心理科学进展, 2019, 27(3): 490-498 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00490

研究前沿

从整合的角度看联结记忆中的项目再认

刘泽军1, 王余娟2, 郭春彦,1

1 首都师范大学心理学院, 北京市“学习与认知重点实验室”, 北京 100037

2 重庆理工大学知识产权学院, 重庆 400000

Investigating the item recognition in associative memory: A unitization perspective

LIU Zejun1, WANG Yujuan2, GUO Chunyan,1

1 Beijing Key Laboratory of “Learning & Cognition”, Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037, China

2 Intellectual Property School of Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054, China

通讯作者: 郭春彦, Email: guocy@cnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-01-23   网络出版日期: 2019-03-15

基金资助: 国家自然科学基金资助.  31671127
获首都师范大学科技创新服务能力建设基本科研业务费支持.  025- 185305000/200

Received: 2018-01-23   Online: 2019-03-15

摘要

联结记忆由三种成分构成:项目1, 项目2以及项目1-项目2之间的联结, 其中, 对项目1和项目2的再认称之为项目再认, 而对项目1-项目2之间联结的再认称之为联结再认。双加工理论认为项目再认可以由熟悉性和回想加工来完成, 而联结再认只能由回想加工来完成。但近期有大量的研究发现:当要学习的项目对被整合为一个新的整体表征时, 熟悉性也能够支持联结再认。而关于整合对联结记忆中项目再认的研究较少, 总结已有研究提出两种观点:一种是“只有受益”观点(benefits-only)认为整合在增加联结再认的同时不影响项目再认; 另一种是“收支平衡”观点(costs and benefits)认为整合增加联结再认是以牺牲项目再认为代价的。未来研究应该关注整合对联结记忆中项目再认的影响及其神经机制, 了解整合对联结再认和项目再认的具体作用, 有助于针对具体记忆任务选择合适的编码方式来提高记忆表现。

关键词: 联结记忆 ; 项目再认 ; 整合 ; 熟悉性 ; 回想

Abstract

Associative memory (item 1 - item 2) has three discrete components: item 1, item 2, and the association between item 1 and item 2. The recognition of item 1 and item 2 is referred to as item recognition, whereas the recognition of the pairing relationship between item1 and item2 is called associative recognition. The dual-process theory posits that both familiarity and recollection can contribute to item recognition, though associative recognition can only be supported by recollection. Nonetheless, many recent studies found otherwise, particularly when the to-be-learned items are perceived as a single unitized representation during the study, familiarity can also contribute to associative recognition. However, very few studies have yet to examine the role of unitization on item recognition in associative memory. Currently, there are two opposing point of views. One is the ‘benefits only’ account, which claims that unitization can increase the associative recognition without affecting the item recognition; the other is the ‘costs and benefits’ account, which claims that the unitization increases the associative recognition at the cost of item recognition. Future studies are needed to investigate the impact of unitization on item recognition in associative memory and its neural mechanisms. Understanding the specific role of unitization in item and associative recognition will help to select appropriate encoding methods for specific memory tasks to improve memory performance.

Keywords: associative memory ; item recognition ; unitization ; familiarity ; recollection

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本文引用格式

刘泽军, 王余娟, 郭春彦. (2019). 从整合的角度看联结记忆中的项目再认. 心理科学进展, 27(3), 490-498

LIU Zejun, WANG Yujuan, GUO Chunyan. (2019). Investigating the item recognition in associative memory: A unitization perspective. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(3), 490-498

在日常生活中, 我们会经常碰到这样一种情境:迎面走过来一个人, 你可以很清楚地意识到这个人你认识, 但是一时想不起他的名字, 这种记忆称之为项目记忆; 当你想起这个人的名字时, 将这个人与名字联系起来, 便形成联结记忆。具体而言, 项目记忆(item memory)是指对项目本身的记忆; 而联结记忆(associative memory)指的是对项目和与项目相关的具体细节的关系的记忆(Cohen, Ryan, Hunt, Romine, Wszalek, & Nash, 1999; Konkel & Cohen, 2009; 梁九清, 郭春彦, 2012; 郑志伟, 李娟, 肖凤秋, 2015)。双加工理论(dual-process theory)认为项目记忆和联结记忆涉及到不同的认知加工过程:熟悉性(familiarity)和回想(recollection), 其中, 熟悉性是指被试在项目判断时产生的一种熟悉感, 而不能提取出任何与学习过程相关的具体细节, 是一种较快的、需要较少认知资源的加工过程; 而回想是指被试不仅可以正确地再认出学习过的项目, 而且还能提取出学习过程中的某些细节, 是一种较慢的、需要更多意志努力才能完成的加工过程(Yonelinas, 2002; Yonelinas, Aly, Wang, & Koen, 2010)。早期研究认为熟悉性和回想加工能够支持项目再认, 而联结再认只能由回想加工来完成(Donaldson & Rugg, 1998; Hockley & Consoli, 1999; Yonelinas, 2002; Yonelinas et al., 2010), 但最近的研究发现, 当被记忆项目通过整合编码形成新的整体表征时, 熟悉性加工也能够支持联结再认(Guillaume & Etienne, 2015; Jäger, Mecklinger, & Kipp, 2006; Parks & Yonelinas, 2015; Quamme, Yonelinas, & Norman, 2007; Rhodes & Donaldson, 2007, 2008; Shao, Opitz, Yang, & Weng, 2016; Tibon, Ben-Zvi, & Levy, 2014; Tibon, Gronau, Scheuplein, Mecklinger, & Levy 2014; Tibon & Levy, 2014a, 2014b; Yonelinas, Kroll, Dobbins, & Soltani, 1999; Zheng, Li, Xiao, Broster, & Jiang, 2015)。

1 整合的概念及其操作定义

整合(unitization)是指将两个或两个以上的特征或项目整合为单一的整体, 而形成一个新表征的操作(Graf & Schacter, 1989)。依据整合时信息流的方向, 可以将整合分为自上而下(top-down)的整合和自下而上(bottom-up)的整合(Tibon et al., 2014; Tibon, Gronau, & Levy, 2017), 其中, 自上而下的整合依赖于一系列将项目对加工为单一表征的指导语, 常用的方法有交互表象法(interactive imagery)和概念定义法(definition encoding) (Quamme et al., 2007; Rhodes & Donaldson, 2008; Shao et al., 2016), 其中, 交互表象法通过对两个项目的表象操作来控制整合程度, 以大象-红色为例, 在交互表象条件下, 被试将大象和红色编码为一个单一的整体表象(一头红色的大象), 而在项目表象条件下, 被试将大象和红色编码为两个相关的表象(一头大象站在红色信号灯旁边); 而概念定义法则通过一个定义性的句子把两个不相关的词对编码为一个新的概念形成高整合的联结表征, 或通过一个句子框架将两个不相关的词分别填充进去, 形成低整合的项目表征, 例如“cloud-lawn”/云彩-草地, 在概念定义条件下, 给被试呈现定义性句子(一块凝望天空的草地), 而在句子填充条件下, 给被试呈现填充性句子(云彩能够从草地上看到)。

自下而上的整合则依赖项目间固有的知觉特性或项目对之间的内在关系来操控整合水平, 可以分为知觉整合(perceptual unitization)和概念整合(conceptual unitization)。其中, 知觉整合包括项目呈现的时间关系(同时呈现和继时呈现)以及感觉通道等(视觉单通道、听觉单通道或视听跨通道), 通常, 同时呈现的项目更容易编码为一个整体, 同一感觉通道的项目更容易编码为一个整体(Bastin, Van der Linden, Schnakers, Montaldi, & Mayes, 2010; Tibon et al., 2014; Parks & Yonelinas, 2015)。而概念整合则依赖于项目之间已有的联结或语义关系, 例如, 常见的合成词(交通-堵塞), 语义相关词(小提琴-吉他)和语义无关词(苹果-帽子)等(Ahmad & Hockley, 2014; Giovanello, Keane, & Verfaellie, 2006; Rhodes & Donaldson, 2007)。

2 整合促进熟悉性基础的联结再认

大量的研究发现项目记忆可以由熟悉性和回想加工来支持; 而联结记忆则只能由回想来支持(Donaldson & Rugg, 1998; Hockley & Consoli, 1999; Yonelinas, 2002; Yonelinas et al., 2010), 但最近有研究发现整合编码可以促进熟悉性基础的联结再认(Guillaume & Etienne, 2015; Parks & Yonelinas, 2015; Quamme et al., 2007; Rhodes & Donaldson, 2007, 2008; Shao et al., 2016; Tibon et al., 2014; Zheng et al., 2015)。

采用正常健康人群为被试的研究发现, 不论采用哪种整合编码策略, 都能够一致地发现:整合促进熟悉性基础的联结再认(Ahmad & Hockley, 2014; Bader, Mecklinger, Hoppstädter & Meyer, 2010; Kamp, Bader, & Mecklinger, 2016; Parks & Yonelinas, 2015; Rhodes & Donaldson, 2007, 2008; Zheng et al., 2015)。Parks和Yonelinas (2015)采用概念定义法来控制整合水平, 结果发现相比较于句子填充编码, 概念定义编码条件下熟悉性基础和回想基础的联结再认的贡献都增大, 且整体联结再认表现也明显更好。Diana, Yonelinas和Ranganath (2008)采用交互表象法来控制整合水平, 结果也发现相比较于项目表象, 交互表象形成的整体表征促进了熟悉性基础的联结再认, 但对回想基础的联结再认没有影响。Zheng等(2015)采用实验前相关或无关的单词对来控制整合水平, 结果发现语义相关条件下出现明显的早期新旧效应, 语义无关词对条件下没有出现这一效应, 表明语义相关性促进了整合编码形成一体表征, 进而促进了熟悉性基础的联结再认。

以特殊群体为对象, 研究者进一步证明整合可以通过促进熟悉性基础的联结再认来提高有明显联结记忆缺陷患者的联结再认表现。以老年群体为对象, 有研究者认为随着正常老化, 海马的体积逐渐减小, 联结同一项目不同特性或不同项目关系的功能减弱(Cohn, Emrich, & Moscovitch 2008; Shing et al., 2010), 编码阶段联结编码的不充分是导致老年被试联结记忆缺陷的主要原因; 也有研究者认为随着老化海马体积减小, 提取时依赖海马激活的回想加工明显减弱, 是导致老年被试联结记忆缺陷的原因(Cohn et al., 2008; Daselaar, Fleck, Dobbins, Madden, & Cabeza, 2006; Friedman, 2013; Koen & Yonelinas 2014; Yonelinas, 2002), 但研究者都一致认为依赖内侧颞叶其它区域(包括:旁海马回、嗅周皮层和内嗅皮层等)的熟悉性加工相对保持完整(Friedman, 2013; Koen & Yonelinas 2014; Yonelinas, 2002)。若整合有助于熟悉性基础的联结再认, 那么通过整合策略可以有效地减少老年被试的联结记忆缺陷, 提高老年被试在联结再认中的表现, Bastin, Diana, Simon, Collette, Yonelinas和Salmon (2013)研究了整合对老年被试联结再认的影响, 学习阶段给老年被试和年轻被试呈现项目和来源信息, 分别进行交互表象编码或项目表象编码, 结果发现:在项目表象编码条件下, 老年被试的来源记忆再认成绩显著低于年轻被试, 而在交互表象编码条件下, 老年被试的来源记忆表现与年轻被试的再认表现之间没有显著的差异。Zheng, Li, Xiao, Ren和He等(2016)采用实验前词对之间的关系来区分高低整合编码, 比较老年被试和年轻被试在后续再认测验上表现的差异。行为结果发现:相比较于无关词对, 被试之间再认表现的年龄差异(即年轻被试的表现减去老年被试的表现)在合成词对条件下更小, 即合成词对条件下老年被试的联结再认表现好于无关词对条件下的联结再认表现。随后的ERP数据分析也发现, 老年被试在合成词条件下出现明显的早期新旧效应(熟悉性加工), 而无关词对上没有出现这一效应, 且早期新旧效应与年龄相关的联结再认差异呈显著的负相关, 表明:整合确实有助于熟悉性基础的联结再认, 进而促进老年被试在联结再认测验上的表现。

另一类特殊群体为遗忘症患者, Diana, Yonelinas和Ranganath (2010)使用交互表象法操纵整合水平, 研究了仅限于海马损伤的病人的联结再认表现, 结果发现, 项目表象编码条件下的被试联结再认表现明显更差, 而在交互表象编码条件下, 脑损伤病人的联结再认表现明显提高。Giovanello等(2006)采用合成/无关词对来研究整合对熟悉性基础的联结再认的影响, 结果发现在整体击中率和虚报率上, 合成词对和无关词对的表现没有显著的差异, 但在区分回想和熟悉性基础的再认时, 发现相比较于无关词对, 合成词对的熟悉性基础的联结再认准确率和虚报率都要明显更高。在随后的内侧颞叶损伤和间脑损伤的遗忘症患者(回想加工受损, 熟悉性加工相对完整)研究中, Giovanello发现控制组比遗忘症患者组有更高的击中率, 而在虚报率上, 遗忘症患者的虚报率更高, 且对于遗忘症患者而言, 在合成词对上的整体再认准确率显著高于无关词对, 这一结果支持了整合促进熟悉性基础的联结再认观点。Quamme等(2007)研究两种遗忘症患者的联结再认, 一种是颞叶切除手术的病人(海马和周围皮层都损伤), 一种是缺氧病人(只有海马受到损伤), 通过概念定义和句子填充任务来控制整合水平, 结果发现颞叶切除手术病人在高低整合编码条件下联结再认没有显著的差异, 都明显低于正常健康被试的联结再认表现; 而缺氧病人在高整合条件下的联结再认表现明显好于低整合条件下的联结再认表现, 前者熟悉性和回想加工均受到破坏, 因此即使进行整合编码, 内侧颞叶切除手术病人也不能依赖熟悉性加工而提高联结记忆, 而后者仅回想加工受到损伤, 熟悉性加工相对保存完整, 通过整合编码形成整体表征促进了熟悉性基础的加工, 进而提高了缺氧病人的联结再认表现。

上述研究都表明:不论是哪一被试群体, 也不论采用何种整合编码策略, 相比较于低整合编码, 高整合编码都能够促进熟悉性基础的联结再认, 进而提高联结再认的表现。

3 整合对联结记忆中项目再认的影响

关于整合促进熟悉性基础联结再认的观点已被广泛接受, 但关于整合对联结记忆中项目再认的影响, 已有的研究并不多, 且研究结果之间存在较大的不一致性, 主要有两种观点, 一种是“只有收益”观点(benefits-only) (Hockley & Cristi, 1996; Parks & Yonelinas (2015)。一种是“收支平衡”观点(benefits and costs) (Ahmad & Hockley, 2014; Murray & Kensinger, 2012; Pilgrim, Murray& Donaldson, 2012)。前者认为整合在促进联结再认时不影响项目再认, 因为联结编码是在项目编码的基础上完成的; 后者认为整合促进联结记忆是以损害项目记忆为代价的, 因为被试将更多的注意资源投放到联结编码中, 而减少对项目编码的资源导致项目编码受损。

3.1 整合促进联结再认而不影响项目再认?

Hockley和Cristi (1996)进行了一系列的研究探讨整合对联结记忆中项目再认的影响。编码时通过强调项目信息(项目表象或分别对两个项目形成两个独立句子)或联结信息(交互表象或形成一个句子来表征联结项目)来控制整合水平, 实验一中学习阶段通过强调项目信息或联结信息编码, 测验阶段完成项目再认和联结再认, 结果发现:强调项目信息编码条件下, 项目再认成绩明显好于联结再认表现, 而在强调联结信息编码条件下, 项目再认与联结再认表现之间没有显著的差别, 且对于联结再认, 强调联结信息编码比项目信息编码的表现更好, 而对于项目再认, 强调项目信息编码和强调联结信息编码两种条件下的表现没有显著的差异, 这一结果表明整合促进联结再认, 但不影响项目再认。实验二和三控制了编码时间, 结果发现随着编码时间的增加, 项目再认和联结再认的表现都明显增加, 但对两种测验任务产生不同的影响, 随着编码时间地增加, 强调联结信息和项目信息两种编码条件下的项目再认准确率上没有显著的差异, 而强调联结信息编码条件下的联结再认准确率明显高于强调项目信息编码条件下的联结再认准确率, 这两个研究结果也表明:强调联结信息编码促进联结再认而不影响项目再认。由于这一研究较早, 存在比较明显的问题:(1)研究中未对使用的材料进行说明, 实验材料实验前是否存在语义相关或主题相关是影响整合编码的重要因素; (2)整合编码的操作尚不成熟, 该研究中通过强调项目信息或联结信息来控制整合水平, 但在强调联结信息编码时, 指导语“交互表象或形成一个句子来表征联结项目”, 并不一定能形成整合表征, 也可能形成项目表征; (3)研究试次较少, 虽然被试每种条件下学习了180个单词对, 但在项目再认和联结再认测验中只测量了36个项目或项目对。实验设计明显有待提高。

Parks和Yonelinas (2015)采用概念定义或句子填充方法来控制整合水平, 结果发现在联结再认水平上, 高整合编码条件下的联结再认成绩明显好于低整合编码条件下的联结再认, 而高低整合编码条件下的项目再认表现之间没有显著的差异。在区分熟悉性和回想加工的再认表现上, 不论是回想加工还是熟悉性加工, 高低整合编码条件下的项目再认之间均没有显著的差异, 而高整合编码的联结再认明显好于低整合编码的联结再认。这一结果表明:整合能够促进熟悉性基础和回想基础的联结再认, 但不影响项目再认。

3.2 整合促进联结再认而损害项目再认?

Pilgrim等(2012)采用交互表象法来操作整合水平, 学习阶段, 要求被试进行三种条件的学习, 一种是单个项目的学习, 一种是整合条件下项目对的学习, 还有一种是非整合条件下项目对的学习, 测验阶段只呈现单个项目, 要求被试进行新/旧判断, 行为结果发现, 在击中率、虚报率以及辨别力指标上, 整合和非整合条件之间没有显著的差异, 而单个项目条件下的击中率和辨别力明显高于项目对条件下的击中率和辨别力, 且虚报率更低, 反应时更快。但随后的ERP数据分析发现了与行为结果不一致的结果:项目学习条件下早期额叶新旧效应(对应于熟悉性加工)的波幅明显大于非整合条件下的早期新旧效应, 明显大于整合条件下的早期新旧效应, 即整合减少了联结记忆中熟悉性基础的项目再认, 而对晚期新旧效应进行分析发现项目学习条件回想加工波幅明显大于非整合条件和整合条件回想加工波幅, 但后两者之间差异不显著, 表明整合不影响回想基础的项目再认, 这一结果也解释了行为与ERP结果之间存在差异的原因, 尽管整合减少了熟悉性基础的项目再认, 但并不影响回想基础的项目再认, 而回想加工有更高的准确性, 因此表现在行为结果上整合和非整合编码的项目再认没有显著的差异。尽管这一研究从行为角度上未发现整合对项目再认的影响, 但在ERP研究中发现整合减少了熟悉性基础的项目再认, 为我们研究整合对项目再认作用的潜在机制提供了一个研究视角, 但这一研究中未考虑整合对联结再认的影响, 无法验证整合操作是否成功, 且学习和测验阶段项目对呈现方式的变化(学习单词对, 测验单个单词)也可能影响研究结果。

Murray和Kensinger (2012)研究了情绪和整合编码对联结记忆和项目记忆的影响。学习阶段要求被试对100对中性-中性无关项目对和100对中性-情绪无关项目对分别都进行非整合表象编码和整合表象编码, 测验阶段依次完成项目再认测验和联结再认测验, 结果发现:项目再认中只有编码任务主效应显著, 非整合编码的项目再认成绩明显好于整合编码的项目再认; 而联结再认中也只有编码任务主效应显著, 整合编码比非整合编码的联结再认表现明显更好, 这一结果表明整合促进联结再认而损害了项目再认。研究者认为整合损害项目再认可能是因为编码时间较短而导致对项目编码的不充分, 在其随后的实验中, 控制了编码时间, 结果发现虽然随着编码时间的增加, 项目再认的成绩确实有所提高, 但非整合编码条件下的项目再认仍然显著好于整合编码条件下的项目再认, 表明整合对项目再认的损害作用并不随编码时间的增加而减少, 整体研究结果表明:整合促进联结再认而损害项目再认。

上述研究都是采用自上而下的整合策略来控制整合水平的, Ahmad和Hockley (2014)用合成词和无关词来控制整合水平, 进行了一系列的实验来探讨整合对联结再认和项目再认的影响, 实验一和实验二分别探讨了整合对联结再认和项目再认的影响, 比较无关词和合成词联结再认的结果发现, 虽然两者在辨别力上没有明显的差异, 但合成词的击中率和虚报率明显高于无关词; 而在项目再认测验上, 合成词编码的项目再认成绩明显差于无关词编码的项目再认, 实验一二表明:整合编码促进熟悉性基础的联结再认, 但并不提高整体联结再认表现, 同时, 整合编码减弱项目再认表现, 表明整合编码条件下, 项目再认和联结再认之间存在权衡效应。为了进一步探讨整合减少项目再认的潜在机制, 研究者进行了实验五探讨整合编码水平降低, 是否会提高项目再认表现, 结果发现随着整合编码水平的减少, 项目再认表现明显提高, 整合和非整合编码条件下的项目再认之间不再有显著的差异, 这一结果也表明, 整合编码条件下, 项目再认和联结再认表现之间确实存在明显的权衡效应。这一结果与后述Tibon等(2017)提出的观点截然相反。

Opitz和Cornell (2006)首次研究了三个项目间联结编码或关系编码的联结再认和项目再认表现, 学习阶段给被试呈现3个相关词和1个无关词, 要求被试进行两种编码, 一种是联结编码(要求被试判断哪一个单词不属于同类), 一种是关系编码(要求被试判断哪一个单词表示最小的对象)。测验阶段要求被试判断单个项目的新旧, 对于旧判断的项目再进行记得/知道判断, 同时记录ERPs。结果发现:关系编码条件下的击中率明显高于联结编码, 且对于记得反应分析也发现关系编码的准确率明显高于联结编码, 而知道反应的分析发现两者之间的准确率没有显著的差异, 这一结果表明整合编码通过减少回想加工来损害项目再认, 而不影响熟悉性加工。随后的ERPs分析发现, 联结编码条件下有明显的早期新旧效应和晚期新旧效应, 而关系编码条件下只有明显的晚期新旧效应, 且关系编码条件下的晚期新旧效应明显大于整合编码条件下的晚期新旧效应, 表明整合促进了熟悉性基础的项目再认而减少了回想基础的项目再认, 这一结果与上述行为结果存在些微差异。考虑到本研究中使用的材料是语义相关的三词组, 只是在编码时强调了联结编码和关系编码, 对三词组间联结的编码程度是否存在明显的差异也不能确定, 从整合水平假说(level of unitization hypothesis)的角度思考, 我们认为联结编码的整合水平要高于关系编码, 由此, 得出推论整合通过减少回想加工而损害项目再认的准确性, 未来应该设计更明显的整合和非整合编码对项目再认的影响研究。

虽然Pilgrim等(2012)Opitz和Cornell (2006)都认为整合会损害项目再认表现, 但两者对整合损害项目再认表现的原因存在明显不同的观点, 前者认为整合通过减少熟悉性加工而不影响回想加工来损害项目再认; 而后者认为整合通过减少回想加工来减少项目再认的准确性, 关于整合损害项目再认的具体潜在机制有待进一步的研究。

综上所述, 整合对联结记忆中项目再认的影响不仅受实验材料的影响, 也受整合编码操作的影响, 不同的编码策略应用于不同的实验材料上会产生明显不同的结果。Tibon等人(2017)从认知资源有限理论的角度对整合影响项目记忆的结果做出了一个一般化的预测:Tibon认为认知资源有限, 整合对联结再认和项目再认的作用是一个竞争认知资源的过程, 但整合对联结再认和项目再认表现的作用却不一定总是增加联结再认而减少项目再认, 而需考虑到实验材料的性质。在自上而下的整合策略(例如:概念定义法、交互表象法等)条件下, 由于实验前材料之间的无关性, 在进行整合编码时, 更多的认知资源被投放到联结编码形成整体表征上, 而较少的认知资源被投放到项目编码上, 因此, 导致联结再认成绩的提高和项目再认成绩的下降。而在自下而上的整合策略(例如:合成词、联结词和相关词等)条件下, 由于实验前材料之间已有的联结, 在进行整合编码时占用较少的认知资源, 而保留较多的认知资源应用于联结中项目的编码, 因此, 导致联结再认成绩和项目再认成绩的同时提高。虽然整合对联结再认表现的提高是通过增加熟悉性的贡献来实现的, 但关于整合对项目记忆的增加或减少是通过哪种机制来实现的, 目前尚不可知, 有待下一步的研究。

已有的关于整合对联结记忆中项目再认的研究中, 存在一个明显不同于其它研究的研究。Shao和Weng (2011)在其研究中, 同时探讨了编码材料的性质(联结词和无关词)和编码任务类型(整合和非整合)对联结再认和项目再认的影响, 结果发现:在联结再认中整合比非整合编码, 联结词比无关词编码都有更高的准确率, 而在项目再认上, 结果正好相反, 整合编码和联结词编码比非整合编码和无关词编码有更低的项目再认准确率, 这一结果表明:不论是整合和非整合编码, 还是联结词和无关词编码, 都能够提高联结再认的表现而损害项目再认的表现。为了进一步探讨整合是通过熟悉性加工还是回想加工来影响联结再认表现和项目再认表现, 在进行新旧判断的同时还进行了记得/知道判断, 其中, 记得反应体现的是回想加工过程, 而知道反应体现的是熟悉性加工过程, 结果发现:(1)回想加工过程中:比较两种不同编码操作条件下联结再认的准确率, 结果发现整合编码条件下的准确率明显高于非整合编码, 且联结词编码的准确率也明显高于无关词编码; 而项目准确率的分析发现整合编码条件下的准确率明显低于非整合编码条件下的准确率, 但联结词的准确率明显高于无关词; (2)熟悉性加工过程中, 比较两种不同编码条件下的联结再认准确率, 结果发现整合和非整合编码条件下的准确率没有显著的差异, 联结词和无关词两种编码条件下的准确率之间也没有显著的差异; 项目再认分析的结果也发现整合和非整合编码条件下的准确率之间没有显著的差异, 但联结词编码的准确率明显低于无关词的准确率。这一结果表明整合并不促进熟悉性基础的联结再认, 而是通过促进回想加工来提高联结再认, 这一结果与主流结果整合能够促进熟悉性基础的联结再认明显不同, 究其原因可能是整合编码控制并不成功, 而关于整合对项目再认的影响, 结果发现不论是编码材料的性质, 还是编码任务的类型, 整合编码都比非整合编码的表现更差, 在具体分析回想和熟悉性加工的作用时, 发现整合比非整合编码减少了回想加工而不影响熟悉性加工, 而联结词比无关词增加了回想加工而减少了熟悉性加工。尽管这一研究结果存在争议, 但从其结果我们可以发现通过控制材料性质或控制编码方式来操纵整合水平对项目再认的影响, 可能存在不同的影响机制, 是值得我们继续研究的问题。

4 研究展望

首先, 结合整合编码的定义:指将两个或两个以上的特征或项目整合为单一的整体, 而形成一个新表征的操作(Graf & Schacter, 1989), 我们有必要考虑整合水平对联结再认和项目再认的影响, 较少有研究采用量化的指标来研究整合水平对联结再认的影响, Wang等(2016)的研究中包含了同义词, 同类词和无关词三种整合编码水平, 结果发现同类词和同义词比无关词的联结再认表现明显更好, 但同类词和同义词的联结再认表现之间没有显著的差异。关于整合编码水平对联结记忆中项目再认的作用, Opitz和Cornell (2006)的研究中使用联结编码和相关编码, 发现相比相关编码, 联结编码条件下的项目再认准确性明显更低。结合这两项研究作者猜测:随着整合水平的增加, 形成的新表征越具有整体性, 那么对整体构成的再认就会越困难, 即联结再认准确性会增加, 但项目再认准确性会减少。未来研究中可以通过控制整合编码的水平, 来分别研究联结再认和项目再认的表现。

其次, 关于整合促进熟悉性基础的联结再认已被广泛验证, 但整合对项目再认的影响机制存在明显的不同观点。Parks和Yonelinas (2015)的研究中发现整合既不影响熟悉性基础的项目再认也不影响回想基础的项目再认; Pilgrim等(2012)的研究中发现整合损害了熟悉性基础的项目再认而不影响回想基础的项目再认; 而Opitz和Cornell (2006)的研究中发现整合促进的熟悉性基础的项目再认而损害回想基础的项目再认, 三个研究结果之间存在如此明显的差异, 作者认为出现这一差异的主要原因是研究中使用的材料以及整合编码的操作明显不同。结合Tibon等(2017)给出的一般解释:对于自上而下的整合编码, 由于实验前材料之间的无关性, 编码时更多的资源投放到联结编码, 而项目编码的资源较少, 那么在项目再认过程中更多地依赖熟悉性加工而较少地依赖回想加工; 而对于自下而上的整合编码, 由于实验前材料之间已有的相关性, 编码时更多的资源投放到项目编码中, 那么在项目再认中既可以通过熟悉性加工也可以通过回想加工来完成项目再认。未来研究可以借助EPR技术分别考虑两种整合编码方式对联结记忆中项目再认的影响, 也可以在同一研究中同时考虑两种整合编码对项目再认的影响。

再次, 上述关于整合编码对联结记忆中项目再认的影响机制中关于熟悉性加工的猜测, 可以借助以下更方便的方法来加以验证, 即在测验阶段呈现新旧两种项目, 但新项目中包含两种, 一种是与旧项目语义相关的(即与旧项目有相同的熟悉性), 一种是与旧项目语义无关的, 通过对语义相关新项目的错误分析来判断整合编码是否通过增加熟悉性加工来促进项目再认。

最后, 关于在同一研究中既测量项目再认又测量联结再认时如何安排实验程序十分重要。若先进行联结再认任务然后在进行项目再认任务, 那么联结再认中项目对的再次呈现明显会影响到后续的项目再认表现, 有研究者认为可以先进行项目再认, 然后再完成联结再认, 因为联结再认是对项目间关系的判断, 项目再认中单个项目的再现并不会影响项目间的关系(Murray & Kensinger, 2012), 这一操作有其合理性。也有研究者采用三分之一法, 即对学习阶段的三分之一项目-项目对进行项目再认, 对学习阶段的三分之二项目-项目对进行联结再认, 这一方法中被试的学习任务负荷明显增加(Hockley & Consoli, 1999; Yonelinas, 1997)。作者认为是否可以采用三联结项目对作为研究材料, 学习阶段学习项目1-项目2-项目3联结对, 测验阶段选择一个项目进行项目再认, 另外两个项目进行联结再认, 是否可行, 有待后续研究。

综上所述, 虽然整合能够通过促进熟悉性基础的联结再认, 缓解和改善老年被试、遗忘症患者的联结再认缺陷, 但整合对项目再认的影响尚未有一个清晰的认识, 存在两种明显不同的观点, 虽然Tibon等(2017)给出了一个能够包含两种观点的解释, 但仍有待进一步检验, 且关于整合究竟是通过影响哪一种加工过程(熟悉性加工还是回想加工或者两种加工)来影响项目再认也有待后续研究。

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Binding is an important process in human episodic memory. On retrieval, dual process theory posits familiarity and recollection as two separated processes that contribute to recognition memory. It has been hypothesized that item retrieval bases on familiarity and recollection, whereas relational retrieval employs recollection. ERPs studies on recognition memory have identified two old/new effects that respectively correspond to familiarity and recollection. The mid-frontal old/new effect, occurring at approximately 300~500ms over frontal electrode sites, is attributed to familiarity. The parietal old/new effect, approximately 500~800ms maximal over parietal electrode sites, reflects recollection. According to Van Pettern et al. (2002), there was also an executive process which was reflected by an old/new effect over prefrontal scalp around 700ms after stimulus onset. In the present study, we explore the differences between relational retrieval and item retrieval by using the ERPs techniques and following the associative recognition paradigm. 16 college students (7 males, 9 females) took part in our experiment. They studied a series of face-verb pairs presented in sequence. In the test, some face-verb pairs were presented that were encoded together at study (intact), some were presented in which both items were studied but not together (rearranged), and the rest consisted of two new, unstudied items (new). Participants were instructed to determine whether a pair was “intact”, “rearranged”, or “new”. The ERPs for the three categories of correctly-judged responses in the test phrase were averaged separately. Thus we made our hypothesis that the differences between the ERPs of the “intact” and the “rearranged” pairs simply reflected relational retrieval. Also, in the early stage of item retrieval, item familiarity and relational recollection contributed to successful retrieval of the “intact”, whereas old/new effect only reflected the item familiarity of the “rearranged”. It was found that old/new effects indicating the “intact” and the “rearranged” were at anterior cortex around 200ms after the stimulus, more obvious at all cortex from 300ms to 500ms, but prominent at prefrontal and frontal cortex from 700ms to 1400ms. However, relational old/new effect distributed over frontocentral-central- parietal areas in each time windows. It could be inferred that item old/new effect and relational old/new effect occurred at the same time, the relational retrieval employing recollection occurred much later than item retrieval, and the late anterior item old/new effect could be related to executive processes of prefrontal cortex.

郑志伟, 李娟, 肖凤秋 . ( 2015).

熟悉性能够支持联结记忆: 一体化编码的作用

心理科学进展, 23( 2), 202-212.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Familiarity and recollection are two independent cognitive processes involved in recognition memory. It is traditionally believed that both familiarity and recollection can support item recognition, whereas only recollection can support associative recognition. However, the unitization hypothesis argues that familiarity can also make a contribution to associative memory when the to-be-remembered stimuli are unitized as a single unit. Here we review results from behavioral, electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies which all convergently show that unitization indeed induces the contribution of familiarity to the associative retrieval, and perirhinal cortex is involved in the unitized encoding processes and subsequent familiarity-based associative retrieval. Future studies need to overcome the methodological problems, to explore the brain functional network associated with unitized processes, and to use the unitized encoding strategies to improve episodic memory in selective populations.

Ahmad F.N., & Hockley W.E . ( 2014).

The role of familiarity in associative recognition of unitized compound word pairs

The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67( 12), 2301-2324.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Bader R., Mecklinger A., Hoppstädter M., & Meyer P . ( 2010).

Recognition memory for one-trial-unitized word pairs: Evidence from event-related potentials

Neuroimage, 50( 2), 772-781.

URL     PMID:20045471      [本文引用: 1]

Performance in tests of associative memory is generally thought to require recollection while familiarity cannot support memory for associations. However, recent research suggested that familiarity contributes to associative memory when the to-be-associated stimuli are unitized during encoding. Here, we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval of word pairs after two different encoding conditions. Semantically unrelated word pairs were presented as separate lexical units in a sentence frame (non-unitized word pairs) or together with a definition that allows to combine word pairs to a new concept (unitized word pairs). At test, participants discriminated between word pairs that appeared in the same pairing during study, recombined, or new pairs. Memory processes were examined by means of event-related potentials (ERPs). An early old/new effect with a parietal maximum was found for unitized word pairs while a qualitatively different late old/new effect was elicited by non-unitized word pairs, only. These findings suggest that one-trial-unitized word pairs are recognized differently from non-unitized word pairs. We will discuss the possibility that unitization leads to the engagement of specific forms of familiarity onceptual fluency and absolute familiarity.

Bastin C., Diana R. A., Simon J., Collette F., Yonelinas A. P., & Salmon E ., ( 2013).

Associative memory in aging: The effect of unitization on source memory

Psychology & Aging, 28( 1), 275-283.

URL     PMID:3760335      [本文引用: 1]

In normal aging, memory for associations declines more than memory for individual items. Unitization is an encoding process defined by creation of a new single entity to represent a new arbitrary association. The current study tested the hypothesis that age-related differences in associative memory can be reduced by encoding instructions that promote unitization. In two experiments, groups of 20 young and 20 older participants learned new associations between a word and a background color under two conditions. In the item detail condition, they had to imagine that the item is the same color as the background-an instruction promoting unitization of the associations. In the context detail condition, which did not promote unitization, they had to imagine that the item interacted with another colored object. Attest, they had to retrieve the color that was associated with each word (source memory). In both experiments, the results showed an age-related decrement in source memory performance in the context detail but not in the item detail condition. Moreover, Experiment 2 examined receiver operating characteristics in older participants and indicated that familiarity contributed more to source memory performance in the item detail than in the context detail condition. These findings suggest that unitization of new associations can overcome the associative memory deficit observed in aging, at least for item-color associations.

Bastin C., Van der Linden M., Schnakers C., Montaldi D., & Mayes A. R . ( 2010).

The contribution of familiarity to within-and between-domain associative recognition memory: Use of a modified remember/know procedure

European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 22( 6), 922-943.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent to which familiarity can support associative recognition memory as a function of whether the associations are within- or between-domain. Standard recognition and familiarity only performance were compared in different participants, using a new adaptation of the remember/know procedure. The results indicated that within-domain (face–face) associative recognition was mainly supported by familiarity. In contrast, familiarity provided relatively poor support to between-domain (face–name) associative recognition for which optimal performance required a major recollection contribution. These findings suggest that familiarity can support associative recognition memory, particularly for within-domain associations, and contrast with the widely held view that associative recognition depends largely on recollection.

Cohen N. J., Ryan J., Hunt C., Romine L., Wszalek T., & Nash C . ( 1999).

Hippocampal system and declarative (relational) memory: Summarizing the data from functional neuroimaging studies

Hippocampus, 9( 1), 83-98.

[本文引用: 1]

Cohn M., Emrich S. M., Moscovitch M ., ( 2008).

Age- related deficits in associative memory: The influence of impaired strategic retrieval

Psychology and Aging, 23( 1), 93-103.

URL     PMID:18361659      [本文引用: 2]

In 2 experiments, the authors investigated whether impaired strategic retrieval processes contribute to the age-related deficit in associative . To do so, they compared older and younger adults on measures of associative that place high demands on retrieval processes (associative identification and recall-to-reject) to measures that place low demands on such processes (associative reinstatement and recall-to-accept). Results showed that older adults were severely impaired on associative identification and recall-to-reject measures; relatively intact on recall-to-accept measures, unless recollection was prominent; and intact on associative reinstatement measures. Together, these findings suggest that impairment in strategic retrieval accounts for older adults' deficits in for associative information and that this deficit, above and beyond poor of items, leads to and amplifies an impairment in overall recollection.

Daselaar S. M., Fleck M. S., Dobbins I. G., Madden D. J., & Cabeza R . ( 2006).

Effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions: An event- related fMRI study

Cerebral Cortex, 16( 12), 1771-1782.

URL     PMID:1810232      [本文引用: 1]

Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions. Memory for past events can be based on retrieval accompanied by specific contextual details (recollection) or on the feeling that an event is old or new without the recovery of contextual details (familiarity). There is evidence that recollection is more dependent on hippocampus, whereas familiarity is more dependent on the rhinal cortex, and that healthy aging has greater effects on recollection than on familiarity. However, little evidence is available about the neural correlates of these effects. Here, we isolated activity associated with recollection and familiarity by distinguishing between linear and quasi-exponential "perceived oldness" functions derived from recognition confidence levels. The main finding was a double dissociation within the medial temporal lobes between recollection-related activity in hippocampus, which was reduced by aging, and familiarity-related activity in rhinal cortex, which was increased by aging. In addition, age dissociations were found within parietal and posterior midline regions. Finally, aging reduced functional connectivity within a hippocampal-retrosplenial/parietotemporal network but increased connectivity within a rhinal-frontal network. These findings indicate that older adults compensate for hippocampal deficits by relying more on rhinal cortex, possibly through a top-down frontal modulation. This finding has important clinical implications because early Alzheimer's disease impairs both hippocampus and rhinal cortex.

Diana R. A., Yonelinas A. P., & Ranganath C . ( 2008).

The effects of unitization on familiarity-based source memory: Testing a behavioral prediction derived from neuroimaging data

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 730-740.

URL     PMID:18605864      [本文引用: 1]

Performance on tests of source memory is typically based on recollection of contextual information associated with an item. However, recent neuroimaging results have suggested that the perirhinal cortex, a region thought to support familiarity-based item recognition, may support source attributions if source information is encoded as a feature of the relevant item (i.e., "unitized"). The authors hypothesized that familiarity may contribute to source memory performance if item and source information are unitized during encoding, whereas performance may rely more heavily on recollection if source information is encoded as an arbitrary contextual association. Three source recognition experiments examining receiver operating characteristics and response deadline performance indicated that familiarity makes a greater contribution to source memory if source and item information are unitized during encoding. These findings suggest that familiarity can contribute to source recognition and that its contribution depends critically on the way item and source information are initially processed.

Diana R. A., Yonelinas A. P., & Ranganath C . ( 2010).

Medial temporal lobe activity during source retrieval reflects information type, not memory strength

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22( 8), 1808-1818.

URL     PMID:2862119      [本文引用: 1]

The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one view is that perirhinal cortex (PRc) processes item information, parahippocampal cortex (PHc) processes context information, and the hippocampus binds item and context. Here, we report two experiments that tested competing predictions from these models. In these studies, subjects encoded color-word associations by imagining color either as a contextual association (context detail condition) or as a feature of the item to be encoded (item detail condition). Results showed that encoding color information as an item detail improved source recognition in amnesic patients with recollection deficits. Furthermore, event-related fMRI data from healthy subjects revealed PRc activation associated with successful retrieval of item details, whereas activation in the hippocampus and PHc was associated with recollection-based source retrieval. The qualitatively different patterns of results observed in PRc and hippocampus/PHc are inconsistent with a memory strength account and are consistent with the idea that different MTL regions process different types of episodic information.

Donaldson D.I., & Rugg M.D . ( 1998).

Recognition memory for new associations: Electrophysiological evidence for the role of recollection

Neuropsychologia, 36, 377- 395.

URL     PMID:9699947      [本文引用: 2]

The electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory for new associations were investigated in two experiments. In both experiments subjects first studied unrelated word pairs. At test, they were presented with old words in the same pairing as at study (same pairs), old words in a different pairing from study (rearranged pairs), and pairs of new words. In Experiment 1 the test requirement was to discriminate between old and new pairs and, for any pair judged old, to then judge whether the pair was the same or rearranged. In Experiment 2 the requirement was merely to discriminate between old and new pairs. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for correctly classified same, rearranged and new pairs. The ERPs elicited by same pairs exhibited a similar pattern of effects in both experiments. Relative to the ERPs to new pairs, these effects took the form of sustained positive shifts with two distinct scalp maxima, over the left temporo-parietal and right frontal scalp respectively. ERPs to rearranged pairs showed effects which were similar in scalp topography, but markedly smaller in magnitude. This pattern of ERP effects closely resembles that found previously for test items defined as recollected on the basis of their attracting a successful source judgement. The findings therefore suggest that associative recognition memory shares some of the recollective processes that are engaged by the requirement to retrieve contextual information about a study episode. The findings from Experiment 2 indicate that the processes associated with the recollection of associated pairs are engaged regardless of whether the retrieval of associative information is an explicit task requirement.

Friedman D. , ( 2013).

The cognitive aging of episodic memory: A view based on the event-related brain potential

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 7( 5), 111-125.

URL     PMID:3752587      [本文引用: 2]

A cardinal feature of older-adult cognition is a decline, relative to the young, in the encoding and retrieval of personally-relevant events, i.e. episodic memory (EM). A consensus holds that familiarity, a relatively automatic feeling of knowing that can support recognition-memory judgments, is preserved with aging. By contrast, recollection, which requires the effortful, strategic recovery of contextual detail, declines as we age. Over the last decade, ERPs have become increasingly important tools in the study of the aging of EM, because a few, well-researched EM effects have been associated with the cognitive processes thought to underlie successful EM performance. EM effects are operationalized by subtracting the ERPs elicited by correctly-rejected, new items from those to correctly recognized, old items. Although highly controversial, the mid-frontal effect (a positive component between ~300 and 500 ms, maximal at fronto-central scalp sites) is thought to reflect familiarity-based recognition. A positivity between ~500 and 800 ms, maximal at left-parietal scalp, has been labeled the left-parietal EM effect. A wealth of evidence suggests that this brain activity reflects recollection-based retrieval. Here, I review the ERP evidence in support of the hypothesis that familiarity is maintained while recollection is compromised in older relative to young adults. I consider the possibility that the inconsistency in findings may be due to individual differences in performance, executive function and quality of life indices, such as socio-economic status.

Giovanello K. S., Keane M. M., & Verfaellie M . ( 2006).

The contribution of familiarity toassociative memory in amnesia

Neuropsychologia, 44( 10), 1859-1865.

URL     PMID:1698551      [本文引用: 2]

In Experiment 1, using the remember/know paradigm with control participants, we compared the contribution of recollection and familiarity to associative recognition for compound stimuli and for unrelated word pairs. It was demonstrated that familiarity makes a greater contribution to associative recognition of compound stimuli than to associative recognition of unrelated word pairs. In Experiment 2, we examined associative recognition memory in medial temporal lobe amnesics, diencephalic amnesics, and control participants for the stimuli employed in Experiment 1. Whereas associative recognition for compounds and unrelated words was nearly identical in control participants, associative recognition was higher for compounds than for unrelated word pairs in amnesic patients. This pattern was observed in the medial temporal amnesic group as well as in the diencephalic amnesic group. These results suggest that associative recognition in amnesia is enhanced to the extent that performance can be supported by study-induced familiarity for the studied pair.

Graf P., & Schacter D.L . ( 1989).

Unitization and grouping mediate dissociations in memory for new associations

Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 15( 5), 930-940.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Previous research has demonstrated performance dissociations between explicit and implicit memory for newly acquired associations between unrelated words. The present article accounts for this finding in terms of two factors: unitization and grouping. Unitization involves representing previously separate items as a single unit, and grouping involves forming associations among separate representations. We propose that grouping facilitates primarily explicit remembering by providing the routes for accessing encoded word pairs via the cues available during testing; in contrast, unitization affects primarily implicit remembering by enabling the reintegration of studied items in response to partial cues. Consistent with this view, the results from two experiments show that by focusing processing on the relation between target word pairs, explicit remembering can be manipulated independently of implicit remembering. Two further experiments reveal that a material manipulation (concreteness of words) affects both implicit and explicit remembering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Guillaume F. & Etienne Y., ( 2015).

Target-context unitization effect on the familiarity-related FN400: A face recognition exclusion task

International Journal of Psychophysiology, 95( 3), 345-354.

URL     PMID:25583572      [本文引用: 2]

61Recollection and familiarity are thought to both contribute to face recognition.61We manipulated the nature of the perceptual mismatch information in two exclusion tasks.61Expression change modulates the FN400 old–new effect while background did not.61FN400 is a multiply determined familiarity-related brain signal.61It depends on the task-processing context and the nature of the recollected information in an interactive way.

Hockley W.E., & Consoli A. , ( 1999).

Familiarity and recollection in item and associative recognition

Memory & Cognition, 27( 4), 657-664.

URL     PMID:10479824      [本文引用: 3]

Recognition memory for item information (single words) and associative information (word pairs) was tested immediately and after retention intervals of 30 min and 1 day (Experiment 1) and 2 days and 7 days (Experiment 2) using Tulving’s (1985) remember/know response procedure. Associative recognition decisions were accompanied by more “remember” responses and less “know” responses than item recognition decisions. Overall recognition performance and the proportion of remember responses declined at similar rates for item and associative information. The pattern of results for item recognition was consistent with Donaldson’s (1996) single-factor signal detection model of remember/ know responses, as comparisons based on A′ between overall item recognition and remember item recognition showed no significant differences. For associative recognition, however, A′ for remember responses was reliably greater than for overall recognition. The results show that recollection plays a significant role in associative recognition.

Hockley W.E., & Cristi C. , ( 1996).

Tests of encoding tradeoffs between item and associative information

Memory & Cognition, 24( 2), 202-216.

URL     PMID:8881323      [本文引用: 2]

The assumption that item and associative information are processed separately and that there is a tradeoff in the amount of each type of information that can be encoded in a given study interval (e.g., Anderson and Bower, 1972; Murdock, 1982,1992) was examined. When item information was emphasized at study, recognition memory for associative information was poor, demonstrating that item information can be emphasized over associative information. In contrast, when associative information was emphasized, associative recognition greatly improved but item recognition did not suffer. This pattern of results was found at both fast and slow presentation rates, and for both high and low word concreteness and word frequency. Measures of confidence and response latency were also consistent with this pattern. Thus, the encoding of associative information did not measurably diminish item recognition performance.

Jäger T., Mecklinger A., & Kipp K. H . ( 2006).

Intra- and inter-item associations doubly dissociate the electrophysiological correlates of familiarity and recollection

Neuron, 52( 3), 535-545.

URL     PMID:17088218      [本文引用: 1]

Single-process models of recognition memory posit that recognizing is based on a unidimensional value of global memory strength. By contrast, dual-process models propose the existence of two independent processes subserving the explicit recognition of previously encountered episodes, namely “familiarity” and “recollection.” Familiarity represents a noncontextual form of recognition that may only support the retrieval of associative information when the to-be-associated information can be unitized, such as when two photographs depicting the same person are memorized (intra-item associations). Conversely, recollection enables retrieving associations between arbitrarily linked information, such as associations between photographs of different persons (inter-item associations). By measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we obtained a double dissociation of familiarity and recollection that strongly favors dual-process accounts of recognition memory: the electrophysiological correlate of familiarity02was02significantly larger for intra- than for inter-item associations. Conversely, the electrophysiological correlate of recollection was significantly larger for inter- than for intra-item associations.

Kamp S-M., Bader R., & Mecklinger A . ( 2016).

The effect of unitizing word pairs on recollection versus familiarity- based retrieval—Further evidence from ERPs

Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 12( 4), 169-178.

URL     PMID:5279856      [本文引用: 1]

We investigated the contribution of familiarity and recollection to associative retrieval of word pairs depending on the extent to which the pairs have been unitized through task instructions in the encoding phase. Participants in the unitization condition encoded word pairs in the context of a definition that tied them together such that they were treated as a coherent new item, while in the control condition word pairs were inserted into a sentence frame in which each word remained an individual unit. Contrasting event-related potentials (ERERPs) elicited in a subsequent recognition test by old (intact) and recombined (a new combination of two words from different study pairs) word pairs, an early frontal effect, the putative ER P correlate of familiarity-based retrieval, was apparent in the unitization condition. The left parietal old/new effect, reflecting recollection-based retrieval, was elicited only in the control condition. This suggests that in the unitization condition only, familiarity was sufficiently diagnostic to distinguish old from recombined pairs, while in the control condition, recollection contributed to associative recognition. Our findings add to a body of literature suggesting that unitization of associations increases the relative contribution of familiarity to subsequent associative retrieval.

Koen J.D., & Yonelinas A.P . ( 2014).

The effects of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and alzheimer's disease on recollection and familiarity: A meta-analytic review

Neuropsychology Review, 24( 3), 332-354.

URL     PMID:4260819      [本文引用: 2]

It is well established that healthy aging, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are associated with substantial declines in episodic memory. However, there is still debate as to how two forms of episodic memory – recollection and familiarity – are affected by healthy and pathological aging. To address this issue we conducted a meta-analytic review of the effect sizes reported in studies using remember/know (RK), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and process dissociation (PD) methods to examine recollection and familiarity in healthy aging (25 published reports), aMCI (9 published reports), and AD (5 published reports). The results from the meta-analysis revealed that healthy aging is associated with moderate-to-large recollection impairments. Familiarity was not impaired in studies using ROC or PD methods but was impaired in studies that used the RK procedure. aMCI was associated with large decreases in recollection whereas familiarity only tended to show a decrease in studies with a patient sample comprised of both single-domain and multiple-domain aMCI patients. Lastly, AD was associated with large decreases in both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with neuroimaging evidence suggesting that the hippocampus is critical for recollection whereas familiarity is dependent on the integrity of the surrounding perirhinal cortex. Moreover, the results highlight the relevance of method selection when examining aging, and suggest that familiarity deficits might be a useful behavioral marker for identifying individuals that will develop dementia.

Konkel A., & Cohen N.J . ( 2009).

Relational memory and the hippocampus: Representations and methods

Frontiers in Neuroscience, 3( 2), 166-174.

URL     PMID:20011138      [本文引用: 1]

Since the discovery of the importance of the hippocampus for normal memory, considerable research has endeavored to characterize the precise role played by the hippocampus. Previously we have offered the relational memory theory, which posits that the hippocampus forms representations of arbitrary or accidentally occurring relations among the constituent elements of experience. In a recent report we emphasized the role of the hippocampus in all manner of relations, supporting this claim with the finding that amnesic patients with hippocampal damage were similarly impaired on probes of memory for spatial, sequential, and associative relations. In this review we place these results in the context of the broader literature, including how different kinds of relational or source information are tested, and consider the importance of specifying hippocampal function in terms of the representations it supports.

Murray B.D., & Kensinger E.A . ( 2012).

The effects of emotion and encoding strategy on associative memory

Memory & Cognition, 40( 7), 1056-1069.

URL     PMID:22592895      [本文引用: 3]

Research has demonstrated that when discrete pieces of information are integrated together at encoding-imagining two items together as a single entity, for example-there is a mnemonic benefit for their relationship. A separate body of literature has indicated that the presence of emotional information can have an impact on the binding of associated neutral details, in some cases facilitating associative binding (MacKay et al. Memory and Cognition 32:474-488, ; Mather, Perspectives on Psychological Science 2:33-52, ), and in other cases impeding the processing of associated details (Easterbrook, Psychological Review 66:183-201, ; Kensinger, Emotion Review 1:99-113, ). In the present experiments, we investigated how memory for neutral words is affected by the emotionality of the information with which they are presented (whether with an emotional word or a second neutral word) and the encoding context (integrated or nonintegrated strategy). Participants viewed word pairs and were instructed to visualize the items as an integrated unit or to visualize them separately from one another. The results of Experiment 1 showed a disproportionate mnemonic benefit for neutral items that were integrated with other neutral items over those integrated with emotional items. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B showed that this effect interacted with encoding time: When given 2 s to encode, participants showed no effect of integration on memory for neutral-neutral pairs, but showed a significant mnemonic benefit for integrating emotional-neutral pairs. When given 4 or 6 s, the integrative benefit increased significantly for neutral-neutral pairs but decreased for emotional-neutral pairs. These results suggest that creating an integrated mental image of two neutral items requires a more time-consuming process than integrating an emotional and a neutral item, but that extra effort may result in a downstream mnemonic benefit.

Opitz B. & Cornell S., ( 2006).

Contribution of familiarity and recollection to associative recognition memory: Insights from event-related potentials

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18( 9), 1595-1605.

URL     PMID:16989559      [本文引用: 4]

Abstract Within the dual-process perspective of recognition memory, it has been claimed that familiarity is sufficient to support recognition of single items, but recollection is necessary for associative recognition of item pairs. However, there are some reports suggesting that familiarity might support associative recognition judgments when the items form an easy to access bound representation. In contrast, recollection seems to be required for the recognition of bindings that might be flexibly rearranged in novel situations. We investigated whether both forms of binding are mediated by different mechanisms as reflected by a qualitatively different spatiotemporal eventrelated potential (ERP) pattern. In a recognition memory experiment, subjects gave old/new judgments to words learned by focusing either on interitem associations or on size relation of word triplets. Results revealed higher hit rates in the relational condition as compared to the associative condition. In addition, the proportion of triplets from which all three items were remembered was significantly larger in the relational condition suggesting that memory retrieval in this condition relies primarily on bound representations of word triplets. The ERP revealed a late parietal old/new effect for both conditions, with relational processing resulting in a greater effect. In contrast, an early frontal old/new effect was solely present in the associative condition. Taken together, these data provide evidence that familiarity might support associative recognition if the associated components are coherently encoded into a bound representation. Recollection might foster the recognition of relational bindings among items. This indicates that the contribution of familiarity and recollection to associative recognition depends on the kind of binding operations performed on the items rather than on the single versus multiple item distinction.

Parks C.M., & Yonelinas A.P . ( 2015).

The importance of unitization for familiarity-based learning

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41( 3), 881-903.

URL     PMID:25329077      [本文引用: 8]

It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports for single items. However, the levels of unitization framework assumes that familiarity can support associative under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single coherent item). In the current study we tested two critical assumptions of this framework. First, does unitization reflect a specialized form of or is it simply a form of semantic or elaborative encoding, and, second, can the beneficial effects of unitization on familiarity be observed for across-domain associations or are they limited to creating new associations between items that are from the same stimulus domains ? Unitization was found to increase associative recognition but not item recognition. It affected familiarity more than recollection, increased associative but not item priming, and was dissociable from levels of processing effects. Moreover, unitization effects were found to be particularly effective in supporting face-word and fractal-sound pairs. The current results indicate that unitization reflects a specialized form of that supports associative familiarity of within- and across-domain associations.

Pilgrim L. K., Murray J. G., & Donaldson D. I . ( 2012).

Characterizing episodic memory retrieval: Electrophysiological evidence for diminished familiarity following unitization

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24( 8), 1671-1681.

URL     PMID:22220725      [本文引用: 4]

Episodic memory relies on both recollection and familiarity; why these processes are differentially engaged during retrieval remains unclear. Traditionally, recollection has been considered necessary for tasks requiring associative retrieval, whereas familiarity supports recognition of items. Recently, however, familiarity has been shown to contribute to associative recognition if stimuli are "unitized" at encoding (a single representation is created from multiple elements)-the "benefit" of unitization. Here, we ask if there is also a "cost" of unitization; are the elements of unitized representations less accessible via familiarity? We manipulated unitization during encoding and used ERPs to index familiarity and recollection at retrieval. The data revealed a selective reduction in the neural correlate of familiarity for individual words originally encoded in unitized compared with nonunitized word pairs. This finding reveals a measurable cost of unitization, suggesting that the nature of to-be-remembered stimuli is critical in determining whether familiarity contributes to episodic memory.

Quamme J. R., Yonelinas A. P., & Norman K. A . ( 2007).

Effect of unitization on associative recognition in amnesia

Hippocampus, 17( 3), 192-200.

[本文引用: 4]

Rhodes S.M., & Donaldson D.I . ( 2007).

Electrophysiological evidence for the influence of unitization on the processes engaged during episodic retrieval: Enhancing familiarity based remembering

Neuropsychologia, 45( 2), 412-424.

URL     PMID:16930640      [本文引用: 4]

Episodic memory depends upon multiple dissociable retrieval processes. Here we investigated the degree to which the processes engaged during successful retrieval are dependent on the properties of the representations that underlie memory for an event. Specifically we examined whether the individual elements of an event can, under some conditions, be unitized, leading to an enhancement of familiarity based responding. Retrieval processes were examined using event-related potential (ERPs) old/new effects, recorded during an associative recognition memory task. The nature of to-be-remembered information was manipulated by using word-pairs as stimuli. At study, participants were asked to remember word-pairs sharing an association (traffic-jam); association+semantic relationship (lemon range); or a semantic relationship only (cereal read). A behavioural pre-test revealed that association word-pairs were rated as having the most unitized representation. At test, participants were required to recognize if word-pairs were presented in the same pairing as at study, were rearranged from at study, or were entirely new. Behavioural recognition performance was clearly influenced by the nature of the to-be-remembered stimuli, memory being strongest for pairs related purely by association, and weakest for semantic only pairs. ERP old/new effects recorded at test also showed significant differences in the neural correlates of retrieval, depending on stimulus characteristics. The bilateral frontal old/new effect (typically associated with familiarity) was solely elicited by association only pairs. By contrast, the left parietal old/new effect (associated with recollection) was elicited equally by all three conditions. In addition, the late right frontal old/new effect (typically associated with some form of strategic/executive processing) was modulated. This latter effect was initially largest for association only pairs, and subsequently largest for semantic pairs. These findings suggest that the pattern of engagement of familiarity and recollection during successful episodic retrieval is dependent on the properties of the representations that underlie memory for an event.

Rhodes S.M., & Donaldson D.I . ( 2008).

Electrophysiological evidence for the effect of interactive imagery on episodic memory: Encouraging familiarity for non-unitized stimuli during associative recognition

NeuroImage, 39( 2), 873-884.

URL     PMID:17950624      [本文引用: 4]

Episodic memory depends upon multiple processes, including familiarity and recollection. Although associative recognition tasks are traditionally viewed as requiring recollection, recent research suggests a role for familiarity if to-be-remembered stimuli are perceived as unitized. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the relationship between stimulus properties and encoding strategy on the engagement of familiarity during associative recognition. Participants studied word pairs containing an association (e.g. traffic am) or an unassociated semantic relationship (e.g. violin uitar), using either item or interactive imagery. At test, participants were required to recognize if word pairs were presented in the same pairing as study, were rearranged, or new. We hypothesized that adopting a strategy of interactive imagery during encoding (i.e. encouraging unitization) would enhance familiarity for unassociated word pairs but would have no effect on association pairs because they are already perceived as unitized. As expected, overall recognition performance was better for word pairs encoded with interactive imagery, and for association than semantic word pairs. ERPs recorded at test revealed an interaction between encoding strategy and stimulus properties. Association word pairs elicited similar bilateral frontal (familiarity) and left parietal (recollection) old/new effects following item and interactive imagery. By contrast, for semantic word pairs, the left parietal effect was equivalent across conditions, but the bilateral frontal effect was enhanced for the interactive imagery condition. The ERP results suggest that an encoding strategy of interactive imagery can enhance familiarity during associative recognition, but this effect is ultimately dependent on the properties of the stimuli to-be-remembered and the nature of the representations that underlie them.

Shao H. Y., Opitz B., Yang J. J.., & Weng X. C . ( 2016).

Recollection reduces unitised familiarity effect

Memory, 24( 4), 535-547.

URL     PMID:25793354      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract Two types of encoding tasks have been employed in previous research to investigate the beneficial effect of unitisation on familiarity-based associative recognition (unitised familiarity effect), namely the compound task and the interactive imagery task. Here we show how these two tasks could differentially engage subsequent recollection-based associative recognition and consequently lead to the turn-on or turn-off of the unitised familiarity effect. In the compound task, participants studied unrelated word pairs as newly learned compounds. In the interactive imagery task, participants studied the same word pairs as interactive images. An associative recognition task was used in combination with the Remember/Know procedure to measure recollection-based and familiarity-based associative recognition. The results showed that the unitised familiarity effect was present in the compound task but was absent in the interactive imagery task. A comparison of the compound and the interactive imagery task revealed a dramatic increase in recollection-based associative recognition for the interactive imagery task. These results suggest that unitisation could benefit familiarity-based associative recognition; however, this effect will be eliminated when the memory trace formed is easily accessed by strong recollection without the need for a familiarity assessment.

Shao H.Y., & Weng X.C . ( 2011).

Unitization benefits associative recognition whereas impairs item recognition

Third International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security. 314-317.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Multimedia storage involves unitized processing of different types of information, such as text, images, and audio. Although unitized processing could greatly enrich the input information, its role in subsequent retrieval is unknown. This study investigated the general effects of unitized processing on item recognition and associative recognition. Specifically, we induced two types of unitized processing, namely long-term unitized processing and short-term unitized processing through manipulating the types of the encoding tasks (short-term unitized processing) and the properties of the encoding materials (long-term unitized processing). Recognition for item information (single words) and associative information (word pairs) was tested using Tulving's (1985) remember/know response procedure. We found both long-term unitized processing and short-term unitized processing increased the overall performance for associative recognition whereas decreased the overall performance for item recognition. Therefore, strategic use of multimedia storage should be valued for the security and the flexibility of the individual information.

Shing Y. L., Werklebergner M., Brehmer Y., Müller V., Li S. C., & Lindenberger U . ( 2010).

Episodic memory across the lifespan: The contributions of associative and strategic components

Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review, 34( 7), 1080-1091.

URL     PMID:19896974      [本文引用: 1]

The structural and functional brain circuitries supporting episodic memory undergo profound reorganization in childhood and old age. We propose a two-component framework that combines and integrates evidence from child development and aging. It posits that episodic memory builds on two interacting components: (a) the strategic component, which refers to memory control operations, and (b) the associative component, which refers to mechanisms that bind different features of a memory episode into a compound representation. We hypothesize that: (a) children's difficulties in episodic memory primarily originate from low levels of strategic operations, and reflect the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC); (b) deficits in episodic memory performance among older adults originate from impairments in both strategic and associative components, reflecting senescent changes in the PFC and the medio-temporal lobes (MTL). Initial behavioral and neural evidence is consistent with both hypotheses. The two-component framework highlights the specificities of episodic memory in different age periods, helps to identify and dissociate its components, and contributes to understanding the interplay among maturation, learning, and senescence.

Tibon R., Ben-Zvi S., & Levy D. A . ( 2014).

Associative recognition processes are modulated by modality relations

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26( 8), 1785-1796.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Although memory of episodic associations is generally considered to be recollective in nature, it has been suggested that when stimuli are experienced as a unit, familiarity-related processes might contribute to their subsequent associative recognition. Furthermore, intradomain associations are believed to be unitized more readily than interdomain associations. To assess these claims, we tested associative recognition following two types of pair associate learning. In the unimodal task, stimulus pairs were pictures of common objects, whereas in the cross-modal task, stimulus pairs consisted of an object picture and an unrelated environmental sound. At test, participants discriminated intact from recombined pairs while ERPs were recorded. In the unimodal task only, associative recognition was accompanied by a robust frontal deflection reminiscent of a component commonly interpreted as related to familiarity processes. In contrast, ERP correlates of associative recognition observed at more posterior sites, akin to a component that has been related to recollection, were apparent in both tasks. These findings indicate that retrieval of unimodal associations can be supported by familiarity-related processes that are dissociable from recollective processes required for the retrieval of cross-modal associations.

Tibon R., Gronau N., & Levy D. A . ( 2017).

Associative unitization via semantic relatedness benefits episodic recognition of component elements

PsyArXiv. Retrieved from

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Tibon R., Gronau N., Scheuplein A. L., Mecklinger A., & Levy D. A . ( 2014).

Associative recognition processes are modulated by the semantic unitizability of memoranda

Brain and Cognition, 92, 19-31.

URL     PMID:25463136     

Although memory of episodic associations is generally considered to be recollective in nature, it has been suggested that when stimuli are experienced as a unit, familiarity processes might contribute to their subsequent associative recognition. To investigate the effect of semantic relatedness during episodic encoding on the processes of retrieval of associative information, we had participants interactively encode pairs of object pictures, vertically arranged so as to suggest a functional or configural relationship between them. Half the pairs were independently judged to be of related objects (e.g., a lamp over a table) and half of unrelated objects (e.g., a key-ring over an apple). At test, participants discriminated between intact, recombined, and new pairs while event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In an early ERP marker of retrieval success generally associated with familiarity processes, differences related to associative memory only emerged for related pairs, while differences associated with item memory emerged for both related and unrelated pairs. In contrast, in a later ERP effect associated with recollection, differences related to associative memory emerged for both related and unrelated pairs. These findings may indicate that retrieval of episodic associations formed between two semantically related visual stimuli can be supported by familiarity-related processes.

Tibon R., & Levy D.A . ( 2014 a).

Temporal texture of associative encoding modulates recall processes

Brain and Cognition, 84( 1), 1-13.

URL     PMID:24215986      [本文引用: 1]

Binding aspects of an experience that are distributed over time is an important element of episodic memory. In the current study, we examined how the temporal complexity of an experience may govern the processes required for its retrieval. We recorded event-related potentials during episodic cued recall following pair associate learning of concurrently and sequentially presented object-picture pairs. Cued recall success effects over anterior and posterior areas were apparent in several time windows. In anterior locations, these recall success effects were similar for concurrently and sequentially encoded pairs. However, in posterior sites clustered over parietal scalp the effect was larger for the retrieval of sequentially encoded pairs. We suggest that anterior aspects of the mid-latency recall success effects may reflect working-with-memory operations or direct access recall processes, while more posterior aspects reflect recollective processes which are required for retrieval of episodes of greater temporal complexity.

Tibon R., & Levy D.A . ( 2014 b).

The time course of episodic associative retrieval: Electrophysiological correlates of cued recall of unimodal and crossmodal pair-associate learning

.Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14( 1), 220-235.

URL     PMID:23918600      [本文引用: 1]

Little is known about the time course of processes supporting episodic cued recall. To examine these processes, we recorded event-related scalp electrical potentials during episodic cued recall following pair-associate learning of unimodal object-picture pairs and crossmodal object-picture and sound pairs. Successful cued recall of unimodal associates was characterized by markedly early scalp potential differences over frontal areas, while cued recall of both unimodal and crossmodal associates were reflected by subsequent differences recorded over frontal and parietal areas. Notably, unimodal cued recall success divergences over frontal areas were apparent in a time window generally assumed to reflect the operation of familiarity but not recollection processes, raising the possibility that retrieval success effects in that temporal window may reflect additional mnemonic processes beyond familiarity. Furthermore, parietal scalp potential recall success differences, which did not distinguish between crossmodal and unimodal tasks, seemingly support attentional or buffer accounts of posterior parietal mnemonic function but appear to constrain signal accumulation, expectation, or representational accounts.

Yonelinas A.P . ( 1997).

Recognition memory rocs for item and associative information: The contribution of recollection and familiarity

Memory & Cognition, 25( 6), 747-763.

URL     PMID:9421560      [本文引用: 1]

Receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined in three recognition memory experiments. ROCs for item information (i.e., was this word presented?) were found to be curvilinear. However, ROCs for associative information (i.e., were these two words presented together?) were found to be linear. The results are in agreement with the predictions of a dual-process model that assumes that recognition judgments are -based on familiarity and recollection. Familiarity reflects the assessment of a continuous strength dimension and is well described as a signal detection process, whereas recollection reflects the retrieval of qualitative information about the study episode and behaves like a discrete threshold process. The results showed that memory judgments about items relied on a combination of recollection and familiarity, but that judgments about associations relied primarily on recollection. Further examination of the associative ROCs suggested that subjects were able to recollect that old pairs of items were in the study list, and, under some conditions, that new pairs were not in the study list.

Yonelinas A.P . ( 2002).

The nature of recollection and familiarity: A review of 30 years of research

Journal of Memory and Language, 46( 3), 441-517.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

To account for dissociations observed in recognition memory tests, several dual-process models have been proposed that assume that recognition judgments can be based on the recollection of details about previous events or on the assessment of stimulus familiarity. In the current article, these models are examined, along with the methods that have been developed to measure recollection and familiarity. The relevant empirical literature from behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies is then reviewed in order to assess model predictions. Results from a variety of measurement methods, including task-dissociation and process-estimation methods, are found to lead to remarkably consistent conclusions about the nature of recollection and familiarity, particularly when ceiling effects are avoided. For example, recollection is found to be more sensitive than familiarity to response speeding, division of attention, generation, semantic encoding, the effects of aging, and the amnestic effects of benzodiazepines, but it is less sensitive than familiarity to shifts in response criterion, fluency manipulations, forgetting over short retention intervals, and some perceptual manipulations. Moreover, neuropsychological and neuroimaging results indicate that the two processes rely on partially distinct neural substrates and provide support for models that assume that recollection relies on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, whereas familiarity relies on regions surrounding the hippocampus. Double dissociations produced by experimental manipulations at time of test indicate that the two processes are independent at retrieval, and single dissociations produced by study manipulations indicate that they are partially independent during encoding. Recollection is similar but not identical to free recall, whereas familiarity is similar to conceptual implicit memory, but is dissociable from perceptual implicit memory. Finally, the results indicate that recollection reflects a thresholdlike retrieval process that supports novel learning, whereas familiarity reflects a signal-detection process that can support novel learning only under certain conditions. The results verify a number of model predictions and prove useful in resolving several theoretical disagreements.

Yonelinas A. P., Aly M., Wang W.C., & Koen J. D . ( 2010).

Recollection and familiarity: Examining controversial assumptions and new directions

Hippocampus, 20( 11), 1178-1194.

URL     PMID:20848606      [本文引用: 3]

It is well accepted that recognition memory reflects the contribution of two separable memory retrieval processes, namely recollection and familiarity. However, fundamental questions remain regarding the functional nature and neural substrates of these processes. In this article, we describe a simple quantitative model of recognition memory (i.e., the dual-process signal detection model) that has been useful in integrating findings from a broad range of cognitive studies, and that is now being applied in a growing number of neuroscientific investigations of memory. The model makes several strong assumptions about the behavioral nature and neural substrates of recollection and familiarity. A review of the literature indicates that these assumptions are generally well supported, but that there are clear boundary conditions in which these assumptions break down. We argue that these findings provide important insights into the operation of the processes underlying recognition. Finally, we consider how the dual-process approach relates to recent neuroanatomical and computational models and how it might be integrated with recent findings concerning the role of medial temporal lobe regions in other cognitive functions such as novelty detection, perception, implicit memory and short-term memory. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Yonelinas A. P., Kroll N. E. A., Dobbins I. G., & Soltani M . ( 1999).

Recognition memory for faces: When familiarity supports associative recognition judgments

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6( 4), 654-661.

[本文引用: 1]

Zheng Z. W., Li J., Xiao F. Q., Broster L. S., Jiang Y., & Xi M. J . ( 2015).

The effects of unitization on the contribution of familiarity and recollection processes to associative recognition memory: Evidence from event- related potentials

International Journal of Psychophysiology Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 95( 3), 355-362.

URL     PMID:25583573      [本文引用: 4]

61The effects of unitization on associative recognition memory were extended.61Retrieval processes were assessed by comparing ERPs of intact to rearranged pairs.61Frontal familiarity was enhanced by strong unitization.61Unitization contributes to recollection during associative recognition.

Zheng Z. W., Li J., Xiao F. Q., Ren W. C., & He R. Q . ( 2016).

Unitization improves source memory in older adults: An event-related potential study

Neuropsychologia, 89, 232-244.

URL     PMID:27343684      [本文引用: 1]

61Effects of unitized encoding strategy on source memory in older adults were examined.61Familiarity and recollection were estimated by using event-related potentials.61Age differences were smaller for source recognition in the unitized condition.61The early mid-frontal old/new effect was only evoked in the unitized condition.

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