问题行为, 结果还发现男孩在2岁时较差的注意控制可以正向预测之后的外化问题行为(Hill, Degan, Calkins, & Keane, 2006)。纵向研究也表明, 过多采用沉思策略调节负性情绪或者是难以有效地从负性情绪中及时抽离的6~8年级儿童, 在之后会表现出更多的攻击性行为(Herts, McLaughlin, & Hatzenbuehler, 2012)。可见, 努力控制中的注意控制成份影响了儿童对负性情绪的注意和脱离, 难以有效地采用分心等情绪调节策略是问题行为出现的重要原因。

关于情绪调节与儿童内化问题行为的关系, 在Eisenberg等人(2010)看来, 儿童的情绪调节能力与自身内化问题行为存在负相关, 由于内化问题常伴随较高的负性情绪体验, 因此对负性情绪的调节困难可能构成了内化问题的成因。此外, 儿童有效的注意控制可以减少其对负性情绪刺激的关注, 促使儿童将注意力更多地转向中性或积极信息上, 有效地采用分心策略减轻负性情绪体验, 从而减少问题行为的出现(Eisenberg et al., 2010)。Morales等人近期也指出, 儿童焦虑的形成可能与儿童的注意控制有关。有效的注意控制可以减弱易受负性情感影响儿童的注意偏向, 并且促进他们将注意从负性刺激转移到正性刺激上(Morales et al., 2016)。Hofmann等人(2011)进一步指出, 高水平的努力控制反映了个体较好的重评能力, 在体验负性情绪后能够及时地采用认知重评策略对情绪事件进行再评价便减少了负性情绪对自身的影响。有研究发现, 努力控制是儿童青少年抑郁和焦虑的保护性因素, 高水平努力控制的儿童青少年可以有效地调节自身的情绪困扰, 在经历负性情绪事件时较好地采用注意控制转移自身注意力因而减少了患抑郁和焦虑的风险(Gulley, Hankin, & Young, 2016)。元分析研究也指出, 儿童青少年的内化问题行为与沉思、回避等不适应性策略的使用呈正相关, 与认知重评、问题解决等适应性策略呈负相关(Compas et al., 2017)。

基于气质视角对情绪调节和儿童问题行为的关系进行梳理发现, 气质在很大程度上影响了儿童情绪调节的发展以及相关策略的使用, 一旦儿童的情绪调节出现问题, 会引发相应的问题行为。从气质的非自主性情绪调节成份来看, 过高的消极情感与过低的积极情感均与儿童的问题行为有着直接的联系, 情绪唤醒及感受的异常使得儿童不能恰当地表达和抑制情绪, 进而引发问题行为; 从气质的自主性情绪调节成份看, 高水平努力控制的儿童具有良好的情绪表达与情绪理解能力, 能够采用重评等适应性情绪调节策略处理负性情绪带来的不利影响。而努力控制水平较低的儿童难以有效地控制自己的行为, 更容易发展出沉思、回避等不适应性情绪调节策略, 体验到更多的抑郁、焦虑等消极情绪。然而儿童的气质并不总是以单一成份出现, 气质的两种情绪调节成份经常共同作用于儿童, 进而对儿童的适应行为产生影响。下面将从气质两种成份的交互作用进行相应阐述。

3 气质两种成份交互作用视角的情绪调节与问题行为

气质两种成份的交互作用主要有两条路径, 一是非自主性情绪调节之间的交互, 另一种是非自主性与自主性情绪调节之间的交互。Rothbart等人指出, 当情境中同时包含奖励刺激和风险时, 个体的接近和防御系统会同时激活, 以合作或竞争的形式同时作用于个体, 然而两种系统对个体行为的影响是不对称的, 很多时候防御系统更占优势(Rothbart & Sheese, 2007)。因此当儿童的情绪调节出现问题时, 在生活中更容易对负性信息产生关注, 久而久之增加其形成问题行为的风险。如一项针对9~18岁的比利时儿童青少年研究发现, 消极情感水平较高的儿童青少年更倾向采用沉思、攻击行为等情绪调节策略, 且体验到更多的抑郁情绪, 然而如果同时伴随较低水平的积极情感, 则会增加其患抑郁的概率(Van Beveren et al., 2016a)。

更为常见的是两种成份之间的交互作用对儿童问题行为的影响。Frick和Morris (2004)指出, 努力控制水平较差的儿童更易于受到负性情绪的影响, 并且表现出对负性情绪的调节困难以及负性情绪唤醒时的抑制困难。而他们不当的情绪调节进一步损害其社会认知发展, 尤其在面对情绪信息时不能很好地抑制自身的负性情绪, 进而引发问题行为。Lonigan, Vasey, Phillips和Hazen (2004)在探讨儿童焦虑的成因时也发现了气质的交互作用对儿童焦虑的影响, 提出的模型整合了气质、情感和注意加工三个因素, 该模型认为, 儿童的负性情绪性一方面直接对焦虑产生作用, 另一方面部分通过自动化注意分配机制的中介作用造成情感失调以及焦虑水平的上升, 整个过程还受到努力控制的调节作用。Yap, Allen和Sheeber (2007)提出的青少年抑郁模型进一步指出, 气质中的某些成份还会影响情绪调节策略的使用。具体来看, 对负性情绪控制较差的儿童更容易抑郁, 此类儿童在生活中通常采用抑制、沉思等调节策略, 因而体验到更多的抑郁情绪以及较少的正性情绪。如有研究发现, 儿童青少年对自身愤怒情绪控制得越好, 其攻击性行为越少。愤怒情绪较高的儿童如果伴随较差的抑制控制能力, 则可能出现更多的攻击行为, 此外研究结果还发现了性别差异, 男孩的攻击性行为多于女孩且在沉思、攻击行为等策略上的得分更高(Calvete & Orue, 2012)。

可见, 情绪调节对儿童问题行为的影响并不是受到单一因素的作用, 气质的两种情绪调节成份共同作用于儿童的适应性行为。这也与Eisenberg等人(2010)的观点一致, 儿童的问题行为并不是由唯一的因素决定, 多种因素的综合作用可以促进我们更全面地理解变量之间的关系。然而, 目前此方面的研究相对比较零散, 对不同结果出现的原因还需要深入探讨, 例如积极情感和努力控制是否可以作为某些儿童问题行为的保护性因素还需更多的研究加以证实(Dollar, Perry, Calkins, Keane, & Shanahan, 2018; Van Beveren, Mezulis, Wante, & Braet, 2016b)。

4 情绪调节的干预及训练

从气质的视角梳理儿童情绪调节与问题行为的相关研究, 我们可知儿童的情绪调节能力受到自身气质的影响, 较好的努力控制和积极的情绪可以促进情绪调节的发展, 反之则会引发问题行为的出现。因此对儿童情绪调节采取相应的干预训练, 以及采用相应的研究结果用于矫正儿童的问题行为是未来研究的方向。

Greenberg, Kusche, Cook和Quamma (1995)及其同事针对促进学龄儿童的情绪能力提出了“促进另类思维策略”课程(Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum)。该课程涉及对儿童情绪表达、理解及调节的全面指导, 课程基于Greenberg团队提出的ABCD (Affective- Behavioral-Cognitive-Dynamic, 情感-行为-认知-动力系统)模型, 并结合儿童社会情绪性发展规律设计课程。其中的基础成份是针对儿童的应对(coping), 包括对儿童自身行为以及内在情绪调节的感知和理解。根据ABCD模型可知, 儿童的情绪发展先于大多数认知能力, 因此儿童早期的情绪能力的发展是日后某些思维模式的前置因素。在Greenberg看来, PATHS课程对儿童情绪调节的干预基于四个假设:(1)儿童的情绪理解能力受到自身行为的影响; (2)儿童对情绪的管理和理解能力受到自身发展水平的限制; (3)儿童理解自身及他人的情绪是解决情绪问题的关键; (4)学校环境作为儿童活动的基本环境是进行干预的良好场所。Riggs等人对小学儿童开展了为期半年的PATHS课程, 课程的训练安排是每周3次, 每次20~30分钟, 以团体的形式由专业教师负责组织课程。对于干预成果测量的数据包括前后的语言流畅性、问题行为、抑制控制能力等。课程结束后发现, 与对照组相比, 接受课程的儿童在语言流畅性和抑制控制能力方面得到了显著提高, 且减少了问题行为的出现(Riggs, Greenberg, Kusché, & Pentz, 2006)。

随着对情绪调节训练研究的深入, 研究者开发了适用人群更广泛的正念(Mindfulness)训练。正念是一种起源于东方禅修而发展出的一套调节自我身心的技术, 强调个体忽略愿望与价值, 以一种开放、好奇、接受的心态体会当下的经验(Tang, Hölzel, & Posner, 2015)。关于正念的工作机制, Hölzel等人(2011)认为包括四个成份:注意调节、身体觉知、情绪调节 (包括重评, 消退, 重新构建等)以及改变对自我的看法。实证研究也发现正念训练能有效地改善个体情绪, 提高情绪调节能力, 对于抑郁, 焦虑等情绪问题产生较好的干预效果(Kaunhoven & Dorjee, 2017; Schonert-Reichl et al, 2015; Teper, Segal, & Inzlicht, 2013)。目前, 研究者开发出一系列适用于儿童青少年的正念训练项目, 包括身体-意识整合训练(Integrative Body-Mind Training, IBMT)、正念教育(Mindful Education, ME)、正念家庭减压(Mindful Family Stress Reduction, MBSR)、基于正念的儿童认知疗法(Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for children, MBCT-C)等(Tang, Yang, Leve, & Harold, 2012; Felver, Frank, & McEachern, 2014; Schonert-Reichl et al., 2015; Strawn et al., 2016)。以身体-意识整合训练为例(IBMT), 研究者指出IBMT吸纳了中国医学的一些传统思想, 强调个体需要诱发平静的警觉状态, 建立一种对自身以及外部环境的高水平知觉状态, 达到放松与警觉的平衡。简言之, IBMT提高了个体的注意水平、自我调节并达到改善情绪的效果, 由于该训练在应用时主要从自身特征出发, 不需要过多认知的参与, 因而更适合儿童群体(Tang, Posner, & Rothbart, 2014)。

研究者还发现正念训练可以用于减少儿童的焦虑症状, 有研究为5名焦虑儿童设计了6周的正念训练, 每周一次时长45分钟, 在训练结束后发现, 焦虑儿童的问题行为得到明显改善, 焦虑症状减轻(Semple, Reid, & Miller, 2005)。可见, 通过正念训练对儿童进行的干预有助于提高儿童的社会适应及情绪调节, 进而减少其问题行为。此外, 针对某些气质类型的儿童, 比如高行为抑制(behavioral inhibition, BI), 也可以通过适当的正念训练进行干预, 减少他们对压力的过度反应以及较强的负性情绪唤醒(Henderson & Wilson, 2017)。因此, 未来的研究可以针对不同气质的儿童开设适宜的训练方案, 从而促进儿童情绪性的健康发展。

5 小结与展望

通过对情绪调节与儿童问题行为之间关系的文献梳理可以发现:情绪调节是影响儿童问题行为的主要原因。儿童在发展过程中能够顺利地调节负性情绪, 则会显著降低问题行为的风险。其次, 由于儿童的情绪调节能力受到自身气质特征的影响, 从气质研究入手可以探明儿童情绪调节的机制。再次, 儿童的问题行为尽管表现形式多样, 但实证研究表明其与儿童的情绪发展密切相关。最后, 针对儿童情绪调节的训练或干预可以促进儿童情绪调节能力的积极发展, 减少问题行为的出现。

尽管研究者对儿童情绪调节与问题行为的关系给出相应的解释, 但未来研究还应该更加细化。目前研究大多集中探讨负性情绪性的调节与儿童问题行为的关系, 忽视了积极情绪性的作用, 如有研究显示, 低强度的积极情绪性与高强度的负性情绪性同样可以显著预测儿童的抑郁(Van Beveren et al., 2016a)。此外, 还应该考虑气质各维度之间的交互作用对儿童情绪调节的发展以及问题行为的影响, 高强度的积极情绪性与较好的努力控制是否可以作为问题行为的缓冲因素, 减弱消极情绪性带来的不利影响, 也需要进一步探讨。如有研究发现努力控制在负性情绪性与儿童的内化问题行为之间起调节作用, 不管儿童的愤怒水平如何, 高水平的努力控制儿童总表现出较少的内化问题行为, 而低努力控制则会加强愤怒与内化问题行为之间的联系(Eisenberg et al., 2007)。这意味着未来研究可深入探讨儿童问题行为的保护性和风险性因素及发生机制。

其次, 今后研究还应结合气质的神经生理相关成果对变量之间的关系展开探讨。研究发现, 负性情绪性水平较低的儿童通常表现出稳定的副交感神经活动水平, 这些儿童在完成相应的挑战性任务时, 表现出更好的情绪调节机能和较少的问题行为, 因而抑制副交感神经活动的能力可以反映儿童的情绪调节能力(Kolacz, Holochwost, Gariépy, & Mills-Koonce, 2016; Li, Deater-Deckard, Calkins, & Bell, 2017; Perry, Mackler, Calkins, & Keane, 2014)。然而随着儿童的自然发育, 自主神经系统与儿童情绪性发展的联系又会呈现怎样的趋势尚不清楚, 因此未来可开展纵向研究, 深入探讨儿童神经生理发育、情绪调节与其社会适应之间的关系。

再次, 应在未来拓展国内的本土化研究。由于情绪调节能力伴随儿童成长发生变化, 儿童气质本身也在情绪与行为两个方面呈现出发展的趋势(刘文, 张珊珊, 陈亮, 杨丽珠, 2014)。因此可适当地开展纵向研究考察国内儿童在不同时期的气质、情绪调节的一致性发展特点, 及其对问题行为的预测作用。另外, 当前大多研究来自国外儿童被试, 由于文化差异的存在, 一些结论是否适用于中国儿童还需进一步验证(桑标, 邓欣媚, 2015)。如修订后的中文版儿童认知情绪调节策略问卷发现, 接受(Acceptance)策略归属于不适应性认知情绪调节策略, 且与儿童抑郁显著正相关, 而该策略在国外研究中则被视为适应性调节策略(Liu, Chen, & Blue, 2016)。未来的研究需考虑东西方文化差异, 为我国儿童的情绪社会化发展提供更多本土化依据。最后, 研究者应积极开展情绪调节的训练和干预研究, 进一步探索并开发适合在本国文化背景下的儿童情绪调节训练方案, 促进儿童情绪社会化的健康发展。

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Results of this study have implications for theory linking temperament and psychopathology, and clinical applications utilizing temperament assessment to prevent behavior problems.Se llevó a cabo el presente estudio para examinar las contribuciones de los atributos del temperamento que aparecen tempranamente en cuanto al infante y a los problemas de conducta de edad pre-escolar. Altos niveles de Emotividad Negativa y bajos niveles de Control con Esfuerzo fueron relacionados tanto con las dificultades de externalizar como de internalizar. Todas las dimensiones de grano fino del Afecto Negativo fueron asociadas concurrentemente con los problemas de internalización, mientras que las relaciones entre componentes del Afecto Negativo y de Externalización fueron observados solamente por Frustración, Tristeza y baja Reactividad en Descenso. El Alto nivel de Arranques fue asociado con el incremento del riesgo en conductas de externalización, mientras que los bajos niveles de Arranque incrementaron la posibilidad de problemas de internalización. Se dio la moderación de rasgo por rasgo, de manera que la Emotividad Negativa fue relacionada más cercanamente con los problemas de conducta cuando la Capacidad de Orientación o Regulatoria y el Control con Esfuerzo eran bajos, o cuando el Arranque del infante era alto. Los resultados de este estudio tienen implicaciones para la teoría que une el temperamento y la sicopatología, así como las aplicaciones clínicas que utilizan la evaluación del temperamento para prevenir problemas de conducta.Cette étude a été faite pour examiner les contributions d'attributs de tempérament émergeant très t00t à des problèmes de comportement chez les très petits enfants et les enfants d'09ges préscolaire. Des niveaux élevés d'Emotionnalité Négative et des niveaux bas de Contr00le délibéré ont été lies à la fois aux difficultés externalisantes et internalisantes. Toutes les dimensions de l'Affect Négatif ont été simultanément lies aux problèmes d'internalisation, alors que les relations entre les composants de l'Affect Négatif et de l'externalisation n'ont été observés que pour la Frustration, la Tristesse et une faible Réactivité à la Chute. Une surgency élevée était liée à un risque plus élevé de comportements d'externalisation, alors que une surgency basse augmentait les chances de problèmes d'internalisation. Une modération trait-pour-trait a été observée, de telle manière que l'Emotionnalité Négative était le plus étroitement lié aux problèmes de comportement lorsque l'Orientation/la Capacité de régulation ou le Contr00le délibéré était bas, ou quand la surgency du nourrisson était haute. Les résultats de cette étude ont des implications pour la théorie liant le tempérament et la psychopathologie, et des applications cliniques utilisant une évaluation du tempérament pour prévenir les problèmes de comportement.Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es den Beitrag früh auftretender Temperamentsattribute zu Verhaltensproblemen im Kleinkind- und Vorschulalter zu untersuchen. Ein hohes Ma08 an Negativer Emotionalitt sowie ein niedriger Grad an “Effortful Control” standen eng sowohl mit externalisierenden und internalisierenden Schwierigkeiten in Verbindung. Alle feink02rnigen Dimensionen Negativen Affekts waren mit zeitgleichen internalisierenden Problemen assoziiert, wohingegen Beziehungen zwischen Komponenten Negativen Affekts und Externalisierung nur für Frustration, Traurigkeit, und niedrige Abfallende Reaktivitt beobachtbar waren. 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Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum

Development and Psychopathology, 7 (1), 117-136.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study examined the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the emotional development of school-aged children. PATHS, a school-based preventive intervention model was designed to improve children's ability to discuss and understand emotions and emotion concepts. The intervention field trial included 30 classrooms in a randomized design and involved the assessment of 286 children from grades 2 and 3. Approximately 30% of the children were in self-contained special needs classrooms, with the remainder in regular education. Teachers were trained in the intervention model and provided PATHS lessons during most of the one school year. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for both low- and high-risk (special needs) children in improving their range of vocabulary and fluency in discussing emotional experiences, their efficacy beliefs regarding the management of emotions, and their developmental understanding of some aspects of emotions. In some instances, greater improvement was shown in children with higher teacher ratings of psychopathology. Discussion focused on the nature of change school-based prevention trials.

Gross J.J . ( 1998).

The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review

Review of General Psychology, 2 (3), 271-299.

[本文引用: 1]

Gross J.J., &John O.P . ( 2003).

Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85 (2), 348-362.

[本文引用: 1]

Gulley L. D., Hankin B. L., & Young J. F . ( 2016).

Risk for depression and anxiety in youth: The interaction between negative affectivity, effortful control, and stressors

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44 (2), 207-218.

URL     PMID:25870113      [本文引用: 1]

Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 5602% female; N 65=65576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms.

Gyurak A., Gross J. J., & Etkin A . ( 2011).

Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: A dual-process framework

Cognition and Emotion, 25 (3), 400-412.

URL     PMID:21432682      [本文引用: 2]

It is widely acknowledged that emotions can be regulated in an astonishing variety of ways. Most research to date has focused on explicit (effortful) forms of emotion regulation. However, there is growing research interest in implicit (automatic) forms of emotion regulation. To organise emerging findings, we present a dual-process framework that integrates explicit and implicit forms of emotion regulation, and argue that both forms of regulation are necessary for well-being. In the first section of this review, we provide a broad overview of the construct of emotion regulation, with an emphasis on explicit and implicit processes. In the second section, we focus on explicit emotion regulation, considering both neural mechanisms that are associated with these processes and their experiential and physiological consequences. In the third section, we turn to several forms of implicit emotion regulation, and integrate the burgeoning literature in this area. We conclude by outlining open questions and areas for future research.

Harmon S. L., Stephens H. F., Repper K. K., Driscoll K. A., & Kistner J. A . ( 2017).

Children’s rumination to sadness and anger: Implications for the development of depression and aggression

Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-11.

URL     PMID:28841342      [本文引用: 1]

The current study examined the transdiagnostic nature of rumination in the development of childhood depression and aggression by examining the relation between two forms of rumination, sadness and anger, in a single study and assessing their unique and shared behavioral correlates. A community sample of 254 children (ages 7-14, 50.4% female, 66.5% Caucasian) completed self-report measures of rumination and depressive symptoms, and peer nominations of aggressive behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess unique and shared behavioral correlates. Anger rumination uniquely predicted aggression (β02=02.40, p02<02.001) and depressive symptoms (β02=02.62, p02<02.001), controlling for sadness rumination. Sadness rumination, controlling for anger rumination, did not predict depressive symptoms (β02=02-.10, p02=02.10) and negatively predicted aggressive symptoms (β02=02-.21, p02=02.003). In addition, a significant interaction between sadness rumination and anger rumination on aggressive behaviors was observed (β02=02-.24, p02<02.001), such that children who reported high anger and low sadness rumination tendencies were perceived as more aggressive by their peers than other children, including those with high levels of anger and sadness rumination. These results offer support for anger rumination as a transdiagnostic factor for children's depressive symptoms and aggression. Sadness rumination did not uniquely predict depressive symptoms, although it did moderate the association between anger rumination and aggression. These findings underscore the importance of assessing both anger and sadness rumination for increasing our understanding of children's risk for depression and aggression.

He J., Li P., Wu W., & Zhai S . ( 2017).

Exuberance, attention bias, and externalizing behaviors in Chinese preschoolers: A longitudinal study

Social Development, 26 (3), 520-529.

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Abstract Exuberance, a temperament type influenced by approach motivation, has been found to be associated with maladaptive behaviors such as more externalizing behaviors in early childhood. A possible mechanism underlying it is children's selective attention to environmental cues. However, few studies have investigated the effect of attention bias on the relation between exuberance and externalizing behaviors. This longitudinal study examined the association of temperamental exuberance (as assessed by behavioral observation and parental report) at 3 years old with attention bias to reward and punishment (as assessed by a spatial cueing task) and teachers' reports of externalizing behaviors at 5 years old in 153 Chinese preschool-age children. As predicted, externalizing behaviors were positively predicted by exuberance and attention bias to reward. However, novel findings were that attention bias to punishment moderated the relation between exuberance and externalizing behaviors, such that exuberant children showed an increased risk of externalizing behaviors when they did not have high punishment bias. The results highlight attention bias to punishment as an important factor for the development of behavioral problems in exuberant children.

Heleniak C., Jenness J. L., Vander Stoep A., McCauley E., & McLaughlin K. A . ( 2016).

Childhood maltreatment exposure and disruptions in emotion regulation: A transdiagnostic pathway to adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology

Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40, (3), 394-415.

URL     PMID:5042349      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

Henderson H.A., &Wilson M.J . ( 2017).

Attention processes underlying risk and resilience in behaviorally inhibited children

Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports, 4, (2), 99-106.

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We briefly review the literature on behavioral inhibition (BI) in childhood and its associated social and emotional outcomes. We review the interplay of automatic and controlled attention processes in

Henderson H. A., Pine D. S., & Fox N. A . ( 2015).

Behavioral inhibition and developmental risk: A dual-processing perspective

Neuropsychopharmacology, 40 (1), 207-224.

URL     PMID:25065499      [本文引用: 2]

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament characterized by strong reactions to novelty. BI shows a good deal of stability over childhood and significantly increases the risk for later diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Despite these general patterns, many children with high BI do not go on to develop clinical, or even subclinical, anxiety problems. Therefore, understanding the cognitive and neural bases of individual differences in developmental risk and resilience is of great importance. The present review is focused on the relation of BI to two types of information processing: automatic (novelty detection, attention biases to threat, and incentive processing) and controlled (attention shifting and inhibitory control). We propose three hypothetical models (Top-Down Model of Control; Risk Potentiation Model of Control; and Overgeneralized Control Model) linking these processes to variability in developmental outcomes for BI children. We argue that early BI is associated with an early bias to quickly and preferentially process information associated with motivationally salient cues. When this bias is strong and stable across development, the risk for SAD is increased. Later in development, children with a history of BI tend to display normative levels of performance on controlled attention tasks, but they demonstrate exaggerated neural responses in order to do so, which may further potentiate risk for anxiety-related problems. We conclude by discussing the reviewed studies with reference to the hypothetical models and make suggestions regarding future research and implications for treatment.

Herts K. L., McLaughlin K. A., & Hatzenbuehler M. L . ( 2012).

Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking stress exposure to adolescent aggressive behavior

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40 (7), 1111-1122.

URL     PMID:3448707      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract65=651065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 302months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (65=652.35, 65=650.019) and stressful life events (65=652.32, 65=650.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior.

Hill A. L., Degnan K. A., Calkins S. D., & Keane S. P . ( 2006).

Profiles of externalizing behavior problems for boys and girls across preschool: the roles of emotion regulation and inattention

Developmental Psychology, 42 (5), 913-928.

URL     PMID:16953696      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Although externalizing behavior typically peaks in toddlerhood and decreases by school entry, some children do not show this normative decline. A sample of 383 boys and girls was assessed at ages 2, 4, and 5 for externalizing behavior and at age 2 on measures of emotion regulation and inattention. A longitudinal latent profile analysis was performed and resulted in 4 longitudinal profiles of externalizing behavior for each gender. Poor emotion regulation and inattention were important predictors of membership in the chronic-clinical profile for girls, whereas socioeconomic status and inattention were important predictors of membership in the chronic-clinical profile for boys. Results are discussed with respect to the development of adaptive skills that lead to normative declines in externalizing behavior across childhood.

Hofmann W., Friese M., Schmeichel B. J., & Baddeley A. D. ( 2011). Working memory and self-regulation. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.; pp. 204-225). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Hoglund W.L., &Chisholm C.A . ( 2014).

Reciprocating risks of peer problems and aggression for children’s internalizing problems

Developmental Psychology, 50 (2), 586-599.

URL     PMID:23815700      [本文引用: 1]

Three complementary models of how peer relationship problems (exclusion and victimization) and aggressive behaviors relate to prospective levels of internalizing problems are examined. The additive risks model proposes that peer problems and aggression cumulatively increase risks for internalizing problems. The reciprocal risks model hypothesizes that peer problems and aggression transact over time and mediate the effects of each other on prospective internalizing problems. Last, the internalizing risks model proposes that, in addition to aggressive behaviors, prior internalizing problems also provoke peer problems that, in turn, further elevate risks for prospective internalizing problems. Data came from a sample of 453 low-income, ethnically diverse children in kindergarten to Grade 3 who were assessed 3 times over 1 school term (in January, March and June). Findings supported the internalizing risks model. Four key pathways were found to increase risks for internalizing problems by the end of the school year; 2 of these routes were rooted in aggressive behaviors, and 3 paths operated indirectly via levels of peer problems in the spring. Children who were initially aggressive became excluded by peers by the spring, whereas children who initially showed more symptoms of depression and anxiety became victimized by peers by the spring. In turn, both peer exclusion and victimization increased prospective levels of internalizing problems by the end of the school year.

Hölzel B. K., Lazar S. W., Gard T., Schuman-Olivier Z., Vago D. R., & Ott U . ( 2011).

How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective

Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6 (6), 537-559.

URL     PMID:26168376      [本文引用: 1]

Cultivation of mindfulness, the nonjudgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment, produces beneficial effects on well-being and ameliorates psychiatric and stress-related symptoms. Mindfulness meditation has therefore increasingly been incorporated into psychotherapeutic interventions. Although the number of publications in the field has sharply increased over the last two decades, there is a paucity of theoretical reviews that integrate the existing literature into a comprehensive theoretical framework. In this article, we explore several components through which mindfulness meditation exerts its effects: (a) attention regulation, (b) body awareness, (c) emotion regulation (including reappraisal and exposure, extinction, and reconsolidation), and (d) change in perspective on the self. Recent empirical research, including practitioners' self-reports and experimental data, provides evidence supporting these mechanisms. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies have begun to explore the neuroscientific processes underlying these components. Evidence suggests that mindfulness practice is associated with neuroplastic changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network, and default mode network structures. The authors suggest that the mechanisms described here work synergistically, establishing a process of enhanced self-regulation. Differentiating between these components seems useful to guide future basic research and to specifically target areas of development in the treatment of .

Kaunhoven R.J., &Dorjee D. ( 2017).

How does mindfulness modulate self-regulation in pre-adolescent children? An integrative neurocognitive review

Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 74, 163-184.

URL     PMID:28108415      [本文引用: 1]

Pre-adolescence is a key developmental period in which complex intrinsic volitional methods of self-regulation are acquired as a result of rapid maturation within the brain networks underlying the self-regulatory processes of attention control and emotion regulation. Fostering adaptive self-regulation skills during this stage of development has strong implications for physical health, emotional and socio-economic outcomes during adulthood. There is a growing interest in mindfulness-based programmes for pre-adolescents with initial findings suggesting self-regulation improvements, however, neurodevelopmental studies on mindfulness with pre-adolescents are scarce. This analytical review outlines an integrative neuro-developmental approach, which combines self-report and behavioural assessments with event related brain potentials (ERPs) to provide systemic multilevel understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms of mindfulness in pre-adolescence. We specifically focus on the N2, error related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), P3a, P3b and late positive potential (LPP) ERP components as indexes of mindfulness related modulations in non-volitional bottom-up self-regulatory processes (salience detection, stimulus driven orienting and mind wandering) and volitional top-down self-regulatory processes (endogenous orienting and executive attention).

Klemanski D. H., Curtiss J., McLaughlin K. A., & Nolen- Hoeksema S . ( 2017).

Emotion regulation and the transdiagnostic role of repetitive negative thinking in adolescents with social anxiety and depression

Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41 (2), 206-219.

URL     PMID:28579659      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Social anxiety and depression are common mental health problems among adolescents and are frequently comorbid. Primary aims of this study were to (1) elucidate the nature of individual differences in specific emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with symptoms of social anxiety and depression, and (2) determine whether repetitive negative thinking (RNT) functions as a transdiagnostic factor. A diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1065) completed measures assessing emotion regulation and symptoms of social anxiety and depression. Results indicated that adolescents with high levels of social anxiety and depression symptoms reported decreased emotional awareness, dysregulated emotion expression, and reduced use of emotion management strategies. The hypothesized structural model in which RNT functions as a transdiagnostic factor exhibited a better fit than an alternative model in which worry and rumination function as separate predictors of symptomatology. Findings implicate emotion regulation deficits and RNT in the developmental psychopathology of youth anxiety and mood disorders.

Kolacz J., Holochwost S. J., Gariépy J-L., & Mills-Koonce W. R . ( 2016).

Patterns of joint parasympathetic, sympathetic, and adrenocortical activity and their associations with temperament in early childhood

Developmental Psychobiology, 58, (8), 990-1001.

URL     PMID:27163558      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Evidence has accrued to show that autonomic and adrenocortical systems act in coordination to facilitate responses to environmental opportunities and threats. In the current study, we used cluster analysis to examine whether individual differences in patterns of joint baseline activity among the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with parent-reported temperamental positive and negative affectivity in 36-month old children. The resulting clusters corresponded to the sensitive, buffered, and vigilant patterns as predicted by the adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity (Del Giudice et al., 2011) and included a novel pattern. Cluster memberships predicted differences in overall negative affectivity and its subscales, but no associations were found with positive affectivity. These results provide evidence that the joint activity of physiological systems at rest may underlie temperamental differences in negative affect.

LeDoux J.E . ( 1989).

Cognitive-emotional interactions in the brain

Cognition and Emotion, 3 (4), 267-289.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This article has no associated abstract. ( fix it )

Li M., Deater-Deckard K., Calkins S. D., & Bell M. A . ( 2017).

Getting to the heart of personality in early childhood: Cardiac electrophysiology and stability of temperament

Journal of Research in Personality, 67, 151-156.

[本文引用: 1]

Liu W., Chen L., & Blue P. R . ( 2016).

Chinese adaptation and psychometric properties of the child version of the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire

PLOS ONE, 11, (2), e0150206.

URL     PMID:4771133      [本文引用: 1]

This study aimed to validate a Chinese’s adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck). This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker–Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044). A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test–retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70,ps< 0.01) over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N= 76). In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children’s Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015). Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods.

Lonigan C. J., Vasey M. W., Phillips B. M., & Hazen R. A . ( 2004).

Temperament, anxiety, and the processing of threat-relevant stimuli

Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33 (1), 8-20.

[本文引用: 1]

Malhi G. S., Byrow Y., Outhred T., Das P., & Fritz K . ( 2017).

Irritability and internalizing symptoms: Modeling the mediating role of emotion regulation

Journal of Affective Disorders, 211, 144-149.

[本文引用: 1]

Meyer A., Hajcak G., Torpey‐Newman D., Kujawa A., Olino T. M., Dyson M., & Klein D. N . ( 2018).

Early temperamental fearfulness and the developmental trajectory of error-related brain activity

Developmental Psychobiology, 60 (2), 224-231.

URL     PMID:29344944      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential waveform that occurs when an individual makes a mistake, and an increased ERN has been proposed as a biomarker for anxiety. However, previous work suggests that fearful children are characterized by a smaller ERN. We have proposed that this may reflect the changing phenomenology of anxiety across development. In the current study, we investigate this possibility using a longitudinal within-subject design. In 271 children, we completed observational measures of fear when the children were 3 years old, and then measured the ERN when the children were 6 and 9 years old. Fearful children were characterized by a decreased ERN when they were 6-year-old; by age 9, the same children who were fearful at age 3 had increased ERNs pattern that closely resembles that of anxious adolescents and adults.

Morales S., Fu X., & Pérez-Edgar K. E . ( 2016).

A developmental neuroscience perspective on affect-biased attention

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 26-41.

URL     PMID:27606972      [本文引用: 2]

There is growing interest regarding the impact of affect-biased attention on psychopathology. However, most of the research to date lacks a developmental approach. In the present review, we examine the role affect-biased attention plays in shaping socioemotional trajectories within a developmental neuroscience framework. We propose that affect-biased attention, particularly if stable and entrenched, acts as a developmental tether that helps sustain early socioemotional and behavioral profiles over time, placing some individuals on maladaptive developmental trajectories. Although most of the evidence is found in the anxiety literature, we suggest that these relations may operate across multiple domains of interest, including positive affect, externalizing behaviors, drug use, and eating behaviors. We also review the general mechanisms and neural correlates of affect-biased attention, as well as the current evidence for the co-development of attention and affect. Based on the reviewed literature, we propose a model that may help us better understand the nuances of affect-biased attention across development. The model may serve as a strong foundation for ongoing attempts to identify neurocognitive mechanisms and intervene with individuals at risk. Finally, we discuss open issues for future research that may help bridge existing gaps in the literature.

Nigg J.T . ( 2006).

Temperament and developmental psychopathology

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47 (3-4), 395-422.

[本文引用: 3]

Nolen-Hoeksema S .( 2004).

The response style theory

In C. Papageorgiou, & A. Wells (Eds.), Depressive rumination: Nature, theory and treatment( pp. 107-123). West Sussex: Wiley.

[本文引用: 1]

Otterpohl N., &Wild E. ( 2015).

Cross-lagged relations among parenting, children's emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence

Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, (1), 93-108.

URL     PMID:24320075      [本文引用: 1]

Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents’ ER, and adolescents’ ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10–14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents’ anger regulation, and adolescents’ problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys’, but not for the girls’, report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed.

Penela E. C., Walker O. L., Degnan K. A., Fox N. A., & Henderson H. A . ( 2015).

Early behavioral inhibition and emotion regulation: Pathways toward social competence in middle childhood

Child Development, 86 (4), 1227-1240.

URL     PMID:26014351      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator in the relation between early behavioral inhibition (BI) and later social competence (N02=02257), and whether this mediation varied depending on BI levels. Maternal report and observational measures were used to assess BI (ages 2 and 3). Children's ER strategies (age 5) and social competence with an unfamiliar peer (age 7) were measured using observational measures. Results showed that BI predicted less engaged ER strategies during a disappointment task, and engaged ER predicted higher social competence. Engaged ER mediated the effect of BI on social competence, but only for highly inhibited children. Findings elucidate developmental trajectories of risk and resilience, and suggest targeting regulatory strategies in early prevention efforts with highly inhibited children. 08 2015 The Authors. Child Development 08 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Perry N. B., Mackler J. S., Calkins S. D., & Keane S. P . ( 2014).

A transactional analysis of the relation between maternal sensitivity and child vagal regulation

Developmental Psychology, 50 (3), 784-793.

URL     PMID:23895168      [本文引用: 1]

A transactional model examining the longitudinal association between vagal regulation (as indexed by vagal withdrawal) and maternal sensitivity from age 2.5 to age 5.5 was assessed. The sample included 356 children (171 male, 185 female) and their mothers who participated in a laboratory visit at age 2.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Cardiac vagal tone was obtained during a baseline task and during emotional frustration tasks. Maternal sensitivity was assessed via direct observation during a pretend play and cleanup task. To test for transactional associations, a path model estimating stability paths for vagal withdrawal and maternal sensitivity was compared with a full reciprocal model that included all cross-lagged pathways. A chi-square difference test was used to evaluate whether the cross-lagged model explained the data above and beyond the stability model. The vagal withdrawal cross-lagged model was found to fit significantly better than the stability model and revealed that maternal sensitivity at 2.5 years was associated positively with vagal withdrawal at 4.5 years, and vagal withdrawal at 4.5 years was associated positively with maternal sensitivity at 5.5 years. These results suggest that early sensitive responding by mothers was associated with increases in vagal withdrawal, which in turn was associated with higher levels of sensitive parenting.

Riggs N. R., Greenberg M. T., Kusché C. A., & Pentz M. A . ( 2006).

The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS curriculum

Prevention Science, 7 (1), 91-102.

URL     PMID:16572300      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Neuropsychology is one field that holds promise in the construction of comprehensive, developmental models for the promotion of social competence and prevention of problem behavior. Neuropsychological models of behavior suggest that children's neurological functioning affects the regulation of strong emotions, as well as performance in social, cognitive, and behavioral spheres. The current study examines the underlying neurocognitive conceptual theory of action of one social-emotional development program. Hypothesized was that inhibitory control and verbal fluency would mediate the relationship between program condition and teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Participants were 318 regular education students enrolled in the second or third grade. A series of regression analyses provided empirical support for (a) the effectiveness of the PATHS Curriculum in promoting inhibitory control and verbal fluency and (b) a partial mediating role for inhibitory control in the relation between prevention condition and behavioral outcomes. Implications are that programs designed to promote social and emotional development should consider comprehensive models that attend to neurocognitive functioning and development. Lack of consideration of neurocognitive pathways to the promotion of social competence may ignore important mechanisms through which prevention affects youth outcomes. Furthermore, the findings suggest that developers of social-emotional preventions should design curricula to explicitly promote the developmental integration of executive functioning, verbal processing, and emotional awareness. Doing so may enhance prevention outcomes particularly if those preventions are implemented during a time of peak neurocognitive development.

Roberton T., Daffern M., & Bucks R. S . ( 2012).

Emotion regulation and aggression

Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17 (1), 72-82.

[本文引用: 1]

Rothbart M.K . ( 2007).

Temperament, development, and personality

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16 (4), 207-212.

Rothbart M.K & Posner MI .( 2006).

Temperament, attention, and developmental psychopathology

In D. Cicchetti, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Developmental neuroscience ( pp. 465-501). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT In this chapter, we consider relations between temperament and the development of psychopathology. We define temperament as constitutionally based individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, as observed in the domains of emotionality, motor activity, and attention (Rothbart, 1989c; Rothbart & Derryberry, 1981). By reactivity, we mean characteristics of the individual's responsivity to changes in stimulation, as reflected in somatic, autonomic, and endocrine nervous systems. By self-regulation, we mean processes modulating this reactivity, including behavioral approach, avoidance, inhibition, and attentional self-regulation. In our view, individual differences in temperament constitute the earliest expression of personality and the substrate from which later personality develops. By tracing the development of temperament and the adaptations it supports across different periods of the life span, we can illuminate our understanding of the development of risk for psychopathology. This chapter has two major sections. In the first, we describe findings on individual differences in temperament and attention and consider their links to neural networks. We then discuss theories and research relating temperament to the development of risk conditions for psychopathology. Individual differences in attentional capacities, a major aspect of temperament, are critical to our understanding of these issues. We begin the chapter with a brief historical introduction, followed by a discussion of dimensions of temperament that have emerged from conceptual and factor- analytic studies of temperament early in life (Bates, Freeland, & Lounsbury, 1979; Hagekull & Bohlin, 1981; Rothbart, 1981; Sanson, Prior, Garino, Oberklaid, & Sewell, 1987). These dimensions include fear (distress and behavioral inhibition to novelty), anger or irritability, positive affect and approach, activity level, and attentional persistence. We note similarities between these dimensions and the "Big Five" and "Big Three" personality factors identified in research on adults (Goldberg, 1990). We then consider temperament dimensions in connection with models for developmental psychopathology and review recent research on temperament, attention, and the development of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Rothbart M. K., & Sheese B. E. ( 2007) . Temperament and emotion regulation. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 331-350). New York: The Guilford Press.

[本文引用: 4]

Schonert-Reichl K. A., Oberle E., Lawlor M. S., Abbott D., Thomson K., Oberlander T. F., & Diamond A . ( 2015).

Enhancing cognitive and social-emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial

Developmental Psychology, 51 (1), 52-66.

URL     PMID:4323355      [本文引用: 2]

The authors hypothesized that a social and emotional learning (SEL) program involving mindfulness and caring for others, designed for elementary school students, would enhance cognitive control, reduce stress, promote well-being and prosociality, and produce positive school outcomes. To test this hypothesis, 4 classes of combined 4th and 5th graders (N = 99) were randomly assigned to receive the SEL with mindfulness program versus a regular social responsibility program. Measures assessed executive functions (EFs), stress physiology via salivary cortisol, well-being (self-reports), prosociality and peer acceptance (peer reports), and math grades. Relative to children in the social responsibility program, children who received the SEL program with mindfulness (a) improved more in their cognitive control and stress physiology; (b) reported greater empathy, perspective-taking, emotional control, optimism, school self-concept, and mindfulness, (c) showed greater decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and peer-rated aggression, (d) were rated by peers as more prosocial, and (e) increased in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity). The results of this investigation suggest the promise of this SEL intervention and address a lacuna in the scientific literature-identifying strategies not only to ameliorate children's problems but also to cultivate their well-being and thriving. Directions for future research are discussed.

Semple R. J., Reid E. F. G., & Miller L . ( 2005).

Treating anxiety with mindfulness: An open trial of mindfulness training for anxious children

Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19 (4), 379-392.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study is an open clinical trial that examined the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness training program for anxious children. We based this pilot initiative on a cognitively oriented model, which suggests that, since impaired attention is a core symptom of anxiety, enhancing self-management of attention should effect reductions in anxiety. Mindfulness practices are essentially attention enhancing techniques that have shown promise as clinical treatments for adult anxiety and depression (Baer, 2003). However, little research explores the potential benefits of mindfulness to treat anxious children. The present study provided preliminary support for our model of treating childhood anxiety with mindfulness. A 6-week trial was conducted with five anxious children aged 7 to 8 years old. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness can be taught to children and holds promise as an intervention for anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that clinical improvements may be related to initial levels of attention.

Sheppes G., Suri G., & Gross J. J . ( 2015).

Emotion regulation and psychopathology

Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 379-405.

[本文引用: 2]

Strawn J. R., Cotton S., Luberto C. M., Patino L. R., Stahl L. A., Weber W. A., .. DelBello M. P . ( 2016).

Neural function before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in anxious adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder

Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 26 (4), 372-379.

URL     PMID:26783833      [本文引用: 1]

[Author Affiliation]Jeffrey R. Strawn. 1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience,...

Sulik M. J., Blair C., Mills-koonce R., Berry D., & Greenberg M . ( 2015).

Early parenting and the development of externalizing behavior problems: longitudinal mediation through children's executive function

Child Development, 86, (5), 1588-1603.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Tang Y-Y., Posner M. I., & Rothbart M. K . ( 2014).

Meditation improves self-regulation over the life span

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1307 (1), 104-111.

URL     PMID:4176767      [本文引用: 1]

The use of meditation to improve emotion and attention regulation has a long history in Asia and there are many practitioners in Western countries. Much of the evidence on the effectiveness of meditation is either anecdotal or a comparison of long-term meditators with controls matched in age and health. Recently, it has been possible to establish changes in self-regulation in undergraduate students after only 5 days of meditation practice, allowing randomized trials comparing effects of meditation with other self-control methods such as relaxation training. Early studies took place in Chinese universities; however, similar effects have been obtained with U.S. undergraduates, and with Chinese children aged 4.5 years and older Chinese participants aged 65 years. Studies using neuroimaging techniques have shown that meditation improves activation and connectivity in brain areas related to self-regulation, and these findings may provide an opportunity to examine remediation of mental disorders in a new light.

Tang Y-Y., Yang L., Leve L. D., & Harold G. T . ( 2012).

Improving executive function and its neurobiological mechanisms through a mindfulness-based intervention: Advances within the field of developmental neuroscience

Child Development Perspectives, 6 (4), 361-366.

URL     PMID:4238887      [本文引用: 1]

Poor executive function (EF) has been associated with a host of short- and long-term problems across the lifespan, including elevated rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, drug abuse, and antisocial behavior. Mindfulness-based interventions that focus on increasing awareness of one's thoughts, emotions, and actions have been shown to improve specific aspects of EF, including attention, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. Reflecting a developmental neuroscience perspective, this article reviews research relevant to one specific mindfulness-based intervention, integrative body-mind training (IBMT). Randomized controlled trials of IBMT indicate improvements in specific EF components, and uniquely highlight the role of neural circuitry specific to the anterior cingulate cortex and the autonomic nervous system as two brain-based mechanisms that underlie IBMT-related improvements. The relevance of improving specific dimensions of EF through short-term IBMT to prevent a cascade of risk behaviors for children and adolescents is described and future research directions are proposed.

Tang Y. Y., Hölzel B. K., & Posner M. I . ( 2015).

The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, (4), 213-225.

URL     PMID:25783612      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Research over the past two decades broadly supports the claim that mindfulness meditation - practiced widely for the reduction of stress and promotion of health - exerts beneficial effects on physical and mental health, and cognitive performance. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to uncover the brain areas and networks that mediate these positive effects. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear, and it is apparent that more methodologically rigorous studies are required if we are to gain a full understanding of the neuronal and molecular bases of the changes in the brain that accompany mindfulness meditation.

Teper R., Segal Z. V., & Inzlicht M . ( 2013).

Inside the mindful mind: How mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22 (6), 449-454.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Although the psychological benefits of mindfulness training on emotion regulation are well-documented, the precise mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. In the present account, we propose a new linkage between mindfulness and improved emotion regulationone that highlights the role played by executive control. Specifically, we suggest that the present-moment awareness and nonjudgmental acceptance that is cultivated by mindfulness training is crucial in promoting executive control because it increases sensitivity to affective cues in the experiential field. This refined attunement and openness to subtle changes in affective states fosters executive control because it improves response to incipient affective cues that help signal the need for control. This, in turn, enhances emotion regulation. In presenting our model, we discuss how new findings in executive control can improve our understanding of how mindfulness increases the capacity for effective emotion regulation.

Van Beveren M-L., Harding K., Beyers W., & Braet C . ( 2018).

Don't worry, be happy: The role of positive emotionality and adaptive emotion regulation strategies for youth depressive symptoms

British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57 (1), 18-41.

URL     PMID:28833279      [本文引用: 1]

@article{8530663, author = {Van Beveren, Marie-Lotte and Harding, Kaitlin and Beyers, Wim and Braet, Caroline}, issn = {0144-6657}, journal = {British Journal of Clinical Psychology}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, title = {Don't worry, be happy: The role of positive emotionality and adaptive emotion regulation strategies for youth depressive symptoms}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12151}, year = {2017}, }

Van Beveren M-L., Mcintosh K., Vandevivere E., Wante L., Vandeweghe L., van Durme K., … Braet C . ( 2016 a).

Associations between temperament, emotion regulation, and depression in youth: The role of positive temperament

Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, (6), 1954-1968.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

For a long time, associations between temperamental reactivity, emotion regulation (ER) strategies, and depression in youth were studied with a primary focus on the adverse impact of the negative emotionality (NE) temperament dimension and maladaptive ER strategies. The current study aims to answer the question whether positive emotionality (PE) and adaptive ER strategies also play a role in these associations. In a convenience sample of 176 youth (9鈥18 years; M = 13.58, SD = .94) data were obtained on NE and PE, the use of both maladaptive and adaptive ER strategies, and depressive symptoms. Results indicate that higher levels of NE and lower levels of PE were both associated with more depressive symptoms. Additionally, we found the interaction of NE and PE to be significantly related to depressive symptoms, with lower levels of PE being a vulnerability factor, facilitating the relationship between higher levels of NE and symptoms. Third, higher levels of NE were associated with the use of more maladaptive ER strategies, but were unrelated to adaptive ER strategies. There was no association between PE, and either maladaptive or adaptive ER strategies. Fourth, higher levels of maladaptive ER strategies, and lower levels of adaptive ER strategies were both associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Finally, no evidence was found for the mediation of ER strategies in the relationship between temperamental reactivity and depressive symptoms. Current study findings underline the need of identifying resilience factors for depression in youth. Insight into such factors is pivotal for the successful development and implementation of prevention and intervention programs.

Van Beveren M-L., Mezulis A., Wante L., & Braet C . ( 2016 b).

Joint contributions of negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and effortful control on depressive symptoms in youth

Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-12.

URL     PMID:27805840      [本文引用: 1]

From a clinical developmental perspective, temperament has been shown to confer vulnerability to depression among youth. High negative emotionality (NE), low positive emotionality (PE), and low effortful control (EC) have repeatedly been independently associated with youth depressive symptoms. However, far less research has examined the joint contributions of NE, PE, and EC on such symptoms. The present study builds upon previous research by examining how NE, PE, and EC jointly predict change in depressive symptoms over time among 211 youngsters (7-14 years, M = 10.7, SD = 1.81) who participated in an 8-month prospective study. Self-reported temperament and symptoms were assessed at baseline; self-reported symptoms were measured again at follow-up. RESULTS suggest that all 3 temperamental traits need to be considered jointly in predicting change in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, results provide further support for the "best two out of three" principle. Surprisingly, results reveal that high EC might be maladaptive in the context of high emotional reactivity. Last, results show that the combination of high NE and low EC could be a possible pathway to the development of symptoms. The current study clarified how NE, PE, and EC may jointly confer risk-or protection for developing depressive symptoms during adolescence. The results highlight the need of taking into account all three temperamental traits in order to provide a more nuanced understanding of the risk for developing depressive symptoms at an early stage, as well as to provide customized care targeting temperamental vulnerability in depressed youth.

Verstraeten K., Vasey M. W., Raes F., & Bijttebier P . ( 2009).

Temperament and risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediation by rumination and moderation by effortful control

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37 (3), 349-361.

URL     PMID:19107592      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The present study examined the relations between temperament, ruminative response style and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and prospectively (1 year follow-up) in a community sample of 304 seventh- through tenth-graders. First, higher levels of negative affectivity (NA), lower levels of positive affectivity (PA) and lower levels of effortful control (EC) were found to be associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Second, the association between NA and PA on the one hand and depressive symptoms on the other was significantly moderated by level of EC (low PA and high NA are associated with depressive symptoms only if EC is low) and these relations were moderated by sex in the cross-sectional data. In the prospective data, T1 depressive symptoms and PA predicted T2 depressive symptoms; with EC approaching significance. Third, rumination also predicted T1 as well as T2 depressive symptoms. Finally, support was found for a model of moderated mediation: higher levels of NA were associated with higher levels of ruminative response style, which was in turn related to more depressive symptoms but only in individuals with low EC and this was true for the cross-sectional as well as the prospective data albeit with noteworthy differences in pattern. These findings confirm and extend previous findings on the associations between temperament, response styles and depression in adolescence and, as such, add to the growing body of research providing support for the applicability of cognitive vulnerability theories to depression in younger populations.

Wilkowski B.M., &Robinson M.D . ( 2010).

The anatomy of anger: An integrative cognitive model of trait anger and reactive aggression

Journal of Personality, 78 (1), 9-38.

[本文引用: 1]

Yap M. B. H., Allen N. B., & Sheeber L . ( 2007).

Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10 (2), 180-196.

URL     PMID:17265137      [本文引用: 1]

Although recent evidence implicates the importance of the family for understanding depressive disorders during adolescence, we still lack a coherent framework for understanding the way in which the myriad of developmental changes occurring within early adolescents and their family environments actually operate to increase adolescents’ vulnerability to, or to protect them from, the development of depressive disorders. In this review we propose a framework that places the mechanisms and processes of emotion regulation at the centre of these questions. We argue that emotion regulation can provide an organising rubric under which the role of various factors, such as adolescent and parent temperament and emotion regulation, and parental socialization of child emotion, as well as the interaction amongst these factors, can be understood to account for the role of the family in adolescents’ risk for depression. In particular, we posit that adolescent emotion regulation functions as a mechanism through which temperament and family processes interact to increase vulnerability to developing depression.

Zentner M., &Bates J.E . ( 2008).

Child temperament: An integrative review of concepts, research programs, and measures

International Journal of Developmental Science, 2 (1-2), 7-37.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

his article provides a review and synthesis of concepts, research programs, and measures in the infant and child temperament area. First, the authors present an overview of five classical approaches to the study of child temperament that continue to stimulate research today. Subsequently, the authors carve out key definitional criteria for temperament (i.e., inclusion criteria) and the traits that qualify as temperamental according to the overview and defined criteria. The article then reviews leading programs of research that are concerned with the ways in which early childhood temperament affects psychosocial development, both normal and abnormal. After touching on measurement issues and tools, the authors conclude with an outlook on child temperament research.

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