心理科学进展, 2019, 27(4): 636-645 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00636

研究前沿

从动作模仿到社会认知:自我-他人控制的作用

王协顺, 苏彦捷,

北京大学心理与认知科学学院, 行为与心理健康北京市重点实验室, 北京 100871

From motor imitation to social cognition: The role of self-other control

WANG Xieshun, SU Yanjie,

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

通讯作者: 苏彦捷, E-mail: yjsu@pku.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-10-17   网络出版日期: 2019-04-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  31571134
国家自然科学基金项目.  31872782

Received: 2018-10-17   Online: 2019-04-15

摘要

在社会互动中, 人们具有自动模仿他人动作的倾向。尽管这种自动模仿有利于个体理解他人动作的感受, 但有时也会与自身的动作意图产生冲突。因此我们需要将自身动作意图与他人动作进行区分并调控二者之间的冲突。这种能力被称为自我-他人控制(self-other control, SOC)。与动作模仿控制相同, 心理理论、观点采择和共情等更高级的社会认知同样涉及对自我和他人信息的加工。很多证据表明, SOC可能是一种领域普遍的(domain-general)加工机制, 即在动作模仿控制和其他社会认知中, 大脑对自我和他人双方信息的区分和冲突调控共用同一套SOC系统。最近一些研究发现, 相比于抑制自身优势反应的抑制控制(inhibitory control), SOC是社会认知中一个更为关键的影响因素, 抑制控制对社会认知的作用受到SOC的调节。此外, SOC的领域普遍性提示我们, 未来可以通过简单的动作模仿控制训练, 来为社会认知受损个体(如孤独症和述情障碍者)进行康复训练。

关键词: 模仿控制 ; 自我-他人控制 ; 抑制控制 ; 社会认知

Abstract

In social interaction, people have a tendency to copy observed actions. This automatic imitation is crucial for understanding others’ feelings behind actions, but can also result in potential conflicts between motor representations of self and other. Therefore, we need to distinguish our own motor plan from that of others and identify the conflicts. This capacity was termed self-other control (SOC). Similar to imitation control, higher levels of social cognition, such as theory of mind, perspective-taking, and empathy, also involve the processing of information about self and others. Much evidence suggested that SOC was a domain-general mechanism, as imitation control and other socio-cognitive processes in the brain shared the same SOC system to distinguish between information of self and other and regulate conflicts thereof. Some recent studies showed that, comparing with inhibitory control (IC) which was to suppress one’s own prepotent responses, SOC played a more pivotal role in social cognition, and the effect of IC on social cognition was moderated by SOC. In addition, the domain-generality of SOC indicates that in the future, individuals with certain socio-cognitive deficits (such as autism and alexithymia) would benefit from rehabilitation via motor-imitation control training.

Keywords: imitation control ; self-other control ; inhibitory control ; social cognition

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本文引用格式

王协顺, 苏彦捷. (2019). 从动作模仿到社会认知:自我-他人控制的作用. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 636-645

WANG Xieshun, SU Yanjie. (2019). From motor imitation to social cognition: The role of self-other control. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 636-645

1 引言

模仿在人类的社会互动中扮演着十分重要的角色(Antonia & Hamilton, 2008; Over & Carpenter, 2013), 通过模仿学习他人行为是个体社会认知发展过程中至关重要的一个环节(Marsh, Bird, & Catmur, 2016)。大量研究表明, 人们具有自动模仿他人动作的倾向(Brass, Zysset, & von Cramon, 2001; Brass, Derrfuss, & von Cramon, 2003; Brass, Ruby, & Spengler, 2009; Genschow et al., 2017; Heyes, 2011), 这种自动模仿与人类大脑中镜像神经系统(mirror neural system)的活动密切相关(Rizzolatti & Craighero, 2004; Perry et al., 2017)。通过镜像加工, 我们的大脑可以把动作知觉和动作执行进行匹配, 有利于我们切身感受他人的动作, 理解他人行为背后的原因或意图(Pawling, Kirkham, Hayes, & Tipper, 2017)。但是镜像加工也会带来一个问题, 即当他人动作与我们自身的动作不一致时, 我们自身动作所激活的表征就会与他人动作所激活的表征产生冲突。因此, 为了保证我们自身动作的顺利执行, 我们必须要对自动模仿的冲动进行一定控制, 即动作模仿控制。在动作模仿控制中, 我们的大脑需要对自我和他人的动作表征进行区分, 并对二者之间可能存在的冲突进行调控, 这种能力被称为自我-他人控制(self-other control, SOC; de Guzman, Bird, Banissy, & Catmur, 2016)。

人类是社会性生物, 我们在社会生活中几乎随时随地都要与他人进行交互。在社会互动(social interaction)中, 不仅他人的动作在不断变化, 他人的情绪、观点和信念等信息也在不断发生变化, 因此我们要想理解他人的行为意图和心理状态并顺利实现自己的目标, 必须要具备对自我和他人相关信息的表征进行区分和调控的能力(de Guzman et al., 2016)。有趣的是, 最近很多证据表明, 动作模仿控制中的SOC可能是一种领域普遍(domain-general)的加工机制, 动作模仿控制和观点采择、心理理论和共情等高级社会认知共用同一套SOC系统(Brass, Derrfuss, & von Cramon, 2005; Brass et al., 2009; de Guzman et al., 2016; Santiesteban et al., 2012; Spengler, von Cramon, & Brass, 2009)。例如, 有研究发现, 通过动作模仿控制训练可以显著提高个体的空间观点采择成绩(Santiesteban et al., 2012)和对他人疼痛的共情 (de Guzman et al., 2016)。

SOC同时考虑了社会互动中自我和他人双方, 理论上应该在社会认知加工中是一个十分关键的成分。但是, 目前大多数从事社会认知研究的学者依然比较关注以抑制控制为代表的执行功能的作用。之所以SOC尚未引起社会认知研究者广泛关注, 其中一个重要原因是, SOC作为一个比较新的概念, 关于SOC与社会认知关系的研究尚处于起步阶段, 仍缺乏实证数据揭示SOC在社会认知中的具体作用机制。因此, 本文旨在通过回顾以往关于SOC的研究, 梳理SOC作为动作模仿控制、观点采择、心理理论和共情等不同社会认知共同加工机制的证据。并在与抑制控制比较的基础上, 对SOC在这些社会认知中可能的作用机制进行探讨, 对未来研究提出一些新的展望。我们希望借此推动更多的学者关注SOC在社会认知中的作用。

2 动作模仿控制中的自我-他人控制

已有研究发现, 个体自主产生动作、观察他人动作或模仿他人动作都可以激活顶下小叶(inferior parietal lobule)和额下回(inferior frontal gyrus) (Caspers, Zilles, Laird, & Eickhoff, 2010; Molenberghs, Cunnington, & Mattingley, 2009), 顶下小叶和额下回均是负责镜像加工的脑区(Rizzolatti & Craighero, 2004; Fabbri-Destro & Rizzolatti, 2008; Rizzolatti & Sinigaglia, 2010)。也就是说, 个体观察他人动作和模仿他人动作这两个过程, 可以在个体头脑中激活相同的表征, 即共同表征(shared representation; Brass & Heyes, 2005; Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009)。很明显, 共同表征有利于我们切身地理解他人的动作感受。但是共同表征也会带来一个问题:因为镜像加工是自动化的(Gallese, Rochat, & Berchio, 2013), 因此当他人动作与我们自身的动作意图不一致时, 对他人动作的自动模仿会干扰我们自身动作的执行。此时我们必须要动用SOC来对自我和他人的动作表征进行区分和调控。

2.1 动作模仿控制中自我-他人控制的测量

测量动作模仿控制加工的经典任务是模仿抑制任务(imitation-inhibition task; Brass, Bekkering, Wohlschläger, & Prinz, 2000)。这是一种动作干扰范式(motor interference paradigm), 该任务一般流程是:首先屏幕中央会呈现一个静态的手作为初始刺激, 之后该刺激手会进行抬指运动(抬食指或抬中指)。同时, 在其食指和中指之间还会同步呈现一个反应信号(数字“1”或“2”)。实验中, 要求被试仅根据反应信号进行反应, 看到“1”抬食指, 看到“2”抬中指。因此, 反应信号所指示的抬指方式与刺激手的抬指方式具有一致或不一致两种条件。

该范式的基本逻辑是, 如果被试对刺激手的动作进行了自动模仿, 那么在一致条件下, 被试对刺激手动作的自动模仿会促进其自身的抬指运动, 相反, 在不一致条件下, 会干扰其自身的抬指运动。这种动作干扰范式在模仿研究中已经得到广泛应用, 已有研究结果发现, 相比于一致条件, 被试在不一致条件下的反应更慢, 错误率更高(Brass et al., 2001; Brass et al., 2003; Brass et al., 2005; Deschrijver, Wiersema, & Brass, 2017a; Genschow et al., 2017)。这种现象被称为一致性效应(congruency effect; Butler, Ward, & Ramsey, 2016; Deschrijve et al., 2017a; Genschow et al., 2017)。很明显, 一致性效应越强, 表明个体对他人动作的模仿控制能力越弱。

2.2 动作模仿控制中自我-他人控制加工的相关脑区

神经影像证据进一步揭示了动作模仿控制与自我和他人加工之间关系。例如, fMRI研究一致发现, 动作模仿控制的脑激活包括额内侧皮层前部(anterior fronto-median cortex, aFMC)和颞顶联合区(temporo-parietal junction, TPJ)两个与自我和他人信息加工有关的脑区(Brass et al., 2005; Brass et. al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009)。ERP研究还发现, 动作模仿控制可以引发P300脑电成分的变化, 相比于一致条件, 当他人动作与被试动作不一致时, P300的波幅会被显著抑制(Deschrijve et al., 2017a; Deschrijver, Wiersema, & Brass, 2016, 2017b)。在社会认知加工中, P300被认为是一个反映大脑区分自我和他人相关表征的脑电指标(Knyazev, 2013)。有研究发现, 产生P300的神经源就位于aFMC和TPJ及其邻近的脑区(Mulert et al., 2004; Perrin et al., 2005)。Deschrijve (2017a)认为, 在不一致条件下P300的抑制, 可能与个体处理自我与他人动作表征之间的冲突导致认知资源损耗有关。

Brass等(2009)的研究发现, aFMC和TPJ两个脑区在模仿控制加工中具有不同的功能。通过改编模仿抑制任务, Brass在实验中设置了两种刺激呈现方式。在第一种呈现方式中, 刺激手开始运动时, 其食指和中指之间会同步随机呈现一个绿色或红色的“×”号。当“×”号为绿色时, 被试需要完全模仿刺激手的动作(一致条件)。当“×”号为红色时, 被试要对刺激手做出不同的运动, 即刺激手抬食指时被试抬中指, 刺激手抬中指时被试抬食指(不一致条件)。在第二种呈现方式中, 刺激手在一开始不做任何动作, 只是刺激手的食指和中指之间会随机呈现“1”或“2”两种反应信号。与模仿抑制任务一样, 被试看到“1”抬食指, 看到“2”抬中指。在被试反应结束之后, 刺激手才会产生抬指动作。刺激手的动作与前面被试的动作也有一致和不一致两种条件。实验结果发现, TPJ在第二种呈现方式中的激活程度要高于在第一中呈现方式中的, 而aFMC的激活模式与TPJ的恰好相反, 在第一种呈现方式中的激活程度更高(Brass et al., 2009)。Brass认为, 在第二种呈现方式中, 他人的动作信息出现在被试反应之后, 因此被试对他人动作的自动模仿不可能与被试自身动作产生冲突。此时, TPJ激活的增强可能反映的是大脑对他人动作表征身份(他人/自我)的识别加工。而在第一种呈现方式中, 他人的动作与被试自身动作同时进行, aFMC激活的增强可能反映的是被试对自我和他人动作表征之间冲突的调控。

3 动作模仿控制与社会认知的关系

SOC被认为是镜像神经系统和社会认知之间的连接(missing link) (Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009)。虽然SOC的概念是从动作模仿研究中发展出来的。但是, 最近研究表明, 动作模仿控制所反映的SOC具有领域普遍性, 不同类型的社会认知可能共用同一套SOC系统。这对于我们深入理解社会认知的内部加工机制具有重要的意义。

3.1 动作模仿控制中SOC的领域普遍性

与动作模仿控制一样, 在观点采择、心理理论和共情等更高级的社会认知加工中, 当他人的视角、信念或情绪状态与我们自身的不同时, 我们也必须要根据自己的目的, 实时控制自我和他人信息在我们头脑中的加工(Brass et al., 2009; de Guzman et al., 2016; Santiesteban et al., 2012; Sowden & Shah, 2014)。因此, 在这些社会认知加工中, 我们同样需要SOC来对自我和他人的表征进行区分, 并对它们之间的冲突进行调控。例如, fMRI实证研究和元分析研究发现, 动作模仿控制与观点采择、心理理论和共情在aFMC和TPJ两个脑区上存在高度重叠(Brass et al., 2005; Brass, et. al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009)。来自孤独症的研究发现, 孤独症个体不但在心理理论和共情等社会认知能力上存在一定缺陷(Bradford, Hukker, Smith, & Ferguson, 2018; Happé, 1994; Smith, 2009; Schulte-Rüther et al., 2017;White, Hill, Happé, & Frith, 2009), 在控制对他人动作的自动模仿上也存在困难(Bird, Leighton, Press, & Heyes, 2007; Leighton, Bird, Charman, & Heyes, 2008; Sowden, Koehne, Catmur, Dziobek, & Bird, 2016; Spengler, Bird, & Brass, 2010)。而且在脑激活方面, 孤独症患者在进行动作模仿控制和心理理论推理时, aFMC和TPJ两个脑区激活程度均比较弱(Castelli, Frith, Happé, & Frith, 2002; Spengler et al., 2010)。

关于SOC领域普遍性, 目前最有力的证据来自两个行为干预研究(de Guzman et al., 2016; Santiesteban et al., 2012)。这两个研究发现, 通过动作模仿控制训练, 能够显著提高个体的空间观点采择和疼痛共情能力。在de Guzman等(2016)的实验中, 通过对模仿抑制任务进行改编, 首先在屏幕上给被试呈现一个刺激手, 随后该刺激手会做出抬食指或抬中指的动作。其中, 一组被试被要求完全模仿刺激手的动作(SOC弱化组), 另一组被试被要求在刺激手抬中指时抬食指、刺激手抬食指时抬中指(SOC强化组)。实验结果发现, 相比于SOC弱化组, SOC强化组不管是在疼痛共情任务中对共情材料的肌电反应, 还是基于自我报告的共情量表得分, 都有显著提高。采用同样的训练范式, Santiesteban等(2012)发现, 通过动作模仿控制训练, 被试在一项空间观点采择任务——指示交流任务(Director task)上的成绩得到了显著提高。这些研究结果提示我们, SOC很可能是社会互动中, 我们大脑处理自我和他人交互信息的一种普遍机制。根据已有研究, Happé, Cook和Bird (2017)提出了SOC是如何参与动作模仿控制、心理理论和共情加工过程的(Happé et al., 2017)。在模仿控制和共情中, 对他人动作和情绪的识别使个体分别获得了关于他人动作和情绪的表征, 但是同时也会引起个体对他人动作和情绪(情绪传染)的自动模仿, 导致个体头脑中需要同时表征自我和他人的动作和情绪。而对于心理理论, 虽然对他人信念的加工不会引发自动模仿, 但是个体同样需要同时表征自我和他人的信念。因此, Happé等人(2017)认为, 虽然动作模仿控制、心理理论和共情在具体加工过程上存在差异, 但是要想顺利完成这三种加工, 必须要通过SOC来对自我和他人信息的表征进行区分和控制。

3.2 SOC领域普遍性对于理解社会认知的意义

由于SOC的领域普遍性, 使得利用模仿抑制任务来测量个体的SOC能力成为可能。通过测量个体在动作模仿控制中的表现, 我们可以在一定程度上预测该个体的高级社会认知能力。更重要的是, 根据SOC的领域普遍性, 我们可以针对社会认知能力受损个体(如孤独症和述情障碍)进行动作模仿控制训练, 以达到提升他们社会认知能力的效果。相比于其他训练方法, 动作层面的训练显然更加简单和经济。目前, 一些研究者开始利用模仿抑制任务中的一致性效应作为SOC的测量指标来探究其与高级社会认知之间的关系。例如, de Guzman等(2016)发现个体在模仿抑制任务的一致性效应越强, 对他人疼痛的共情反应就越强。换句话说, 也就是低水平的SOC会让自我和他人的情感产生更多融合(Steinbeis, 2016), 个体会更多地卷入到他人的情感之中。Genschow等(2017)利用共情反应指针量表(Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI; Davis, 1980)也得到了类似的结果, 他们发现模仿抑制任务中的一致性效应与被试在IRI量表上的总得分以及共情关注(Empthy Concern, EC)和个人悲伤(Personal Distress, PD)两个子维度上的得分存在显著正相关。此外, Genschow等(2017)的研究还发现, 模仿抑制任务中的一致性效应还可以显著预测被试在孤独症谱系商数量表(Autism-Spectrum Quotient, AQ; Baron- Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001)上的得分。但是, 在Deschrijve等(2017a)利用ERP技术, 计算了模仿抑制任务一致性效应在P300脑电成分上的表现, 并没有重复一致性效应与AQ量表得分之间的相关结果。

总的来说, 目前一些研究者开始重视SOC在社会认知中的作用, 但是这方面的实证研究证据仍然比较欠缺, 而且在某些结论上还存在一些分歧。因此, 需要更多的证据来揭示SOC在社会认知加工中的具体作用模式。接下来我们将在与另一种与社会认知有关的能力——抑制控制(inhibitory control)比较的基础上, 对SOC在社会认知加工中可能的作用模式进行探讨。

4 SOC与抑制控制对社会认知的不同作用

社会认知能力对于人类生存和发展具有十分重要的意义。几十年来, 研究者采用多种多样的实验范式和任务来探究社会认知背后的加工机制。以抑制控制为代表的执行功能与观点采择、心理理论和共情等社会认知能力的关系受到广泛关注(Conway, Catmur, & Bird, 2019)。抑制控制是执行功能中的重要成分, 反映的是个体抑制自身优势反应的能力(Diamond, 2006; Miyake et al., 2000), 可以在我们理解他人的行为或意图时, 帮助我们克服自身心理状态的干扰(Brown-Schmidt, 2009; Wang et al., 2008)。常见的测量方法有go/ no-go和Stroop等任务。已有大量研究证实, 抑制控制与观点采择、心理理论和共情等高级社会认知加工之间的确存在着密切联系(Benson, Sabbagh, Carlson, & Zelazo, 2013; Nilsen & Graham, 2009; Symeonidou, Dumontheil, Chow, & Breheny, 2016; Wilson, Andrews, Hogan, Wang, & Shum, 2018; 黄翯青, 苏彦捷, 2012; 苏彦捷, 于晶, 2015)。

4.1 SOC和抑制控制的相对独立性

抑制控制属于自我控制(self-control)的范畴(Doebel & Munakata, 2018; Nigg, 2017), 并没有考虑对他人信息的区分和调控。与抑制控制不同, SOC反映的是在与他人交互的情景下, 我们大脑对自我和他人两方面信息进行区分和调控的能力。因此, 在理论上, 相比于抑制控制, 同时考虑社会互动双方的SOC在社会认知中应该是一个更为关键的成分。因为我们在利用抑制控制克服自身心理状态的干扰而理解他人心理状态之前, 应该首先要对自我和他人心理状态的表征进行区分, 并对二者之间可能存在的冲突进行调控。Santiesteban等(2012)的行为干预研究直接比较了SOC和抑制控制在空间观点采择中的作用。在实验中, 除了设置了SOC强化/弱化组, 还设置了抑制控制(颜色Stroop任务)训练组。训练结束后发现, SOC强化组的空间观点采择成绩显著高于其他两组, SOC弱化组和抑制控制训练组的空间观点采择成绩并没有显著差异。这说明, 相比于抑制控制, SOC在空间观点采择中的作用更明显。

此外, 有研究还发现, SOC与抑制控制具有不同的认知神经基础。首先, 前人研究发现, 模仿抑制任务与心理理论、观点采择和共情等高级社会认知的脑功能激活在aFMC和TPJ两个与自我和他人信息加工相关的脑区上存在高度重叠(Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009)。因为TPJ负责对自我和他人相关表征进行身份识别(Decety & Lamm, 2007; Steinbeis, 2016), 而aFMC负责调控自我和他人相关表征之间的冲突(Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009), 所以aFMC和TPJ被认为是负责SOC加工的脑区。因为SOC具有领域普遍性, 因此通过简单的模仿抑制任务就可以测量SOC。而反映抑制控制能力的Stroop和go/ no-go等任务, 主要与前额叶的功能有关(Brass et al., 2005; Casey et al., 1997)。此外, 脑损伤研究也发现, 动作模仿控制和抑制控制在一些前额叶损伤病人身上出现了双分离, 有些病人不能很好地完成模仿抑制任务, 在Stroop任务上的表现却没有问题, 而有些病人的表现与之完全相反(Brass et al., 2003)。最后, 对孤独症的研究还发现, 社会认知能力受损的孤独症个体往往存在过度模仿的倾向, 他们不能很好地控制对他人动作的自动模仿, 而且这种模仿控制能力的不足与他们在aFMC和TPJ两个脑区的功能缺陷有关(Castelli et al., 2002; Spengler et al., 2010)。总结这些结果, SOC和抑制控制可能是两种相互独立的能力。虽然二者都可以影响个体的社会认知, 但是相比于抑制控制, SOC似乎在社会认知中发挥的作用更强。

4.2 SOC对抑制控制和社会认知之间关系的调节

作为影响社会认知的两种因素, 目前尚不清楚SOC和抑制控制在社会认知加工中具体是如何相互作用的。但是, 我们可以根据已有工作做出推断:在理解他人心理状态时, 我们必须要先将他人心理状态所激活的表征与自身心理状态所激活的表征区别开来, 并对自我和他人表征之间可能存在的冲突进行调控, 之后我们才可以选择抑制自身的心理表征从而更好地加工他人的心理表征。因此, 理论上, 在社会认知加工中, 抑制控制应该是在SOC加工的基础上进行工作的, SOC可能会对抑制控制的作用产生自上而下的调节。最近我们实验室开展的一项研究证实了这一观点(Wang & Su, submitted)。我们分别用模仿抑制任务和颜色词Stroop任务测量了被试的SOC和抑制控制能力, 考察它们在心理理论和个人悲伤(personal distress; 属于情绪共情)两种不同社会认知中的相互作用模式。结果发现, 不管是心理理论还是个人悲伤, 抑制控制的作用均受到SOC的调节。但是, SOC调节效应的模式在两种社会认知中却截然相反。在心理理论中, 只有在SOC水平较高的情况下抑制控制才与心理理论成正相关; 而在个人悲伤中, 只有在SOC水平较低的情况下抑制控制才与个人悲伤成正相关。

我们认为, 这种结果可能与两种社会认知内部加工过程的差异有关。在心理理论推理中, 因为个体自身的信念与他人的信念完全不同, 因此个体需要在大脑中表征两种相互冲突的信念。此时, 个体需要利用抑制控制来抑制自身信念对他人信念的干扰(Symeonidou et al., 2016; Brown- Schmidt, 2009)。然而在这之前, 个体应该首先对自我和他人的信念进行区分和冲突识别(SOC的作用)。之后, 抑制控制才可能发挥作用——抑制自身信念的干扰来获取他人信念。否则, 个体将无法判断去抑制哪个信念表征。个人悲伤属于情绪共情的一个维度, 反映的是个体对他人负性情绪感同身受的程度(Davis, 1983)。与心理理论推理相反, 当自我和他人情绪有较多融合时, 更有利于我们对他人情绪的感同身受(Decety & Meyer, 2008; Decety, 2010)。因此, 较低水平的SOC有利于自我和他人情绪的融合, 而较高水平的抑制控制有利于我们进一步抑制自身不同的情绪对他人情绪的干扰。因此, 该结果可以提示我们, 在社会认知中, 相比于抑制控制, SOC可能是一个更加关键的影响因素, 它可以根据不同社会认知情景调节抑制控制的作用。

5 总结与展望

综上所述, SOC反映的是在与他人进行交互的情况下, 我们大脑根据不同情景对自我和他人相关表征进行区分和调控的过程。已有研究表明, SOC可能是一种领域普遍的加工机制, 不仅存在于动作模仿控制中, 也存在于其他高级社会认知加工之中。因此, SOC很可能是社会互动中, 我们大脑处理自我和他人交互信息的一种共同机制。这使得我们通过动作层面的SOC训练达到提高其他高级社会认知能力成为可能。这是一个非常新颖的研究思路和构想, 不仅有利于我们深入理解社会认知背后的加工机制, 也为临床上针对社会认知能力受损个体(如孤独症和述情障碍)进行康复训练提供了一个经济、有效的实践方案。然而, 目前SOC的相关研究仍比较欠缺。根据已有文献, 我们认为以下几个问题在未来需要进一步研究。

第一, SOC的内部工作机制。已有研究表明, SOC与aFMC和TPJ两个脑区的功能有关(Brass et al., 2005; Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009)。有研究者认为, 在SOC中, 这个两个脑区的功能是不同的, TPJ主要负责对自我和他人相关表征进行区分, 即对自我和他人相关表征进行身份识别(Decety & Lamm, 2007; Steinbeis, 2016), 而aFMC接收来自TPJ的处理信号, 负责调控自我和他人相关表征之间的冲突(Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009)。因此, SOC的加工可能并不是一个单一的过程, 而是需要多个脑区的联合工作。未来应该采用新的实验设计考察TPJ和aFMC之间的功能联结, 进一步探究SOC的内部工作机制。

第二, SOC和抑制控制在社会认知加工中的时程问题。基于SOC和抑制控制各自的功能, 理论上, 在理解他人心理状态时, SOC应该是先于抑制控制起作用的。因为我们必须要在对自我和他人的相关表征进行区分并对它们之间冲突进行调控的基础上, 才有可能去抑制自身心理状态对理解他人心理状态的干扰。因此, 未来的研究应该采用时间分辨率更高的方法考察SOC和抑制控制在社会认知加工中的时程问题。

第三, SOC在个体社会认知发展中的作用。虽然已有研究表明, SOC能力的提高可能会提高个体的社会认知能力(de Guzman et al., 2016; Santiesteban et al., 2012), 而SOC能力不足会导致个体出现社会认知功能障碍(Castelli et al., 2002; Spengler et al., 2010)。但是, 目前仍缺乏直接考察SOC与社会认知能力发展之间关系的实证研究。有元分析研究发现, 个体抑制Stroop效应干扰的能力(抑制控制)在5到11岁发展比较快, 在11至14之间发展速度开始变慢, 到了14之后(即青少年中期)发展已经趋于稳定(Romine & Reynolds, 2005)。众所周知, 青少年阶段是个体社会交往能力发展的重要时期, 这一阶段个体的社会认知能力及其相应的大脑功能结构都有了非常显著的变化, 社会认知能力的发展为个体顺利向成年期过渡起到非常关键的作用(Blakemore & Mills, 2014; Kilford, Garrett, & Blakemore, 2016)。SOC作为社会认知加工中的一个关键成分, 可能与个体在青少年时期社会认知的发展存在一定联系。因此, 未来需要进一步证据来揭示SOC在青少年不同阶段社会认知能力发展中的作用及其神经生物基础。这种研究不但可以帮助我们深入理解社会认知的内部加工机制, 还可以为孤独症和述情障碍等社会认知能力受损者开展训练干预提供基础数据支持和指导。述情障碍往往是伴随孤独症出现的(Oakley, Brewer, Bird, & Catmur, 2016), 目前有研究发现, 通过指导述情障碍患者进行自我和他人表征的区分, 可以提高患者对他人的共情反应(Saito, Yokoyama, & Ohira, 2016)。

总之, 对于SOC, 还有很多问题需要进一步探讨。这些问题的解决将有助于深化对社会认知的加工机制和发展模式的理解, 构建以SOC为核心的社会认知理论框架, 并为设计经济有效的社会认知训练方案提供支撑。

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Neuroimage, 50, (3), 1148-1167. doi: 10. 1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.112

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Castelli F., Frith C., Happé F., & Frith U . ( 2002).

Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes

Brain, 125, (8), 1839-1849. doi: 10.1093/brain/awf189

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Conway J.R., Catmur C., &Bird G. ( 2019).

Understanding individual differences in theory of mind via representation of minds, not mental states

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, in press. doi: 10.3758/s13423-018-1559-x

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de Guzman M., Bird G., Banissy M. J., & Catmur C . ( 2016).

Self-other control processes in social cognition: From imitation to empathy

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society b-Biological Sciences, 371, (1686), 20150079-20150079. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0079

URL     PMID:26644597      [本文引用: 8]

We review the evidence that an ability to achieve a precise balance between representing the self and representing other people is crucial in social interaction. This ability is required for imitation, perspective-taking, theory of mind and empathy; and disruption to this ability may contribute to the symptoms of clinical and sub-clinical conditions, including autism spectrum disorder and mirror-touch synaesthesia. Moving beyond correlational approaches, a recent intervention study demonstrated that training participants to control representations of the self and others improves their ability to control imitative behaviour, and to take another's visual perspective. However, it is unclear whether these effects apply to other areas of social interaction, such as the ability to empathize with others. We report original data showing that participants trained to increase self-other control in the motor domain demonstrated increased empathic corticospinal responses (Experiment 1) and self-reported empathy (Experiment 2), as well as an increased ability to control imitation. These results suggest that the ability to control self and other representations contributes to empathy as well as to other types of social interaction.

Davis M.H . ( 1980).

A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy

JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.

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Davis M.H . ( 1983).

Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, (1), 113-126. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.113

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Decety J., &Lamm C. ( 2007).

The role of the right temporoparietal junction in social interaction: How low- level computational processes contribute to meta-cognition

The Neuroscientist, 13, (6), 580-593. doi: 10.1177/ 1073858407304654

URL     PMID:17911216      [本文引用: 2]

http://nro.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1073858407304654

Decety J., &Meyer M. ( 2008).

From emotion resonance to empathic understanding: A social developmental neuroscience account

Development and Psychopathology, 20, (4), 1053-1080. doi: 10.1017/S0954579408000503

[本文引用: 1]

Decety J. ( 2010).

The neurodevelopment of empathy in humans

Developmental Neuroscience, 32, (4), 257-267. doi: 10.1159/000317771

URL     PMID:20805682      [本文引用: 1]

Empathy, which implies a shared interpersonal experience, is implicated in many aspects of social cognition, notably prosocial behavior, morality and the regulation of aggression. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the current knowledge in developmental and affective neuroscience with an emphasis on the perception of pain in others. It will be argued that human empathy involves several components: affective arousal, emotion understanding and emotion regulation, each with different developmental trajectories. These components are implemented by a complex network of distributed, often recursively connected, interacting neural regions including the superior temporal sulcus, insula, medial and orbitofrontal cortices, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as autonomic and neuroendocrine processes implicated in social behaviors and emotional states. Decomposing the construct of empathy into subcomponents that operate in conjunction in the healthy brain and examining their developmental trajectory provides added value to our current approaches to understanding human development. It can also benefit our understanding of both typical and atypical development.

Deschrijver E., Wiersema J., & Brass M . ( 2016).

The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: An action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, (7), 1162-1172. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv081

URL     PMID:4927036      [本文引用: 1]

Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view.

Deschrijver E., Wiersema J. R., & Brass M . ( 2017 a).

The influence of action observation on action execution: Dissociating the contribution of action on perception, perception on action, and resolving conflict

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 17, (2), 381-393. doi: 10.3758/s13415-016-0485-5

URL     PMID:28000082      [本文引用: 5]

Abstract For more than 15 years, motor interference paradigms have been used to investigate the influence of action observation on action execution. Most research on so-called automatic imitation has focused on variables that play a modulating role or investigated potential confounding factors. Interestingly, furthermore, a number of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have tried to shed light on the functional mechanisms and neural correlates involved in imitation inhibition. However, these fMRI studies, presumably due to poor temporal resolution, have primarily focused on high-level processes and have neglected the potential role of low-level motor and perceptual processes. In the current EEG study, we therefore aimed to disentangle the influence of low-level perceptual and motoric mechanisms from high-level cognitive mechanisms. We focused on potential congruency differences in the visual N190 - a component related to the processing of biological motion, the Readiness Potential - a component related to motor preparation, and the high-level P3 component. Interestingly, we detected congruency effects in each of these components, suggesting that the interference effect in an automatic imitation paradigm is not only related to high-level processes such as self-other distinction but also to more low-level influences of perception on action and action on perception. Moreover, we documented relationships of the neural effects with (autistic) behavior.

Deschrijver E., Wiersema J., & Brass M . ( 2017 b).

Action-based touch observation in adults with high functioning autism: Can compromised self-other distinction abilities link social and sensory everyday problems?

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, (2), 273-282. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw126

URL     PMID:5390705      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Next to social problems, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often report severe sensory difficulties. Altered processing of touch is however a stronger mediator of social symptoms' severity than altered processing of for instance vision or audition. Why is this the case? We reasoned that sensory difficulties may be linked to social problems in ASD through insufficient self-other distinction centred on touch. We investigated by means of EEG whether the brain of adults with ASD adequately signals when a tactile consequence of an observed action does not match own touch, as compared to the brain of matched controls. We employed the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm. Participants observed a human or wooden hand touching a surface, combined with a tap-like tactile sensation that either matched or mismatched the tactile consequence of the observed movement. The ASD group showed a diminished congruency effect for human hands only in the P3-complex, suggesting difficulties with signalling observed action-based touch of others that does not match own touch experiences. Crucially, this effect reliably correlated with self-reported social and sensory everyday difficulties in ASD. The findings might denote a novel theoretical link between sensory and social impairments in the autism spectrum. The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

Diamond A .( 2006). The early development of executive functions. In E. C. Bialystok, & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change (pp. 70-95). New York, USA: Oxford University Press.

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, , Doebel S., &Munakata Y. ( 2018).

Group influences on engaging self-control: Children delay gratification and value it more when their in-group delays and their out-group doesn’t

Psychological Science, 29, (5), 738-748. doi: 10.1177/0956797617747367

URL     PMID:29625014      [本文引用: 1]

react-text: 372 Guidelines for submitting commentsPolicy: Comments that contribute to the discussion of the article will be posted within approximately three business days. We do not accept anonymous comments. Please include your email address; the address will not be displayed in the posted comment. Cell Press Editors will screen the comments to ensure that they are relevant and appropriate but comments will... /react-text react-text: 373 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Fabbri-Destro M., &Rizzolatti G. ( 2008).

Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans

Physiology, 23, (3), 171-179. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00004.2008

URL     PMID:18556470      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

Gallese V., Rochat M. J., & Berchio C . ( 2013).

The mirror mechanism and its potential role in autism spectrum disorder

Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55, (1), 15-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04398.x

URL     PMID:22924341      [本文引用: 4]

The mirror mechanism allows the direct translation of a perceived (seen, felt, heard) action into the same motor representation of its related goal. This mechanism allows a direct comprehension of others goals and motor intentions, enabling an embodied link between individuals. Because the mirror mechanism is a functional expression of the motor system, these findings suggest the relevance of the motor system to social cognition. It has been hypothesized that the impaired understanding of others intentions, sensations, and emotions reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be linked to an alteration of the mirror mechanism in all of these domains. In this review, we address the theoretical issues underlying the social impairments in ASD and discuss them in relation to the cognitive role of the mirror mechanism.

Genschow O., van den Bossche S., Cracco E., Bardi L., Rigoni D., & Brass M . ( 2017).

Mimicry and automatic imitation are not correlated

PLoS One, 12, (9), e0183784. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183784

URL     PMID:28877197      [本文引用: 2]

@article{8531448, author = {Genschow, Oliver and Van Den Bossche, Sofie and Cracco, Emiel and Bardi, Lara and Rigoni, Davide and Brass, Marcel}, issn = {1932-6203}, journal = {PLOS ONE}, language = {eng}, number = {9}, publisher = {Public Library of Science (PLoS)}, title = {Mimicry and automatic imitation are not correlated}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183784}, volume = {12}, year = {2017}, }

Happé F . ( 1994).

An advanced test of theory of mind-understanding of story characters’ thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal children and adults

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, (2), 129-154. doi: 10.1007/BF02172093

[本文引用: 2]

Happé F., Cook J. L., & Bird G . ( 2017).

The structure of social cognition: In (ter)dependence of sociocognitive processes

Annual Review of Psychology, 68, (1), 243-267. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044046

URL     PMID:27687121      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. We consider the domain specificity/generality of core processes in social learning, reward, and attention, and we highlight the potential relevance of dual-process theories that distinguish systems for fast/automatic and slow/effortful processing. We conclude with methodological and conceptual suggestions for future progress in uncovering the structure of social cognition. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 68 is January 03, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Heyes C .( 2011).

Automatic imitation

Psychological Bulletin, 137, (3), 463-483. doi: 10.1037/a0022288

[本文引用: 1]

Knyazev G.G . ( 2013).

EEG correlates of self-referential processing

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 264. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00264

URL     PMID:23761757      [本文引用: 1]

Self-referential processing has been principally investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, understanding of the brain functioning is not possible without careful comparison of the evidence coming from different methodological domains. This paper aims to review electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of self-referential processing and to evaluate how they correspond, complement, or contradict the existing fMRI evidence. There are potentially two approaches to the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing. Firstly, because simultaneous registration of EEG and fMRI has become possible, the degree of overlap between these two signals in brain regions related to self-referential processing could be determined. Second and more direct approach would be the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processingper se. In this review, I discuss studies, which employed both these approaches and show that in line with fMRI evidence, EEG correlates of self-referential processing are most frequently found in brain regions overlapping with the default network, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex. In the time domain, the discrimination of self- and others-related information is mostly associated with the P300 ERP component, but sometimes is observed even earlier. In the frequency domain, different frequency oscillations have been shown to contribute to self-referential processing, with spontaneous self-referential mentation being mostly associated with the alpha frequency band.

Kilford E. J., Garrett E., & Blakemore S-J . ( 2016).

The development of social cognition in adolescence: An integrated perspective

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 70, 106-120. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08. 016

URL     PMID:27545755      [本文引用: 1]

Social cognitive processes are critical in navigating complex social interactions and are associated with a network of brain areas termed the ‘social brain’. Here, we describe the development of social cognition, and the structural and functional changes in the social brain during adolescence, a period of life characterised by extensive changes in social behaviour and environments. Neuroimaging and behavioural studies have demonstrated that the social brain and social cognition undergo significant development in human adolescence. Development of social cognition and the social brain are discussed in the context of developments in other neural systems, such as those implicated in motivational-affective and cognitive control processes. Successful transition to adulthood requires the rapid refinement and integration of these processes and many adolescent-typical behaviours, such as peer influence and sensitivity to social exclusion, involve dynamic interactions between these systems. Considering these interactions, and how they vary between individuals and across development, could increase our understanding of adolescent brain and behavioural development.

Leighton J., Bird G., Charman T., & Heyes C . ( 2008).

Weak imitative performance is not due to a functional ‘mirroring’ deficit in adults with autism spectrum disorders

Neuropsychologia, 46, (4), 1041-1049. doi: 10. 1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.11.013

URL     PMID:18177677      [本文引用: 1]

A large number of studies have demonstrated impaired performance on a range of imitation tasks among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The theory which suggests that these impairments are caused by a mirror system deficit has become increasingly prominent. Under this view, the capacity to match observed with executed actions or to ‘mirror’ is impaired in individuals with ASD. This study investigated the extent to which any impaired performance on imitation tasks is due to a functional mirroring deficit by comparing the performance of adults with ASD on imitative and non-imitative versions of the ‘pen-and-cups’ task. Participants in this task are required to observe transitive actions and to imitate them as fast as possible. Experiment 1 revealed impaired performance by high functioning adults with ASD on the imitative version of the task compared to IQ matched controls. The same participants then completed two non-imitative versions of the task in Experiment 2. The ‘geometric’ version of the task required participants to perform actions specified by the movement of abstract geometric shapes. The ‘verbal’ version of the task required participants to describe the observed actions. Adults with ASD were as impaired on each non-imitative version of the task as they were on the imitative version, suggesting that the impaired performance on the imitation task was not due to a functional mirroring deficit. Instead, more general factors contributed to the poor performance on this task. These findings add to the weight of evidence suggesting that impairments in imitation skills should not be cited as evidence consistent with a ‘mirror system deficit theory’ of ASD.

Marsh L., Bird G., & Catmur C . ( 2016).

The imitation game: Effects of social cues on 'imitation' are domain-general in nature

Neuroimage, 139, 368-375. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.06.050

URL     PMID:27369095      [本文引用: 2]

61The modulation of imitation and spatial compatibility by social cues is examined.61RT and fMRI responses were recorded during a stimulus-response compatibility task.61Both measures show modulation of spatial compatibility, not imitative compatibility.61Results indicate social cues impact automatic response inhibition, not imitation.

Miyake A., Friedman N. P., Emerson M. J., Witzki A. H., Howerter A., & Wager T. D . ( 2000).

The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis

Cognitive Psychology, 41, (1), 49-100. doi: 10.1006/cogp. 1999.0734

Molenberghs P., Cunnington R., & Mattingley J. B . ( 2009).

Is the mirror neuron system involved in imitation? A short review and meta-analysis

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, (7), 975-980. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009. 03.010

[本文引用: 2]

Mulert C., Pogarell O., Juckel G., Rujescu D., Giegling I., Rupp D., .. Hegerl U . ( 2004).

The neural basis of the P300 potential: Focus on the time-course of the underlying cortical generators

European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 254, (3), 190-198. doi: 10.1007/ s00406-004-0469-2

URL     PMID:15205974     

Abstract The locations and time-courses of the neural generators of the event-related P300 potential have been well described using intracranial recordings. However, this invasive method is not adequate for usage in healthy volunteers or psychiatric patients and not all brain regions can be covered well with this approach. With functional MRI, a non-invasive method with high spatial resolution, most of these locations could be found again. However, the time-course of these activations can only be roughly determined with this method, even if an event-related fMRI design has been chosen. Therefore, we have now tried to analyse the time-course of the activations using EEG data providing a better time resolution. We have used Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) in the analysis of P300 data (27 electrodes) of healthy volunteers (n = 50) in the time frame 230-480 ms and found mainly the same activations that have been described using intracranial recordings or fMRI, i. e. the inferior parietal lobe/temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), the supplementary motor cortex (SMA) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In these selected regions, an analysis of the activation time-courses has been performed.

Nilsen E.S., &Graham S.A . ( 2009).

The relations between children's communicative perspective-taking and executive functioning

Cognitive Psychology, 58, (2), 220-249. doi: 10. 1016/j.cogpsych.2008.07.002

[本文引用: 1]

Nigg J.T . ( 2017).

Annual research review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk- taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, (4), 361-383. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12675

[本文引用: 1]

Over H., &Carpenter M. ( 2013).

The social side of imitation

Child Development Perspectives, 7, (1), 6-11. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12006

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Children's imitation is a profoundly social process. Although previous developmental accounts of imitation have focused on imitation as a way to learn from others, the current article stresses that imitation goes far beyond this: It is often intimately tied to children's need to belong to the group and their drive to affiliate with those around them. Accordingly, imitation is chiefly determined by the social motivations and pressures children experience within both interpersonal and intergroup settings. This perspective resolves an apparent paradox in the empirical literature, explaining why children sometimes copy selectively and sometimes copy faithfully (so-called overimitation). It also situates the developmental and comparative study of imitation and cultural transmission within a broader social-psychological framework, uniting it conceptually with research on mimicry, conformity, normativity, and group membership.

Oakley B., Brewer R., Bird G., & Catmur C . ( 2016).

Theory of mind is not theory of emotion: A cautionary note on the reading the mind in the eyes test

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125, (6), 818-823. doi: 10.1037/abn0000182

URL     PMID:27505409      [本文引用: 1]

The ability to represent mental states (theory of mind [ToM]) is crucial in understanding individual differences in social ability and social impairments evident in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is a popular measure of ToM ability, validated in part by the poor performance of those with ASD. However, the RMET requires recognition of facial emotion, which is impaired in those with alexithymia, which frequently co-occurs with ASD. Thus, it is unclear whether the RMET indexes emotion recognition, associated with alexithymia, or ToM, associated with ASD. We therefore investigated the independent contributions of ASD and alexithymia to performance on the RMET. ASD and alexithymia-matched control participants did not differ on RMET performance, whereas ASD participants demonstrated impaired performance on an alternative test of ToM, the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). Furthermore, alexithymia, but not ASD diagnosis, significantly influenced RMET performance but did not affect MASC performance. These results suggest that the RMET measures emotion recognition rather than ToM ability and support the alexithymia hypothesis of emotion-related deficits in ASD. This study suggests that a highly popular test of the ability to detect what someone else is thinking—the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test—is instead a test of the ability to recognize another person’s emotional expression. This is important because it suggests that patients who perform badly on this test may still be able to understand another person’s mental state and that, conversely, patients who perform well on this test may still have difficulties in mental state understanding.

Pawling R., Kirkham A. J., Hayes A. E., & Tipper S. P . ( 2017).

Incidental retrieval of prior emotion mimicry

Experimental Brain Research, 235, (4), 1173-1184. doi: 10. 1007/s00221-017-4882-y

URL     PMID:5477702      [本文引用: 2]

When observing emotional expressions, similar sensorimotor states are activated in the observer, often resulting in physical mimicry. For example, when observing a smile, the zygomaticus muscles associated with smiling are activated in the observer, and when observing a frown, the corrugator brow muscles. We show that the consistency of an individual’s facial emotion, whether they always frown or smile, can be encoded into memory. When the individuals are viewed at a later time expressing no emotion, muscle mimicry of the prior state can be detected, even when the emotion itself is task irrelevant. The results support simulation accounts of memory, where prior embodiments of other’s states during encoding are reactivated when re-encountering a person.

Perrin F., Maquet P., Peigneux P., Ruby P., Degueldre C., Balteau E., .. Laureys S . ( 2005).

Neural mechanisms involved in the detection of our first name: A combined ERPs and PET study

Neuropsychologia, 43, (1), 12-19. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.07.002

URL     PMID:15488900      [本文引用: 1]

In everyday social interactions, hearing our own first name captures our attention and gives rise to a sense of self-awareness, since it is one of the most socially self related stimulus. In the present study, we combined ERPs and PET scan methods to explore the cerebral mechanisms underlying the detection of our own name. While categorical analyses of PET data failed to reveal significant results, we found that the amplitude of the P3 component, elicited when hearing one's own name, correlates with regional cerebral blood changes in right superior temporal sulcus, precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the latter was more correlated to the P3 obtained for the subject's name compared to that obtained for other first names. These results suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex plays the most prominent role in self-processing.

Perry A., Saunders S. N., Stiso J., Dewar C., Lubell J., Meling T. R., Solbakk A-K., Knight R. T . ( 2017).

Effects of prefrontal cortex damage on emotion understanding: EEG and behavioural evidence

Brain, 140, 1086-1099. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx031

URL     PMID:28334943     

Abstract Humans are highly social beings that interact with each other on a daily basis. In these complex interactions, we get along by being able to identify others' actions and infer their intentions, thoughts and feelings. One of the major theories accounting for this critical ability assumes that the understanding of social signals is based on a primordial tendency to simulate observed actions by activating a mirror neuron system. If mirror neuron regions are important for action and emotion recognition, damage to regions in this network should lead to deficits in these domains. In the current behavioural and EEG study, we focused on the lateral prefrontal cortex including dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex and utilized a series of task paradigms, each measuring a different aspect of recognizing others' actions or emotions from body cues. We examined 17 patients with lesions including (n = 8) or not including (n = 9) the inferior frontal gyrus, a core mirror neuron system region, and compared their performance to matched healthy control subjects (n = 18), in behavioural tasks and in an EEG observation-execution task measuring mu suppression. Our results provide support for the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex in understanding others' emotions, by showing that even unilateral lesions result in deficits in both accuracy and reaction time in tasks involving the recognition of others' emotions. In tasks involving the recognition of actions, patients showed a general increase in reaction time, but not a reduction in accuracy. Deficits in emotion recognition can be seen by either direct damage to the inferior frontal gyrus, or via damage to dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex regions, resulting in deteriorated performance and less EEG mu suppression over sensorimotor cortex. The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Rizzolatti G., &Craighero L. ( 2004).

The mirror-neuron system

Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, (1), 169-192. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230

[本文引用: 2]

Rizzolatti G., &Sinigaglia C. ( 2010).

The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: Interpretations and misinterpretations

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, (4), 264-274. doi: 10.1038/nrn2805

URL     PMID:20216547      [本文引用: 1]

The parieto-frontal cortical circuit that is active during action observation is the circuit with mirror properties that has been most extensively studied. Yet, there remains controversy on its role in social cognition and its contribution to understanding the actions and intentions of other individuals. Recent studies in monkeys and humans have shed light on what the parieto-frontal cortical circuit encodes and its possible functional relevance for cognition. We conclude that, although there are several mechanisms through which one can understand the behaviour of other individuals, the parieto-frontal mechanism is the only one that allows an individual to understand the action of others 'from the inside' and gives the observer a first-person grasp of the motor goals and intentions of other individuals.

Romine C.B., &Reynolds C.R . ( 2005).

A model of the development of frontal lobe functioning: Findings from a meta-analysis

Applied Neuropsychology, 12, (4), 190-201. doi: 10.1207/s15324826an1204_2

URL     PMID:16422660      [本文引用: 1]

Although past research has provided an initial examination of maturational trends of frontal lobe functioning, it has not yielded a unifying developmental model. The purpose of this study was to generate a model representing the maturation of frontal lobe function as determined principally through neuropsychological tests. A meta-analytic review of the literature on the development of frontal lobe functioning was conducted. Journal articles were identified through an initial search of PsycInfo, Medline, and ERIC for the years 1984-2004 using key words executive function*, frontal function*, development*, and age. Analyses of effect size differences across age groups assisted in determining the developmental patterns for commonly used measures of frontal functioning by providing a common metric of growth. Age-related increases across the different frontal functions were averaged providing overall age-related increases in performance. A plot was made of the development of frontal lobe functioning using the mean effect size of change in performance across age groups. The model of the development of frontal lobe functioning suggests a staging of development that begins in early childhood with the maturation of frontal functioning and continues, although at a decreased rate, into adolescence and early adulthood.

Saito N., Yokoyama T., & Ohira H . ( 2016).

Self-other distinction enhanced empathic responses in individuals with alexithymia

Scientific Reports, 6, 35059. doi: 10. 1038/srep35059

URL     PMID:27739448      [本文引用: 6]

Although empathy is important for social interactions, individuals with alexithymia have low empathic ability, particularly where advanced empathy is concerned (empathic concern, perspective taking). It has been argued that awareness of the self-other distinction enhances advanced empathy, and alexithymics are thought to inadequately distinguish the self from others. We therefore tested whether the self-other distinction increases advanced empathy in alexithymics. To this end, we presented painful hand images over participants鈥 own hands, and required participants to estimate felt pain intensity and their affective states. Half of the participants got specific instructions to distinct themselves from the other in the images. Felt pain intensity (perspective taking) and other-oriented affective responses (empathic concern) were increased by the instructions only when participants had high alexithymia scores as measured by questionnaire, although self-oriented affective responses (personal distress) were not affected by the instructions. These findings indicate that enhancing the self-other distinction enhances alexithymics ability to use advanced empathy, but not the primitive empathy.

Santiesteban I., White S., Cook J., Gilbert S., Heyes C., & Bird G . ( 2012).

Training social cognition: From imitation to theory of mind

Cognition, 122, (2), 228-235. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2011.11.004

URL     PMID:22133627      [本文引用: 3]

Evidence for successful socio-cognitive training in typical adults is rare. This study attempted to improve Theory of Mind (ToM) and visual perspective taking in healthy adults by training participants to either imitate or to inhibit imitation. Twenty-four hours after training, all participants completed tests of ToM and visual perspective taking. The group trained to inhibit their tendency to imitate showed improved performance on the visual perspective-taking test, but not the ToM test. Neither imitation training, nor general inhibition training, had this effect. These results support a novel theory of social cognition suggesting that the same self-other discrimination process underlies imitation inhibition and perspective taking. Imitation, perspective taking and ToM are all pro-social processes ways in which we reach out to others. Therefore, it is striking that perspective taking can be enhanced by suppressing imitation; to understand another, sometimes we need, not to get closer, but to pull away.

Schulte-Rüther M., Otte E., Adigüzel K., Firk C., Herpertz-Dahlmann B., Koch I., & Konrad K . ( 2017).

Intact mirror mechanisms for automatic facial emotions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

Autism Research, 1 0(2), 298-310. doi: 10.1002/aur.1654

URL     PMID:27349835     

Abstract It has been suggested that an early deficit in the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is an important feature of autism. Recent findings related to simple hand and finger movements do not support a general dysfunction of the MNS in autism. Studies investigating facial actions (e.g., emotional expressions) have been more consistent, however, mostly relied on passive observation tasks. We used a new variant of a compatibility task for the assessment of automatic facial mimicry responses that allowed for simultaneous control of attention to facial stimuli. We used facial electromyography in 18 children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 18 typically developing controls (TDCs). We observed a robust compatibility effect in ASD, that is, the execution of a facial expression was facilitated if a congruent facial expression was observed. Time course analysis of RT distributions and comparison to a classic compatibility task (symbolic Simon task) revealed that the facial compatibility effect appeared early and increased with time, suggesting fast and sustained activation of motor codes during observation of facial expressions. We observed a negative correlation of the compatibility effect with age across participants and in ASD, and a positive correlation between self-rated empathy and congruency for smiling faces in TDC but not in ASD. This pattern of results suggests that basic motor mimicry is intact in ASD, but is not associated with complex social cognitive abilities such as emotion understanding and empathy. Autism Res 2017, 10: 298 310 . 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Smith A . ( 2009).

The empathy imbalance hypothesis of autism: A theoretical approach to cognitive and emotional empathy in autistic development

Psychological Record, 59, (3), 489-510. doi: 10.1007/BF03395675

URL     [本文引用: 1]

There has been a widely held belief that people with autism spectrum disorders lack empathy. This article examines the empathy imbalance hypothesis (EIH) of autism. According to this account, people with autism have a deficit of cognitive empathy but a surfeit of emotional empathy. The behavioral characteristics of autism might be generated by this imbalance and a susceptibility to empathic overarousal. The EIH builds on the theory of mind account and provides an alternative to the extreme-male-brain theory of autism. Empathy surfeit is a recurrent theme in autistic narratives, and empirical evidence for the EIH is growing. A modification of the pictorial emotional Stroop paradigm could facilitate an experimental test of the EIH.

Sowden S., Koehne S., Catmur C., Dziobek I., & Bird G . ( 2016).

Intact automatic imitation and typical spatial compatibility in autism spectrum disorder: Challenging the broken mirror theory

Autism Research, 9, (2), 292-300. doi: 10.1002/aur.1511

URL     PMID:26112060      [本文引用: 1]

A lack of imitative behavior is frequently described as a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and is consistent with claims of mirror neuron system dysfunction in these individuals. Previous research has questioned this characterization of ASD however, arguing that when tests of automatic imitation are used--which do not require higher-level cognitive processing--imitative behavior is intact or even enhanced in individuals with ASD. In Experiment 1, 60 adult individuals with ASD and a matched Control group completed an automatic imitation task in which they were required to perform an index or a middle finger lift while observing a hand making either the same, or the alternate, finger movement. Both groups demonstrated a significant imitation effect whereby actions were executed faster when preceded by observation of the same action, than when preceded by the alternate action. The magnitude of this "imitation effect" was statistically indistinguishable in the ASD and Control groups. Experiment 2 utilized an improved automatic imitation paradigm to demonstrate that, when automatic imitation effects are isolated from those due to spatial compatibility, increasing autism symptom severity is associated with an increased tendency to imitate. Notably, there was no association between autism symptom severity and spatial compatibility, demonstrating the specificity of the link between ASD symptoms and increased imitation. These results provide evidence against claims of a lack of imitative behavior in ASD, and challenge the "Broken Mirror Theory of Autism."

Sowden S., &Shah P. ( 2014).

Self-other control: A candidate mechanism for social cognitive function

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 789. doi: 10. 3389/fnhum.2014.00789

URL     PMID:4189007      [本文引用: 9]

Self-other control: a candidate mechanism for social cognitive function

Spengler S., von Cramon D. Y., & Brass M . ( 2009).

Control of shared representations relies on key processes involved in mental state attribution

Human Brain Mapping, 30, (11), 3704-3718. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20800

[本文引用: 4]

Spengler S., Bird G., & Brass M . ( 2010).

Hyperimitation of actions is related to reduced understanding of others' minds in autism spectrum conditions

Biological Psychiatry, 68, (12), 1148-1155. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych. 2010.09.017

URL     PMID:21130224      [本文引用: 3]

Anecdotal evidence has noted that individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) frequently exhibit heightened spontaneous imitative behavior, with symptoms of echolalia and echopraxia. This is contrasted by empiric reports that ASC results in decreased imitation and an underlying deficit in the mirror system, leading to impaired social understanding. Thus, it remains unclear whether automatic imitation is enhanced in ASC and how this is related to poorer social abilities. This study investigated spontaneous imitation in 18 high-functioning adults with ASC and 18 age- and IQ-matched control participants during a simple imitation inhibition task. Mentalizing was experimentally assessed in the same participants using both behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures, as was social interaction using an observational measure. Individuals with ASC showed increased imitation of hand actions compared with control participants and this was associated with reduced mentalizing and poorer reciprocal social interaction abilities. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging mentalizing paradigm, ASC participants with increased imitation scores showed less brain activation in areas often found to be active in mental state attribution, namely the medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction. The results confirm the presence of hyperimitation in ASC, which is accompanied by reduced social cognition, suggesting that a general imitation impairment and a global mirror system deficit are absent. These findings offer an explanation for echopractic features based on theories of atypical functioning of top-down modulation processes in autism.

Steinbeis N .( 2016).

The role of self-other distinction in understanding others' mental and emotional states: Neurocognitive mechanisms in children and adults

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society b-Biological Sciences, 371, (1686), 20150074-20150074. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0074

URL     PMID:26644593      [本文引用: 4]

Social interactions come with the fundamental problem of trying to understand others' mental and affective states while under the overpowering influence of one's own concurrent thoughts and feelings. The ability to distinguish between simultaneous representations of others' current experiences as well as our own is crucial to navigate our complex social environments successfully. The developmental building blocks of this ability and how this is given rise to by functional and structural brain development remains poorly understood. In this review, I outline some of the key findings on the role of self-other distinction in understanding others' mental as well as emotional states in children and adults. I will begin by clarifying the crucial role for self-other distinction in avoiding egocentric attributions of one's own cognitive as well as affective states to others in adults and outline the underlying neural circuitry in overcoming such egocentricity. This will provide the basis for a discussion of the emergence of self-other distinction in early childhood as well as developmental changes therein throughout childhood and into adulthood. I will demonstrate that self-other distinction of cognitive and emotional states is already dissociable early in development. Concomitantly, I will show that processes of self-other distinction in cognitive and affective domains rely on adjacent but distinct neural circuitry each with unique connectivity profiles, presumably related to the nature of the distinction that needs to be made.

Symeonidou I., Dumontheil I., Chow W-Y., & Breheny R . ( 2016).

Development of online use of theory of mind during adolescence: An eye-tracking study

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 149, 81-97. doi: 10.1016/ j.jecp.2015.11.007

URL     PMID:26723471      [本文引用: 2]

Our starting point is the apparently-contradictory results in the psycholinguistic literature regarding whether, when interpreting a definite referring expressions, listeners process relative to the common ground from the earliest moments of processing. We propose that referring expressions are not interpreted relative solely to the common ground or solely to one's Private (or egocentric)... [Show full abstract]

Wang Y. W., Liu Y., Gao Y. X., Chen J., Zhang W. X., & Lin C. D . ( 2008).

False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, 51, (1), 72-79. doi: 10.1007/s11427-008-0014-z

URL     PMID:18176794     

Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

Wang X.S., &Su Y.J . ( 2018).

Effects of inhibitory control on social cognition were moderated by self-other control in middle adolescence

Manuscript submitted for publication.

URL    

Self-other control(SOC) refers to the ability to distinguish and control the representations of self and other in socio-cognitive processes. Comparing with inhibitory control(IC), the ability to suppress one's own prepotent responses, SOC is likely to be a more fundamental factor in social cognition as it concerns both sides in social interaction, and is supposed to be a prerequisite for IC to work. The present study probed the interplay between SOC and IC in two different processes of social cognitions. One was the false-belief inference which was a standard measure of theory of mind(ToM), and the other was personal distress(PD), which was a component of emotional(affective) empathy. We focused on middle adolescents because their social cognition was undergoing substantial changes which could allow for stronger association with SOC and IC. Results revealed interactions between SOC and IC on both false-belief inference and PD. Specifically, IC predicted the performance of false-belief inference only when the level of SOC was higher, yet PD only when the level of SOC was lower. This implied that SOC had a top-down moderation on the functioning of IC in social cognitions, and patterns of the moderation was dependent on the form of social interaction.

White S., Hill E., Happe F., & Frith U . ( 2009).

Revisiting the strange stories: Revealing mentalizing impairments in autism

Child Development, 80, (4), 1097-1117. doi: 10. 1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01319.x

URL     PMID:196308962175      [本文引用: 1]

A test of advanced theory of mind (ToM), first introduced by F. Happ (1994), was adapted for children (mental, human, animal, and nature stories plus unlinked sentences). These materials were closely matched for difficulty and were presented to forty-five 7- to 12-year-olds with autism and 27 control children. Children with autism who showed ToM impairment on independent tests performed significantly more poorly than controls solely on the mental, human, and animal stories with greatest impairment on the former and least on the latter. Thus, a mentalizing deficit may affect understanding of biologic agents even when this does not explicitly require understanding others' mental states.

Wilson J., Andrews G., Hogan C., Wang S., & Shum D. H. K . ( 2018).

Executive function in middle childhood and the relationship with theory of mind

Developmental Neuropsychology, 43, (3), 163-182. doi: 10.1080/87565641. 2018.1440296

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The aim of this study was to assess the specific relation between 18-month-olds’ performance on tasks measuring language skills, executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). The ToM tasks included measures of intention and false-belief understanding whereas working memory and inhibitory control were assessed with three EF tasks. Expressive vocabulary was assessed with the MacArthur... [Show full abstract]

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