心理科学进展, 2019, 27(3): 533-543 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00533

研究前沿

人格判断的线索及其有效性

吴婷, 郑涌,

西南大学心理学部, 重庆 400715

The validity of cues in personality judgment

WU Ting, ZHENG Yong,

Faculty of Psychological Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China

通讯作者: 郑涌, E-mail: zhengy@swu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-02-28   网络出版日期: 2019-03-15

基金资助: 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目.  15JJDZ ONGHE022

Received: 2018-02-28   Online: 2019-03-15

摘要

透镜模型强调线索的有效性是人格判断准确的重要条件。已有研究表明, 文字信息, 语音内容, 面孔图片, 反映不同情境的视频片段以及面对面交流涉及的言语、非言语信息在人格判断过程中发挥着重要作用。另一方面, 网络背景下常规的文字、视频信息等同样能够有效反映个体的人格特质, 而与人格特质密切相关的网络语言、表情的使用, 状态更新与点赞等特殊线索的有效性也值得深入探究。未来对人格判断线索的研究应加强现实生活情境以提高研究的生态效度, 考虑不同线索间的相互比较以考察线索有效性的适用条件, 深入探究网络情境中个体行为线索的有效性。

关键词: 人格判断 ; 线索 ; 有效性 ; 准确性 ; 网络情境

Abstract

The lens model emphasizes that the validity of cues is important in accurate personality judgment. Existing research indicates that text messages, voice communication, face images, video clips reflecting different situations, and face-to-face communication involving many kinds of verbal and nonverbal information play an important role in the process of personality judgment. On the other hand, conventional text and video information against the background of the network can also effectively reflect an individual's personality traits. Besides, the validity of some network languages—the use of facial expressions and status updates and clicking “like,” which are closely related to personality traits—is worth further exploration. Future research should consider the cues into the real-life situation and improve the ecological validity. It is also important to consider comparison between different cues to see which kind of lead is more effective. Finally, future research should be conducted from the perspective of the validity of the individual behaviors in the network situation to try to understand the cues of personality judgment more deeply.

Keywords: personality judgment ; cues ; validity ; accuracy ; network situation

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本文引用格式

吴婷, 郑涌. (2019). 人格判断的线索及其有效性. 心理科学进展, 27(3), 533-543

WU Ting, ZHENG Yong. (2019). The validity of cues in personality judgment. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(3), 533-543

初识一个人, 你很可能会依据他的穿着打扮、言谈举止等判断这个人是否外向、是否待人和善等。实际上, 人格判断(personality judgment)的线索无处不在, 人格判断的过程也时刻在发生, 准确的人格判断对个体的心理健康、人际关系等具有积极影响(Decuyper, Bolle, & Fruyt, 2012; Human & Biesanz, 2013; Letzring, 2015; Mayer, Phillips, & Barry, 2015)。然而, 各类信息中, 哪些是反映人格特质的有效线索?这些线索的有效性又受哪些因素影响?以及随着信息技术的不断发展, 网络背景下反映人格特质的有效线索又有哪些?从多种信息中探索人格判断的有效线索不仅具有人格心理学理论价值, 也具有社会实践及临床意义。

1 人格判断的准确性与线索的有效性

1.1 人格判断准确性的衡量指标

人格判断强调准确性, 准确性即个体依据线索对目标人格特质的描述与其真实人格特质的相符程度(Funder, 1999; Funder & West, 1993)。一般认为, 人格判断的准确性有三个衡量指标, 即自我-他人一致性(self-other agreement); 他人-他人一致性(consensus)以及行为预测(behavioral prediction)。自我-他人一致性是指判断者对目标人格特质的描述与目标自我描述的一致性程度(Funder & West, 1993; Kenny, 1994); 他人-他人一致性是指两个及以上的个体对同一目标人格特质描述的一致性程度(Funder & West, 1993; Funder, 2012); 行为预测是指个体对目标人格特质的判断在某种意义上能够预测目标的行为或与行为相关的生活事件(Funder, 2012)。以往研究指出, 行为预测更能够反映人格判断的准确性, 但测量较为困难(Blackman & Funder, 1998; Funder, 2012; Gifford, 1994; Kenny, 1991), 因此, 自我-他人一致性与他人-他人一致性目前是人格判断领域的主要衡量指标。

1.2 透镜模型(lens model)

透镜模型指出, 人格判断准确的前提为线索的有效性, 即环境中的线索与人格特质的关联程度(Hirschmüller, Egloff, Nestler, & Back, 2013; Nestler & Back, 2013), 因此, 人格判断的准确性越高意味着线索的有效性越高。

Brunswik将透镜模型应用于人格判断, 该模型假定, 人类以潜在且间接的方式关注并利用环境中可感知的线索以推断他人的人格特质, 这种环境中的线索可视为反映个体人格特质的透镜(Brunswik, 1956; Nestler & Back, 2013)。透镜模型强调, 准确判断的过程需要目标展现出与特质相关的线索且能够被知觉者观察到, 知觉者进而利用该线索对目标做出判断。这一过程中, 线索有效性(cues validity)、线索利用性(cues utilization)以及知觉者的敏感性(sensitivity) (Back & Nestler, 2016; Gangestad, Simpson, Digeronimo, & Biek, 1992; Gifford, 1994; Nestler & Back, 2013)尤为关键。线索有效性指线索与特质的相关程度; 线索利用性即知觉者将线索纳入判断过程的程度; 知觉者的敏感性越高表明其越能剔除无效线索而依赖有效线索, 进而判断也越准确。

透镜模型强调环境中可观察的信号(Nestler & Back, 2013), 那么与个体密切关联的语言文字信息, 对话中的语音特点, 显而易见的面部、肢体动作变化等非言语信息, 与他人交流互动过程中的更多种信息以及网络背景下的各类信息与行为是否能够成为反映人格特质的透镜都是该模型可关注的内容。

2 单一的人格判断线索

2.1 文字信息

语言文字信息是人格判断的线索中形式最为简单的一类。以往研究表明, 来自于个体内部与外部的各类文字信息是反映人格特质的有效线索。如个体思维内部高度私密的自然意识流文字可提供判断神经质的信息(Holleran & Mehl, 2008), 基于特定词汇的创造性写作(Küfner, Back, Nestler, & Egloff, 2010)是反映开放性与宜人性的有效指标。Dunlop, Mccoy和Staben (2017)的研究显示, 依据完整的个人目标清单或某单个目标所做出的人格判断能够达到显著的自评-他评一致。而与个人生活领域有关的兴趣爱好、学业学习、未来计划、朋友、家庭等外部文字内容是反映开放性水平的有效线索(Borkenau, Mosch, Tandler, & Wolf, 2016)。Burusic和Ribar (2014)也强调, 文字信息对于不同特质具有重要的诊断作用。

2.2 语音信息

语音信息可借助电子激活记录器(Electronically Activated Recorder)收集, 由于使用者不能知晓它何时被激活, 因此, 它可记录个体较为自然的语音内容(Holtzman, Vazire, & Mehl, 2010; Manson & Robbins, 2017)。该工具所记录的内容可反映个体的人格特质, Mehl, Gosling和Pennebaker (2006)分析该工具所记录的个体两天内的语音事件内容显示, 个体用于交谈的时间反映了外倾性水平, 誓言类词语的使用与宜人性呈负相关, 到课频率与责任心存在高度相关。并且, 个体的表现在性别上存在显著差异, 如在男性群体中, 自言自语是内倾的表现; 而在女性群体中, 笑声是情绪稳定性的反映指标。重要的是, 判断者所拥有的有关人格特质如何在日常生活中体现的内隐理论是非常准确的。Holtzman等(2010)使用该工具欲描述自恋个体在日常生活中的表现, 分析内容显示, 自恋个体的确表现出更高的外倾性与更低的宜人性。Beer和Vazire (2017)也认为它是收集外倾性与神经质信息的理想方法。

相较于文字信息, 语音信息在此基础上增加了嗓音的音调与情绪变化等内容。从嗓音的音调高低角度讲, 以往研究表明, 低音调嗓音与令人喜欢的人格特质相联系(Tigue, Borak, O'Connor, Schandl, & Feinberg, 2012), 同时这种嗓音也被知觉为更具吸引力(Collins, 2000; Klofstad, Anderson, & Peters, 2012; Mcaleer, Todorov, & Belin, 2014), 更有能力(Klofstad, Anderson, & Nowicki, 2015), 以及更高的支配性(Jones, Feinberg, Debruine, Little, & Vukovic, 2010; Mcaleer et al., 2014; Puts, Gaulin, & Verdolini, 2006; Tsantani, Belin, Paterson, & Mcaleer, 2016)。高低音调、性别与信任之间存在交互关系, 如高音调的男性嗓音被认为更值得信任(Tsantani et al., 2016), 而低音调的女性嗓音却被知觉为更值得信任(Klofstad et al., 2012)。另一方面, 个体嗓音的紧张度与对神经质的判断显著相关(Hirschmüller, Egloff, Schmukle, Nestler, & Back, 2015), 而嗓音的温暖度与对自尊的知觉存在关联(Hirschmüller, Schmukle, Krause, Back, & Egloff, 2018)。

然而, 以往关于语音线索与人格判断的研究大多缺少发声主体的人格自评信息, 未来研究可比较自评与他评以及不同判断者间的一致性, 以进一步探究语音线索的有效性。

2.3 行为薄片

行为薄片(thin-slice of behavior)可包括面孔图片、行为视频及其他一些非常规线索, 这类线索的研究表明个体能够依据完全的甚至是有限的非言语信息快速且准确地判断目标的人格特质(Ambady, 2010; Ambady & Rosenthal, 1993; Tackett, Herzhoff, Kushner, & Rule, 2016)。

2.3.1 面孔

Oosterhof和Todorov (2008)将面孔评估结构化, 指出面孔评估基于相互垂直的两个维度:效价(valence)与支配性(dominance)。效价指他人将面孔知觉为可接近或需要回避, 支配性体现面孔主体的身体强壮程度。面孔的效价与支配性可反映个体的信任与支配性水平, 如高度信任的面孔是高兴、愉快的, 高度支配性的面孔体现了个体的身体强壮。Walker和Vetter (2016)的研究指出, 面孔评估的信任和支配性与宜人性和外倾性高度重合, 随后研究者改变反映在面孔上的人格维度强度, 个体对面孔做出的判断也随着维度强度的变化而变化, 这种评价在不同年龄、受教育水平、职业以及不同文化的判断者之间表现出一致性。

Penton-voak, Pound, Little和Perrett (2006)将人格维度得分高低的两组面孔进行合成, 个体可据此准确判断宜人性与外倾性。考虑到生态效度, Sutherland等(2015)选用1000张日常生活中的面孔图片作为评价对象, 不同判断者对大五人格特质的判断表现出高度一致。Qiu, Lu, Yang, Qu和Zhu (2015)也指出日常的自拍照与人格特质存在高度相关, 观察者可据此准确判断目标的开放性水平。

此外, 最初依据面孔图片的判断可影响一个月后的面对面交流过程, 同时也会影响面对面交流中的人格判断结果(Gunaydin, Selcuk, & Zayas, 2016)。Todorov, Olivola, Dotsch和Mendesiedlecki (2015)也指出, 当多种信息资源与面孔同时出现时, 人们总是错误地假定自己依据的主要线索是面孔。可见, 完整的面孔是人格判断中的一类有效线索。

但就更为精细的面部特征而言, Borkenau等(2009)指出面孔的愉悦程度对外倾性的判断具有重要调节作用, 积极情绪的表达(如更高的面孔信任度)可作为外倾性的有效线索, 但个体也被知觉为更积极(Petrican, Todorov, & Grady, 2014)。Schneider和Carbon (2017)对个体的自拍照进行精细解读, 结果发现, 观察者可根据右半部面孔准确判断主体的情绪稳定性与健康水平; 从左半部面孔判断外倾性信息和与情感相关的内容(Jia & Lindell, 2016; Kramer & Ward, 2011)。自拍照中个体的眼睛越注视着镜头, 观察者对其宜人性的评分越高, 紧闭的嘴唇与对外倾性的评估负相关, 而鸭嘴脸(duckface; 噘嘴自拍)的呈现与对神经质的判断正相关(Guntuku, Qiu, Roy, Lin, & Jakhetiya, 2015)。实际上, 人格判断领域中关于面孔具体特征有效性的研究并不多, 这可能表明局部的面孔特征并不完全是提供大五人格特质的有效线索, 上述研究结果也表明观察者的判断可能会因某些特征的出现而发生偏离。Penton-voak等(2006)也指出局部面孔特征或许并不能完全启动人格判断的过程, 这一过程可能更依赖于整体的面部构型。因此, 完整面孔可能才是更为有效的人格判断线索。

2.3.2 视频片段

视频片段的内容可有多种形式, 如让目标进行自我介绍(Hirschmüller et al., 2018); 或者由一个人询问一系列关于“去认识你” (“getting-to- know-you”)的问题, 个体进行相应回答(Rogers & Biesanz, 2015); 也可以是两人的日常对话记录(Yeagley, Morling, & Nelson, 2007); 更有研究设置15种场景(如讲一个笑话、唱一首歌、讲一个有趣的故事等)要求目标逐个演绎(Borkenau, Mauer, Riemann, Spinath, & Angleitner, 2004)。实际上, 相较于面孔图片, 视频片段不仅包含了个体的言语信息, 它同时也包含了诸如面部表情、肢体动作以及外貌特征等非言语信息, 同时, 它还可能提供了个体在不同情境中是否表现出人格-行为一致的信息。

以自尊为例, 无论是关于自我介绍的有声视频(Hirschmüller et al., 2018)还是无声视频(Yeagley et al., 2007), 都能够准确反映个体真实的自尊水平。Hirschmüller等(2015)的研究表明, 观察者依据自我介绍的视频片段可准确判断个体的神经质水平, 其中, 个体的声音线索、动态的面孔与身体姿态均具有显著的线索有效性。一方面, 自我介绍中的言语信息可有效反映个体的人格特质, 另一方面, 视频中所展现的多种非言语信息也是提供人格特质信息的有效线索。

就不同情境而言, Human, Biesanz, Finseth, Pierce和Le (2014)设置了两种情境, 让个体对着镜头大声朗读纽约时报标题, 接着与一位女性进行交谈并回答一系列个人问题, 或让个体独自对着镜头回答研究者提前设置好的问题。研究指出, 适应良好的个体在不同情境中表现出更高的人格-行为一致性, 观察者的判断同样表现出较高的一致性。Borkenau等(2004)让个体参与到15种情境中, 同样地, 个体依旧表现出人格-行为一致性, 观察者的判断也表现出跨情境一致性。可见, 个体在不同情境中表现出的行为是一种稳定且有效的线索。尽管在不同情境中个体能够表现出人格-行为一致, 但是否存在使个体的行为表现与人格特质出现不一致的情境还需深入探究。

2.3.3 其他

此外, 个体身上散发出的味道(Sorokowska, 2013; Sorokowska, Sorokowski, & Havlíček, 2016), 喜欢的鞋类风格(Gillath, Bahns, Ge, & Crandall, 2012), 偏爱的音乐类型(Rentfrow & Gosling, 2006), 工作的场所和居住的卧室环境(Gosling, Ko, Mannarelli, & Morris, 2002)等都可有效反映个体的人格特质。可见, 人格判断的有效线索众多, 值得研究者深入探究。

3 面对面交流中的更多线索

循环设计(round-robin design) (Kenny & Albright, 1987; Kenny & Winquist, 2001)常用于研究面对面交流, 该设计要求分组成员必须在面对面情境下对彼此的人格特质做出判断。每组成员人数最少为两人, 一般为5~7人, 成员间交流与否, 交流内容、时长等视研究目的而定。如Brown和Bernieri (2017)让参与者5~7人一组, 首先只进行观察便立即对目标的人格特质进行判断; 而后研究者将参与者匹配成对并让其在进行5分钟交谈后再次做出判断。结果显示, 在快速观察条件下, 个体仅能够对目标的部分大五人格特质做出准确判断, 而在5分钟交谈后, 所有的人格特质都能够被准确知觉。

面对面交流(face-to-face communication)过程中, 个体为让对方获得全面的信息而可能展现出更多线索(Williams, 1977), 因而提高了人格判断的准确性。Gunaydin等(2016)指出, 依据面孔图片对外倾性的判断在面对面交流后所产生的更正最为明显, 这可能是由于诸如多话、爱笑等与外倾性相关的行为线索在面对面交流中更易体现。Okdie, Guadagno, Bernieri, Geers和Mclarney- Vesotski (2011)比较面对面交流与网络交流背景下的人格判断表明, 面对面交流情境中判断的自我-他人一致性更高。Wall, Taylor, Dixon, Conchie和Ellis (2013)比较了网络、电话、面对面三种情境, 随着背景丰富性的不断增加, 观察者对外倾性与神经质判断的准确性不断提高。这可能是由于面对面交流过程中包含了大量社会线索从而促进了个体对他人的评估(Okdie et al., 2011)。

Argyle和Dean (1965)提到, 亲密度来源于个体间的目光接触、亲近、朝向、交流主题以及其他一些线索, 这表明面对面过程中涉及到的言语、非言语交流与个体间的亲密度存在密切相关。恋人或配偶是个体时常面对且进行交流的对象, 这一过程个体可获得更多更为有效的线索。以往研究结果也显示, 人格判断的准确性在陌生人之间最低, 在恋人或配偶间最高(Allik, de Vries, & Realo, 2016; Connelly & Ones, 2010; Watson, Hubbard, & Wiese, 2000)。同时, 恋人能够准确知觉对方日常生活中的情绪体验和情绪调节策略的使用(Clark, Von Culin, Clark-Polner, & Lemay, 2016; Eldesouky, English, & Gross, 2016); 相比于父母与朋友, 伴侣也能够更为准确地知觉对方的孤独水平(Luhmann, Bohn, Holtmann, Koch, & Eid, 2016)。陈少华(2017)指出, 透镜模型亦可用于分析熟人之间的有效线索。对于一些模糊特质(大方的、老练的), 熟人比陌生人更易于与目标的自我判断达成一致(陈少华, 吴颢, 赖庭红, 2013; 吴颢, 陈少华, 2014)。因此, 亲近他人更有可能获得更多关键且有效的线索, 从而提高人格判断的准确性(Vazire, 2010)。

4 网络背景下的线索

据中国互联网络信息中心(CNNIC)报告显示, 截至2017年6月, 中国网民规模高达7.51亿, 互联网普及率为54.3%。网络背景下人格判断的研究显示, 个体对开放性判断的准确性更高(Markey & Wells, 2002; Stopfer, Egloff, Nestler, & Back, 2014; Vazire & Gosling, 2004; Wall et al., 2013), 而现实情境中个体对他人外倾性与责任心判断的准确性更高(Brown & Bernieri, 2017; Wall et al., 2013), 这可能是由于诸如穿衣风格、说话声音大小、随意动作呈现等与个体外倾性与责任心相关程度更高的线索更易在面对面情境中显现(Borkenau & Liebler, 1992; Di Domenico, Quitasol, & Fournier, 2015; Nestler & Back, 2013)。这也提示, 网络背景下的人格判断不同于现实情境, 探究网络背景下的有效线索并与现实情境做比较具有重要意义。

4.1 常规线索

个体在网络背景下呈现的文字信息可为人格判断提供有效线索, 如以脸书主页(Facebook profile)的个人简介内容为线索, 观察者可准确判断目标的开放性与责任心, 研究进一步揭示对外倾性的判断基于词汇线索, 对责任心的判断基于对职业地位的描述(Darbyshire, Kirk, Wall, & Kaye, 2016)。同时, 个人简介中的兴趣爱好、分组列表、公告栏等文字内容也可有效反映个体的受欢迎需要, 与吸引力相关的自尊水平(Stopfer, Egloff, Nestler, & Back, 2014)。此外, 在线社交网站(OSNs)简介与撰写的文章(Tskhay & Rule, 2014), 个人网页上的身份宣示(identity claims) (Vazire & Gosling, 2004), 博客内容(Li & Chignell, 2010), 电子邮件内容(Gill, Oberlander, & Austin, 2006)等文字信息都为人格判断提供了有效线索。Wall等(2013)也强调网络背景下语言线索的重要性, 由于缺乏非言语线索, 观察者在进行人格判断时都将注意集中于文字信息。可见, 深入探究网络背景下文字信息对于人格判断的有效性非常有必要。

随着网络的不断发展, 众多社交平台都出现了语音输入、语音聊天等功能, 但以往研究并未涉及网络背景下语音信息对于人格判断的有效性等问题, 可能对于人格判断而言网络背景下的语音信息与现实非面对面交流中语音信息的有效性并无显著差异, 后续研究应对此进行进一步验证。

社交网站——“油管” (YouTube)为众多视频拍摄爱好者提供了展示平台, 个体可将不同于实验室特定设置的各类视频片段上传于该网站。Biel和Gatica-Perez (2012)的研究显示, 依据该网站视频片段的人格判断达到显著的他人一致性, 视频中个体表现出的对话活动、声音线索、目光、肢体动作等都与人格特质存在不同程度相关。Teijeiro-Mosquera, Biel, Alba-Castro和Gatica-Perez (2015)也表示, 视频中面部表情的表达与人格印象的形成显著相关。可见, 网络背景下非特定情境的视频片段同样可包含众多有效的言语、非言语线索。

4.2 特有线索

4.2.1 网络语言

网络语言的使用是网络背景下特有的现象, 国外有火星文(textspeak), 如“LOL”代表“Laughing Out Loud”, “BRB”指“Be Right Back”等, 国内常有层出不穷的网络新词占据搜索引擎排行榜, 如, “城会玩” “活久见”等。网络语言的使用可使聊天内容更为轻松愉快, 使个体感到更加亲密(Liu, Lin, & Huang, 2013)。Fullwood, Quinn, Chen- Wilson, Chadwick和Reynolds (2015)的研究指出, 若个体在描述中使用了网络语言, 他将被知觉为具有较低的宜人性、开放性与自尊水平, 以及较高的情绪稳定性, 由于缺少与自评信息的一致性比较, 这种判断是否准确有待进一步探究。Scott, Sinclair, Short和Bruce (2014)表示, 相比于使用拼写错误的语言和火星文的个体, 使用正确语言的目标将会被知觉为更有智慧, 更有能力, 更可能被雇用。并且, 网络语言的使用还可用于区分个体自我监控能力的高低(He, Glas, Kosinski, Stillwell, & Veldkamp, 2014)。网络语言的使用与印象形成存在紧密相关, 但这种印象是否准确还需深入探究。

4.2.2 网络表情

在网络交流情境中, 符号表情(emoticons, 如:-), 一种笑脸)的使用可弥补非面对面交流存在的某些缺陷, 增加文字信息的情感基调以促进传递的有效性, 使个体能够调整言语以表达当前的情绪状态(Kaye, Wall, & Malone, 2016; Oleszkiewicz et al., 2017; Wall, Kaye, & Malone, 2016; Walther & Addario, 2001)。符号表情的使用与人格特质存在高度相关, 如脸书中符号表情的使用与开放性和宜人性正相关(Wall et al., 2016); 宜人性与神经质得分高的个体比得分低的个体使用更多的符号表情(Oleszkiewicz et al., 2017)。Wall等(2016)的研究显示, 不同判断者基于符号表情的使用情况对目标外倾性、开放性、宜人性以及神经质的判断可达到显著一致; 同时, 对外倾性与开放性的判断也与目标的自我描述显著一致。但该研究中的判断者只有7人, 多种人格特质达到显著的判断者间一致性并非不可能, 后续研究应增加判断者数量, 对这类线索的有效性进行进一步验证。

符号表情的进一步发展为表情图标(emojis, 如 ), 近年来, 表情图标的使用在全球范围内盛行(Novak, Smailović, Sluban, & Mozetič, 2015)。Marengo, Giannotta和Settanni (2017)让参与者基于1600余种表情图标讨论其与人格特质的关系并从中筛选出可代表自己和朋友人格特质的表情图标清单, 分析结果显示, 个体自我认同的91种表情图标中有36种分别与情绪稳定性、外倾性以及宜人性相关, 如传递消极情感的表情图标(愤怒、悲伤、失望等)与情绪稳定性呈负相关; 而传递积极情感的手势或身体姿态则与外倾性呈正相关。可见, 不同符号表情与不同人格特质存在不同的相关关系, 那么基于不同网络表情使用情况的人格判断将可能成为未来研究热点。

4.2.3 网络状态更新与点赞

众多网络社交平台都包含状态更新(status updates)功能, 如国外的脸书, 国内的微信朋友圈、微博等。网络状态更新与人格特质存在紧密相关, 具体表现为, 人格特质可预测网络状态更新(Winter et al., 2014); 相比于内倾个体, 外倾个体在脸书墙上更新动态与照片, 点击分享, 对他人点赞、评论等行为更为频繁(Lee, Ahn, & Kim, 2014); 就内容而言, 外倾个体常在脸书上更新自己的日常生活与社会活动, 开放性得分高的个体更可能更新与智力主题相关的内容, 责任心高的个体较多更新关于子女的内容, 低自尊个体更多地更新关于伴侣的信息(Marshall, Lefringhausen, & Ferenczi, 2015)。

点赞(click like)是网络社交平台上常见的另一种行为。Hong, Chen和Li (2017)指出, 点赞频率与人际慷慨、公我意识正相关。点赞行为可用于准确推测个体的外倾性, 性取向, 宗教、种族信仰, 政治观点等(Kosinski, Stillwell, & Graepel, 2013)。同时, 点赞行为可反映个体与伴侣和朋友的人格相似性(Youyou, Schwartz, Stillwell, & Kosinski, 2017)。基于点赞行为的人格判断研究显示, 对开放性判断的自我-他人一致性最高(Youyou, Kosinski, & Stillwell, 2015)。

5 问题与展望

从单一的文字信息, 到包含更多种信息的面对面交谈, 不同线索、不同情境的相互交织, 使个体必须利用各类有效线索才能对他人的人格做出准确判断。综观这一领域, 虽然研究者们对人格判断的线索展开了大量研究, 但由于线索本身的复杂性, 还存在着许多亟需解决的问题。未来的研究方向可集中在以下几个方面。

第一, 改进研究设计, 提高生态效度。实验室条件下的文字信息、面孔图片或视频片段的确可提供有效的人格判断线索, 但现实生活中个体面对的是真实的语言交流, 富于表情变化的面孔以及连贯的行为模式, 研究的生态效度问题不容小觑, 后续研究可采用日记法记录个体的日常生活事件以作为判断人格的文字线索, 利用动态变化的面孔材料(GIF图)以及记录被试日常生活的视频片段等, 以现实生活为原材料探究人格判断线索的有效性。

第二, 将不同线索、不同情境进行比较。Letzring和Human (2014)指出, 个体间讨论行为比表现出该行为更能够促进人格判断的准确性, 这表明言语信息较行为表现具有更高的有效性。现实情境中, 多种线索常同时出现, 判断者需权衡比较哪些线索更为有效, 因此, 有必要将多种线索进行相互比较, 如将同一内容处理成文字与语音形式, 可探究个体的嗓音特点等在人格判断中的有效性。透镜模型强调将特质考虑进特定的情境(Back & Nestler, 2016), 这提示, 不同情境中判断的准确性可能不同, 如Okdie等(2011)比较面对面交流与网络交流两种情境下人格判断的准确性, 结果表明面对面交流情境中判断的自我-他人一致性更高。因此, 研究者应考虑不同情境间的比较, 如在竞争与合作条件下个体对同一目标的人格判断是否存在差异, 何种条件下判断的准确性更高等; 当然, 研究者也可依据研究目的设置不同情境进行对比。

第三, 重视网络背景下的人格判断。一方面, 网络在人类生活中的地位愈发重要; 另一方面, 网络社交平台中, 各类网络语言层出不穷, 网络表情的使用日渐丰富与多元化, 如国内的“表情包”, 国外的符号表情(Oleszkiewicz et al., 2017)等, 同时, 状态更新与点赞等网络行为也广泛流行。以往研究揭示人格特质与网络行为存在紧密相关, 因此, 探究网络语言、网络表情的使用情况, 状态更新与点赞等行为以及这类行为所涉及的内容等对于判断人格的有效性将是一个有意义的切入点。此外, 也可将网络情境与现实情境进行比较, 如判断者根据个体的网络个人简介进行评价后, 与目标进行语音交流或会面并做出二次判断, 以考察判断准确性的变化情况。

第四, 探究中国文化背景下的不同线索。以中文材料为线索的人格判断是否与西方研究结果存在差异; 东方面孔所提供的信息是否不同于西方面孔; 从网络平台角度讲, 国外的Facebook、Twitter、Instagram, 国内的微信、QQ、微博、知乎等, 不同工具本身可能就存在差异, 因而平台上所反映的信息可能也为人格判断提供了不同线索。因此, 从中西方差异的角度探究人格判断的有效线索具有重要研究价值。

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Abstract An experimental study examined the effect of the amount of available information on interjudge consensus and self–other agreement (accuracy) in personality judgment. Three hundred sixty perceiver-subjects (180 F and 180 M) each watched one of 6 targets (3 F and 3 M) on videotape for 5–10, 15–20, or 25–30 min. Accuracy was significantly greater in the longest than in the shortest observation condition. Within this overall difference, the linear effect of information on accuracy was strong (and significant) only for the most visible of the traits that were judged, including those relevant to extraversion. A fairly high level of consensus was achieved after the shortest period of observation and did not increase with longer observation for any kind of trait. Among a separate group of acquaintances who had known the targets for an average of 14 months, both accuracy and consensus was much higher than our perceiver-subjects achieved after 30 min. Further analyses showed that, with more information, consensus was more highly associated with accuracy, even though the level of consensus did not change.

Borkenau P. & Liebler A., ( 1992).

Trait inferences: Sources of validity at zero acquaintance

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62( 4), 645-657.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Consensus between self-ratings and stranger ratings of personality traits was investigated. A sample of 100 adults was videotaped while entering and walking through a room, sitting down, looking into the camera, and reading a standard text. The targets then provided self-descriptions on 5 personality factors. A sample of 24 strangers who had never seen the targets before was given 1 of 4 types of information on the targets: (1) sound-film, (2) silent film, (3) still, or (4) audiotape. Strangers rated various physical attributes and 20 traits of each target. Level of information influenced the validity but not the reliability of the stranger ratings, which were most valid for extraversion and conscientiousness. Extraversion covaried most strongly with physical attributes, and implicit theories on the covariation of traits with physical attributes were more accurate for extraversion and conscientiousness than for agreeableness, emotional stability, and culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Borkenau P., Mauer N., Riemann R., Spinath F. M., & Angleitner A . ( 2004).

Thin slices of behavior as cues of personality and intelligence

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86( 4), 599-614.

URL     PMID:15053708      [本文引用: 3]

Self-reports, peer reports, intelligence tests, and ratings of personality and intelligence from 15 video-taped episodes were collected for 600 participants. The average cross-situational consistency of trait impressions across the 15 episodes was .43. Shared stereotypes related to gender and age were mostly accurate and contributed little to agreement among judges. Agreement was limited mainly by nonshared meaning systems and by nonoverlapping information. Personality inferences from thin slices of behavior were significantly associated with reports by knowledgeable informants. This association became stronger when more episodes were included, but gains in prediction were low beyond 6 episodes. Inferences of intelligence from thin slices of behavior strongly predicted intelligence test scores. A particularly strong single predictor was how persons read short sentences.

Borkenau P., Mosch A., Tandler N., & Wolf A . ( 2016).

Accuracy of judgments of personality based on textual information on major life domains

Journal of Personality, 84( 2), 214-224.

URL     PMID:25417640      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract We studied the accuracy of personality impressions relying on textual information on important life domains. Specifically, how is accuracy moderated by the trait being judged, information being provided, judgeability of target persons, and perceptiveness of judges? A sample of 208 students was recruited in groups of four mutual acquaintances who described themselves and each other on a measure of the Five-Factor Model of personality. Moreover, they wrote essays on their hobbies, friends, family, academic studies, and plans for the future and provided self-reports on possible predictors of expressive accuracy. The essays were delivered to 130 strangers who reported their impressions of the personality of the targets and provided self-reports on possible predictors of perceptive accuracy. Accuracy was measured by correlating these impressions with the descriptions of the targets by their acquaintances. The judges used the available information efficiently. Overall, impressions of Openness to Experience were most accurate, but accuracy depended on the information being provided. Several predictors of expressive and perceptive accuracy were identified using Biesanz's (2010) social accuracy model. The results advance our understanding of factors contributing to and moderating the accuracy of personality impressions based on textual information. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Brown J.A., & Bernieri F. , ( 2017).

Trait perception accuracy and acquaintance within groups: Tracking accuracy development

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43( 5), 716-728.

URL     PMID:28903638      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Previous work on trait perception has evaluated accuracy at discrete stages of relationships (e.g., strangers, best friends). A relatively limited body of literature has investigated changes in accuracy as acquaintance within a dyad or group increases. Small groups of initially unacquainted individuals spent more than 30 hr participating in a wide range of activities designed to represent common interpersonal contexts (e.g., eating, traveling). We calculated how accurately each participant judged others in their group on the big five traits across three distinct points within the acquaintance process: zero acquaintance, after a getting-to-know-you conversation, and after 10 weeks of interaction and activity. Judgments of all five traits exhibited accuracy above chance levels after 10 weeks. An examination of the trait rating stability revealed that much of the revision in judgments occurred not over the course of the 10-week relationship as suspected, but between zero acquaintance and the getting-to-know-you conversation.

Brunswik E. ( 1956). Perception and the representative design of psychological experiments. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Burusic J. & Ribar M., ( 2014).

The moderating role of self-presentation tactics: Judgments of personality traits and self-presentation of others based on a limited amount of information

Swiss Journal of Psychology, 73, 235-242.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present study is concerned with impression formation in a context in which the information about others is limited and at the same time private by its very nature. We examined the accuracy of judges’ ratings of target individuals’ basic personality traits, affective traits, and assertive self-presentation tactics based on the natural stream of thought of the latter. Furthermore, we explored the moderating role of self-presentation in accurate evaluations of others. A group of 86 participants recorded their natural stream of thought, which then served as the basis for the judges’ ratings. The participants also completed self-report measures of basic personality traits, affective traits, and assertive self-presentation tactics. The results partially confirmed that it is possible for judges to form an accurate impression of target individuals’ personalities in a context in which the judges possess a small amount of relatively private information about the target individuals. It was even possible for the judges to detect the target individuals’ self-presentation tactics, particularly self-promotion. In addition, individuals who use self-promotion and exemplification in a private context are often viewed differently than those who do so less often. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Clark M. S., Von Culin K. R., Clark-Polner E., & Lemay E. P . ( 2016).

Accuracy and projection in perceptions of partners' recent emotional experiences: Both minds matter

Emotion, 17( 2), 196-207.

URL     PMID:27808521      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In 2 studies involving 96 married couples (Study 1) and 118 romantic couples (Study 2), we investigated partners' perceptions of each others' recently experienced emotions. In both studies, both individuals within each couple independently provided reports of (a) their own recently experienced emotions, (b) their perceptions of their partners' recently experienced emotions, and (c) the extent to which they had expressed the emotions they had experienced to their partner. We then assessed the extent to which perceptions of partners' emotions were (a) accurate (i.e., in agreement with partners' independent reports of their own feelings) and (b) a function of the perceiver's own emotions (i.e., projected). Significant evidence for both accuracy in perceiving emotions (4 of 7 emotions in Study 1; 8 of 9 emotions in Study 2) and for projection of perceivers' own emotions onto partners was obtained (5 of 7 emotions in Study 1; 9 of 9 emotions in Study 2). Effects for all remaining emotions trended in the same directions. There was almost no moderation of these effects by targets' having knowingly expressed the emotions. Implications of the patterning of findings for different emotions for the social functions of accuracy and projection in perceiving emotions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

Collins S.A . ( 2000).

Men's voices and women's choices

Animal Behaviour,60( 6), 773-780.

URL     PMID:11124875      [本文引用: 1]

I investigated the relationship between male human vocal characteristics and female judgements about the speaker. Thirty-four males were recorded uttering five vowels and measures were taken, from power spectrums, of the first five harmonic frequencies, overall peak frequency and formant frequencies (emphasized, resonance, frequencies within the vowel). Male body measures were also taken (age, weight, height, and hip and shoulder width) and the men were asked whether they had chest hair. The recordings were then played to female judges, who were asked to rate the males' attractiveness, age, weight and height, and to estimate the muscularity of the speaker and whether he had a hairy chest. Men with voices in which there were closely spaced, low-frequency harmonics were judged as being more attractive, older and heavier, more likely to have a hairy chest and of a more muscular body type. There was no relationship between any vocal and body characteristic. The judges' estimates were incorrect except for weight. They showed extremely strong agreement on all judgements. The results imply that there could be sexual selection through female choice for male vocal characteristics, deeper voices being preferred. However, the function of the preference is unclear given that the estimates were generally incorrect.

Connelly B.S., & Ones D.S . ( 2010).

An other perspective on personality: Meta-analytic integration of observers' accuracy and predictive validity

Psychological Bulletin, 136( 6), 1092-1122.

URL     PMID:21038940      [本文引用: 1]

The bulk of personality research has been built from self-report measures of personality. However, collecting personality ratings from other-raters, such as family, friends, and even strangers, is a dramatically underutilized method that allows better explanation and prediction of personality's role in many domains of psychology. Drawing hypotheses from D. C. Funder's (1995) realistic accuracy model about trait and information moderators of accuracy, we offer 3 meta-analyses to help researchers and applied psychologists understand and interpret both consistencies and unique insights afforded by other-ratings of personality. These meta-analyses integrate findings based on 44,178 target individuals rated across 263 independent samples. Each meta-analysis assessed the accuracy of observer ratings, as indexed by interrater consensus/reliability (Study 1), self-other correlations (Study 2), and predictions of (Study 3). The results show that although increased frequency of interacting with targets does improve accuracy in rating personality, informants' interpersonal intimacy with the target is necessary for substantial increases in other-rating accuracy. Interpersonal intimacy improved accuracy especially for traits low in visibility (e.g., Emotional Stability) but only minimally for traits high in evaluativeness (e.g., Agreeableness). In addition, observer ratings were strong predictors of . When the criterion was academic achievement or job performance, other-ratings yielded predictive validities substantially greater than and incremental to self-ratings. These findings indicate that extraordinary value can gained by using other-reports to measure personality, and these findings provide guidelines toward enriching personality theory. Various subfields of psychology in which personality variables are systematically assessed and utilized in research and practice can benefit tremendously from use of others' ratings to measure personality variables.

Darbyshire D., Kirk C., Wall H. J., & Kaye L. K . ( 2016).

Don't judge a (face)book by its cover: Exploring judgement accuracy of others' personality on Facebook

Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 380-387.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61A mixed methods approach was used to examine two major objectives.61Accuracy of first impressions formed after viewing a person's Facebook behaviour.61The online cues that people use when forming impressions how judgements are formed.61Openness and conscientiousness were judged most accurately.61Findings are discussed in terms of Funder's Realistic Accuracy Model.

Decuyper M., Bolle M. D., & Fruyt F. D . ( 2012).

Personality similarity, perceptual accuracy, and relationship satisfaction in dating and married couples

Personal Relationships, 19( 1), 128-145.

[本文引用: 2]

The association between actual and perceptual personality similarity and perceptual accuracy on relationship satisfaction is examined in 191 couples. Self- and partner ratings of personality were assessed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and relationship satisfaction using the Relationship Assessment Scale (S. S. Hendrick, A. Dicke, & C. Hendrick, 1998). Actual and perceptual similarity and perceptual accuracy were quantified using the index of profile agreement (R. R. McCrae, 1993) and L. J. Cronbach and G. C. Gleser's (1953) D-indices. These indices showed large variability in personality profiles within couples and considerable perceptual accuracy between raters. Actual similarity was positively associated with female relationship satisfaction, controlling for personality traits of both partners. Moreover, partial support was obtained for the positive associations between perceptual similarity and accuracy and relationship satisfaction.

Di Domenico S. I., Quitasol M. N., & Fournier M. A . ( 2015).

Ratings of conscientiousness from physical appearance predict undergraduate academic performance

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 39( 4), 339-353.

URL    

The present study examined whether the grade point averages (GPAs) of university students could be predicted from appearance-based ratings of their Conscientiousness. Undergraduate participants ( N = 249) provided self-reports of their Big Five personality traits and copies of their student transcripts from which their GPAs were obtained. Photographs of these undergraduates were then taken from which their personality traits were judged by unacquainted perceivers. Both aggregated and single perceiver-ratings of Conscientiousness predicted GPA. Aggregated perceiver-ratings predicted GPA incrementally over self-ratings, suggesting that appearance-based judgements of Conscientiousness may contain trait-relevant information beyond the scope of self-reports. These results contribute to a growing literature documenting the validity of appearance-based judgements of personality traits.

Dunlop W. L., Mccoy T. P., & Staben O . ( 2017).

From personal goals disclosed to personality judgments composed: Trait perceptions made on the basis of idiographic goals

Journal of Research in Personality, 68, 82-87.

[本文引用: 1]

Eldesouky L., English T., & Gross J. J . ( 2016).

Out of sight, out of mind? Accuracy and bias in emotion regulation trait judgments

Journal of Personality, 85( 4), 543-552.

URL     PMID:27152655      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Objective: The current study examined accuracy and bias in judging trait-level emotion regulation strategy use in romantic relationships and tested emotion-related and global predictors of these judgments. Method: Both members of 120 heterosexual couples ( M age = 20.39 years, 56.3% Caucasian) completed measures of emotion regulation (self-reported and perceived partner use of suppression and reappraisal), emotionality, emotional expressivity, and relationship quality. Results: Romantic partners were relatively accurate in judging suppression and reappraisal; though they had a tendency to underestimate use of both strategies. Reappraisal use was overestimated more among targets higher in positive expressivity, while suppression use was underestimated among targets higher in emotionality. In addition, women overestimated their partner's reappraisal use more than did men, and higher relationship quality predicted more positive biases in judging emotion regulation patterns. Conclusions: These findings suggest that romantic partners can judge each other's emotion regulation patterns with some degree of accuracy, but certain biases exist for specific strategies. The amount of accuracy and bias in emotion regulation judgments within romantic relationships may be influenced by both specific emotion-related characteristics of targets and global characteristics that broadly affect personality judgments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Fullwood C., Quinn S., Chen-Wilson J., Chadwick D., & Reynolds K . ( 2015).

Put on a smiley face: Textspeak and personality perceptions

Cyberpsychology Behavior & Social Networking, 18( 3), 147-151.

PMID:25751045      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract With the emergence of Web 2.0, there has been a dramatic surge in user-generated content. Although the Internet provides greater freedom in self-presentation, computer-mediated communication is characterized by a more relaxed attitude to grammar, spelling, and punctuation. The language of the Internet, or textspeak, may be suitable for casual interactions but inappropriate in professional contexts. Participant perceptions of an author's personality were tested in two distinct contexts (formal vs. informal) and the written information was manipulated under three levels of textspeak: none, low, and high. Participants judged the author as less conscientious and less open but more emotionally stable when textspeak was used. However, context had no impact. Personality perceptions of textspeak users differ to those who write in Standard English, and this is likely to extend to informal impression management contexts (e.g., online dating). These findings also have a number of implications, for example in terms of screening applicants via social media.

Funder D. C. ( 1999). Personality judgment: A realistic approach to person perception. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Funder D.C . ( 2012).

Accurate personality judgment

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21( 3), 177-182.

[本文引用: 3]

Funder D.C., & West S.G . ( 1993).

Consensus, self-other agreement, and accuracy in personality judgment: An Introduction

Journal of Personality, 6 (4)1, 457-476.

URL     PMID:8151499      [本文引用: 3]

ABSTRACT Consensus in personality judgment refers to the agreement with which two people (or more) can describe the personality of another; self-other agreement refers to the similarity between personality descriptions by the self and by others; and accuracy refers to the degree to which personality descriptions capture real attributes of the persons described. After years of focusing on other subjects, researchers recently have renewed their interest in these three topics. Current empirical research is philosophically diverse and includes studies incorporating pragmatic, constructivist, and realist approaches. Other research is resolving long-standing methodological problems and providing new analytic techniques for the study of consensus, self-other agreement, and accuracy. This special issue includes articles exemplifying all of these research approaches and documents that a new wave of research on consensus, self-other agreement, and accuracy in personality judgment now comprises a burgeoning field that has finally come of age.

Gangestad S. W., Simpson J. A., Digeronimo K., & Biek M . ( 1992).

Differential accuracy in person perception across traits: Examination of a functional hypothesis

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62( 4), 688-698.

URL     PMID:1583592      [本文引用: 1]

Although strangers can assess certain traits of unacquainted others with moderate validity, overall validity is low. Differential validity across traits may be due to (a) the extent to which targets display valid cues or (b) the extent to which perceivers validly use cues. A functionalist perspective suggests that valid cue utilization should vary with how important the consequences of accurate trait assessment are. It was predicted from this perspective that perceivers would judge strangers' sociosexuality more accurately than 3 other traits--social potency, social closeness, and stress reaction. Perceivers viewed 1-min videotaped segments of targets being interviewed and rated them on the 4 traits. Ratings were correlated with target-reported trait measures. As predicted, perceivers' ratings of male sociosexuality agreed relatively well with self-reports. This effect was moderated by sex of target and sex of perceiver.

Gifford R. ( 1994).

A lens-mapping framework for understanding the encoding and decoding of interpersonal dispositions in nonverbal behavior

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66( 2), 398-412.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Recent reviewers have concluded that dispositions are not very reliably encoded in nonverbal behavior, although observers seem eager to use nonverbal information to decode the dispositions of others. A modified Brunswik lens model (E. Brunswik, 1956) and behavior mapping were used to examine the encoding and decoding of 8 interpersonal dispositions from nonverbal cues. First, 20 triads completed self-assessments and were videotaped during conversation. Next, 38 of their nonverbal behaviors were independently scored. Finally, 21 unacquainted peers rated all 60 conversers on the same dispositions. Across the 8 dispositions, encoding multiple correlations ranged from 0 to .62 and decoding ranged from .74 to .82. Achievement (self-other correlations) ranged from .18 to .45. Some implications of the results for interpersonal conflict and personality assessment are discussed.

Gill A. J., Oberlander J., & Austin E . ( 2006).

Rating e-mail personality at zero acquaintance

Personality and Individual Differences, 40( 3), 497-507.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Electronic media are pervasive in daily communication. But how well do personality ratings of short e-mail messages match the self-reports of the authors? Here we describe a small-scale preliminary study to test this. Working independently and under experimenter supervision, 30 judges each rated 18 short e-mail texts. These texts were written under experimental conditions by authors of known personality, who briefly described their recent activities, and were collected as part of a previous study, which demonstrated linguistic projection of personality. Even with minimal textual cues there is relatively high agreement for ratings of Extraversion, with lesser agreement for Psychoticism. However, agreement for Neuroticism ratings, especially between target and judges, appears to be further reduced by the environment. In addition to demonstrating agreement in asynchronous—rather than synchronous—computer-mediated communication, this study adopts the three-factor model of personality and uses exemplar-based and subjective measures of personality perception. We note the need for further research.

Gillath O., Bahns A. J., Ge F., & Crandall C. S . ( 2012).

Shoes as a source of first impressions

Journal of Research in Personality, 46( 4), 423-430.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Surprisingly minimal appearance cues lead perceivers to accurately judge others’ personality, status, or politics. We investigated people’s precision in judging characteristics of an unknown person, based solely on the shoes he or she wears most often. Participants provided photographs of their shoes, and during a separate session completed self-report measures. Coders rated the shoes on various dimensions, and these ratings were found to correlate with the owners’ personal characteristics. A new group of participants accurately judged the age, gender, income, and attachment anxiety of shoe owners based solely on the pictures. Shoes can indeed be used to evaluate others, at least in some domains.

Gosling S. D., Ko S. J., Mannarelli T., & Morris M. E . ( 2002).

A room with a cue: Personality judgments based on offices and bedrooms

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82( 3), 379-398.

URL     PMID:11902623      [本文引用: 1]

The authors articulate a model specifying links between (a) individuals and the physical environments they occupy and (b) the environments and observers' impressions of the occupants. Two studies examined the basic phenomena underlying this model: Interobserver consensus, observer accuracy, cue utilization, and cue validity. Observer ratings based purely on offices or bedrooms were compared with self- and peer ratings of occupants and with physical features of the environments. Findings, which varied slightly across contexts and traits, suggest that (a) personal environments elicit similar impressions from independent observers, (b) observer impressions show some accuracy, (c) observers rely on valid cues in the rooms to form impressions of occupants, and (d) sex and race stereotypes partially mediate observer consensus and accuracy. Consensus and accuracy correlations were generally stronger than those found in zero-acquaintance research.

Gunaydin G., Selcuk E., & Zayas V . ( 2016).

Impressions based on a portrait predict, 1-month later, impressions following a live interaction

Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8( 1), 36-44.

[本文引用: 2]

Guntuku S. C., Qiu L., Roy S., Lin W., & Jakhetiya V . ( 2015).

Do others perceive you as you want them to?:Modeling personality based on selfies

International Workshop on Affect & Sentiment in Multimedia, 21-26).

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In this work, selfies (self-portrait images) of users are used to computationally predict and understand their personality. For users to convey a certain impression with selfie, and for the observers to build a certain impression about the users, many visual cues play a significant role. It is interesting to analyse what these cues are and how they influence our understanding of personality profiles. Selfies of users (from a popular microblogging site, Sina Weibo) were annotated with mid-level cues (such as presence of duckface, if the user is alone, emotional positivity etc.) relevant to portraits (especially selfies). Low-level visual features were used to train models to detect these mid-level cues, which are then used to predict users' personality (based on Five Factor Model). The mid-level cue detectors are seen to outperform state-of-the-art features for most traits. Using the trained computational models, we then present several insights on how selfies reflect their owners' personality and how users' are judged by others based on their selfies.

He Q., Glas C. A. W., Kosinski M., Stillwell D. J., & Veldkamp B. P . ( 2014).

Predicting self-monitoring skills using textual posts on Facebook

Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 69-78.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The popularity of the social networking site Facebook (FB) has grown unprecedented during the past five years. The research question investigated is whether posts on FB would also be applicable for the prediction of users’ psychological traits such as self-monitoring (SM) skill that is supposed to be linked with users’ expression behavior in the online environment. We present a model to evaluate the relationship between the posts and SM skills. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to evaluate the quality of responses to the Snyder’s Self-Monitoring Questionnaire (1974) collected via the Internet; and secondly, to explore the textual features of the posts in different SM-level groups. The prediction of posts resulted in an approximate 60% accuracy compared with the classification made by Snyder’s SM scale. The variable “family” was found the most significant predictor in structured textual analysis via Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). The emoticons and Internet slangs were extracted as the most robust classifiers in the unstructured textual analysis. We concluded that the textual posts on the FB Wall could partially predict the users’ SM skills. Besides, we recommend that researchers always check the validity of Internet data using the methodology presented here to ensure the data is valid before being processed.

Hirschmüller S., Egloff B., Nestler S., & Back M. D . ( 2013).

The dual lens model: A comprehensive framework for understanding self-other agreement of personality judgments at zero acquaintance

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104( 2), 335-353.

URL     PMID:23046068     

Abstract An integrative framework for the examination of self-other agreement of personality judgments at zero acquaintance is outlined that integrates dualistic approaches to personality, behavior, and personality judgments within the Brunswikian (1956) lens model. The dual lens model (DLM) distinguishes between explicit and implicit self-concepts of personality, controlled and automatic cues, and deliberate and intuitive personality judgments. In a first application of the DLM, targets (N = 56) were videotaped during short self-introductions, and direct and indirect measures of extraversion as well as a number of physical, kinesic, vocal, and verbal cues were obtained. Perceivers judged targets' extraversion based on these short video sequences either in a global judgment condition (Study 1: N = 95) or in a deliberate versus an intuitive judgment condition (Study 2: N = 82). In both studies, results showed that extraversion judgments at zero acquaintance were correlated with both the explicit and the implicit self-concept of extraversion (self-other agreement). The self-other correlation for explicit extraversion was fully mediated by the utilization of valid controlled cues, and it was fully mediated by the utilization of valid automatic cues for the implicit self. Whereas judgment condition did not moderate self-other agreement, perceivers' intuitive judgment style was associated with higher levels of self-other agreement, a relation that could be explained by DLM analyses. Results underline the utility of the proposed framework for the study of interpersonal judgments. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

Hirschmüller S., Egloff B., Schmukle S. C., Nestler S., & Back M. D . ( 2015).

Accurate judgments of neuroticism at zero acquaintance: A question of relevance

Journal of Personality,83( 2), 221-228.

URL     PMID:24655148      [本文引用: 4]

Abstract Prior studies have consistently found a surprising inaccuracy of people's neuroticism judgments at zero acquaintance. Based on the Realistic Accuracy Model (Funder, 1995), we hypothesize that this is due to a lack of relevance of the situation in which targets are typically observed. Fifty participants were videotaped in a highly trait-relevant (i.e., socially stressful) situation as well as three less relevant situations. An aggregate of self-reports and informant reports was used as the accuracy criterion. Four independent groups of unacquainted observers judged participants' neuroticism based on these short video sequences. Results showed that neuroticism judgments were significantly more accurate for the most trait-relevant situation compared with the other three situations. This finding can be explained using lens model analyses: Only in the most relevant situation did neuroticism predict both visual nervousness and vocal nervousness, both of which in turn predicted neuroticism judgments by lay observers. Our findings show that strangers are sensitive to interindividual differences in neuroticism as long as targets are observed in a trait-relevant situation. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hirschmüller S., Schmukle S. C., Krause S., Back M. D., & Egloff B . ( 2018).

Accuracy of self-esteem judgments at zero acquaintance

Journal of Personality, 86( 2), 308-319.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Objective: Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. Method: Ninety-nine participants were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria. Forty unacquainted observers judged participants' self-esteem on the basis of these short video sequences (M=23s, SD=7.7). Results: Results showed that both the self- (r=.31, p=.002) and informant-reported self-esteem (r=.21, p=.040) of targets could be inferred by strangers. The degree of accuracy in self-esteem judgments could be explained with lens model analyses: Self- and informant-reported self-esteem predicted nonverbal and vocal friendliness, both of which predicted self-esteem judgments by observers. In addition, observers' accuracy in inferring informant-reported self-esteem was mediated by the utilization of targets' physical attractiveness. Besides using valid behavioral information to infer strangers' self-esteem, observers inappropriately relied on invalid behavioral information reflecting nonverbal, vocal, and verbal self-assuredness. Conclusions: Our findings show that strangers can quite accurately detect individuals' self-reported and informant-reported self-esteem when targets are observed in a public self-presentational situation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Holleran S.E., & Mehl M.R . ( 2008).

Let me read your mind: Personality judgments based on a person’s natural stream of thought

Journal of Research in Personality, 42( 3), 747-754.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Past research on the accuracy of personality judgments has largely focused on person perception scenarios that are public in nature (e.g., face-to-face interactions, personal websites). This study investigated the accuracy of personality judgments on the basis of highly private information: a person’s natural stream of thought. Nine na07ve judges rated the personality of 90 targets on the basis of their 20-min stream-of-consciousness essays. Judges’ level of accuracy was significant and substantial for all Big Five dimensions. The substantial and relatively uniform accuracy across all Big Five dimensions suggests that a person’s moment-to-moment thoughts provide good information for the accurate judgment of personality in general rather than specific diagnostic information for the accurate judgment of private traits such as Neuroticism.

Holtzman N. S., Vazire S., & Mehl M. R . ( 2010).

Sounds like a narcissist: Behavioral manifestations of narcissism in everyday life

Journal of Research in Personality, 44( 4), 478-484.

URL     PMID:2918908      [本文引用: 2]

Little is known about narcissists’ everyday behavior. The goal of this study was to describe how narcissism is manifested in everyday life. Using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), we obtained naturalistic behavior from participants’ everyday lives. The results suggest that the defining characteristics of narcissism that have been established from questionnaire and laboratory-based studies are borne out in narcissists’ day-to-day behaviors. Narcissists do indeed behave in more extraverted and less agreeable ways than non-narcissists, skip class more (among narcissists high in exploitativeness/entitlement only), and use more sexual language. Furthermore, we found that the link between narcissism and disagreeable behavior is strengthened when controlling for self-esteem, thus extending prior questionnaire-based findings ( Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004) to observed, real-world behavior.

Hong C., Chen Z. F., & Li C . ( 2017).

“Liking” and being “liked”: How are personality traits and demographics associated with giving and receiving “likes” on Facebook?

Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 292-299.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

On social media, users can express their favorable attitudes toward messages that others post by clicking the “like” button. In return, they may also receive “likes” from others for their own posts. This study aims to examine the “liking” behavior on social media by using the theoretical framework of gift giving and impression management. Specifically, the study investigates if and how different personality traits (i.e., self-esteem, empathy, interpersonal generosity, and public self-consciousness) and demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, age, and education) are associated with one's frequencies of giving and receiving “likes” on Facebook. A survey was conducted with 421 Facebook users in the United States. The study results revealed that frequency of giving “likes” was positively associated with both interpersonal generosity and public self-consciousness, but frequency of receiving “likes” was not significantly related to the examined personality traits. Age and gender were significantly associated with frequencies of both giving and receiving “likes.” Educational background was negatively associated with giving “likes.”

Human L.J., & Biesanz J.C . ( 2013).

Targeting the good target: An integrative review of the characteristics and consequences of being accurately perceived

Personality & Social Psychology Review, 17( 3), 248-272.

URL     PMID:23861354      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A person's judgeability, or the extent to which a person is easy to understand, plays an important role in how accurately a target will be perceived by others. Research on this topic, however, has not been systematic or well-integrated. The current review begins to remedy this by integrating the available research on judgeability from the fields of personality perception, nonverbal communication, and social cognition. Specifically, this review summarizes the characteristics that are likely to promote judgeability and explores its potential consequences. A diverse range of characteristics are identified as predictors of judgeability, all relating to three broader categories: psychological adjustment, social status, and socialization. Furthermore, being judgeable has a variety of potential, largely positive, consequences for the target, leaving good targets poised for greater personal and interpersonal well-being. Nevertheless, many questions on this topic remain and it is crucial for this relatively understudied topic to receive more systematic empirical attention.

Human L. J., Biesanz J. C., Finseth S. M., Pierce B., & Le M . ( 2014).

To thine own self be true: Psychological adjustment promotes judgeability via personality-behavior congruence

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106( 2), 286-303.

URL     PMID:24467423      [本文引用: 1]

Well-adjusted individuals are highly judgeable in that their personalities tend to be seen more accurately than the personalities of less adjusted individuals (Colvin, 1993a, 1993b; Human & Biesanz, 2011a). The mechanisms behind this effect, however, are not well understood. How does adjustment facilitate judgeability? In the present video-perceptions study, we examined potential mechanisms through which adjustment could promote judgeability at 3 stages of the Realistic Accuracy Model (RAM; Funder, 1995): (a) cue relevance, (b) cue availability, and (c) cue detection. We found that well-adjusted individuals were more judgeable because they provided more relevant cues: Specifically, well-adjusted individuals behaved more in line with their distinctive personalities, which in turn led them to be seen more accurately. In contrast, neither cue availability nor detection could sufficiently account for the link between adjustment and judgeability. In sum, well-adjusted individuals are more judgeable because to their own selves, they are true.

Jia Y.L., & Lindell A.K . ( 2016).

Featural information is sufficient to produce a left cheek bias for happiness perception

Brain and Cognition, 107, 10-15.

URL     PMID:27363004      [本文引用: 1]

People perceive the left cheek as more emotionally expressive than the right. Both configural and featural information enable the evaluation of emotional expressions; whether they make equivalent contributions to the left cheek bias is undetermined. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing whilst leaving featural information intact, we investigated whether configural information is necessary, or featural information is sufficient, to induce a left cheek bias for emotion perception. Eighty-one participants (65 F, 16 M) viewed two types of left and right cheek image pairs – normal, scrambled – and indicated which image appeared happier (half mirror-reversed to control for perceptual biases). Results indicated a left cheek bias for both normal and scrambled faces, irrespective of mirror reversal. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing, the fact that the left cheek was perceived as more expressive even when scrambled confirms that differences between the cheeks’ featural information are sufficient to induce the left cheek bias.

Jones B. C., Feinberg D. R., Debruine L. M., Little A. C., & Vukovic J . ( 2010).

A domain-specific opposite-sex bias in human preferences for manipulated voice pitch

Animal Behaviour, 79( 1), 57-62.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Women's preferences for masculine characteristics in men's voices and men's preferences for feminine characteristics in women's voices are thought to reflect adaptations that identify high-quality (e.g. healthy) mates. Consistent with this proposal, we found that men had stronger preferences than women for women's voices with raised pitch (i.e. feminized female voices) and that women had stronger preferences than men for men's voices with lowered pitch (i.e. masculinized male voices). Importantly, however, no such opposite-sex bias was evident for attributions of dominance to voices with raised and lowered pitch; men's and women's voices with lowered pitch were perceived to be more dominant than those with raised pitch and these effects were equivalent for male and female listeners. Collectively, our findings suggest that preferences for voice pitch may function, at least in part, to identify high-quality mates and show that opposite-sex biases in preferences for voice pitch cannot be explained simply by greater general sensitivity to manipulated pitch in opposite-sex voices than in own-sex voices.

Kaye L. K., Wall H. J., & Malone S. A . ( 2016).

“Turn that frown upside-down”: A contextual account of emoticon usage on different virtual platforms

Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 463-467.

URL    

61Qualitative approach to understanding usage behaviour for emoticons.61Contextual account of emoticon usage across digital platforms.61Benefit to both user and recipient in their use of emoticons.

Kenny D.A . ( 1991).

A general model of consensus and accuracy in interpersonal perception

Psychological Review, 98( 2), 155-163.

URL     PMID:2047511      [本文引用: 1]

Consensus refers to the extent to which 2 judges agree in their ratings of a common target. A general model of interpersonal perception based on Anderson's (1981) weighted-average model is developed. The model shows that increased acquaintance does not always lead to large changes in consensus. Degree of overlap between the target behaviors observed by the judges and similarity of meaning systems are key but neglected parameters. The model can also be used as a basis for determining the accuracy of person perception. In some cases, accuracy can increase with greater acquaintance, whereas consensus may not.

Kenny D. A. ( 1994). Interpersonal perception:A social relations analysis. New York: Guilford Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Kenny D.A., & Albright L. , ( 1987).

Accuracy in interpersonal perception: A social relations analysis

Psychological Bulletin, 102( 3), 390-402.

URL     PMID:3317468      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Seven basic research questions in interpersonal perception are posed concerning issues of consensus, assimilation, reciprocity, accuracy, congruence, assumed similarity and self—other agreement. All questions can be addressed at the individual level, and three at the dyadic level. It is shown how the Social Relations Model can be used to answer the questions.

Kenny D.A., & Winquist L. , ( 2001).

The measurement of interpersonal sensitivity: Consideration of design, components, and unit of analysis

In J. A. Hall & F. J. Bernieri (Eds.), The LEA series in personality and clinical psychology. Interpersonal sensitivity: Theory and measurement ( pp. 265-302). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We posit a female positivity effect in the perception of others. Using social-role theory, we argue that female perceivers will view others more positively than will male perceivers. In Study 1, a Social Relations Model analysis was undertaken on 10 data sets containing mixed-gender interpersonal perception ratings of the Big Five factors. Results revealed that there is a remarkably... [Show full abstract]

Klofstad C. A., Anderson R. C., & Nowicki S . ( 2015).

Perceptions of competence, strength, and age influence voters to select leaders with lower-pitched voices

Plos One, 10( 8), e133779.

URL     PMID:4529252      [本文引用: 1]

Voters prefer leaders with lower-pitched voices because they are perceived as stronger, having greater physical prowess, more competent, and having greater integrity. An alternative hypothesis that has yet to be tested is that lower-pitched voices are perceived as older and thus wiser and more experienced. Here the relationships between candidate voice pitch, candidate age, and electoral success are examined with two experiments. Study 1 tests whether voters discriminate on candidate age. The results show that male and female candidates in their 40s and 50s, the time in the lifecycle when voice pitch is at its lowest, are preferred over candidates in their 30s, 60s, and 70s. Study 2 shows that the preference for leaders with lower-pitched voices correlates with the perception that speakers with lower voices are stronger, more competent, and older, but the influence of perception of age on vote choice is the weakest of the three.

Klofstad C. A., Anderson R. C., & Peters S . ( 2012).

Sounds like a winner: Voice pitch influences perception of leadership capacity in both men and women

Proceedings Biological Sciences, 279( 1738), 1-7.

URL     PMID:3350713      [本文引用: 2]

It is well known that non-human animals respond to information encoded in vocal signals, and the same can be said of humans. Specifically, human voice pitch affects how speakers are perceived. As such, does voice pitch affect how we perceive and select our leaders? To answer this question, we recorded men and women saying ‘I urge you to vote for me this November’. Each recording was manipulated digitally to yield a higher- and lower-pitched version of the original. We then asked men and women to vote for either the lower- or higher-pitched version of each voice. Our results show that both men and women select male and female leaders with lower voices. These findings suggest that men and women with lower-pitched voices may be more successful in obtaining positions of leadership. This might also suggest that because women, on average, have higher-pitched voices than men, voice pitch could be a factor that contributes to fewer women holding leadership roles than men. Additionally, while people are free to choose their leaders, these results clearly demonstrate that these choices cannot be understood in isolation from biological influences.

Kosinski M., Stillwell D., & Graepel T . ( 2013).

Private traits and attributes are predictable from digital records of human behavior

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110( 15), 5802-5805.

URL     PMID:23479631      [本文引用: 1]

We show that easily accessible digital records of behavior, Facebook Likes, can be used to automatically and accurately predict a range of highly sensitive personal attributes including: sexual orientation, ethnicity, religious and political views, personality traits, intelligence, happiness, use of addictive substances, parental separation, age, and gender. The analysis presented is based on a dataset of over 58,000 volunteers who provided their Facebook Likes, detailed demographic profiles, and the results of several psychometric tests. The proposed model uses dimensionality reduction for preprocessing the Likes data, which are then entered into logistic/linear regression to predict individual psychodemographic profiles from Likes. The model correctly discriminates between homosexual and heterosexual men in 88% of cases, African Americans and Caucasian Americans in 95% of cases, and between Democrat and Republican in 85% of cases. For the personality trait "Openness," prediction accuracy is close to the test retest accuracy of a standard personality test. We give examples of associations between attributes and Likes and discuss implications for online personalization and privacy.

Kramer R. S.S., & Ward R. , ( 2011).

Different signals of personality and health from the two sides of the face

Perception, 40( 5), 549-562.

URL     PMID:21882719      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Previous studies demonstrate that people with different personality traits have different-looking faces. We investigated whether personality and health information are differently signalled by the two hemifaces. Using composite images created from women with high and low scores on health and personality dimensions, we investigated discrimination accuracy with original and mirrored hemifaces. By comparing discrimination accuracy for particular types of hemiface, we address issues regarding both the location of information signals and how these signals are conveyed. From the hemiface stimuli, participants could accurately identify three of the Big Five traits, along with health. We found differences in which hemiface could be more accurately identified, depending on the expressed trait. Emotional stability and health were more accurately discriminated from the right hemiface, while extraversion showed higher accuracy from the left hemiface. We found evidence for differences between hemifaces related to both directional asymmetries and to other information content. Finally, our results also address ongoing debate about which side of the face is more attractive, as we found attractiveness differences between hemifaces depended upon the personality trait most clearly expressed.

Küfner A. C. P., Back M. D., Nestler S., & Egloff B . ( 2010).

Tell me a story and I will tell you who you are! Lens model analyses of personality and creative writing

Journal of Research in Personality, 44( 4), 427-435.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We elucidated the accuracy of personality judgments based on creative writing by means of lens model analyses. Targets ( N= 79) wrote short stories with five predefined words. Observers rated the Big Five dimensions and general knowledge of the targets who wrote these stories. Three main findings were revealed: (a) the Big Five and general knowledge were consensually judged by observers; (b) judgments of openness to experience, agreeableness, and general knowledge were accurate; and (c) accuracies were achieved due to the correct usage of valid cues. Additionally, we replicated all results in a second sample of targets ( N =126). Results are discussed in comparison to other areas of personality judgment research.

Lee E., Ahn J., & Kim Y. J . ( 2014).

Personality traits and self-presentation at Facebook

Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 162-167.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The current study explores the relationship between personality traits and self-presentation at Facebook. An online survey of Facebook users was conducted. The results suggest that extraversion was positively related to self-presentation both on Wall and at News Feed. Extraverts uploaded photos and updated status more frequently, and had more friends displayed on Wall than introverts. Besides, extraverts clicked Like, wrote Comment and clicked Share at News Feed more frequently than introverts. Moreover, narcissists with high rivalry frequently updated their Status on Wall. In addition, neuroticism and conscientiousness were negatively related to writing Comment at News Feed. Lastly, openness to experience was negatively related to clicking Share at News Feed. The results and implications are discussed in conjunction with previous research. Suggestions for future research are provided.

Letzring T.D . ( 2015).

Observer judgmental accuracy of personality: Benefits related to being a good (normative) judge

Journal of Research in Personality,54, 51-60.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The current study tested the hypothesis that accuracy of personality judgment would be positively related to beneficial life outcomes. 189 participants observed targets across 5 dyadic interactions and made judgments of the 10 targets on the Big Five traits. Self and acquaintance ratings were used as the accuracy criteria. Normative accuracy for all traits was related to agreeableness, and normative accuracy for some traits was positively related to interpersonal control, interpersonal support, positive affect, and life satisfaction. Distinctive accuracy was not related to beneficial outcomes. These results imply that normative accuracy based on observation is associated with beneficial outcomes, whereas distinctive accuracy is not.

Letzring T.D., & Human L.J . ( 2014).

An examination of information quality as a moderator of accurate personality judgment

Journal of Personality,82( 5), 440-451.

URL     PMID:24118039      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Information quality is an important moderator of the accuracy of personality judgment, and this article describes research focusing on how specific kinds of information are related to accuracy. In this study, 228 participants (159 female, 69 male; mean age090009=09000923.43; 86.4% Caucasian) in unacquainted dyads were assigned to discuss thoughts and feelings, discuss behaviors, or engage in behaviors. Interactions lasted 25-30090009min, and participants provided ratings of their partners and themselves following the interaction on the Big Five traits, ego-control, and ego-resiliency. Next, the amount of different types of information made available by each participant was objectively coded. The accuracy criterion, composed of self- and acquaintance ratings, was used to assess distinctive and normative accuracy using the Social Accuracy Model. Participants in the discussion conditions achieved higher distinctive accuracy than participants who engaged in behaviors, but normative accuracy did not differ across conditions. Information about specific behaviors and general behaviors were among the most consistent predictors of higher distinctive accuracy. Normative accuracy was more likely to decrease than increase when higher-quality information was available. Verbal information about behaviors is the most useful for learning about how people are unique. 0008 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Li J. & Chignell M., ( 2010).

Birds of a feather: How personality influences blog writing and reading

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68( 9), 589-602.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The rapid development of blogs as a social networking tool has greatly increased the number of people who are expressing themselves in text published online. As yet little is known about the social psychology of online interaction using recently developed Web 2.0 functionalities. To what extent do principles of social psychology carry over into the online domain and how can appropriate use of those principles assist in activities such as community building, e-commerce, marketing, and personalization of services? There would seem to be a large number of novel research questions that can be posed with respect to online interaction. One pertinent question concerns the extent to which compatibility of personality influences online interaction. We investigated this question in terms of hypotheses derived from the personality research literature, using a two-part experiment. In the first study, eight participants wrote blogs in two distinct genres (personal diaries and commentaries) and rated their own personalities. In the second study 12 different participants judged the personality of authors as implied in the blog texts created in the first study. Those participants also completed a personality questionnaire and rated their attraction to the blog text author. Readers of the blog corpus were able to consistently judge the personality of the writers based solely on the text that they wrote. Moreover, they followed a well-established social rule regarding interpersonal attraction in real-life interaction. Blog readers were significantly more attracted to blog writers with more similar personalities—offering support that in a blog environment, “birds of a feather flock together.” Emotion word use in the blog corpus correlated with writer’s personality, suggesting that online personality may be signalled by linguistic cues. The two most popular genres of blog writing, personal journal and commentary, differed in how accurately readers judged author personality traits. Based on the results obtained it is suggested that personality is an important determinant and that further research on how people communicate with blogs will be relevant to social network analysis and to marketing.

Liu Y. C., Lin C., & Huang Y-A . ( 2013).

An exploration of communicating with textspeak - A social presence perspective

The International Technology Management Review, 3( 1), 54-59.

[本文引用: 1]

Luhmann M., Bohn J., Holtmann J., Koch T., & Eid M . ( 2016).

I’m lonely, can’t you tell? Convergent validity of self- and informant ratings of loneliness

Journal of Research in Personality, 61, 50-60.

[本文引用: 1]

Manson J.H., & Robbins M.L . ( 2017).

New evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): Obtrusiveness, compliance, and participant self-selection effects

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 658.

URL     PMID:28503162      [本文引用: 1]

The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants’ daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people’s privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H) has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words “This conversation may be recorded” to comply with California’s all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers’ HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California). Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel.

Marengo D., Giannotta F., & Settanni M . ( 2017).

Assessing personality using emoji: An exploratory study

Personality and Individual Differences, 112, 74-78.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61Emoji are pictorial symbols widely used in computer-mediated communication.61We studied the relationship between self-identification with emoji and personality traits.61Significant correlations emerged with neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness.61Emoji-based personality scores show adequate psychometric characteristics.

Markey P.M., & Wells S.M . ( 2002).

Interpersonal perception in internet chat rooms

Journal of Research in Personality, 36( 2), 134-146.

[本文引用: 1]

Marshall T. C., Lefringhausen K., & Ferenczi N . ( 2015).

The Big Five, self-esteem, and narcissism as predictors of the topics people write about in Facebook status updates

Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 35-40.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0191886915003025

Mayer J. D., Phillips K. G., & Barry A . ( 2015).

Getting the message: The adaptive potential of interpersonal judgments

Review of General Psychology, 19( 1), 39-51.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

According to the Social Message Model, interpersonal judgments are transactions in which judges convey important social messages to the individuals they evaluate (the targets); targets can then respond to the judgments in more or less adaptive ways. We argue that judges' opinions emerge from their current concerns, be it to promote their own well-being, or to foster group cohesion. Targets of judgments can best interpret the meaning of a judgment they receive by understanding the judge's concerns, competence of the judge, and other qualities of the transaction. We suggest that judges and targets who are better able to reason about the judgment process are likely to change their behaviors more adaptively than people less able to reason in this area.

Mcaleer P., Todorov A., & Belin P . ( 2014).

How do you say ‘Hello’? Personality impressions from brief novel voices

Plos One, 9( 3), e90779.

URL     PMID:24622283     

On hearing a novel voice, listeners readily form personality impressions of that speaker. Accurate or not, these impressions are known to affect subsequent interactions; yet the underlying psychological and acoustical bases remain poorly understood. Furthermore, hitherto studies have focussed on extended speech as opposed to analysing the instantaneous impressions we obtain from first experience. In this paper, through a mass online rating experiment, 320 participants rated 64 sub-second vocal utterances of the word ‘hello’ on one of 10 personality traits. We show that: (1) personality judgements of brief utterances from unfamiliar speakers are consistent across listeners; (2) a two-dimensional ‘social voice space’ with axes mapping Valence (Trust, Likeability) and Dominance, each driven by differing combinations of vocal acoustics, adequately summarises ratings in both male and female voices; and (3) a positive combination of Valence and Dominance results in increased perceived male vocal Attractiveness, whereas perceived female vocal Attractiveness is largely controlled by increasing Valence. Results are discussed in relation to the rapid evaluation of personality and, in turn, the intent of others, as being driven by survival mechanisms via approach or avoidance behaviours. These findings provide empirical bases for predicting personality impressions from acoustical analyses of short utterances and for generating desired personality impressions in artificial voices.

Mehl M. R., Gosling S. D., & Pennebaker J. W . ( 2006).

Personality in its natural habitat: Manifestations and implicit folk theories of personality in daily life

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90( 5), 862-877.

URL     PMID:16737378      [本文引用: 1]

To examine the expression of personality in its natural habitat, the authors tracked 96 participants over 2 days using the Electronically Activated Recorder (), which samples snippets of ambient sounds in participants' immediate environments. Participants' Big Five scores were correlated with -derived information on their daily social interactions, locations, activities, moods, and language use; these quotidian manifestations were generally consistent with the trait definitions and (except for Openness) often gender specific. To identify implicit folk theories about daily manifestations of personality, the authors correlated the -derived information with impressions of participants based on their sounds; judges' implicit folk theories were generally accurate (especially for Extraversion) and also partially gender specific. The findings point to the importance of naturalistic observation studies on how personality is expressed and perceived in the natural stream of everyday .

Nestler S., & Back M.D . ( 2013).

Applications and extensions of the lens model to understand interpersonal judgments at zero acquaintance

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22( 5), 374-379.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

The present article reviews current research on the application and extension of the lens model to interpersonal judgments. We first explain how the basic lens model can be used to describe the processes underlying the accuracy of personality judgments at zero acquaintance. Then we outline how this model can be differentiated by assimilating it with research on intuitive and reflective personality judgments, implicit and explicit personality tests, and more or less controlled behavior. We continue by integrating the research on the lens model with research on judgmental errors and knowledge updating. Finally, we describe extensions of the lens model to other interpersonal phenomena at zero acquaintance, such as metaaccuracy and liking. Overall, this review shows that the lens model is a persuasive and flexible framework that can be used to understand interpersonal judgments.

Novak P. K., Smailović J., Sluban B., & Mozetič I . ( 2015).

Sentiment of Emojis

Plos One, 10( 12), e144296.

[本文引用: 2]

Okdie B. M., Guadagno R. E., Bernieri F. J., Geers A. L., & Mclarney-Vesotski A. R . ( 2011).

Getting to know you: Face-to-face versus online interactions

Computers in Human Behavior, 27( 1), 153-159.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

It is an open question as to how impressions formed via computer-mediated communication (CMC) differ from those formed face-to-face (FtF). Some research suggests that judgments of others formed while interacting over CMC are more favorable than judgments formed in FtF, while other researchers argue the pattern is in the opposite direction. We sought to settle this conflict by examining impressions formed via each communication mode while controlling for the other. Participants interacted with a partner twice: once FtF and once CMC. When controlling for each communication mode, participants interacting FtF, formed more positive impressions of their partner than did those in the other sequence. Furthermore, FtF participants had greater self-other agreement then those who interacted via CMC. Implications for impressions formed over the Internet are discussed.

Oleszkiewicz A., Karwowski M., Pisanski K., Sorokowski P., Sobrado B., & Sorokowska A . ( 2017).

Who uses emoticons? Data from 86 702 Facebook users

Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 289-295.

URL    

Oosterhof N.N., & Todorov A. , ( 2008).

The functional basis of face evaluation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105( 32), 11087-11092.

URL     PMID:18685089      [本文引用: 1]

People automatically evaluate faces on multiple trait dimensions, and these evaluations predict important social outcomes, ranging from electoral success to sentencing decisions. Based on behavioral studies and computer modeling, we develop a 2D model of face evaluation. First, using a principal components analysis of trait judgments of emotionally neutral faces, we identify two orthogonal dimensions, valence and dominance, that are sufficient to describe face evaluation and show that these dimensions can be approximated by judgments of trustworthiness and dominance. Second, using a data-driven statistical model for face representation, we build and validate models for representing face trustworthiness and face dominance. Third, using these models, we show that, whereas valence evaluation is more sensitive to features resembling expressions signaling whether the person should be avoided or approached, dominance evaluation is more sensitive to features signaling physical strength/weakness. Fourth, we show that important social judgments, such as threat, can be reproduced as a function of the two orthogonal dimensions of valence and dominance. The findings suggest that face evaluation involves an overgeneralization of adaptive mechanisms for inferring harmful intentions and the ability to cause harm and can account for rapid, yet not necessarily accurate, judgments from faces.

Penton-voak I. S., Pound N., Little A. C., & Perrett D. I . ( 2006).

Personality judgments from natural and composite facial images: More evidence for a "kernel of truth" in social perception

Social Cognition, 24( 5), 607-640.

[本文引用: 2]

Petrican R., Todorov A., & Grady C . ( 2014).

Personality at face value: Facial appearance predicts self and other personality judgments among strangers and spouses

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38( 3), 259-277.

URL     PMID:27330234      [本文引用: 1]

Character judgments, based on facial appearance, impact both perceivers’ and targets’ interpersonal decisions and behaviors. Nonetheless, the resilience of such effects in the face of longer acquaintanceship duration is yet to be determined. To address this question, we had 51 elderly long-term married couples complete self and informant versions of a Big Five Inventory. Participants were also photographed, while they were requested to maintain an emotionally neutral expression. A subset of the initial sample completed a shortened version of the Big Five Inventory in response to the pictures of other opposite sex participants (with whom they were unacquainted). Oosterhof and Todorov’s (in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11087–11092, 2008 ) computer-based model of face evaluation was used to generate facial trait scores on trustworthiness, dominance, and attractiveness, based on participants’ photographs. Results revealed that structural facial characteristics, suggestive of greater trustworthiness, predicted positively biased, global informant evaluations of a target’s personality, among both spouses and strangers. Among spouses, this effect was impervious to marriage length. There was also evidence suggestive of a Dorian Gray effect on personality, since facial trustworthiness predicted not only spousal and stranger, but also self-ratings of extraversion. Unexpectedly, though, follow-up analyses revealed that (low) facial dominance, rather than (high) trustworthiness, was the strongest predictor of self-rated extraversion. Our present findings suggest that subtle emotional cues, embedded in the structure of emotionally neutral faces, exert long-lasting effects on personality judgments even among very well-acquainted targets and perceivers.

Puts D. A., Gaulin S. J. C., & Verdolini K . ( 2006).

Dominance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in human voice pitch

Evolution and Human Behavior,27( 4), 283-296.

[本文引用: 1]

Qiu L., Lu J. H., Yang S. S., Qu W. N., & Zhu T. S . ( 2015).

What does your selfie say about you?

Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 443-449.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Selfies refer to self-portraits taken by oneself using a digital camera or a smartphone. They become increasingly popular in social media. However, little is known about how selfies reflect their owners’ personality traits and how people judge others’ personality from selfies. In this study, we examined the association between selfies and personality by measuring participants’ Big Five personality and coding their selfies posted on a social networking site. We found specific cues in selfies related to agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. We also examined zero-acquaintance personality judgment and found that observers had moderate to strong agreement in their ratings of Big Five personality based on selfies. However, they could only accurately predict selfie owners’ degree of openness. This study is the first to reveal personality-related cues in selfies and provide a picture-coding scheme that can be used to analyze selfies. We discussed the difference between personality expression in selfies and other types of photos, and its possible relationship with impression management of social media users.

Rentfrow P.J., & Gosling S.D . ( 2006).

Message in a ballad: The role of music preferences in interpersonal perception

Psychological Science, 17( 3), 236-242.

URL     PMID:16507064      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT How is information about people conveyed through their preferences for certain kinds of music? Here we show that individuals use their music preferences to communicate information about their personalities to observers, and that observers can use such information to form impressions of others. Study 1 revealed that music was the most common topic in conversations among strangers given the task of getting acquainted. Why was talk about music so prevalent? Study 2 showed that (a) observers were able to form consensual and accurate impressions on the basis of targets' music preferences, (b) music preferences were related to targets' personalities, (c) the specific cues that observers used tended to be the ones that were valid, and (d) music preferences reveal information that is different from that obtained in other zero-acquaintance contexts. Discussion focuses on the mechanisms that may underlie the links between personality and music preferences.

Rogers K.H., & Biesanz J.C . ( 2015).

Knowing versus liking: Separating normative knowledge from social desirability in first impressions of personality

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109( 6), 1105-1116.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual’s personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual’s personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual’s personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)

Schneider T.M., & Carbon C.C . ( 2017).

Taking the perfect selfie: Investigating the impact of perspective on the perception of higher cognitive variables

Frontiers in Psychology, 8( 8), 971.

URL     PMID:28649219      [本文引用: 1]

Taking selfies is now becoming a standard human habit. However, as a social phenomenon, research is still in the fledgling stage and the scientific framework is sparse. Selfies allow us to share social information with others in a compact format. Furthermore, we are able to control important photographic and compositional aspects, such as perspective, which have a strong impact on the assessment of a face (e.g., demonstrated by the height-weight illusion, effects of gaze direction, faceism-index). In Study 1, we focused on the impact of perspective (left/right hemiface, above/below vs. frontal presentation) on higher cognitive variables and let 172 participants rate the perceived attractiveness, helpfulness, sympathy, dominance, distinctiveness, and intelligence, plus important information on health issues (e.g., body weight), on the basis of 14 3D faces. We could show that lateral snapshots yielded higher ratings for attractiveness compared to the classical frontal view. However, this effect was more pronounced for left hemifaces and especially female faces. Compared to the frontal condition, 30 right hemifaces were rated as more helpful, but only for female faces while faces viewed from above were perceived as significantlesshelpful. Direct comparison betweenleftvs.righthemifaces revealed no effect. Relating to sympathy, we only found a significant effect for 30 rightmalehemifaces, but only in comparison to the frontal condition. Furthermore, female 30 right hemifaceswere perceived as more intelligent. Relating to body weight, we replicated the so-called eight-weight illusion. Other variables remained unaffected. In Study 2, we investigated the impact of a typical selfie-style condition by presenting the respective faces from a lateral (left/right) and tilted (lower/higher) vantage point. Most importantly, depending on what persons wish to express with a selfie, a systematic change of perspective can strongly optimize their message; e.g., increasing their attractiveness by shooting from above left, and in contrast, decreasing their expressed helpfulness by shooting from below. We could further extent past findings relating to the height-weight illusion and showed that anadditionalrotation of the camera positively affected the perception of body weight (lower body weight). We discuss potential explanations for perspective-related effects, especially gender-related ones.

Scott G. G., Sinclair J., Short E., & Bruce G . ( 2014).

It's not what you say, it's how you say it: Language use on Facebook impacts employability but not attractiveness

Cyberpsychology Behavior and Social Networking,17( 8),562-566.

URL     PMID:24949532      [本文引用: 1]

The expansion and increasing diversity of the Internet has seen a in user-generated online content, and an escalation in incorrect and nonstandardized language use (e.g., text speak). This evolution has been exemplified by social networking sites such as Facebook. In our experiment, participants viewed six Facebook profiles whose walls contained status updates that were either spelled correctly, incorrectly, or using text speak, and then rated the profile owners on measures of attractiveness and employability. It was shown that language use had no impact on attractiveness, but users who used correct language were seen as more intelligent, competent, and employable. These results highlight the need to control language in this area of research by demonstrating the variables' seemingly elevated importance to employers compared to peers. The findings also pave the way for further exploration of the Warranting Theory of impression online and the role of language in social media-based identity statements and behavioral residue.

Sorokowska A. ( 2013).

Seeing or smelling? Assessing personality on the basis of different stimuli

Personality and Individual Differences,55( 2), 175-179.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study examines whether people can accurately assess personality on the basis of facial images and body odor and whether attractiveness influences these relationships. Three personality dimensions of target individuals - neuroticism, extraversion and dominance - were measured with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, a one-item measure of dominance and the reports of close acquaintances. Naive observers assessed neuroticism and dominance at above-chance levels based on body odor, and they assessed extraversion (and in some cases, neuroticism) at above-chance levels based on either facial images alone or body odor and facial images presented together. The accuracy differed depending on the sex of the targets and the raters. In addition, facial and body odor attractiveness predicted the targets ersonalities and the assessments of their personalities. These results show that the accuracy of personality assessment changes when judges assess different types of stimuli.

Sorokowska A., Sorokowski P., & Havlíček J . ( 2016).

Body odor based personality judgments: The effect of fragranced cosmetics

Frontiers in Psychology,7, 530.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition;rs= 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition;rs= 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs= 0.34 for natural BO andrs= 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor.

Stopfer J. M., Egloff B., Nestler S., & Back M. D . ( 2014).

Personality expression and impression formation in online social networks: An integrative approach to understanding the processes of accuracy, impression management and meta-accuracy

European Journal of Personality, 28( 1), 73-94.

[本文引用: 3]

In this paper, we investigate personality expression and impression formation processes in online social networks (OSNs). We explore whether, when and why people accurately judge others' personalities (accuracy), successfully manage the impressions that others form of them (impression management) and accurately infer others' impressions of them (meta-accuracy) at zero acquaintance. On the basis of targets' OSN profiles (N65=65103), overall perceiver impressions were collected and compared with targets' self-view, desired impression and meta-perception. In addition, independent groups of thin-slice perceivers based their personality impressions solely on one of four kinds of information within the OSN profiles (profile picture, interests field, group list and notice board), and more than 300 OSN cues (e.g. attractive person and number of friends) were coded. Results showed evidence of accuracy, impression management and meta-accuracy, but their extent was moderated by the trait (e.g. Big Five and self-esteem), the kind of information and the interplay of trait and information. Findings could be explained by cue expression and cue utilization processes (lens model analyses). Future prospects for studying personality impressions in online and offline environments are discussed. Copyright 08 2013 European Association of Personality Psychology.

Sutherland C. A. M., Rowley L. E., Amoaku U. T., Daguzan E., Kiddrossiter K. A., Maceviciute U., & Young A. W . ( 2015).

Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1616.

URL     PMID:26579008     

Abstract People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

Tackett J. L., Herzhoff K., Kushner S. C., & Rule N . ( 2016).

Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,110( 1), 150-166.

URL     PMID:25938703      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

Teijeiro-Mosquera L., Biel J-I., Alba-Castro J. L., & Gatica-Perez D . ( 2015).

What your face vlogs about: Expressions of emotion and Big-Five traits impressions in YouTube

IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 6, 193-205.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Social video sites where people share their opinions and feelings are increasing in popularity. The face is known to reveal important aspects of human psychological traits, so the understanding of how facial expressions relate to personal constructs is a relevant problem in social media. We present a study of the connections between automatically extracted facial expressions of emotion and impressions of Big-Five personality traits in YouTube vlogs (i.e., video blogs). We use the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT) system to characterize users of conversational vlogs. From CERT temporal signals corresponding to instantaneously recognized facial expression categories, we propose and derive four sets of behavioral cues that characterize face statistics and dynamics in a compact way. The cue sets are first used in a correlation analysis to assess the relevance of each facial expression of emotion with respect to Big-Five impressions obtained from crowd-observers watching vlogs, and also as features for automatic personality impression prediction. Using a dataset of 281 vloggers, the study shows that while multiple facial expression cues have significant correlation with several of the Big-Five traits, they are only able to significantly predict Extraversion impressions with moderate values of R2.

Tigue C. C., Borak D. J., O'Connor J. J. M., Schandl C., & Feinberg D. R . ( 2012).

Voice pitch influences voting behavior

Evolution and Human Behavior,33( 3), 210-216.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

It may be adaptive for voters to recognize good leadership qualities among politicians. Men with lower-pitched voices are found to be more dominant and attractive than are men with higher-pitched voices. Candidate attractiveness and vocal quality relate to voting behavior, but no study has tested the influence of voice pitch on voting-related perceptions. We tested whether voice pitch influenced perceptions of politicians and how these perceptions related to voting behavior. In Study 1, we manipulated voice pitch of recordings of US presidents and asked participants to attribute personality traits to the voices and to choose the voice they preferred to vote for. We found that lower-pitched voices were associated with favorable personality traits more often than were higher-pitched voices and that people preferred to vote for politicians with lower-pitched rather than higher-pitched voices. Furthermore, lower voice pitch was more strongly associated with physical prowess than with integrity in a wartime voting scenario. Thus, sensitivity to vocal cues to dominance was heightened during wartime. In Study 2, we found that participants preferred to vote for the candidate with the lower-pitched voice when given the choice between two unfamiliar men's voices speaking a neutral sentence. Taken together, our results suggest that candidates' voice pitch has an important influence on voting behavior and that men with lower-pitched voices may have an advantage in political elections.

Todorov A., Olivola C. Y., Dotsch R., & Mendesiedlecki P . ( 2015).

Social attributions from faces: Determinants, consequences, accuracy, and functional significance

Annual Review of Psychology, 66( 1), 519-545.

URL     PMID:25196277      [本文引用: 3]

Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research on social attributions from faces. Section I outlines data-driven methods capable of identifying the perceptual basis of consensus in social attributions from faces (e.g., What makes a face look threatening?). Section II describes nonperceptual determinants of social attributions (e.g., person knowledge and incidental associations). Section III discusses evidence that attributions from faces predict important social outcomes in diverse domains (e.g., investment decisions and leader selection). In Section IV, we argue that the diagnostic validity of these attributions has been greatly overstated in the literature. In the final section, we offer an account of the functional significance of these attributions.

Tsantani M. S., Belin P., Paterson H. M., & Mcaleer P . ( 2016).

Low vocal pitch preference drives first impressions irrespective of context in male voices but not in female voices

Perception, 45( 8), 946-963.

URL     PMID:27081101     

Abstract Vocal pitch has been found to influence judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance from a novel voice. However, the majority of findings arise from using only male voices and in context-specific scenarios. In two experiments, we first explore the influence of average vocal pitch on first-impression judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance, before establishing the existence of an overall preference for high or low pitch across genders. In Experiment 1, pairs of high- and low-pitched temporally reversed recordings of male and female vocal utterances were presented in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Results revealed a tendency to select the low-pitched voice over the high-pitched voice as more trustworthy, for both genders, and more dominant, for male voices only. Experiment 2 tested an overall preference for low-pitched voices, and whether judgments were modulated by speech content, using forward and reversed speech to manipulate context. Results revealed an overall preference for low pitch, irrespective of direction of speech, in male voices only. No such overall preference was found for female voices. We propose that an overall preference for low pitch is a default prior in male voices irrespective of context, whereas pitch preferences in female voices are more context- and situation-dependent. The present study confirms the important role of vocal pitch in the formation of first-impression personality judgments and advances understanding of the impact of context on pitch preferences across genders. The Author(s) 2016.

Tskhay K.O., & Rule N.O . ( 2014).

Perceptions of personality in text-based media and OSN: A meta-analysis

Journal of Research in Personality, 49, 25-30.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research has shown that personality can be accurately perceived at zero-acquaintance. Although most of this work has focused on physical appearance, a growing number of studies has suggested that personality may be perceptible from other sources of information. In the current meta-analysis, we examined studies that reported accuracy and consensus effects for the perception of the Big Five traits from text-based media and online social network websites. We found substantial consensus for all five traits. Moreover, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were perceived accurately. Importantly, we provide the aggregate effect sizes that researchers might expect when examining similar phenomena to help guide future studies and discuss several potential avenues for valuable additional research in personality and person perception.

Vazire S. ( 2010).

Who knows what about a person? The Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry (SOKA) model

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98( 2), 281-300.

[本文引用: 1]

Vazire S., & Gosling S.D . ( 2004).

E-perceptions: Personality impressions based on personal websites

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87( 1), 123-132.

URL     PMID:15250797      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract This research examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on personal websites, a rapidly growing medium for self-expression, where identity claims are predominant. Eighty-nine websites were viewed by 11 observers, who rated the website authors' personalities. The ratings were compared with an accuracy criterion (self- and informant reports) and with the authors' ideal-self ratings. The websites elicited high levels of observer consensus and accuracy, and observers' impressions were somewhat enhanced for Extraversion and Agreeableness. The accuracy correlations were comparable in magnitude to those found in other contexts of interpersonal perception and generally stronger than those found in zero-acquaintance contexts. These findings suggest that identity claims are used to convey valid information about personality. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

Walker M. & Vetter T., ( 2016).

Changing the personality of a face: Perceived Big Two and Big Five personality factors modeled in real photographs

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110( 4), 609-624.

URL     PMID:26348599     

General, spontaneous evaluations of strangers based on their faces have been shown to reflect judgments of these persons’ intention and ability to harm. These evaluations can be mapped onto a 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness (intention) and dominance (ability). Here we go beyond general evaluations and focus on more specific personality judgments derived from the Big Two and Big Five personality concepts. In particular, we investigate whether Big Two/Big Five personality judgments can be mapped onto the 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness and dominance. Results indicate that judgments of the Big Two personality dimensions almost perfectly map onto the 2D space. In contrast, at least 3 of the Big Five dimensions (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) go beyond the 2D space, indicating that additional dimensions are necessary to describe more specific face-based personality judgments accurately. Building on this evidence, we model the Big Two/Big Five personality dimensions in real facial photographs. Results from 2 validation studies show that the Big Two/Big Five are perceived reliably across different samples of faces and participants. Moreover, results reveal that participants differentiate reliably between the different Big Two/Big Five dimensions. Importantly, this high level of agreement and differentiation in personality judgments from faces likely creates a subjective reality which may have serious consequences for those being perceived—notably, these consequences ensue because the subjective reality is socially shared, irrespective of the judgments’ validity. The methodological approach introduced here might prove useful in various psychological disciplines.

Wall H. J., Kaye L. K., & Malone S. A . ( 2016).

An exploration of psychological factors on emoticon usage and implications for judgement accuracy

Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 70-78.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

61Psychological factors associated with online emoticon usage was examined.61Agreeableness was positively related to self-reported usage on Facebook only.61Conscientiousness was negatively related to “sad” emoticon usage.61Extraversion and openness yielded the highest level of accuracy.61Findings are discussed in relation to meta-traits and interpersonal perception.

Wall H. J., Taylor P. J., Dixon J., Conchie S. M., & Ellis D. A . ( 2013).

Rich contexts do not always enrich the accuracy of personality judgments

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49( 6), 1190-1195.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

61We found that ‘rich’ contexts do not always lead to more accurate personality judgments than ‘lean’ contexts.61Extraversion and neuroticism were judged more accurately as context richness increased from Internet ‘chat’ to face-to-face.61Conscientiousness and openness were judged more accurately as context richness decreased.61We conclude that context richness shapes the availability and relevance of cues in any given context.

Walther J.B., & D’Addario K.P . ( 2001).

The impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer- mediated communication

Social Science Computer Review,19( 3), 324-347.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Emoticons are graphic representations of facial expressions that many e-mail users embed in their messages. These symbols are widely known and commonly recognized among computer-mediated communication (CMC) users, and they are described by most observers as substituting for the nonverbal cues that are missing from CMC in comparison to face-to-face communication. Their empirical impacts, however, are undocumented. An experiment sought to determine the effects of three common emoticons on message interpretations. Hypotheses drawn from literature on nonverbal communication reflect several plausible relationships between emoticons and verbal messages. The results indicate that emoticons’ contributions were outweighed by verbal content, but a negativity effect appeared such that any negative message aspect—verbal or graphic—shifts message interpretation in the direction of the negative element.

Watson D., Hubbard B., & Wiese D . ( 2000).

Self-other agreement in personality and affectivity: The role of acquaintanceship, trait visibility, and assumed similarity

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,78( 3), 546-558.

URL     PMID:10743880      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Self- and other-ratings on the Big Five and a comprehensive inventory of trait affect were obtained from 74 married couples, 136 dating couples, and 279 friendship dyads. With the exception of Surprise, all scales showed significant self-other agreement in all 3 samples, thereby establishing their convergent validity. Consistent with the trait visibility effect, however, the Big Five consistently yielded higher agreement correlations than did the affectivity scales. Conversely, the affective traits consistently showed stronger evidence of assumed similarity (i.e., the tendency for judges to rate others as similar to themselves) than did the Big Five. Cross-sample comparisons indicated that agreement was significantly higher in the married sample than in the other 2 groups; however, analyses of 3 potential moderators in the dating and friendship samples failed to identify the source of this acquaintanceship effect.

Williams E. ( 1977).

Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and mediated communication: A review

Psychological Bulletin, 84( 5), 963-976.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Reviews approximately 30 recent research studies that have investigated how human communication is affected by the use of telecommunications media. These studies used various types of media and both cooperative and conflictful communication situations. Several media effects were described in these studies, and consistencies among these results have begun to emerge. Accordingly, it is now possible to test theories of mediated communication and to advance our understanding of nonverbal communication. In addition, it is possible to come to some practical conclusions regarding the suitability of telecommunications media for small-group interaction. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Winter S., Neubaum G., Eimler S. C., Gordon V., Theil J., Herrmann J., & Krämer N. C . ( 2014).

Another brick in the Facebook wall - How personality traits relate to the content of status updates

Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 194-202.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Status updates represent a new form of one-to-many communication which is widely used among members of social networking sites (SNS). The present study investigated the question of who in particular uses the self-presentational opportunities of this feature and which users engage in riskier self-disclosures than others. Combining questionnaire and content analysis, we related self-reports on users personality traits (extraversion, narcissism, self-efficacy, need to belong, need for popularity) to the actual use of Facebook status updates. Results showed that higher degrees of narcissism led to deeper self-disclosures and more self-promotional content within these messages. Users with higher need to belong disclosed more intimate information in status updates, while perceived efficacy of self-presentation was negatively related to the mass suitability of postings. Findings extend prior research on personality and SNS usage with regard to dynamic features and content differences in online self-presentation.

Yeagley E., Morling B., & Nelson M . ( 2007).

Nonverbal zero-acquaintance accuracy of self-esteem, social dominance orientation, and satisfaction with life

Journal of Research in Personality, 41( 5), 1099-1106.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Two samples of undergraduates judged the personalities of strangers (either six men or six women) after viewing a 30 s, silent video clip of each target. We evaluated the accuracy of five traits, three of which were not previously studied in zero-acquaintance research (self-esteem, social dominance orientation (SDO), and satisfaction with life (SWL); we also tested masculinity and femininity). We compared these five new traits to a baseline of accuracy for extroversion. People reached consensus on self-esteem, SDO, and SWL, though accuracy was higher and more consistent for male targets. Significant self-other agreement was obtained only for SWL, for male targets. We replicated past studies by demonstrating zero-acquaintance accuracy for masculinity but not femininity.

Youyou W., Kosinski M., & Stillwell D . ( 2015).

Computer-based personality judgments are more accurate than those made by humans

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,112( 4), 1036-1040.

URL     PMID:25583507      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Judging others' personalities is an essential skill in successful social living, as personality is a key driver behind people's interactions, behaviors, and emotions. Although accurate personality judgments stem from social-cognitive skills, developments in machine learning show that computer models can also make valid judgments. This study compares the accuracy of human and computer-based personality judgments, using a sample of 86,220 volunteers who completed a 100-item personality questionnaire. We show that (i) computer predictions based on a generic digital footprint (Facebook Likes) are more accurate (r = 0.56) than those made by the participants' Facebook friends using a personality questionnaire (r = 0.49); (ii) computer models show higher interjudge agreement; and (iii) computer personality judgments have higher external validity when predicting life outcomes such as substance use, political attitudes, and physical health; for some outcomes, they even outperform the self-rated personality scores. Computers outpacing humans in personality judgment presents significant opportunities and challenges in the areas of psychological assessment, marketing, and privacy.

Youyou W., Stillwell D., Schwartz H. A., & Kosinski M . ( 2017).

Birds of a feather do flock together: Behavior-based personality-assessment method reveals personality similarity among couples and friends

Psychological Science, 28( 3), 276-284.

[本文引用: 1]

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