心理科学进展, 2019, 27(3): 544-556 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00544

研究前沿

智慧与幸福感的关系:基于多元幸福取向的视角

傅绪荣, 魏新东, 王予灵, 汪凤炎,

南京师范大学道德教育研究所, 南京师范大学心理学院, 南京 210097

The relationship between wisdom and well-being: A perspective based on multiple orientations to well-being

FU Xurong, WEI Xindong, WANG Yuling, WANG Fengyan,

Institute of Moral Education Research, Nanjing Normal University; School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University; Nanjing 210097, China

通讯作者: 汪凤炎, E-mail: fywangjx8069@163.com

收稿日期: 2018-06-1   网络出版日期: 2019-03-15

基金资助: 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地2016年度重大项目.  16JJD880026

Received: 2018-06-1   Online: 2019-03-15

摘要

智慧与幸福是人类的普遍追求。智慧与自我实现幸福感(eudaimonia well-being)正相关得到研究者的普遍认同。智慧与享乐主义幸福感(hedonia well-being)是何种关系, 仍在争论中。从智慧发展的角度, 学者提出了积极人格发展观和发展历程观, 对智慧与幸福感的关系进行更深入的理论探讨。结合中国文化及智慧和幸福感的研究进展, 提出发展水平观:随着智慧发展水平不断提高, 个体幸福感的来源、持续时间以及对身心健康的影响存在差异。未来宜重点解决两个问题:(1)选择和编制适宜的智慧和幸福感测量工具; (2)澄清智慧与幸福感的因果关系。

关键词: 智慧 ; 幸福感 ; 积极人格发展观 ; 发展历程观 ; 发展水平观

Abstract

Wisdom and well-being are universal human pursuits. The positive correlation between wisdom and eudaimonic well-being is generally recognized by researchers. However, the relationship between wisdom and hedonic well-being is still debated. Researchers have proposed the model of positive personality development and the developmental process model from the perspective of wisdom development to further explore the relationship between wisdom and well-being. Based on Chinese culture and research on wisdom and well-being, the present article proposes the developmental level model: With the growth of wisdom, the well-being of individuals varies in terms of sources, durations, and influences on physical and mental health. In the future, we should focus on solving two problems: 1) choosing and developing an appropriate tool for measuring wisdom and well-being, and 2) clarifying the causal relationship between wisdom and well-being.

Keywords: wisdom ; well-being ; positive personality development ; developmental process model ; developmental level model

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本文引用格式

傅绪荣, 魏新东, 王予灵, 汪凤炎. (2019). 智慧与幸福感的关系:基于多元幸福取向的视角. 心理科学进展, 27(3), 544-556

FU Xurong, WEI Xindong, WANG Yuling, WANG Fengyan. (2019). The relationship between wisdom and well-being: A perspective based on multiple orientations to well-being. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(3), 544-556

随着生活水平日益提高, 民众对美好生活的追求更加强烈。幸福感(well being)遂成为心理学关注的焦点之一。学界主要有两种视角:享乐主义幸福感(hedonia well-being)和自我实现幸福感(eudaimonia well-being) (Ryan & Deci, 2001; Ward & King, 2016; 杨慊, 程巍, 贺文洁, 韩布新, 杨昭宁, 2016)。享乐主义幸福感视角认为幸福是个体的快乐体验及对生活的积极认知评价, 其测量指标包括积极情绪和消极情绪的平衡及生活满意度(Diener, Scollon, & Lucas, 2003)。积极情绪和消极情绪是个体对生活品质的主观体验, 生活满意度是个体对生活质量的整体认知和评价(Diener et al., 2003)。自我实现幸福感视角认为不宜将幸福感等同于表面的快乐体验, 而强调自我成长、人生意义、自我潜能和卓越表现等更深刻的内涵(Huta & Waterman, 2014; Ryan & Deci, 2001; Ryff & Singer, 2008; Waterman, 1993)。自我实现幸福感还包括社会性和道德的完善, 指个体致力于自我、他人或社会的共同幸福(Keyes, 1998; Law & Staudinger, 2016)。自我实现幸福感的测量指标多涵盖心理幸福感和社会幸福感的内容(Ryff, 1989; Keyes, 1998)。

在幸福感研究中, 其关键影响因素是研究者关注的重点之一。从最初关注外在因素, 如社会经济地位、性别、年龄等, 到后来的内在因素, 如自尊、大五人格等, 但都没有获得令人信服的结论(Ardelt & Jeste, 2016)。若影响幸福感的关键因素不能确定, 那么提高幸福感的方法就难以取得实质性进展。在智慧研究领域, 研究者重点关注的是智慧的功能。如果智慧对人类发展和追求幸福生活没有太大益处, 那么研究和追求智慧就会失去合理性(Baltes & Staudinger, 2000)。

智慧是人类过上幸福生活的目的和手段(Baltes & Staudinger, 2000)。孔子曾断言“智者乐, 仁者寿”。智慧、幸福和长寿是人类的普遍追求。学界对智慧与幸福感的关系之争论从未停止。及时梳理智慧与幸福感之关系的研究至少有两点意义:(1)探讨影响幸福感的主要变量, 为提高个体的幸福感和建设幸福社会提供启示; (2)梳理两者关系之最新进展, 把握未来研究方向, 推动两个领域的交叉研究走向深入。此文首先对智慧的定义与测量进行介绍, 然后全面梳理智慧与幸福感之关系的实证研究和理论发展; 最后提出智慧与幸福感之关系的发展水平观, 并提两点展望:(1)选择和编制适宜的智慧和幸福感测量工具; (2)澄清智慧与幸福感的因果关系。

1 智慧的定义与测量

智慧是一个相当复杂的概念, 目前关于智慧的定义有很多种, 没有被学界一致认同的定义。被广泛引用的智慧定义和测量工具主要是柏林智慧模式(the Berlin wisdom model, BWM) ( Baltes & Staudinger, 2000), 智慧的平衡理论(the balance theory of wisdom) (Sternberg, 2013), 三维智慧理论(the three-dimensional wisdom model) (Ardelt, 2018), 智慧的英雄理论(the H.E.R.O.(E.) model of wisdom) (Webster, Weststrate, Ferrari, Munroe, & Pierce, 2017),智慧的自我超越论(self- transcendence wisdom) (Levenson, Jennings, Aldwin, & Shiraishi, 2005)。本文据此总结以往研究成果。

1.1 智慧的定义

柏林模式认为智慧是关于人生的重要且实用的专家知识和判断, 也包括善良动机(good intentions), 指个体的行动兼顾自我和他人的福祉(Baltes & Staudinger, 2000)。

Sternberg (1998, 2013)认为智慧指在积极伦理价值观(positive ethical values)的指导下, 运用智力、创造力和知识, 平衡个体内部(intrapersonal)、人际间(interpersonal)和个体外部(extrapersonal)的福祉, 平衡长期和短期福祉, 从而实现在适应、影响和选择环境等三方面的平衡, 最终实现共同的善(common good)。

Ardelt (2003, 2018)认为智慧是由认知、反省和情感(仁慈)等三维整合而成的人格特征。反省指多角度思考问题, 对他人和环境不求全责备, 准确地感知和有效地调节情绪, 接纳客观现实, 宽恕自我和他人。认知指辩证地看待现实处境, 认识到自我的局限性, 人生无法预知和充满不确定性。仁慈指对所有人都充满同情与仁爱, 也即增进他人幸福的动机。

Webster (2010)认为智慧是个体有能力和意愿应用重要人生经验, 推动自我和他人朝积极方向发展。能力指决策、问题解决或其他智力形式; 意愿指主动采取智慧行动的愿望; 应用指实际的行动。智慧是5种关键特征的整合:幽默(Humor), 情绪调节(Emotion Regulation), 回顾与反省(Reminiscence / Reflectiveness), 开放性(Openness), 经验(Experience)。由于每个成分的英文首字母合成为英雄(H.E.R.O.(E.))这一英文单词, 因此这一模型最近也被称为智慧的英雄理论(Webster et al., 2017)。

Levenson等(2005)将智慧等同于自我超越, 指个体不再依赖外在特征(如物质、社会角色、成就、名誉、人际关系等)显示自我存在, 而关注自我的内心世界(interiority)和精神性(spirituality), 强烈的感受着过去和未来的贯通感(connectedness)。自我超越也指消解自我和他人的界限而达到整体合一的状态, 获得同情心、深刻的认知能力和自我整合。

近年来, 学界从研究视角和构成等方面对智慧定义进行了概括和总结。如Staudinger和Glück (2011)根据第一人称视角(first-person perspective)和第三人称视角(third-person perspective), 将智慧划分为一般智慧(general wisdom)和自我智慧(personal wisdom), 前者指个体为他人解决复杂问题提供建议时表现出的智慧, 如柏林模式, 后者指个体在解决自己遇到的复杂问题时表现出的智慧, 如三维智慧理论、智慧的英雄理论和智慧的自我超越论。

从智慧的构成看, 上述定义都倾向于认为良好品德和聪明才智的合金才是智慧的本质。有研究以此为基础提出了智慧的“德才一体”理论, 认为从素质的角度看,智慧是个体在其智力与知识的基础上, 经由经验与练习习得的一种德才合一的综合心理素质(陈浩彬, 汪凤炎, 2013)。个体一旦拥有这种综合心理素质, 就能让其睿智、豁达地看待人生与展现人生, 洞察生活中形形色色的人与事; 当其身处某种复杂问题解决情境时, 就能让其适时产生下列行为:个体在其良心的引导下或善良动机的激发下, 及时运用其聪明才智去正确认知和理解所面临的复杂问题, 进而采用正确、新颖(常常能给人灵活与巧妙的印象)、且最好能合乎伦理道德规范的手段或方法高效率地解决问题, 并保证其行动结果不但不会损害他人和社会的正当权益, 还能长久地增进他人和社会或自己、他人和社会的福祉(汪凤炎, 傅绪荣, 2017)。智慧天然地蕴含“善”的成分, 是其区别于智力和创造力等概念的关键特征(Ardelt, 2003; Baltes & Staudinger, 2000; Sternberg, 1998; 汪凤炎, 郑红, 2015)。在中国文化背景中, 通过考察普通民众的智慧观证实了上述观点(陈浩彬, 汪凤炎, 2014; Li & Wang, 2017)。

1.2 智慧的测量

目前主要有两种智慧测量范式:表现法和自陈式量表法, 前者主要用于测量一般智慧, 后者用于测量自我智慧(Glück, 2017)。表现法的测量程序是, 首先呈现问题解决情境, 被试陈述对问题情景的理解、给出建议或解决方案, 然后由评分者根据事先制定的与智慧有关的评价标准, 对被试的表现进行评定(Smith & Baltes, 1990; Mickler & Staudinger, 2008; Grossmann, Na, Varnum, Kitayama, & Nisbett, 2013)。如柏林模式提供如下情境:“一个14岁的男孩或女孩想立马离家出走, 请从一般角度思考他或她是如何想的以及该怎么做?” (Staudinger, Lopez, & Baltes, 1997)。评分标准包括程序性知识和陈述性知识, 毕生发展的情境知识, 秉持价值相对主义也承认存在普世价值, 认识到存在相对不确定性且能对不确定性进行有效管理等5方面, 前两个为基本成分, 后三个为元成分。虽然表现法测量程序繁琐复杂, 不利于大样本施测, 但测量的准确性相对较高(Glück, 2017)。

自陈式量表法要求人们根据自己日常生活中与智慧有关的行为和表现, 评定其对题项表述的赞同程度, 间接测量智慧(Ardelt, 2003; Webster, 2007; Levenson et al., 2005)。有人认为, 自陈式量表不能有效测量智慧(Kunzmann & Baltes, 2003)。对此, Ardelt (2004)反驳到:尽管用标准化自称式量表很难甚至不能测量智慧本身, 但智慧的测量可间接通过测量其潜在核心成分的指标变量而实现。目前有多个测量智慧的自陈式量表, 如三维智慧量表(three dimetional wisdom scale, 3D-WS)、自我评估智慧量表(self-assessed wisdom scale, SAWS)、成人自我超越量表(adult self- transcendence inventory, ASTI) (Ardelt, 2003; Webster, 2007; Levenson et al., 2005)。自陈式量表法更适合大样本施测, 但测量准确性稍差(Glück, 2017)。

2 智慧与幸福感之关系的实证研究

为尽可能全面地收集文献, 本文主要在中国知网、PsychINFO在线数据库, 按照篇名和关键词输入“智慧”、“智慧和幸福感”、“智慧与生活满意度”、“智慧与积极情绪”、“智慧与消极情绪”、“智慧与心理幸福感”、“智慧与精神幸福感”、“智慧与精神性”等进行检索。检索的时间范围为1970到2018年。文献纳入和排除标准是:(1)正式期刊的论文、论文集和学位论文, 不包括会议论文; (2)第一手实证报告, 不包括转引的资料和理论综述类论文; (3)如果学位论文同时发表在正式学术刊物中, 则以后者为准。需要注意的是, 有的研究者可能不认为某些概念隶属于幸福感的范畴, 如开放性和心理感受性(psychological mindedness)。本文筛选论文时, 依据论文的作者对幸福感的界定。如果论文作者认为他们测量的是幸福感, 则将其视为与论题有关而予以纳入。智慧的定义和测量以前述5种为准, 不在此列的研究予以排除。最终得到符合标准的实证研究报告22篇。

2.1 智慧与自我实现幸福感正相关

亚里士多德认为人类的终极追求是自我实现 (eudaimonia)。自我实现指个体认识到自我的真正价值所在, 实现自己的潜能和美德, 最终获得丰盛完满而充满活力的幸福人生(Ryan & Martela, 2016)。以此为基础, 研究者提出自我实现幸福感, 认为不能简单地将幸福感等同于快乐, 而应关注自我成长、人生意义和自我价值的实现(Huta & Waterman, 2014; Ryan & Martela, 2016; Steger, Kashdan, & Oishi, 2008)。Law和Staudinger (2016)进一步指出, 自我实现幸福感不应只重视自我的幸福, 还应兼顾他人的幸福, 最终实现共同的幸福。自我实现幸福感的测量工具多采用Ryff (1989)的心理幸福感量表(psychological well-being scale, PWBS), 该问卷由六成分构成:自我接纳、良好的人际关系、环境掌控、自主性、人生目标感、自我成长。不过这一工具相对忽视了自我实现的社会性和道德内涵(仅良好的人际关系是社会性的表现)。人是社会性动物, 需解决许多社会问题。Keyes (1998)从个体的社会性出发, 提出社会幸福感的概念, 认为其包括社会整合、社会接纳、社会贡献、社会自我实现、社会凝聚力, 由此编制了社会幸福感问卷(social psychology quarterly)。

研究多认为平衡自我、他人或社会的利益以实现共同的善是智慧的关键特征(Ardelt, 2003; Kekes, 1995; Staudinger & Kunzmann, 2005; Sternberg, 1998; Webster, 2010; 汪凤炎, 郑红, 2015)。如智慧者重视自我发展, 但这种自我发展不是无节制地索取物质享受、感官刺激和权力, 而是获得洞察力和自我成长, 同时善于兼顾自我和他人的福祉(Kunzmann & Baltes, 2003)。智慧者和普通人一样, 渴望拥有幸福, 但这种幸福来自自我成长、人生意义和帮助他人(Webster, Westerhof, & Bohlmeijer, 2012)。

智慧与自我实现幸福感的内涵有所重叠。因此不难推断, 两者之间应存在较高的正相关。研究者多将自我实现幸福感作为智慧测量工具的预测效标(Ardelt, 2003; Taylor, Bates & Webster, 2011)。虽然智慧与自我实现幸福感的内涵有所重叠, 但不意味着两个概念可互换。自我实现幸福感产生于个体运用智慧素质成功的解决日常生活中的存在性两难和冲突问题(Law & Staudinger, 2016)。因此智慧也是获得自我实现幸福感的手段(Baltes & Staudinger, 2000)。如有研究发现自我反省是智慧的必要组成部分(Ardelt, 2003; Glück & Bluck, 2013; Law & Staudinger, 2016; Webster, 2003), 个体可通过自我反省获得自我成长的幸福(Weststrate & Glück, 2017a)。智慧与自我实现幸福感之关系的实证证据见表1

表1   智慧与自我实现幸福感正相关的证据

作者(年代) 文化
群体
年龄
跨度
测量智慧的
工具或范式
自我实现
幸福感的测量指标
相关系数
Staudinger et al. (1997) 德国人 19~87 BWM 开放性, 心理感受性 r开放性 = 0.42, r心理感受 = 0.28
Kunzmann & Baltes
(2003
)
德国人 15~70 BWM 价值观:自我成长、洞察力、增进友人福祉、社会贡献和生态保护, 合作倾向 r自我成长= 0.20, r洞察力 = 0.23,
r友人福祉 = 0.20, r生态保护= 0.17,
r社会贡献 = 0.17, r合作倾向 = 0.16
Ardelt (2003) 美国人 52~87 3D-WS 控制感, 人生目标 r控制感 = 0.63, r人生目标 = 0.61
Webster (2010) 加拿大人、中国人、印度人等 18~36 SAWS 价值观:自我成长、洞察力、增进友人福祉、社会贡献和生态保护, 生命态度 r自我成长 = 0.55, r洞察力 = 0.51,
r友人福祉 = 0.34, r生态保护 = 0.39,
r社会贡献 = 0.26, r生命态度 = 0.23
Le (2011) 美国人 39~96 3D-WS 价值观:自我提升(权力、快乐和成就), 开放性, 自我超越(仁慈和宇宙视野) r自我提升 = -0.08, ns
r
开放性 = 0.20, r自我超越 = 0.17
Ardelt (2011) 主体是澳大利亚人 18~68 3D-WS 心理幸福感 r =040~0.49
Taylor et al. (2011) 同上 同上 3D-WS, SAWS 心理幸福感 r3D-WS = 0.64, rSAWS = 0.46
Etezadi & Pushkar
(2013
)
具体不详, 说英语和法语 45~79 3D-WS 生活参与度, 感知控制 r生活参与= 0.35, r感知控制 = 0.40
Webster et al. (2012) 丹麦人 17~92 SAWS 心理幸福感 r = 0.44
Wink & Staudinger
(2015
)
美国中产阶级 68~77 BWM 人格成长(开放性、心理感受性、自我成长、自主性、人生目标), 创生 r人格成长 = 0.57, r创生 = 0.34
Ardelt, Gerlach, &
Vaillant (2018
)
美国人 平均80 3D-WS 开放性 r = 0.31

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2.2 智慧与享乐主义幸福感的关系

2.1.1 智慧与享乐主义幸福感几乎无关

西方哲学流行一种观点认为, 智慧者看透了人类面临的现实困境和自我的渺小或局限性, 不会感到快乐。对普通人而言, 对现实维持一种美好的幻觉更易获得幸福(Bergsma & Ardelt, 2012)。还有研究者认为积极情绪对个体发展具有重要的促进作用(Fredrickson, 2001)。受这些观点影响, Kunzmann和Baltes (2003)将积极情绪划为两类:一类为快乐情绪, 如愉悦、高兴、自豪; 另一类为情绪卷入(affective involvement), 如感兴趣、活力、兴奋感。虽然快乐情绪让人感觉愉悦和舒适, 但可能来自盲目的乐观, 会削弱个体洞察人生意义和人类处境的动机和能力, 阻碍智慧发展(Kunzmann & Baltes, 2003)。情绪卷入激发个体探索环境的动机, 提高认知能力, 有利于智慧发展。因此, 智慧者不会有太多的快乐情绪, 只会有更多的自我卷入情绪。

Mickler和Staudinger (2008)也认为一定程度的积极情绪有助于个体进行自我反省, 获得智慧, 但积极情绪达到一定水平, 对自我智慧发展的作用将消失。此外, 他们还认为具有自我智慧的人善于进行批判性自我反省, 引起不愉快感。

还有研究认为, 虽然遭受重大人生挫折(如离婚、重大疾病、丧子等)会伴随较长时间的消极情绪, 但吊诡的是, 正是对这些人生挫折的反思促进了智慧的形成和发展, 由此将智慧与不快乐联系在一起(Weststrate & Glück, 2017a)。因此获得智慧并不是一件轻松愉快的事情, 需要付出一定的代价。如有研究采用ASTI测量智慧, 追踪参加过战争的军人在退伍前的压力感知对十年后智慧的影响, 发现在战争中体验中等压力感的退伍军人, 其智慧的得分要高于低压力和高压力的退伍军人(Jennings, Aldwin, Levenson, Spiro, & Mroczek, 2006)。Weststrate和Glück (2017b)让被试报告其如何应对重大人生挫折事件及学到的人生经验, 结果发现对此进行批判性自我反省, 以获得意义感和自我成长的人, 有更高的智慧。支持智慧与享乐主义幸福感几乎无关的证据见表2

表2   智慧与享乐主义幸福感的关系

研究者(年代) 文化
群体
年龄
跨度
测量智慧的工具或范式 享乐主义
幸福感的测量指标
相关系数
智慧与享乐主义幸福感几乎无关
Wink & Helson (1997) 美国人 27~52 BWM 生活满意度和夫妻关系满意度 r生活满意度 = 0.16, ns,
r夫妻关系满意度 = 0.02, ns
Kunzmann & Baltes (2003) 德国人 15~70 BWM 情绪形容词 r快乐情绪 = -0.17,
r消极情绪 = -0.13,
r情绪卷入 = 0.28
Mickler & Staudinger (2008) 德国人 20~40
60~80
BWM 情绪形容词 r积极情绪 = 0.05~0.11, ns,
r消极情绪 = -0.02~0.04, ns
Le (2011) 美国人 39~96 ASTI 生活满意度 r = 0.09, ns
Grossmann et al. (2013) 美国人 25~90 智慧推理 积极情绪, 消极情绪, 人际关系质量, 反刍, 生活满意度, 人生叙事的情感语言 r生活满意度 = 0.17, r积极情绪=0.01, ns,
r消极情绪 = -0.27, r人际关系质量 = 0.25,
r情感语言 = 0.19
Hu, Huang, Ferrari, Wang, Xie, & Zhang (2018) 中国人 18~22 BWM 面部表情记录设备 r悲伤情绪 = 0.36
智慧与享乐主义幸福感中等正相关
Ardelt (1997) 美国人 58~82 3D-WS 生活满意度 r= 0.76, r = 0.70
Ardelt (2003) 美国人 52~87 3D-WS 一般幸福感和抑郁 r一般幸福感= 0.45, r抑郁 = -0.59
Neff, Rude, & Kirkpatrick (2007) 美国人 不详(大学生) 3D-WS 主观幸福感 r认知 = 0.11, ns,
r
反省 = 0.47, r情感 = 0.35
Beaumont (2009) 加拿大人 18~35 ASTI 主观幸福感 r = 0.48
Le (2011) 美国人 39~96 3D-WS 生活满意度 r = 0.33
Bergsma & Ardelt (2012) 丹麦人 20~70 3D-WS 快乐情绪 r = 0.30
Webster et al. (2012) 丹麦人 17~92 SAWS 快乐情绪 r = 0.30
Zacher, McKenna, & Rooney (2013) 美国人 16~74 3D-WS 生活满意度, 积极情绪, 消极情绪 r生活满意度 = 0.16, r积极情绪 = 0.14, r消极情绪 = -0.29
Etezadi & Pushkar (2013) 具体不详, 说英语和法语 45~79 3D-WS 积极情绪, 消极情绪 r积极情绪 = 0.34, r消极情绪 = -0.27
Wink & Staudinger (2015) 美国人 68~77 BWM 人格适应(宜人性、责任心、低神经质, 环境控制、积极人际关系、自我接纳) r人格适应 = 0.25
Ardelt & Jeste (2016) 美国人 51~99 3D-WS 生活满意度, 一般幸福感, 积极情绪, 心理健康 r生活满意度 = 0.29, r一般幸福感 = 0.35,
r积极情绪= 0.34, r心理健康 = 0.33
Thomas, Bangen, Ardelt, & Jeste (2017) 美国人 21~100 3D-WS 心理健康, 一般幸福感, 焦虑, 生活满意度 r心理健康 = 0.26, r一般幸福感 = 0.35,
r焦虑 = -0.27, r生活满意度 = 0.30
Ardelt et al. (2018) 美国人 平均80 3D-WS 一般幸福感 r = 0.17

注:智慧推理是Grossmann等(2013)借鉴柏林模式开发的测量范式, 测量六个方面:站在冲突双方的立场上思考问题, 认识到事态会发生改变, 灵活的预测能力, 认识到存在不确定性和知识的局限性, 寻找化解冲突的方法, 寻找共识。这与柏林模式的三个元成分的内涵具有较大的一致性(Baltes & Staudinger, 2000)。

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2.1.2 智慧与享乐主义幸福感中等正相关

埃里克森认为智慧是顺利完成每个人生阶段的发展任务而在晚年形成的优秀品质, 表现为个体在面对死亡时, 对人生的深刻认识和超脱的关怀(汪凤炎, 郑红, 2014, p.137)。在人生后期, 智慧者继续做力所能及的事, 接纳社会、生理和心理机能的丧失, 继续维持较高的生活满意度。受此影响, Ardelt (1997)认为虽然外在因素, 如收入、受教育程度、社会地位和身体健康等对维持生活满意度有一定作用, 但智慧是其中的最重要影响因素。特别是正处于人生逆境、没有太多外在资源可用的人, 更需要智慧来维持积极情感(Ardelt & Edwards, 2016)。研究发现在弱势群体中(老人、妇女、临终病人等), 智慧与积极情绪和生活满意度的关系更强(Ardelt & Edwards, 2016; Bergsma & Ardelt, 2012)。因此, 有研究发现智慧与积极情绪和生活满意度无关, 可能是由于选择受过良好教育, 有较高社会地位的人, 他们有更多资源维持幸福感(Ardelt & Edwards, 2016)。

自我实现幸福感(如控制感和人生目标感)在智慧影响积极情绪和生活满意度中发挥重要作用。Etezadi和Pushkar (2013)将控制感分为初级控制和次级控制, 前者指个体直接作用于环境获得控制感, 后者指调整自己的态度和感知以适应环境。他们认为深刻地自我认知和应对外在环境的能力, 使智慧者学到很多实用性知识, 提高了问题解决能力, 进而获得更强的初级控制感。如果初级控制失败, 对模糊性的忍耐力和灵活的处置态度, 能使智慧者形成有效的次级控制策略, 避免挫败感和自我怀疑(Etezadi & Pushkar, 2013)。善于多角度思考问题, 渴望深刻地认识自我和世界的动机, 善于反思等特征, 使智慧者赋予人生事务以特定的意义和价值(人生目标感)。因此智慧者也是一个意义建构者(Etezadi & Pushkar, 2013)。早年积累的宝贵人生经验使智慧者有效地应对老龄化带来的挑战, 获得控制感(Ardelt & Edwards, 2016)。智慧者也能将关爱和感激作为人生目标而获得另一种意义上的控制感。接纳和反思人生的不幸, 加上较高的控制感, 使他们重新发现和建构自己的人生目标和意义(Ardelt & Edwards, 2016)。控制感和人生目标感可提高和维持较高的积极情绪(Etezadi & Pushkar, 2013)。支持此假设的证据见表2

2.3 小结与评价

综上, 智慧与自我实现幸福感的正相关已得到研究者的普遍认同。智慧与享乐主义幸福感是何种关系, 尚在争论中, 其中两者呈中等正相关的结论大体来自采用自我报告法测量自我智慧的研究(测量工具主要为3D-WS和SAWS), 而两者几乎无关的结论则主要来自采用表现法测量一般智慧的研究(主要为柏林智慧模式)。这似乎暗示, 测量方法和测量内容的差异可能是造成结论不一致的重要原因(Le, 2011; Zacher & Staudinger, 2018)。其一, 很多研究者质疑自我报告法测量智慧的有效性, 归结起来该方法可能存在三个缺陷:记忆偏差、自我认知不准确和社会赞许性(Brienza, Fyh, Santos, Bobocel, & Grossmann, in press; Zacher & Staudinger, 2018)。况且采用自我报告法同时测量智慧和幸福感, 易产生共同方法偏差, 而现有研究几乎未对此进行检验和控制。正由于这两点, 智慧与享乐主义幸福感正相关虚高的可能性难以排除。其二, 表现测量法测量的是一般智慧, 而自我报告测量法测量的是自我智慧(Staudinger & Glück, 2011)。研究者对一般智慧和自我智慧的本质差异还缺乏清晰的认识和系统的实证研究(Zacher & Staudinger, 2018)。目前还没有系统的理论解释一般智慧和自我智慧与幸福感之关系的差异。

除关注引起智慧与享乐主义幸福感不一致结论的原因外, 还应重视如下问题。(1)样本缺乏文化多样性。当前研究样本几乎来自北美和西欧, 针对其他文化人群的研究很少。(2)自我实现幸福感的理论基础和测量工具相对单一, 研究者多采用Ryff的心理幸福感理论或测量工具。(3)探讨智慧与幸福感的关系时, 应更重视幸福感的社会性和道德内涵, 尤其是在集体主义文化中探讨两者的关系。如智慧的中国人更可能因社会价值和社会责任而感到幸福(陆洛, 2007; 曾红, 郭斯萍, 2012)。幸福感与道德密切相关, 但至今很少有测量工具重视测量其中的道德内涵(Hirata, 2016)。道德也是智慧的核心部分(Sternberg, 2013; 汪凤炎, 郑红, 2015)。因此, 探讨幸福感与智慧的关系不能缺少对道德的关注。

3 从智慧发展的角度探讨智慧与幸福感的理论关系

上面介绍智慧与幸福感的实证研究, 阐释了研究者站在各自智慧理论的立场解释研究结果。积极人格发展观和发展历程观有所突破, 从智慧发展的视角重新思考智慧与幸福感的关系, 将理论探讨推向深入。

3.1 积极人格发展观

Staudinger和Kunzmann (2005)基于人格功能将个体的人格发展路径划分为两类:人格适应(Personality Adjustment)和人格成长(Personality Growth), 后者与智慧发展密切相关。

人格适应良好的人具有较高的社会能力、实践能力和专业技能以及情绪稳定和可信赖的人格特征, 这些特征伴随个体的年龄增长而增长(Law & Staudinger, 2016)。社会成熟是人格适应的关键指标。社会成熟指个体能适应其所处社会环境的角色和社会规范的要求, 目的是获得感官享受、权力和世俗成就(Law & Staudinger, 2016)。大五人格中的宜人性、责任心和神经质, 心理幸福感结构中的自我接纳、环境控制和良好人际关系均属人格适应的范畴(Law & Staudinger, 2016)。人格适应良好说明个体的社会化过程和结果令人满意。当个体因年老而出现生理和心理机能丧失时, 发展良好的各种实用技能和人格特征, 仍然有助于他们维持和提高积极情绪和生活满意度, 但这与智慧的发展几乎没有关系(Law & Staudinger, 2016)。

人格成长指个体获得对自我、他人和世界的洞察力, 复杂的情绪调节能力, 以及摆脱自我中心性, 关注他人的利益和福祉。大五人格中的开放性, 心理幸福感中的自我成长、人生目标感和自主性, 以及心理感受性等是人格成长的关键指标(Law & Staudinger, 2016; Staudinger & Kunzmann, 2005)。人格适应促使个体完成社会化的常规任务, 遵循常规发展路径。人格成长需创造性, 促使个体走上独特的发展道路。人格成长的结果是形成自我智慧(Staudinger & Kunzmann, 2005)。但人格成长或智慧之路并非坦途, 需不断地突破其所处社会文化环境的限制, 迎接各种挑战。因此, 享乐主义幸福感不一定与人格成长或自我智慧相伴, 也绝不是智慧者的终极追求(Law & Staudinger, 2016; Mickler & Staudinger, 2008)。

3.2 发展历程观

Weststrate和Glück (2017a)基于积极人格发展观提出了智慧与幸福感之关系的发展历程观(the developmental process model), 他们认为个体深入反思自己经历的人生重大挫折事件是其智慧发展的重要动因。随着重大挫折事件发生后的时间演进, 个体可能会走上三条发展路径的其中一条:无知得福路径、智慧得福路径和消极适应路径(如图1)。

图1

图1   智慧与幸福感之关系的三种发展路径

文献来源:Weststrate和Glück (2017a)


走上无知得福路径的个体在经历重大人生挫折后, 积极情绪和生活满意度短期内明显地下降, 但他们快速利用自我防御机制缓冲该事件的影响, 将积极情绪和生活满意度提到略高于原先的水平。他们未深入分析, 而是用已有的意义结构解释当前的一切, 未形成新的意义结构, 也就不能产生智慧。随着时间推移, 这些人未从创伤性事件中获益更多, 如幸福感。

走上智慧得福路径的个体, 在经历人生逆境后, 同样出现积极情绪和生活满意度短期内明显下降, 但他们愿意深入思考人生和世界的根本问题, 获得新的认识和领悟, 改变原先的意义结构, 提高智慧水平。随着时间推移, 他们从逆境中获益亦越来越多, 积极情感和生活满意度不断提高。

第三条路径——消极适应。走上此路径的人, 面对人生逆境, 自怨自艾, 既缺乏有效的适应能力, 也无从逆境中获得人生领悟的动机, 最终既未获得智慧, 也未从逆境中恢复, 陷入一蹶不振的状态中。随着时间推移, 个体的积极情感和生活满意度一直维持于低水平状态。

3.3 小结与评价

积极人格发展观是首个从智慧发展的角度探讨智慧与幸福感之关系的理论。但此观点目前受到一些挑战。如积极人格发展观将自我智慧视为人格成长的结果, 这潜在认为智慧是一种相对稳定的人格特征。但现有研究表明, 智慧不仅具有相对稳定性, 也受环境影响而表现出不稳定性(Grossmann, 2017)。若只考虑智慧的相对稳定性部分, 此批评不会对积极人格发展观造成太大的困扰。但人格成长与人格适应果真是相互独立的两条人格发展路径吗?Ardelt等(2018)认为顺从和保守之人(人格适应), 也有自我超越和仁慈特征(与人格成长和智慧有关); 开放性之人(人格成长)也会追求享乐、世俗成就和权力, 这与Staudinger和Kunzmann (2005)的预测相反。Ardelt等(2018)在98名美国男性60年的追踪数据中发现了三条而非两条人格发展路径:(1)青年期的外向性(人格适应)影响老年期的享乐主义幸福感; (2)青年期的开放性(人格成长)影响老年期的智慧形成; (3)童年期的生活质量、青少年期的学业和体育表现以及青年期的情绪稳定性(均为人格适应)影响中年期的创生和老年期的智慧(均为人格成长的结果)以及享乐主义幸福感。可见, 人格成长与人格适应的平衡发展对智慧和享乐主义幸福感有重要影响(Ardelt et al., 2018)。

发展历程观是新近提出的理论, 其有效性尚需追踪数据的支持。该理论得以成立的前提是, 重大、消极、非正常的人生事件, 如, 离婚、失业、死亡威胁、被遗弃等, 是智慧发展的催化剂(Weststrate & Glück, 2017a; Weststrate, Ferrari, Fournier, & McLean, 2018)。但这个前提对智慧发展真有普适性吗?首先, 积极人生经历对智慧发展也可能有积极作用。如在极度幸福和与世界融为一体的高峰体验状态中, 个体的人生意义将产生重大顿悟, 整个人生观发生改变(马斯洛, 1987, pp.366-381), 这些改变本身也是智慧发展的表现。Webster (2007)认为积极和消极的重大事件都能促进智慧的发展。Weststrate等(2018)也承认很多被试认为积极事件也能促进智慧发展, 如首子诞生。其次, 智慧不一定只产生于反思亲历的重大人生事件, 观察或阅读他人的经历也可能会起到积极作用。观察学习是人类的重要学习方式, 观察他人的经历, 可避免因错误的努力带来的损失和痛苦(班杜拉, 2001, pp.47-144)。Staudinger (2001)认为反省自己的人生经历可促进自我智慧和一般智慧的发展, 而反省他人的人生经历可促进一般智慧的发展。另外, 有时重大人生挫折事件是由个体的愚蠢所致, 智慧者可能会避免这些错误, 从而不会经历太多重大创伤事件(Sternberg, 2006; Grossmann et al., 2013)。

可见, 如果从人生事件的积极和消极效价以及反思的直接性和间接性, 至少可将重要人生经历分成四类:亲历的积极重要人生经历、亲历的消极重要人生经历、间接获知的积极重要人生经历、间接获知的消极重要人生经历。目前只有第二类人生经历更受研究者的关注(Jennings et al., 2006; Weststrate et al., 2018; Ardelt, 2005; Webster & Deng, 2015)。如果智慧发展既可产生于重大的消极人生事件, 也可来自积极事件或间接获知的经验, 那么智慧与幸福感的关系还如图1所示的三种发展路径吗?智慧发展与人生经历本身可能关系不大, 但如何解释和应对这些事件则对其智慧能否生成或提高具有重要影响(Ardelt, 2005)。所以, 本文并不否定发展历程观在解释智慧与幸福感之关系的有效性, 而是要指出重大创伤事件可能只是探讨两者关系的背景之一, 是两者关系在特定背景下的一种特定类型。在其他背景条件下探讨智慧与幸福感的关系, 也许与发展历程观的预测不同。

4 新观点和研究展望

4.1 新观点:发展水平观

基于积极人格发展观与智慧的“德才一体”理论, 可建构出智慧与幸福感之关系的发展水平观。积极人格发展观潜在地认为自我智慧是人格成长的终点, 没有说明智慧可分为高低差异不同的层次或水平。智慧的德才一体理论根据个体品德和才能发展的高低差异, 将智慧分为小智慧、中智慧和大智慧(汪凤炎, 郑红, 2014, pp.251- 254)。如果单从智慧的相对稳定性来说, 人格成长过程也可视为智慧的发展过程, 即个体的智慧从小智慧发展到中智慧、大智慧的过程。

有研究认为自我实现幸福感比享乐主义幸福感更优越、更值得追求(Ward & King, 2016)。这表明幸福感也有层次之分, 且不同层次之间存在质的差异。最近有研究提出, 享乐主义幸福感和自我实现幸福感不能穷尽幸福感的所有内容(徐晓波, 孙超, 汪凤炎, 2017)。个体除生理和心理需要外, 还有精神需要。当个体对自我和世界的觉知和领悟达到物我皆忘, 内心深处体验到恬静、平和、意义与价值感、希望与力量感时, 精神幸福感油然而生(徐晓波等, 2017)。因此, 从幸福感的来源看, 至少表现为三个不同的层次:来自物质和生理需要的幸福感是最低层次, 来自自我实现(包括自我成长和社会贡献)的幸福感是中间层次, 因精神超脱而获得的幸福感是更高层次。强调幸福感的层次性也更体现中国文化对幸福感的理解, 如中国人的幸福感既有基本生活需要和人际关系需要得到满足的感性之乐, 也有不断提高自我的道德修养而达到“仁”境界的理性之乐, 更有独与天地精神相往来的超脱之乐和宁静和谐的涅槃之乐(曾红, 郭斯萍, 2012)。

由于智慧与幸福感都具有层次性, 根据智慧的“德才一体”理论可推测:智慧发展的水平差异与个体幸福感的层次性相适应。随着聪明才智的发展, 个体对自我和世界的认识更加深刻, 逐渐看透人生幻象(Mckee & Barber, 1999), 发现人生真谛和真正的价值追求, 同时在经验积累基础上的问题解决能力也越来越高。而伴随道德修养的不断提高, 个体性的“小我”不断升华, 逐渐从自我中心脱离出来, 形成一个可包容更大、更多人的社会性的“大我” (杨中芳, 2009, pp.312-334), 直至达到“天人合一”的境界, 将自我和宇宙同一(Levenson et al., 2005)。由此幸福感的来源也发生变化。具体而言, (1)处于智慧发展较低阶段的人, 能一定程度地发现人生的真正价值追求在于自我成长和社会贡献, 但还不能完全脱离对物质利益的追求。当面对自我和他人或社会的利益冲突时, 较好的问题解决能力虽有助于他们兼顾自我和他人或社会的长期和短期福祉, 但由于其道德修养所限, 其根本动机在于自己的福祉。此阶段, 他们可获得自身物质需要得到满足和一定程度的自我成长带来的幸福感。(2)智慧发展中等程度的人, 对人生的认识更加深刻, 追求自我成长和社会贡献的动机更加强烈。不断发展的问题解决能力让他们更善于平衡自我和他人或社会的长期和短期福祉, 由于道德修养的提高, 其根本动机是为他人和社会做贡献。此一阶段的幸福感主要来自对高尚人生意义的追求和社会价值的实现。(3)智慧发展到最高层次的人, 对人生和世界的认识最深刻, 能超越物我的二元对立, 达到天人合一的超道德境界。发展最完善的问题解决能力使他们最善于平衡自我和他人或社会的福祉, 但其根本动机已经与自我和他人或社会无关, 因为他们已经没有自我与他人或社会的对立。此阶段的幸福感主要来自精神的超脱和逍遥。此外, 随着智慧不断提高, 幸福感不仅在来源上体现出根本差异, 还可能表现为持续时间更长和对身心健康的促进作用更大, 进而对寿命产生更积极的影响。

也可从智慧的“德才一体”理论推导智慧的反面与幸福感的关系。智慧的反面可分为德才俱低于正常和德才失调型, 后者可大致分为两种:德高才少和才高德少型(汪凤炎, 郑红, 2018)。德才俱低于正常者属于先天智力缺陷者, 他们对幸福仅有非常浅显的感受, 可能仅限于生理的快感。他们对幸福可能也无清晰的意识, 也就无所谓幸福不幸福。对于德高才少者来说, 尽管存有善心, 但由于没有发展较高的才能作为保障来解决复杂问题, 可能会好心办坏事或无法成功解决问题(汪凤炎, 郑红, 2014, p.201), 最终不能有助于自己和他人甚至损害自己和他人的福祉, 导致不幸的后果。由于德高才少者多能解决日常生活中的常规问题, 如果他们一生中没有遇到棘手的复杂问题或重大人生决策, 也能过上安稳而平淡的生活。才高德少者可能得不到幸福或长久的幸福。尽管才高德少者才能出众, 能较好地解决复杂问题, 但由于道德修养不够, 过于关注自我福祉, 不能正确地平衡自我和他人或社会的长期福祉, 也不能发现人生的真正价值追求, 最终可能有损自我、他人或社会的长期福祉。因此, 即使这些人能得到一时的属于自己的幸福, 但由于损害到他人或集体的利益, 最终可能使自己遭受长期的痛苦。现有研究也表明只有聪明才智, 而没有亲社会动机, 很难获得幸福(Grossmann et al., 2013)。

中国文化里有“吃亏是福”的说法。如郑板桥说:“吃亏是福——满者损之机, 亏者盈之渐。损于己则益于彼, 外得人情之平, 内得我心之安, 即平且安, 福即在是矣”, 此说法在部分中国人群里颇有影响。可惜的是, 少有人真正去分析“吃亏是福”在何种语境中才能成立。从智慧的德才一体理论看, 只有决策和问题解决的结果有益于自我、他人和社会的长期福祉, “吃亏是福”的说法也许才能成立(唐辉, 周坤, 赵翠霞, 李纾, 2014; Zhao et al., 2018)。

4.2 研究展望

未来探讨智慧与幸福感的关系, 宜着眼于两方面。第一, 选择和编制合适的测量工具。从发展水平观看, 要探讨二者的关系, 需编制测量智慧发展水平和区分幸福感层次的测量工具。目前智慧测量主要采用表现法和自我报告法, 二者测到的实际上都不是智慧的发展水平(陈浩彬, 汪凤炎, 2013; Glück, 2017; 王予灵, 汪凤炎, 2018)。编制智慧发展水平测量工具, 关键是解决三个问题:(1)衡量个体智慧发展水平的关键指标是什么?(2)人类的智慧发展具体有几个阶段?每个阶段的具体表现是什么?(3)建立智慧常模, 用以确定个体的智慧发展水平在某群体中所处的位置。其次, 编制测量幸福感来源的层次, 且适应中国文化的幸福感问卷。简单地将享乐主义幸福感与自我实现幸福感放在同一框架中, 也许不能有效地解决幸福感的整合问题。如对如何整合不同类型的幸福感一直存在争论(Waterman, 1993; Ryan & Martela, 2016)。整合不理想可能是由于现有测量工具混淆了幸福感的来源、功能和体验的差异(Huta & Waterman, 2014)。国内的幸福感测量工具多修订于国外的成熟问卷。它们有的包含西方的文化价值观, 在中国“适应不良”, 如Ryff的心理幸福感问卷(邢占军, 黄立清, 2004)。有的测量工具忽视文化价值观(如Diener的5题生活满意度问卷), 这虽然让测量工具更具有文化普适性, 却无法体现幸福观对幸福感的影响(陆洛, 2007)。精神幸福感并未进入幸福感测量的主流领域, 这体现在现有测量幸福感的主流工具几乎不包括精神幸福感的内容(Proctor & Tweed, 2016)。因此, 探讨智慧与幸福感之关系, 宜借鉴国外最新研究成果, 编制更适应中国文化的幸福感测量工具。如根据幸福感的来源, 整合三种幸福感视角, 同时注重测量幸福体验的强度和持续时间。

第二, 确定智慧与幸福感的因果关系。一种观点认为幸福感是影响智慧发展的重要心理资源 (Mickler & Staudinger, 2008), 另一种观点认为幸福感是智慧发展的结果(Grossmann et al., 2013; Ardelt, 2016)。虽然两种观点都有追踪数据支持(Ardelt, 2016; Ardelt et al., 2018; Wink & Helson, 1997), 但对智慧的测量多依赖自我报告法, 无法避免较大的测量误差(Brienza et al., in press)。未来宜注意三个方面。(1)开展严谨的实验研究。实验法是确定因果关系的最可靠方法。如可设计干预方案提升个体的智慧, 比较幸福感的前后测分数之差异。(2)开展长期追踪研究。除生理基础外, 智慧发展需长期坚持不懈的实践与练习(王予灵, 汪凤炎, 2018)。短期追踪研究不是探讨智慧和幸福感之关系的最佳方式。(3)如果条件有限, 开展短期追踪研究时, 需谨慎地取样。智慧在青少年期和成年早期发展较快(Pasupathi, Staudinger, & Baltes, 2001), 在45岁前有所下降, 45岁后缓慢上升(Brienza et al., in press)。也有研究发现智慧在成年期后缓慢上升, 55岁左右达到顶峰, 然后缓慢下降(Thomas et al., 2017; Webster et al., 2012)。短期追踪选择处于青少年期到成年早期和中年期的被试也许更适合。

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聪明、才智、智谋、智能、智力 均不是智慧的同义语,也不可将本能、专家知识或某种特殊的心智历程等同于智慧。智慧是个体在其智力与知识的基础上,经由经验与练习习得的一种德才兼备的综 合心理素质。个体一旦拥有这种综合心理素质,就能让其在身处某种复杂问题情境中适时做出下列行为:个体在其良心的引导下或善良动机的激发下,及时运用其聪 明才智去正确认知和理解所面临的复杂问题,进而采用正确、新颖(常常能给人灵活与巧妙的印象)、且最好能合乎伦理道德规范的手段或方法高效率地解决问题, 并保证其行动结果不但不会损害他人的正当权益,还能长久地增进他人或自己与他人的福祉。所以,良好品德与聪明才智的合金是智慧的本质。并且,依据智慧里所 包含才能的性质不同,可将智慧分为"人慧"与"物慧"两大类型。

汪凤炎, 郑红 . ( 2018).

论愚蠢的德才欠缺理论

心理学探新, 38( 5), 387-392.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

并非所有的愚蠢都是由弱智、知识有欠缺、社会阅历不足或低情商造成的,也不可将愚蠢简单地视作聪明的反义词。愚蠢是指个体因自身在品行或才智上有欠缺,导致无法以睿智、豁达的态度看待人生、展现人生,无法洞察生活中形形色色的人与事,从而易做出不理智的举动,或当其面临一个复杂问题情境时,因自身在品行或才智上有欠缺,导致做出错误的判断、决定或行动,由此而损害了他人或自己与他人的正当权益,最终可能既害人害己,甚至还给单位、国家或人类的健康与可持续性发展造成巨大损失。因此,愚蠢的实质是个体因自身在品行或才智上有欠缺而犯的错误。从类型上看,根据愚蠢的成因不同,可将愚蠢分为少智式和缺德式两大类型,二者在内涵、成因、子类型多寡、危害程度等方面都存在明显差异。

汪凤炎, 傅绪荣 . ( 2017).

“智慧”: 德才一体的综合心理素质

中国社会科学报, (6).

[本文引用: 1]

王予灵, 汪凤炎 . ( 2018).

老者智否?成人智慧与年龄的关系

心理科学进展, 26( 1), 107-117.

[本文引用: 2]

徐晓波, 孙超, 汪凤炎 . ( 2017).

精神幸福感: 概念、测量、相关变量及干预

心理科学进展, 25( 2), 275-289.

[本文引用: 2]

当前对幸福感的研究有两个重大突破:在纵向上,从主观幸福感到心理幸福感再到精神幸福感,呈现出一个逐渐深入的过程;从横向看,将源自基督教信仰的精神幸福感拓宽至个体因自我觉知与领悟达到物我两忘后所获得的精神幸福感,标志着学者们在深入考察中西方文化与精神幸福感的关系后,对精神幸福感有了更全面的认知。西方学者发展出了测量西式精神幸福感的多种工具,主要包括Ellison、Fisher等编制的精神幸福感问卷,考察了精神幸福感与年龄、性别等相关变量的关系,探讨了精神幸福感的功能与干预措施。中国学者相信精神幸福感并非只有信仰宗教才会获得,也可通过个体不断提升道德修养从而达到物我两忘的境界后获得。因此,今后研究应深入比较中西式精神幸福感的同与异,进一步丰富精神幸福感的研究内容与方法,加强精神幸福感的中国化研究。

邢占军, 黄立清 . ( 2004).

Ryff心理幸福感量表在我国城市居民中的试用研究

中国健康心理学杂志, 12( 3), 231-233.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的 对 Ryff心理幸福感量表的测量学特性进行检验 ,探讨在此量表基础上生成一套适用于我国城市居民的心理幸福感量表的可能性。方法 在山东泰安和烟台市区取样 ( n=3 90 ) ,对该量表的信度和效度进行检验 ,采用探索性因素分析对该量表所含项目进行了分析与筛选。结果  Ryff心理幸福感量表运用于我国城市居民时同质信度较好 ,全量表的内在一致性系数为 0 .94,各分量表内在一致性系数也在 0 .67以上 ,效标效度尚可 ,但构想效度不理想。在 Ryff心理幸福感量表基础上生成的中国城市居民心理幸福感量表具有较好的构想效度。结论  Ryff心理幸福感量表及其派生而来的中国城市居民心理幸福感量表 ,具有在我国城市居民中进一步试用的价值

杨慊, 程巍, 贺文洁, 韩布新, 杨昭宁 . ( 2016).

追求意义能带来幸福吗?

心理科学进展, 24( 9), 1496-1503.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

幸福(Well-being)有快乐幸福(Hedonia)和心盛幸福(Eudaimonia)两种取向。心盛(Flourishing)是一种新兴的具有整体性、综合性和结构性的幸福评价指标,越来越受研究者关注。生命意义(Meaning in life)与幸福密切相关;它反映了人的存在价值和人生目标,具有动力作用,并体现于人的行动之中。生命意义包括意义拥有(Presence of Meaning)和意义追求(Search for Meaning)两个维度。意义拥有体现了意义与幸福的积极联系;而意义追求则反映了意义与幸福的消极联系,但这种消极联系具有短暂性和变化性。从心盛幸福(Eudaimonia)的视角来看,虽然负性经历和消极情绪会降低人当下的幸福感,但是人能在意义追求的过程中实现自我目标并体会到自我价值,从而获得内在而持久的幸福。

杨中芳 . ( 2009). 如何理解中国人文化与个人论文集. 重庆: 重庆大学出版社.

[本文引用: 1]

曾红, 郭斯萍 . ( 2012).

“乐”——中国人的主观幸福感与传统文化中的幸福观

心理学报, 44( 7), 986-994.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Subject Well-Being is an experience which involves evaluation by individuals of their quality of life according to the standard they set for themselves. Subject Well-Being includes feelings of happiness, peace of mind, sense of achievement and satisfaction with life. Chinese make place great emphasis on harmonious interpersonal relationship in their Subject Well-Being. Spirituality is also highly valued. These characteristics of Subject Well-Being have been influenced largely by the culture’s traditional view of happiness. Traditionally in Chinese culture, well-being is expressed using the word “Le” (happiness), Le is a psychological experience which is based on empirical and inner experience and feeling. The Multi-cultural nature of ancient Chinese society has helped to form the characteristics associated with the Chinese’ view of happiness. Confucian, Dao and Buddhism all have their own basic view on happiness: Confucian separated happiness onto two levels: one level where happiness is derived from the satisfaction of basic needs in real life, and the second where rational happiness comes from being kind to others and contributing to society at large (feeling of social value). Dao’s view of happiness required people to look beyond reality for happiness and suggested that happiness could be acquired from San appreciation of the beauty of nature and life. The Dao view also suggested that happiness and unhappiness were related and dependent on each other and that people should not rely on the material world for happiness. The Buddhist view was that everything in life was empty for humans apart from entering nirvana and that helping other people to get into nirvana would help them to achieve Subject Well-Being. Traditional Chinese culture also encouraged people to pursue the ‘ideal personality’. It was believed that in the process of pursuing, and upon attainment of the ideal personality, people would be in possession of the kind of happiness and Subject Well-Being that is achieved through kindness and contribution to society: having intelligence as water, morality as mountains and appreciating and enjoying the beauty of nature (mountain, river and sea). It was thought that when people truly developed the ability to appreciate the wonders of nature and life, the process of this appreciation would become a kind of happiness in itself. In summary, each school developed their unique opinions about happiness and Subject Well-Being. At the same time, these theories were integrated in the Chinese approach to the pursuit of happiness and Subject Well-Being. Ultimately, the Chinese formed a unique view of happiness and found ways of achieving happiness and Subject Well-Being other than the normal approach, which is similar to that of western culture. In conclusion, the view of Subject Well-Being in traditional Chinese culture is unique in three characteristics: first, personal emotion is not the key point in Subject Well-Being but rather interpersonal relationships and the feelings of social value; second, Subject Well-Being of the individual is not a single feeling and is always connected to moral sense and a sense of beauty; third, Chinese traditional culture encourages people to pursue rational happiness, which transcends happiness and Subject Well-Being in reality.

Ardelt M. 1997).

Wisdom and life satisfaction in old age

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 52( 1), 15-27.

URL     PMID:9008672      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract According to previous research findings, objective life conditions such as physical health, socioeconomic status, financial situation, the physical environment, and social involvement cannot fully explain the well-being of older persons. Instead, personality characteristics and developmental influences appear to have a stronger impact. This study combines personality and individual development by introducing the ancient but neglected concept of wisdom as a predictor of life satisfaction. Using a sample of 120 elderly women and men from the 1968/69 Berkeley Guidance Study, structural equation models with latent variables show that wisdom (defined aa a composite of cognitive, reflective, and effective qualities) has a profoundly positive influence on life satisfaction independent of objective circumstances. The inclusion of wisdom as an additional predictor of subjective well-being increases the explanatory power of the model considerably. Gender differences in predictors of life satisfaction are discussed.

Ardelt M. 2003).

Empirical assessment of a three-dimensional wisdom scale

Research on Aging, 25( 3), 275-324.

[本文引用: 9]

ABSTRACT Although wisdom is thought to be a strong predictor for many attributes of aging well, the concept of wisdom still lacks a comprehensive, directly testable scale. Quantitative and qualitative interviews with a sample of close-knit social groups of 180 older adults (age 52+) were conducted to develop a three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS) and to test its validity and reliability. Wisdom was operationalized and measured as a latent variable with cognitive, reflective, and affective effect indicators. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included 114 items from existing scales and 18 newly developed items to assess the three dimensions of wisdom. The final version of the 3D-WS consists of 14 items for the cognitive, 12 for the reflective, and 13 for the affective component of wisdom. Results indicate that the 3D-WS can be considered a reliable and valid instrument and a promising measure of the latent variable wisdom in large, standardized surveys of older populations.

Ardelt M. 2004).

Wisdom as expert knowledge system: A critical review of a contemporary operationalization of an ancient concept

Human Development, 47( 5), 257-285.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ardelt M. 2005).

How wise people cope with crises and obstacles in life

Revision: A Journal of Consciousness & Transformation, 28( 1), 7-19.

[本文引用: 2]

Ardelt M. 2011).

The measurement of wisdom: A commentary on Taylor, Bates, and Webster’s comparison of the SAWS and 3D-WS

Experimental Aging Research, 37( 2), 241-255.

URL     PMID:21424959      [本文引用: 1]

In a commentary on Taylor, Bates, and Webster's article (2011, Experimental Aging Research, 37, pp. 129 140), the author (a) clarifies the development and assessment of the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS); (b) describes the difference between the essential components of wisdom and its predictors, correlates, and consequences; and (c) conducts additional bivariate correlation analyses between the components of the 3D-WS and Webster's Self-Administered Wisdom Scale (SAWS) and all the forgiveness and psychological well-being subscales. Results show that the cognitive, reflective, and affective dimensions of the 3D-WS were significantly and positively correlated with all the forgiveness and psychological well-being subscales. By contrast, only the emotional regulation and humor components of the SAWS were consistently positively associated with those subscales. It appears that the 3D-WS measures the essential cognitive, reflective, and affective components of wisdom, whereas the SAWS contains a reflective wisdom component, a wisdom predictor, a consequence of wisdom, and two necessary but not sufficient wisdom components.

Ardelt M. 2016).

Disentangling the relations between wisdom and different types of well-being in old age: Findings from a short-term longitudinal study

Journal of Happiness Studies, 17( 5), 1963-1984.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Abstract Wisdom has been shown to be positively related to well-being in past cross-sectional research, but it is not clear whether wisdom affects well-being, well-being affects wisdom, or whether the association is reciprocal. This 10-month two-wave longitudinal study attempted to determine the direction of the relations between old age wisdom and physical, psychological (eudaimonic), and subjective (hedonic) well-being, using a sample of 123 older (M = 72 years) residents from a community in Florida, USA. The analyses of cross-lagged autoregressive models showed that baseline wisdom, assessed by cognitive, reflective, and compassionate (affective) dimensions of the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), was significantly related to greater subjective well-being, mastery, purpose in life, and physical well-being at Time 2, but only baseline physical well-being was positively related to composite three-dimensional wisdom at Time 2 after controlling for baseline wisdom and well-being scores and significant control variables. The findings corroborate the hypothesis that wisdom in old age can exert a beneficial impact on physical, psychological, and subjective well-being. Helping individuals grow wiser might pay dividends in later life.

Ardelt M. 2018).

Can wisdom and psychosocial growth be learned in university courses?

Journal of Moral Education, ( 9), 1-16.

[本文引用: 2]

Several rating measures and standardized scales of general and personal wisdom have been developed, ranging from cognitive to noncognitive assessments of wisdom. Although correlations of wisdom partly depend on its measurement, several general patterns emerge: Personality qualities related to human development, psychological well-being, a concern for others, and openness to experience are... [Show full abstract]

Ardelt M., & Edwards C.A . ( 2016).

Wisdom at the end of life: An analysis of mediating and moderating relations between wisdom and subjective well-being

Journals of Gerontology, 71( 3), 502-513.

[本文引用: 4]

Ardelt M., & Jeste D.V . ( 2016).

Wisdom and hard times: The ameliorating effect of wisdom on the negative association between adverse life events and well-being

Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 73( 8), 1374-1383.

URL     PMID:28329810      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Objectives: Old age is characterized by many physical and social losses that adversely affect subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, past studies have shown that wisdom tends to be positively related to SWB in old age, particularly under adverse circumstances. We tested whether three-dimensional wisdom, measured as a combination of cognitive, reflective, and compassionate (affective) personality qualities, moderated the inverse association between adverse life events and well-being. Method: A sample of 994 adults aged 51-99 years (M = 77) from the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study and structural equation models with well-being as a latent variable were used to test the hypothesis. Results: Greater wisdom, in particular the reflective wisdom dimension, was positively associated with SWB and buffered the inverse relation between the experience of adverse life events during the previous year and current well-being. Discussion: Wisdom appears to strengthen older adults' ability to cope with aging-related losses and, therefore, is a valuable psychological resource in old age. The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Ardelt M., Gerlach K. R., & Vaillant G. E . ( 2018).

Early and midlife predictors of wisdom and subjective well- being in old age

Journals of Gerontology, 73( 8), 1514-1525.

URL     PMID:29452416      [本文引用: 6]

Abstract According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Elder’s life course paradigm, human development takes place throughout life and is shaped by linked lives and human agency. We explored whether the “seeds” of wisdom and well-being in old age might differ, although wisdom and well-being tend to be positively correlated. Using 60-year longitudinal data of 98 white male Harvard graduates born between 1915 and 1924, the study found that wisdom and subjective well-being at age 80 were indeed positively correlated. Yet, early life predictors differed. Extraversion and neuroticism in early adulthood predicted subjective well-being 60 years later. Two distinct pathways predicted old age wisdom: (1) Psychosocial growth facilitated by supportive social environments in childhood and adolescence, positive early personality traits, and midlife generativity and subjective health; (2) The motivation to grow through openness to experiences. Both social support during the formative years and personality appear to promote growth in wisdom.

Baltes P.B., & Staudinger U.M . ( 2000).

Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence

American Psychologist, 55( 1), 122-136.

URL     PMID:11392856      [本文引用: 7]

The primary focus of this article is on the presentation of wisdom research conducted under the heading of the Berlin wisdom paradigm. Informed by a cultural-historical analysis, wisdom in this paradigm is defined as an expert knowledge system concerning the fundamental pragmatics of life. These include knowledge and judgment about the meaning and conduct of life and the orchestration of human development toward excellence while attending conjointly to personal and collective well-being. Measurement includes think-aloud protocols concerning various problems of life associated with life planning, life management, and life review. Responses are evaluated with reference to a family of 5 criteria: rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism of values and life priorities, and recognition and management of uncertainty. A series of studies is reported that aim to describe, explain, and optimize wisdom. The authors conclude with a new theoretical perspective that characterizes wisdom as a cognitive and motivational metaheuristic (pragmatic) that organizes and orchestrates knowledge toward human excellence in mind and virtue, both individually and collectively.

Beaumont S.L . ( 2009).

Identity processing and personal wisdom: An information-oriented identity style predicts self-actualization and self-transcendence

Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 9( 2), 95-115.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study was designed to investigate whether individual differences in young adults' identity processing styles predict aspects of personal wisdom (self-actualization and self-transcendence) and related outcomes (meaning in life and subjective happiness). Fifty-three men and 105 women completed self-report questionnaires measuring: identity commitment; identity processing styles (informational, normative, diffuse-avoidant); self-actualization (via autonomy, adaptation, and psychological functioning); self-transcendence (decreasing reliance on externals for self-definition, increasing interiority, and spirituality); meaning in life; and subjective happiness. Both identity commitment and an informational identity style were positively correlated with self-actualization and self-transcendence. When levels of identity commitment were controlled via hierarchical regression, self-actualization and self-transcendence were positively predicted by the informational identity style. Structural equation modeling further revealed that the use of an informational style positively predicts self-actualization and self-transcendence, which in turn positively predicts the presence of meaning and subjective happiness. This path model was not found for either the normative or diffuse-avoidant identity styles.

Bergsma A. & Ardelt M., ( 2012).

Self-reported wisdom and happiness: An empirical investigation

Journal of Happiness Studies, 13( 3), 481-499.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Possible tensions between wisdom and happiness have been extensively debated in philosophy. Some regard wisdom as the ‘supreme part of happiness’, whereas other think that a more accurate and wiser view on reality might reduce happiness. Analyzing a Dutch internet survey of 7037 respondents, we discovered that wisdom and happiness were modestly positively related. Wisdom, measured with the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS), explained 9.2% of the variation in hedonic happiness. The correlation with the reflective dimension of wisdom was the strongest. In addition, wisdom was more important for happiness among adults with only an elementary education. Our results suggest that happiness and wisdom do not conflict.

Brienza J.P. Kung F.Y H., Santos H.C. Bobocel D. R. & Grossmann I. .in press).

Wisdom, bias, and balance: Toward a process-sensitive measurement of wisdom- related cognition

.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

URL     PMID:28933874     

Reports an error in "Wisdom, bias, and balance: Toward a process-sensitive measurement of wisdom-related cognition" by Justin P. Brienza, Franki Y. H. Kung, Henri C. Santos, D. Ramona Bobocel and Igor Grossmann ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Sep 21, 2017, np). In the article, the original supplemental material has been revised to include a... [Show full abstract]

Diener E., Scollon C. N., & Lucas R. E . ( 2003).

The evolving concept of subjective well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness

Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology, 15( 4), 187-219.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Etezadi S. & Pushkar D., ( 2013).

Why are wise people happier? An explanatory model of wisdom and emotional well-being in older adults

Journal of Happiness Studies, 14( 3), 929-950.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

AbstractThis research investigated the relation between wisdom and emotional well-being in older adults, with an aim to elucidate pathways of positive development in adulthood. Three-hundred and sixty recently retired individuals completed a series of questionnaires including measures of wisdom, dispositional coping, perceived control, life engagement, and positive and negative affect. Structural equation modeling controlling for social desirability, health, and sociodemographic variables revealed that problem-focused coping, positive reappraisal coping, perceived control and life engagement mediate the positive relation between wisdom and positive affect. In addition, perceived control and life engagement, but not dispositional coping, were found to mediate the negative relation between wisdom and negative affect. The results demonstrate that higher levels of perceived control and life engagement in conjunction with an increased use of problem-focused and positive reappraisal coping account for the enhanced emotional well-being associated with wisdom. Findings are discussed in terms of the characteristics of wise individuals that promote positive aging.

Fredrickson B.L . ( 2001).

The role of positive emotion in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion

American Psychologist, 56( 3), 218-226.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Glück J. 2017).

Measuring wisdom: Existing approaches, continuing challenges, and new developments

Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 73( 8), 1393-1403.

URL     PMID:29281060      [本文引用: 4]

Abstract The question how wisdom can best be measured is still open to debate. Currently, there are two groups of wisdom measures: open-ended performance measures and self-report measures. This overview article describes the most popular current measures of wisdom: the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, the Bremen Wisdom Paradigm, Grossmann's wise-reasoning approach, the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale, and the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory. It discusses the specific challenges of both open-ended and self-report approaches with respect to content validity, convergent and divergent validity, concurrent and discriminant validity, and ecological validity. Finally, promising new developments are outlined that may bridge the gap between wisdom as a competence and wisdom as an attitude and increase ecological validity by being more similar to real-life manifestations of wisdom. These new developments include autobiographical approaches and advice-giving paradigms.

Glück J. & Bluck S., ( 2013).

The MORE life experience model: A theory of the development of personal wisdom

In M. Ferrari & N. Weststrate (Eds.) The scientific study of personal wisdom( pp.75-97). New York: Springer.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Why do a few people become wiser in the course of their lives – while most of us do not? This chapter presents a conceptual model of the development of wisdom, based on previous work on wisdom, life-span development, growth from negative experiences, and autobiographical memory. The core assumption is that life challenges are the main catalysts of the development of wisdom – but only in individuals who bring certain resources with them. These resources are a sense of m astery, o penness, r eflectivity, and e motion regulation/empathy – in short, MORE. The chapter lays out the theoretical background of the model, discusses each resource in detail, and describes how the resources influence which life experiences people encounter, how they appraise them and deal with them, and how they integrate them into their life story. The model is illustrated by data from two empirical studies. The first study investigated people’s autobiographical narratives of situations in which they had been wise. The second study, which is currently in progress, tests predictions from the MORE Life Experience Model directly.

Grossmann I., Na J., Varnum M. E. W., Kitayama S., & Nisbett R. E . ( 2013).

A route to well-being: Intelligence vs. versus wise reasoning

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142( 3), 944-953.

URL     PMID:22866683      [本文引用: 6]

Laypeople and many social scientists assume that superior reasoning abilities lead to greater well-being. However, previous research has been inconclusive. This may be because prior investigators used operationalizations of reasoning that favored analytic as opposed to wise thinking. We assessed wisdom in terms of the degree to which people use various pragmatic schemas to deal with social conflicts. With a random sample of Americans, we found that wise reasoning is associated with greater life satisfaction, less negative affect, better social relationships, less depressive rumination, more positive versus negative words used in speech, and greater longevity. The relationship between wise reasoning and well-being held even when controlling for socioeconomic factors, verbal abilities, and several personality traits. As in prior work, there was no association between intelligence and well-being. Further, wise reasoning mediated age-related differences in well-being, particularly among middle-aged and older adults. Implications for research on reasoning, well-being, and aging are discussed.

Grossmann I. 2017).

Wisdom in context

Perspective Psychological Science, 12( 2), 233-257.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hirata J. 2016).

Ethics and eudaimonic well-being. In J. Vittersø(ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being

(pp. 55-65), International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life.

[本文引用: 1]

Hu C. S., Huang J., Ferrari M., Wang Q., Xie D., & Zhang H . ( 2018).

Sadder but wiser: Emotional reactions and wisdom in a simulated suicide intervention

International Journal of Psychology.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Huta V., & Waterman A.S . ( 2014).

Eudaimonia and its distinction from hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions

Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(6), 1425- 1456.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Interest in eudaimonia (e.g., growth, meaning, authenticity, excellence) and its distinction from hedonia (e.g., pleasure, enjoyment, comfort, absence of distress) is growing rapidly, as researchers recognize that both concepts are central to the study of well-being. Yet research on these concepts faces challenges as well: findings based on different operationalizations can be quite discrepant; definitions of eudaimonia and hedonia sometimes fall into different categories of analysis (e.g. when eudaimonia is described as a way of functioning, hedonia as an experience); and the terms eudaimonia and hedonia are sometimes defined vaguely or applied to concepts that may be mere correlates. To aid in addressing these challenges, we propose the following terminology and classification for discussing conceptual and operational definitions: (1) degree of centrality ifferentiating concepts that are core (i.e., definitional), close-to-core (i.e., given some attention but not central), and major correlates; (2) category of analysis dentifying which of the following categories a definition represents: (a) orientations (orientations, values, motives, and goals), (b) behaviors (behavioral content, activity characteristics), (c) experiences (subjective experiences, emotions, cognitive appraisals), (d) functioning (indices of positive psychological functioning, mental health, flourishing); and (3) level of measurement dentifying whether a definition is used for trait and/or state comparisons. The work of scholars with a program of research on eudaimonia or the distinction between eudaimonia and hedonia is reviewed and discussed within the framework of the proposed classification; several points of convergence and divergence across definitions are highlighted; and important questions and directions for future research are identified.

Jennings P. A., Aldwin C. M., Levenson M. R., III Spiro A., & Mroczek D. K . ( 2006).

Combat exposure, perceived benefits of military service, and wisdom in later life: Findings from the normative aging study

Research on Aging: An International Bimonthly Journal, 28( 1), 115-134.

[本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Stress, even extremely traumatic stress, may pose both risks and benefits. Although combat can have lifelong negative consequences, the perception of positive benefits from military experience can mitigate the negative effects of combat on mental health. However, little research has examined the impact of trauma earlier in life on the development of positive adaptation, such as wisdom, later in life. The authors examined whether combat exposure and the perception of benefits from military experience, assessed in 1990, were associated with greater wisdom in later life, assessed in 2001 in 615 men from the Normative Aging Study men (mean age 74 years, SD = 6.8 years). A quadrilinear relationship between combat exposure and wisdom was found. Moderate levels of combat were associated with higher levels of wisdom. The perception of benefits and coping predicted wisdom. Thus, how one appraises and copes with problems may be more important in the prediction of positive adaptation than the simple occurrence of stress.

Kekes J. ( 1995). Moral wisdom and good lives. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Keyes C. L.M . ( 1998).

Social well-being

Social Psychology Quarterly, 61( 2), 121-140.

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Kunzmann U., & Baltes P.B . ( 2003).

Wisdom-related knowledge: Affective, motivational, and interpersonal correlates

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29( 9), 1104-1119.

URL     PMID:15189607      [本文引用: 6]

This study investigated the connection between wisdom as a body of expert knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life and indicators of affective, motivational, and interpersonal functioning. Structural equation analyses showed that individuals higher on wisdom-related knowledge reported (a) higher affective involvement combined with lower negative and pleasant feelings, (b) a value orientation that focused conjointly on other-enhancing values and personal growth combined with a lesser tendency toward values revolving around a pleasurable life, and (c) a preference for cooperative conflict management strategies combined with a lower tendency to adopt submissive, avoidant, or dominant strategies. These findings corroborate the theoretical notion that wisdom involves affective modulation and complexity rather than the predominant seeking of pleasure and also a joint motivational commitment to developing the potential of oneself and that of others.

Law A., & Staudinger U.M . ( 2016).

Eudaimonia and Wisdom. In J. Vittersø( ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being

(pp.135-146), International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life.

[本文引用: 10]

Le T.N . ( 2011).

Life satisfaction, openness value, self-transcendence, and wisdom

Journal of Happiness Studies, 12( 2), 171-182.

[本文引用: 8]

Levenson M. R., Jennings P. A., Aldwin C. M., & Shiraishi R. W . ( 2005).

Self-transcendence: Conceptualization and measurement

International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 60( 2), 127-143.

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Li H. & Wang F., ( 2017).

Real-time measurement of wise personality cognition: Evidence from mouse tracking

Current Psychology( 3), 1-15.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

There is no uniform definition of wisdom. In a psychological context, wisdom can be described as a comprehensive psychological trait integrating virtue and intelligence. Although the outcomes of wise...

Mckee P. & Barber C., ( 1999).

On defining wisdom

International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 49( 2), 149-164.

[本文引用: 1]

Mickler C., & Staudinger U.M . ( 2008).

Personal wisdom: Validation and age-related differences of a performance measure

Psychology and Aging, 23( 4), 787-799.

URL     PMID:19140650      [本文引用: 5]

The 2 goals of this study were to develop and validate a performance measure of personal wisdom (PW) and to examine age differences. On the basis of the Berlin wisdom paradigm and growth theories of personality, 5 criteria of PW were developed. A sample of 83 younger adults (ages 20-40) and 78 older adults (ages 60-80) thought aloud about a PW task. Transcribed answers were rated. Validity was established with regard to indicators of personality growth, subjective well-being, intelligence, critical life events, and general wisdom. As expected, no age differences were obtained on the basic criteria, and negative age differences were found on the metacriteria indexing PW. Fluid intelligence and openness to new experience partially mediated these differences. It is argued that on average and for current cohorts age-related changes in psychological functioning may act as hindrances on the road to PW.

Neff K. D., Rude S. S., & Kirkpatrick K. L . ( 2007).

An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits

Journal of Research in Personality, 41( 4), 908-916.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study examined the relation of self-compassion to positive psychological health and the five factor model of personality. Self-compassion entails being kind toward oneself in instances of pain or failure; perceiving one experiences as part of the larger human experience; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness. Participants were 177 undergraduates (68% female, 32% male). Using a correlational design, the study found that self-compassion had a significant positive association with self-reported measures of happiness, optimism, positive affect, wisdom, personal initiative, curiosity and exploration, agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness. It also had a significant negative association with negative affect and neuroticism. Self-compassion predicted significant variance in positive psychological health beyond that attributable to personality.

Pasupathi M., Staudinger U. M., & Baltes P. B . ( 2001).

Seeds of wisdom: Adolescents’ knowledge and judgment about difficult life problems

Developmental Psychology, 37( 3), 351-361.

URL     PMID:11370911      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The present study examined adolescents' wisdom-related knowledge and judgment with a heterogeneous sample of 146 adolescents (ages 14-20 years) and a comparison sample of 58 young adults (ages 21-37 years). Participants responded to difficult and ill-defined life dilemmas; expert raters evaluated these responses along 5 wisdom criteria. Our findings confirmed that in contrast to adulthood, adolescence is a major period for normative age-graded development in knowledge about difficult life problems. Adolescents performed at lower levels than young adults but also demonstrated substantial age increments in performance. As expected, adolescents' performance varied as a function of criterion and gender. These results hold implications for research on adolescent development and for the development of wisdom-related knowledge and judgment.

Proctor C. & Tweed R.. ,( 2016).

Measuring eudaimonic well-being

In J. Vittersø (ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 277-294). Springer International Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This chapter presents Aristotle’s conceptualization of eudaimonia and reviews measures that can be used to assess this type of eudaimonic well-being. The authors consider the question of the extent to

Ryan R.M., & Deci E.L . ( 2001).

On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being

Annual Review of Psychology, 52( 1), 141-166.

URL     PMID:11148302      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different research foci and a body of knowledge that is in some areas divergent and in others complementary. New methodological developments concerning multilevel modeling and construct comparisons are also allowing researchers to formulate new questions for the field. This review considers research from both perspectives concerning the nature of well-being, its antecedents, and its stability across time and culture.

Ryan R. M. & Martela R. M F.. ,( 2016).

Eudaimonia as a way of living: Connecting aristotle with self-determination theory

In J. Vittersø (ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 109-121). Springer International Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The chapter starts with a discussion of eudaimonia as originally used by Aristotle and his contemporaries. We argue that eudaimonia should not be understood as referring to any kind of subjective expe

Ryff C.D . ( 1989).

Happiness is everything, or is it? Exporations on the meaning of psychological well-being

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57( 6), 1069-1081.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Ryff C.D., & Singer B.H . ( 2008).

Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being

Journal of Happiness Studies, 9( 1), 13-39.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In an effort to strengthen conceptual foundations of eudaimonic well-being, key messages from Aristotle’s Nichomacean Ethics are revisited. Also examined are ideas about positive human functioning from existential and utilitarian philosophy as well as clinical, developmental, and humanistic psychology. How these perspectives were integrated to create a multidimensional model of psychological well-being [Ryff, C.D.: 1989a, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(6), pp. 1069–1081] is described, and empirical evidence supporting the factorial validity of the model is briefly noted. Life course and socioeconomic correlates of well-being are examined to underscore the point that opportunities for eudaimonic well-being are not equally distributed. Biological correlates (cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, immune) of psychological well-being are also briefly noted as they suggest possible health benefits associated with living a life rich in purpose and meaning, continued growth, and quality ties to others. We conclude with future challenges in carrying the eudaimonic vision forward.

Smith J., & Baltes P.B . ( 1990).

Wisdom-related knowledge: Age/cohort differences in response to life-planning problems

Developmental Psychology, 26( 3), 494-505.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Verbal think-aloud protocols were collected from 60 subjects in 3 age groups ranging from 25 through 81 years. Only 5 percent of the responses were considered wise when rated on the criteria of rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism, and the recognition and management of uncertainty. Wise responses were equally distributed across age groups. (RH)

Staudinger U. M., Lopez D. F., & Baltes P. B . ( 1997).

The psychometric location of wisdom-related performance: Intelligence, personality, and more?

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23( 11), 1200-1214.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Staudinger U.M . ( 2001).

Life reflection: A social-cognitive analysis of life review

Review of General Psychology, 5( 2), 148-160.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Life review and reminiscence are 2 concepts used to describe the phenomenon of people reflecting on their lives. Rather than used synonymously, these 2 concepts need to be distinguished on the basis of a social–cognitive process analysis. For that purpose, life reflection is introduced as a new term. Evidence shows that life reflection is a social–cognitive process that begins in adolescence and continues across the life span. It serves different functions across the life span, but at all ages it contributes to self-insight and a self-critical perspective. Striving for new insights about oneself and about life in general is challenging and taxing. Reflecting together with a trusted person, thus, may facilitate the process. A study testing and supporting some of these propositions is reported. Results are discussed in the context of lifespan theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Staudinger U.M., & Kunzmann U. , ( 2005).

Positive adult personality development: Adjustment and/or growth?

European Psychologist, 10( 4), 320-329.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Staudinger U.M., & Glück J. , ( 2011).

Psychological wisdom research: Commonalities and differences in a growing field

Annual Review of Psychology, 62( 1), 215-241.

URL     PMID:20822439      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Wisdom represents a fruitful topic for psychological investigations for at least two reasons. First, the study of wisdom emphasizes the search for the continued optimization and the further cultural evolution of the human condition. Second, it exemplifies the collaboration of cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes. The growth and scope of psychological wisdom research over the past few decades demonstrate that it is possible to investigate this complex construct with empirical rigor. Since the 1970s, five main areas have been established: lay definitions of wisdom, conceptualizing and measuring wisdom, understanding the development of wisdom, investigating the plasticity of wisdom, and applying psychological knowledge about wisdom in life contexts.

Steger M. F., Kashdan T. B., & Oishi S . ( 2008).

Being good by doing good: Daily eudaimonic activity and well- being

Journal of Research in Personality, 42( 1), 22-42.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Eudaimonic theories of well-being assert the importance of achieving one’s full potential through engaging in inherently meaningful endeavors. In two daily diary studies, we assessed whether reports of engagement in behaviors representative of eudaimonic theories were associated with well-being. We also examined whether eudaimonic behaviors were more strongly related to well-being than behaviors directed toward obtaining pleasure or material goods. In both studies, eudaimonic behaviors had consistently stronger relations to well-being than hedonic behaviors. Data also provided support for a temporal sequence in which eudaimonic behaviors were related to greater well-being the next day. Overall, our results suggest that “doing good” may be an important avenue by which people create meaningful and satisfying lives.

Sternberg R.J . ( 1998).

A balance theory of wisdom

Review of General Psychology, 2( 4), 347-365.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

ABSTRACT The author presents a balance theory of wisdom. First, some alternative approaches to wisdom are reviewed, including philosophical, implicit theoretical, and explicit theoretical ones. Second, the concept of tacit knowledge and its role in wisdom are discussed. Third, a balance theory of wisdom is presented, according to which wisdom is defined as the application of tacit knowledge as mediated by values toward the achievement of a common good through a balance among multiple (a) intrapersonal, (b) interpersonal, and (c) extrapersonal interests in order to achieve a balance among (a) adaptation to existing environments, (b) shaping of existing environments, and (c) selection of new environments. This theory is compared to some other theories, and wisdom as a construct is compared to some other constructs. Measurement issues are also discussed. It is concluded that it might be worthwhile for American society to emphasize development of wisdom in schooling more than it has in the past. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Sternberg R.J . ( 2006).

Why smart people can be so foolish

European Psychologist, 9( 3), 145-150.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Not only stupid people act foolishly: Smart people can act foolishly by virtue of their thinking they are too smart to do so. Such people tend to act foolishly through the commission of one or more of five cognitive fallacies: (1) unrealistic optimism, whereby they believe that they are so smart that they can do whatever they want and not worry about it; (2) egocentrism, whereby they focus on themselves and what benefits them while discounting or even totally ignoring their responsibilities to others; (3) omniscience, whereby they believe they know everything, instead of knowing what they do not know; (4) omnipotence, whereby they believe they can do whatever they want because they are all-powerful; and (5) invulnerability, whereby they believe that they will get away with whatever they do, no matter how inappropriate or irresponsible it may be. The antidote to foolishness is wisdom. The balance theory of wisdom proposes that people are wise to the extent they apply their intelligence, creativity, and wis...

Sternberg R.J . ( 2013).

Personal wisdom in the balance

In M. Ferrari & N. Weststrate (Eds.), The scientific study of personal wisdom ( pp. 53-74). New York: Springer.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

In this chapter, I discuss personal wisdom. I argue that wisdom is the use of one’s knowledge and abilities in order to achieve a common good by balancing one’s own with others’ and larger interests, over the long as well as the short terms, through the infusion of positive ethical values. Smart people may behave foolishly, precisely because they do not believe they are susceptible to foolishness. They may tend to be unrealistically optimistic, egocentric, falsely omniscient, falsely omnipotent, falsely invulnerable, and ethically disengaged. Even smart people may fail to infuse positive ethics into their behavior because they do not complete all of 8 steps required for someone to act ethically. The result is leaders who, instead of making the world a better place, make it worse than it was before they led.

Taylor M., Bates G., & Webster J. D . ( 2011).

Comparing the psychometric properties of two measures of wisdom: Predicting forgiveness and psychological well-being with the self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS) and the three- dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS)

Experimental Aging Research, 37( 2), 129-141.

URL     PMID:21424954      [本文引用: 2]

Two recently developed scales of wisdom were compared on their abilities to have their dimensional structure replicated and to predict relevant personality (i.e., forgiveness) and life satisfaction (i.e., psychological well-being) variables. One hundred and seventy-six primarily (71%) Australian participants ranging in age from 18 to 68 years (M02=0236.60, SD02=0212.07) completed an online survey of the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS; Webster, 2003, Journal of Adult Development, 10, 13–22; 2007, International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 65, 163–183), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS; Ardelt, 2003, Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 52B, 15–27), the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Thompson et al., 2005, Journal of Personality, 73, 313–360), Ryff's (1989, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081) measure of psychological well-being (PWB), and a measure of social desirability (BIDR; Paulhus, 1984, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 598–609). Results indicated that the dimensional structure of the SAWS, but not the 3D-WS, replicated, and the 3D-WS, but not the SAWS, was contaminated by a social desirability response bias. Both scales predicted equally well PWB and forgiveness in predicted directions. Implications for future use of both scales are discussed.

Thomas M. L., Bangen K. J., Ardelt M., & Jeste D. V . ( 2017).

Development of a 12-item abbreviated three- dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS-12): Item selection and psychometric properties

Assessment, 24( 1), 71-82.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ward S.J., & King L.A . ( 2016).

Socrates’ dissatisfaction, a happiness arms race, and the trouble with eudaimonic well-being

In J. Vittersø(ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Although originally eudaimonia was intended to be viewed as a philosophy or life or code of conduct, it is now widely treated as a type of well-being that is distinct and superior to happiness or...

Waterman A.S . ( 1993).

Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64( 4), 678-691.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment constitute 2 philosophical conceptions of happiness. Two studies involving combined samples of undergraduate and graduate students (Study 1, n68=68209; Study 2, n68=68249) were undertaken to identify the convergent and divergent aspects of these constructs. As expected, there was a strong positive correlation between personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Analyses revealed significant differences between the 2 conceptions of happiness experienced in conjunction with activities for the variables of (1) opportunities for satisfaction, (2) strength of cognitive-affective components, (3) level of challenges, (4) level of skills, and (5) importance. It thus appears that the 2 conceptions of happiness are related but distinguishable and that personal expressiveness, but not hedonic enjoyment, is a signifier of success in the process of self-realization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Webster J.D . ( 2003).

An exploratory analysis of a self-assessed wisdom scale

Journal of Adult Development, 10( 1), 13-22.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Three studies investigated the psychometric properties of the newly developed self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS). Study 1 investigated the reliability of a 30-item questionnaire assessing 5 interrelated dimensions of wisdom. Results indicated the scale had good reliability ( = .78) and adequate factor structure. Study 2 demonstrated clear differences in people's implicit theories of wisdom using the SAWS: persons instructed to complete the measure according to their implicit theories of wisdom scored significantly higher ( t = 9.40, p = .000) than persons completing the measure according to their implicit theories of foolishness. Study 3 demonstrated the construct validity of the SAWS by showing significant relationships between it and two independent measures thought to reflect aspects of wisdom, namely, generativity and ego integrity. Preliminary analyses of the SAWS suggests it has good initial reliability and validity. Suggestions for scale refinement and future research are examined.

Webster J.D . ( 2007).

Measuring the character strength of wisdom

The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 65( 2), 163-183.

[本文引用: 2]

Webster J.D . ( 2010).

Wisdom and positive psychosocial values in young adulthood

Journal of Adult Development, 17( 2), 70-80.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

The current project investigates wisdom and positive psychosocial characteristics in young adults in a series of three overlapping studies. Study 1 ( N 02=0261) investigated wisdom and ego-integrity, values, and life attitudes. Results indicated that wisdom was positively correlated with ego-integrity and self/other-enhancing values, as well as a sense of personal coherence; wisdom was negatively correlated with hedonistic values. Study 2 ( N 02=0262) investigated wisdom and attachment anxiety/avoidance and life attitudes. Results replicated the findings for the life attitudes of Coherence and Existential Vacuum demonstrated in study 1 and extended these findings by showing predicted correlations among wisdom and four other life attitudes, as well as demonstrated negative correlations among wisdom and attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety. Study 3 ( N 02=0262) showed that wisdom positively predicted attributional complexity, a variable found to reduce social judgement biases. Implications and future directions are discussed.

Webster J. D., Westerhof G. J., & Bohlmeijer E. T . ( 2012).

Wisdom and mental health across the lifespan

Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69( 2), 209-218.

URL     PMID:23275496      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract OBJECTIVES: The relationships between wisdom and age and between wisdom and mental health are complex with empirical results often inconsistent. We used a lifespan sample and broad, psychometrically sound measures of wisdom and mental health to test for possible age trends in wisdom and its subcomponents and the relationship between wisdom and hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being. METHOD: Participants included 512 Dutch adults ranging in age from 17 to 92 (M age = 46.46, SD = 21.37), including 186 men and 326 women. Participants completed measures of wisdom, physical health, mental health, and personality. RESULTS: Significant quadratic trends indicated that middle-aged adults scored higher on wisdom than younger and older adults. Investigation of wisdom subcomponents illustrated that a complex pattern of increases and decreases in different aspects of wisdom helped account for these age findings. Bivariate correlations showed the expected positive association between wisdom and mental health. Hierarchic regression analyses indicated that the positive association between wisdom and mental health remained significant after accounting for demographic variables (i.e., sex, age, education) and personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience). DISCUSSION: Age trends in the components of wisdom (older adults higher in life experience but lower in openness relative to younger and middle-aged adults) help explain the curvilinear pattern showing an advantage in wisdom for middle-aged adults. The greater association between wisdom and eudaimonic well-being suggests that wise persons enhance mental health by pursuing meaningful activities.

Webster J.D., Deng X.C . ( 2015).

Paths from trauma to intrapersonal strength: Worldview, posttraumatic growth, and wisdom

Journal of Loss and Trauma, 20, 253-266.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Both posttraumatic growth and wisdom have been linked with traumatic life events as predictors and various mental health factors as outcomes. One hundred thirty males and 190 females wrote brief trauma narratives and completed measures of worldview, posttraumatic growth, wisdom, and indicators of intrapersonal strength. Correlational results indicated that posttraumatic growth and wisdom were positively associated. Using structural equation modeling, we examined pathways from stress to intrapersonal strength via changes in worldview, posttraumatic growth, and wisdom. The model accounted for 50% of the variance in intrapersonal strength and supported the prediction that changes in worldview precede both posttraumatic growth and wisdom. Both posttraumatic growth and wisdom measures contributed independently to intrapersonal strength. Implications for posttraumatic growth and wisdom research are discussed.

Webster J. D., Weststrate N. M., Ferrari M., Munroe M., & Pierce T. W . ( 2017).

Wisdom and meaning in emerging adulthood

Emerging Adulthood, 6( 2), 1-19.

[本文引用: 1]

Weststrate N. M. & Glück J.. , (2017a).

Wiser but not sadder, blissful but not ignorant: Exploring the co-development of wisdom and well-being over time

In M. Robinson, Eid (eds.), The happy mind: Cognitive contributions to well- being (pp. 459-480). Springer International Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

For thousands of years, philosophers have argued that wisdom makes the good life possible. Yet, paradoxically, the development of wisdom has been strongly associated with difficult life events—life-ch

Weststrate& N. M. & Glück J. , ( 2017 b).

Hard-earned wisdom: Exploratory processing of difficult life experience is positively associated with wisdom

Developmental Psychology, 53( 4), 800-814.

URL     PMID:28333530      [本文引用: 2]

Laypersons and experts believe that wisdom is cultivated through a diverse range of positive and negative life experiences. Yet, not all individuals with life experience are wise. We propose that one possible determinant of growth in wisdom from life experience is self-reflection. In a life span sample of adults (N = 94) ranging from 26 to 92 years of age, we examined wisdom's relationship to self-reflection by investigating "why" people report reflecting on the past (i.e., reminiscence functions) and "how" they reflect within autobiographical memories of difficult life events (i.e., autobiographical reasoning). We assessed wisdom using self-report, performance, and nomination approaches. RESULTS indicated that wisdom was unrelated to the frequency of self-reflection; however, wiser people differed from others in their (a) reasons for reminiscence and (b) mode of autobiographical reasoning. Across 3 methods for assessing wisdom, wisdom was positively associated with exploratory processing of difficult life experience (meaning-making, personal growth), whereas redemptive processing (positive emotional reframing, event resolution) was positively associated with adjustment. This study suggests that developmental pathways in the wake of adversity may be partially determined by how individuals self-reflectively process significant life experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record(c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

Weststrate N. M., Ferrari M., Fournier M. A., & McLean K. C . ( 2018).

“It was the best worst day of my life”: Narrative content, structure, and process in wisdom- fostering life event memories

The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 12( 11), 1-15.

URL     PMID:29471498      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine laypeople's subjective understanding of their own wisdom development. To do this, autobiographical memories of wisdom-fostering life events were examined for (a) life-event characteristics, and (b) self-reflective processes believed to support growth in wisdom through life experience. Methods: Midlife adults (N = 482) provided a written autobiographical memory of a wisdom-fostering life event. Memories were content analyzed by expert coders for life-event characteristics (i.e., fundamentality, emotional valence, cultural normativity, and specific event types) and self-reflective processes (i.e., narrative coherence, meaning-making, and personal growth). Participants also completed self-report and performance measures of wisdom. Results: Wisdom-fostering life events tended to be fundamental to life, culturally non-normative, and emotionally negative. Participants frequently reported developing wisdom from relationship events (e.g., interpersonal conflict, divorce) and life-threatening/mortality events (e.g., death, serious illness). Wisdom was positively associated with reconstructive (i.e., narrative coherence) and analytical (i.e., meaning-making, personal growth) components of self-reflection. Self-reflective processes varied as a function of life-event characteristics. Discussion: This study emphasizes the role of both persons and environments in the development of wisdom, and highlights the importance of self-reflection as a mechanism through which wisdom is constructed from life experience.

Wink P. & Helson R., ( 1997).

Practical and transcendent wisdom: Their nature and some longitudinal findings

Journal of Adult Development, 4, 1-15.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Wink P., & Staudinger U.M . ( 2015).

Wisdom and psychosocial functioning in later life

Journal of Personality, 84( 3), 306-308.

URL     PMID:25546500      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract OBJECTIVE: We investigated the connection between wisdom-related performance, personality, and generativity to further the understanding of how they are interrelated. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 163 men and women participants between 68-77 years of age, mostly white, and predominantly middle class. Wisdom was assessed with the performance-based Berlin Wisdom Paradigm with the remaining measures being mostly self-report. RESULTS: As hypothesized, on the zero-order level, wisdom-related performance (WRP) was positively associated with (i) growth, a personality component indexed by openness to experience, psychological mindedness, and a sense of well-being derived from growth, purpose in life, and autonomy; (ii) adjustment, a personality component associated with life satisfaction, high levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, low neuroticism, a sense of well-being derived from positive relations with others, self-acceptance, and environmental mastery; and (iii) a generative concern for the welfare of others. Latent path analysis indicated that the bivariate associations between adjustment and wisdom and between generativity and wisdom were mediated by growth. CONCLUSIONS: Wise individuals are characterized by their ability to balance different personal strengths and interests, an integration that occurs, however, within the context of a dominant personality style marked by the pursuit of maturity through personal growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Zacher H., McKenna B., & Rooney D . ( 2013).

Effects of self-reported wisdom on happiness: Not much more than emotional intelligence?

Journal of Happiness Studies, 14( 6), 1697-1716.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Wisdom and emotional intelligence are increasingly popular topics among happiness scholars. Despite their conceptual overlap, no empirical research has examined their interrelations and incremental...

Zacher H., & Staudinger U.M . ( 2018).

Wisdom and well- being

In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Noba Scholar Handbook series: Subjective well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF publishers.

[本文引用: 4]

Zhao C-X., Shen S-C., Rao L-L., Zheng R., Liu H., & Li S . ( 2018).

Suffering a loss is good fortune: Myth or reality?

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 31( 3), 324-340.

URL    

We sometimes decide to take an offered option that results in apparent loss (e.g., unpaid overtime). Mainstream decision theory does not predict or explain this as a choice we want to make, whereas such a choice has long been described and highly regarded by the traditional Chinese dogma “ ” (suffering a loss is good fortune). To explore what makes the dogma work, we developed a celebrity anecdote‐based scale to measure “Chikui” (suffering a loss) likelihood and found that:(i) people with higher scores on the Chikui Likelihood Scale (CLS) were more likely to report higher scores on subjective well‐being and the Socioeconomic Index for the present and (ii) the current Socioeconomic Index could be positively predicted not only by current CLS scores but also by retrospective CLS scores recalled for the past, and the predictive effect was enhanced with increasing time intervals. Our findings suggest that “suffering a loss is good fortune” is not a myth but a certain reality. 08 2017 The Authors Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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