心理科学进展, 2019, 27(3): 453-464 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00453

元分析

暴力视频游戏对个体亲社会性的影响:一项元分析

邵嵘, 滕召军, 刘衍玲,

西南大学心理健康教育研究中心, 重庆 400715

How violent video games affect prosocial outcomes: A meta-analysis

SHAO Rong, TENG Zhaojun, LIU Yanling,

Research Center for Mental Health Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China

通讯作者: 刘衍玲, E-mail: ssq@swu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-11-24   网络出版日期: 2019-03-15

基金资助: 国家社会科学基金教育学一般课题“亲社会视频游戏对青少年亲社会行为的影响”.  BBA140049

Received: 2017-11-24   Online: 2019-03-15

摘要

暴力视频游戏是一种新兴的娱乐媒介, 是指含有描绘个体试图对其他个体造成伤害等内容的视频游戏。亲社会性是人类区别于动物的重要特征, 包括在人际交往中个体所表现出的利他、助人等一切使他人受益的认知、情感和行为。本文采用元分析的方法整合国内外已有研究, 分析暴力视频游戏对玩家亲社会性影响的主效应, 并重点考察各调节变量在暴力视频游戏与亲社会性的关系中产生的作用。通过文献检索, 纳入符合要求的文献24篇, 包含63个效应值(effect size), 总样本量18554人。研究结果显示:暴力视频游戏与亲社会性总效应值显著, 但相关较弱(r = -0.10)。调节效应分析表明, 暴力视频游戏与亲社会性的关系受到被试性别、被试类型、被试年龄、测量类型与亲社会性测量指标的调节。未来研究可以进一步采用一般攻击模型与一般学习模型等理论模型指导暴力视频游戏对亲社会行为影响研究, 同时优化实证研究中测量亲社会性的实验范式, 并且需要重点考察个体差异对暴力视频游戏与亲社会性关系的影响。

关键词: 暴力视频游戏 ; 亲社会性 ; 元分析 ; 调节效应

Abstract

Violent video game is a new kind of medium which depicts intentional attempts by individuals to inflict harm on others. Prosociality is an important characteristic that distinguishes human beings from animals, which includes prosocial cognition, emotion and behavior that show in interpersonal communication, such as altruism, helping behavior and so on. The current research conducted a meta-analytic review of studies that examined the impact of violent video games on prosocial outcomes, and focused on the role of moderating variables in the relationship between violent video games and prosocial outcomes. Data from 24 journal articles and 63 effect sizes with 18554 participants revealed that violent video games had negative main effects on prosocial outcomes, but the effect size was small (r = -0.10); moderation analysis showed that the effects between violent video games and prosocial outcomes were moderated by gender, age of participants, measurement and types of prosocial outcomes. Future research should consider using new models such as take together for GAM and GLM model to guide the research which explore the relationship between violent video games and prosocial outcomes, optimizing the experimental paradigm which measures prosocial outcomes. What’s more, it is necessary to pay attention to the effects of individual differences and features of video games.

Keywords: violent video games ; prosocial outcomes ; meta-analysis ; moderated effects

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本文引用格式

邵嵘, 滕召军, 刘衍玲. (2019). 暴力视频游戏对个体亲社会性的影响:一项元分析. 心理科学进展, 27(3), 453-464

SHAO Rong, TENG Zhaojun, LIU Yanling. (2019). How violent video games affect prosocial outcomes: A meta-analysis. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(3), 453-464

1 引言

随着电子科技的飞速发展, 视频游戏的种类日益增多, 画面、内容与操作方式愈加丰富, 模拟度与逼真度也极大地提升, 视频游戏对玩家的吸引力越来越大。特别是对青少年和大学生群体, 视频游戏已经成为他们不可缺少的娱乐方式, 这就使得社会各界越来越关注视频游戏对游戏玩家的影响。视频游戏对玩家既有积极的影响也有消极的影响, 但是由于游戏成瘾的增多, 青少年与大学生发生暴力犯罪事件的激增, 研究者就更多地关注视频游戏对玩家的消极影响, 特别是暴力视频游戏对玩家攻击性的增强与亲社会性的降低。

暴力视频游戏是一种新兴的娱乐媒介, 是含有描绘个体试图对其他个体造成伤害等内容的视频游戏, 而遭受伤害的游戏角色既可以是卡通人物, 也可以是真人或介于两者之间的角色(Anderson & Bushman, 2001)。大多数研究表明, 暴力视频游戏会显著提高玩家的攻击性。例如, 针对暴力视频游戏的横向研究表明, 暴力视频游戏作为情境因素可以导致个体攻击性认知、攻击性情感以及攻击性唤醒水平的增加(如, Anderson, 2004; Gentile, Coyne, & Walsh, 2011; Mitrofan, Paul, Weich, & Spencer, 2014; Boxer, Groves, & Docherty, 2015)。另外, 纵向研究也表明, 早期接触暴力视频游戏可以预测随后个体的攻击性水平(如, Gentile, Li, Khoo, Prot, & Anderson, 2014)。以上这些研究都以一般攻击模型(General Aggression Model, GAM)为理论基础(Anderson & Bushman, 2001, 2002), 强调暴力视频游戏作为情境可以通过认知、情绪以及生理唤醒对个体的攻击性产生影响。然而, 也有研究者并没有发现暴力游戏对攻击性的促进作用, 以Ferguson为代表, 认为暴力视频游戏不是导致攻击性行为增加的前因变量, 它真正作用的对象是个体本身具有的暴力认知或攻击特质, 通过影响个体特质来加快或减慢暴力行为的发生(Ferguson, 2007, 2008, 2015), 并提出与一般攻击模型相对的催化剂模型(Catalyst Model, CM)。

如上所述, 前期大量关于暴力视频游戏的研究主要探讨其对玩家攻击性的影响。近年来, 研究者渐渐关注其对个体亲社会性产生的作用, 主要包括对亲社会认知(如亲社会言语加工、人性化知觉等)、亲社会情感(如共情、内疚等)以及亲社会行为(如助人行为、捐赠行为等)三个方面的研究。此时用来指导暴力视频游戏对攻击性影响的GAM不再适用(靳宇倡, 李俊一, 2014), 于是研究者在GAM的基础上提出了一般学习模型(General Leaning Model, GLM; Buckly & Anderson, 2006)。该模型强调学习的作用, 不仅可以解释视频游戏对攻击性的促进作用, 还可以解释其对亲社会性的抑制作用。GLM模型认为, 暴力视频游戏的输入变量可以通过影响玩家的内部状态来降低玩家的亲社会性水平(Buckly & Anderson, 2006)。

多数有关暴力视频游戏对亲社会性影响的研究都表明, 接触暴力视频游戏对亲社会性有显著的削弱作用。国内如李俊一和靳宇倡(2014)采用七巧板范式考察大学生群体的亲社会行为, 采用华人敌意量表与敌意状态量表考察被试的认知与情感状态, 结果显示玩暴力游戏的被试较亲社会游戏的被试表现出更少的亲社会行为; 温广辉(2014)采用同样的实验范式考察视频游戏对儿童亲社会行为的影响, 结果同样显示玩暴力游戏的儿童体现出更少的亲社会行为; 国外如Gentile和Saleem (2012)针对大学生与儿童两个群体分别采用量表施测与七巧板范式考察被试的攻击行为, 结果显示玩暴力游戏的大学生显现出更少的积极情感(d = 0.34), 玩暴力游戏的儿童较玩亲社会游戏的儿童显现出更少的助人行为(d = 0.35); 此外, 有研究通过量表法检验在大学生群体中共情在暴力游戏接触与对家人、朋友与陌生人的亲社会行为间的作用, 结果显示暴力游戏接触与三种指向的低水平亲社会行为间都存在显著正相关(Fraser, Padilla-Walker, Coyne, Nelson, & Stockdale, 2012)。

除实证研究外, 元分析结果也表明了暴力视频游戏对个体亲社会性的负面作用。如Anderson和Bushman (2001)的元分析表明暴力游戏接触对亲社会行为有显著的抑制作用(r = -0.16, k = 8, N = 676)。Anderson等人于2010年更新了之前的元分析(Anderson et al., 2010), 结果依然显示暴力游戏对亲社会行为有负性作用(r = -0.10, k = 23, N = 9646); Greitemeyer和Mügge (2014)考察了暴力游戏对玩家亲社会行为、认知与情感的影响, 结果显示效应值r分别为-0.11 (k = 15, N = 10904), -0.14 (k = 3, N = 842), -0.16 (k = 12, N = 11350)。

但是, 也有少部分实证研究未能证明暴力视频游戏对玩家亲社会性的负面作用, 如有研究表明, 无论是采用经典还是现代暴力游戏, 即使设定实验组不同的游戏暴露时间, 玩家都没有表现出亲社会行为的差异(Tear & Nielsen, 2013, 2014); Jerabeck和Ferguson (2013)考察不同类别的暴力游戏对亲社会行为的影响, 结果显示玩亲社会暴力游戏、反社会暴力游戏与非暴力游戏所表现的亲社会行为和共情水平无显著的差异。甚至有极少数研究显示暴力视频游戏与亲社会性存在正向的关系, 如Ferguson和Garza (2011)对12~17岁的青少年进行量表施测, 结果发现暴力游戏接触与网络亲社会行为间呈现正相关(r = 0.08)。

综上所述, 虽然多数研究都支持了暴力视频游戏对个体亲社会性的抑制作用, 但是也有研究并没有得出暴力游戏能够削弱亲社会性的结论, 现有研究间的效应量也存在一定差异。如:部分研究的独立样本效应值在-0.45左右(Gentile et al., 2009, 2011;Tear & Nielsen, 2013), 另一部分独立样本的效应值小于-0.10 (Krahé & MölleIr, 2011; Fraser et al., 2012; Saleem, Anderson, & Gentile, 2012a), 还有部分独立样本的效应值为正值(Jin & Li, 2017; Teng, Chong, Siew, & Skoric, 2011; Bartholow, Sestir, & Davis, 2005)。此外, 即使已有的元分析比较一致地指向负性作用, 相比于暴力游戏对攻击性的促进作用以及亲社会游戏对亲社会性的促进作用, 暴力游戏对亲社会性的负向作用较为微弱。如:Anderson与Bushman (2001)的元分析显示, 暴力视频游戏对玩家攻击行为、攻击认知、攻击情感影响的效应值分别为0.19、0.27、0.18; Anderson等(2010)后续更新了元分析, 结果显示暴力游戏对攻击行为影响的效应值为0.19 (k = 140, N = 68313), 对攻击认知影响的效应值为0.16 (k = 95, N = 24534), 对攻击情感的影响效应值为0.14 (k = 62, N = 17370); Greitemeyer与Mügge (2014)的元分析显示, 亲社会游戏对玩家亲社会行为影响的效应值为0.20 (k = 12, N = 8307), 对亲社会认知影响的效应值为0.42 (k = 4, N = 997), 对亲社会情感影响的效应值为0.25 (k = 5, N = 5885)。而暴力游戏对亲社会性影响的元分析效应值基本在-0.15左右。那么, 是什么因素导致各独立样本间的效应值存在较大的差异, 暴力游戏对亲社会性影响的效应值较低呢?

仔细分析已有实证研究, 可能存在着一些调节变量使得暴力电子游戏与亲社会性之间的关系存在较大差异。目前已有的元分析研究重点探讨总效应值与不同因变量指标(如亲社会行为、亲社会认知、亲社会情感)的效应值的大小, 缺乏对其调节变量的分析。结合已有的实证研究与元分析研究, 有以下几个调节变量应纳入考虑:第一, 性别。文献表明, 男性对暴力视频游戏更加感兴趣, Li, Choo, Khoo和Liau (2012)对新加坡青少年的调查结果显示男生的游戏接触水平显著高于女生。Ogletree与Drake (2007)调查大学生群体发现男性每周玩暴力游戏的时长显著高于女性; 此外, 男性对暴力视频游戏更有易感性, 更容易激发敌意, 亲社会性情感水平可能更低(Teng et al., 2011)。Zhen, Xie, Zhang, Wang和Li (2011)研究共情在暴力游戏接触与身体攻击之间的关系时, 发现共情的中介作用在女生中更强。以上这些研究都表明, 性别在暴力游戏接触及其对个体亲社会性表现上的差异; 第二, 年龄。不同年龄段的玩家受游戏的影响程度有较大差异。研究表明, 儿童与青少年较成人更容易受到暴力视频游戏的影响(Gentile et al., 2011; Prot et al., 2014)。另外, 相同的实验范式对不同年龄段被试的适用性也存在差异。如被广泛应用的七巧板范式, 通常只适用于6到12岁的儿童(温广辉, 2014; Saleem et al., 2012a); 又如捡笔范式(pick pens)在儿童与青少年群体中可有效反映个体的亲社会性(Greitemeyer & Osswald, 2011), 但在大学生群体中则不再适用(Tear & Nielsen, 2013); 第三, 测量方式。目前测量亲社会性的方式主要包括量表法与实验法, 其中量表法主要包含测量各个亲社会指标的自陈问卷, 实验法主要包括七巧板任务、捡铅笔任务、词汇选择任务(LDT)与捐款任务等(Saleem et al., 2012a; Tear & Nielson, 2013; Bösche, 2010), 两种方法的信效度存在较大差异; 第四, 亲社会性指标。衡量亲社会性的指标主要包括亲社会认知、亲社会情感与亲社会行为三种(张一, 陈容, 刘衍玲, 2016), 亲社会行为主要包括助人行为、合作行为、捐赠行为等(Gentile et al., 2009; Whitaker & Bushman, 2012); 反映亲社会情感的指标主要为共情(Greitemeyer & Brauer, 2010; Bartholow et al., 2005); 亲社会认知研究较少, 通常采用内隐社会认知来反映(Bösche, 2010)。根据Buckly与Anderson (2006)的理论, 外部刺激作用于个体时会激发不同的情绪唤起与认知状态, 最终导致外显行为的差异。

综上, 研究性别、年龄、测量方式、亲社会性指标等调节变量在暴力视频游戏与亲社会性间的调节作用, 不仅有助于分析现存实证研究效应量不一致的原因, 更可以探究调节变量在暴力视频游戏和亲社会性关系间的作用。此外, 已有暴力视频游戏对个体亲社会性影响的元分析都未纳入中国文献。虽有Greitemeyer与Mügge (2014)探讨暴力游戏对亲社会性影响东西方文化的差异, 但纳入的东方文献都来自日本。因此, 有必要对我国的文献进行梳理, 并更新国外近年来的新出版的文献, 进行更全面的元分析研究。本元分析拟整合国内外相关研究, 分析暴力视频游戏影响玩家亲社会性的主效应, 并重点考察各调节变量在暴力游戏与亲社会性的关系中产生的作用。

2 研究方法

2.1 文献搜集

涉及元分析的文献包括中文与英文两类。其中, 中文文献在中国知网期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、中国优秀硕博士论文数据库和万方数据库进行中文文献的检索, 检索条件为篇名。由于国内有关暴力视频游戏对亲社会行为影响的文献较少, 分别对“视频游戏”、“暴力视频游戏”等关键词进行检索。采用文献回溯法, 从参考文献目录进行检索以查漏补缺。

英文文献使用PubMed、PsycINFO、Web of Science数据库, 检索条件仍为篇名, 关键词为(“violent video game” or “computer game”) and (“prosocial” or “help” or “empathy*” or “cooperat*”), 同样采用文献回溯法查漏补缺。此外, Ferguson (2007)的元分析纳入1995~2007年之间的已出版文献, 理由是根据Anderson的划分(Carnagey & Anderson, 2004), 1995年起至今进入视频游戏发展的“第三代(Third era)”时期, 本元分析考虑到游戏的更新换代, 纳入的文献向后推延10年(即2005~2017年间已出版的文献), 以纳入最新文献的效应值。

2.2 纳入标准

本元分析研究文献的纳入标准:(1)研究必须考察暴力视频游戏与玩家亲社会性(亲社会行为、助人行为、移情等)之间的关系; (2)只纳入明确报告测量工具与研究方法, 并且详细提供了可计算效果量的统计信息(如样本量、均值、标准差或t值、p值、两个变量间的相关等)的研究, 实验研究必须以暴力游戏为实验组, 中性游戏为对照组。没报告完整效应量的研究被排除; (3)文献中的样本数据不能重复。若同一份研究数据发表了超过两次, 只选择含有更充分信息的文献进行编码; (4)若一篇文献包含多个独立样本, 则分别编码, 每个独立样本编码一次; (5)文献均采用正常被试, 有生理心理疾病的样本被排除在外。

根据上述标准, 最终纳入元分析的文献共24篇, 共计63个效应值, 涉及被试18554人。其中中文文献4篇, 包括13个效应值; 英文文献20篇, 包含50个效应值。

2.3 文献编码

经过筛选后, 对符合要求的文献进行编码, 详情见表1。鉴于要考察暴力视频游戏对亲社会性影响的多样性, 在编码时不仅要记录实证研究的数据, 还需将被试年龄、性别比例、实验范式等作为调节变量进行分析, 因此按照文献信息(作者名+发表时间)、被试群体(儿童, 青少年, 儿童与青少年, 大学生)、测量类型(量表, 行为实验法)、亲社会性指标(亲社会行为, 亲社会情感, 亲社会认知)等分类进行记录。

表1   纳入元分析的原始研究信息

作者 男性% 被试群体 平均年龄(岁) N 测量类型 指标 统计分析 r
王晨雪, 2011 A 36.14 大学生 21.2 55 E B T-test -0.05
王晨雪, 2011 B 36.99 大学生 20.47 49 E B T-test 0.17
王晨雪, 2011 C 36.99 大学生 20.47 49 E A T-test -0.07
王子祥, 2016 A 47.67 儿童 10 59 E B T-test 0.16
王子祥, 2016 B 47.67 儿童 10 58 E B T-test -0.14
温广辉, 2014 A 100 儿童 8.87 33 E B T-test 0.08
温广辉, 2014 B 100 儿童 10.51 31 E B T-test -0.20
温广辉, 2014 C 100 儿童 12.20 32 E B T-test -0.17
温广辉, 2014 D 0 儿童 9.00 27 E B T-test 0.12
温广辉, 2014 E 0 儿童 10.32 29 E B T-test -0.27
温广辉, 2014 F 0 儿童 12.30 28 E B T-test 0.10
杨序斌, 2014 A 83.74 大学生 20.1 246 S A Correlation -0.45
杨序斌, 2014 B 83.74 大学生 20.1 246 S B Correlation -0.42
Bartholow et al., 2005 A 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation 0.10
Bartholow et al., 2005 B 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation 0.16
Bartholow et al., 2005 C 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation -0.14
Bartholow et al., 2005 D 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation -0.45
Bösche, 2010 100 大学生 22.72 27 E C Correlation 0.30
Ferguson & Garza, 2011 50.5 青少年 14.6 873 S B Correlation 0.08
Fraser et al., 2012 A 100 大学生 19.6 243 S B Correlation -0.02
Fraser et al., 2012 B 100 大学生 19.6 243 S B Correlation -0.01
Fraser et al., 2012 C 100 大学生 19.6 243 S B Correlation 0.08
Fraser et al., 2012 D 0 大学生 19.6 547 S B Correlation -0.20
Fraser et al., 2012 E 0 大学生 19.6 547 S B Correlation -0.17
Fraser et al., 2012 F 0 大学生 19.6 547 S B Correlation 0.12
Gentile et al., 2009 A 73 青少年 13 727 S B Correlation -0.43
作者 男性% 被试群体 平均年龄(岁) N 测量类型 指标 统计分析 r
Gentile et al., 2009 B 73 青少年 13 727 S B Correlation 0.22
Gentile et al., 2009 C 73 青少年 13 727 S A Correlation -0.41
Gentile et al., 2009 D 73 青少年 13 727 S A Correlation -0.04
Gentile et al., 2011 A 51 儿童 9.7 430 S B Correlation -0.36
Gentile et al., 2011 B 51 儿童 9.7 430 S B Correlation -0.35
Gentile et al., 2011 C 51 儿童 9.7 430 S B Correlation -0.31
Greitemeyer et al., 2012 25 大学生 20 16 E B T-test -0.27
Greitemeyer & Brauer, 2010 35.59 大学生 23 39 E A T-test -0.19
Greitemeyer & Osswald, 2010 37.04 大学生 21.81 40 E B χ2-test 0.02
Jin & Li, 2017 A 61.19 大学生 19.73 268 S B Correlation 0.02
Jin & Li, 2017 B 52.38 大学生 23.8 42 E B Correlation 0.30
Krahé & MölleIr, 2010 A 48.5 青少年 13.4 1236 S A Correlation -0.35
Krahé & MölleIr, 2010 B 48.5 青少年 14.5 1230 S A Correlation -0.29
Krahé & MölleIr, 2010 C 48.5 青少年 13.4 1236 S B Correlation 0.18
Krahé & MölleIr, 2010 D 48.5 青少年 14.5 1230 S B Correlation 0.25
Krahé & MölleIr, 2011 A 100 青少年 13.4 848 S B Correlation -0.08
Krahé & MölleIr, 2011 B 0 青少年 13.4 837 S B Correlation -0.08
Krahé & MölleIr, 2011 C 100 青少年 13.4 848 S B Correlation 0.24
Krahé & MölleIr, 2011 D 0 青少年 13.4 837 S B Correlation 0.15
Li et al., 2012 72.68 儿童青少年 11.2 1114 S A T-test -0.19
Prot et al., 2014 A 73 青少年 12.2 3034 S A Correlation -0.15
Prot et al., 2014 B 73 青少年 12.2 2360 S A Correlation -0.14
Prot et al., 2014 C 73 青少年 12.2 2232 S A Correlation -0.14
Prot et al., 2014 D 73 青少年 12.2 3034 S B Correlation -0.13
Prot et al., 2014 E 73 青少年 12.2 2360 S B Correlation -0.13
Prot et al., 2014 F 73 青少年 12.2 2232 S B Correlation -0.13
Saleem et al., 2012a* 54.45 儿童青少年 12.4 123 E B T-test -0.11
Saleem et al., 2012b 69.91 大学生 19.57 220 S A T-test -0.09
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 A 56 大学生 20.3 32 E B χ2-test -0.42
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 B 56 大学生 20.3 32 E B χ2-test -0.05
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 C 55 大学生 21.63 32 E B χ2-test 0.17
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 D 55 大学生 21.63 32 E B χ2-test -0.07
Teng et al., 2011 A 100 大学生 21.00 53 S A T-test -0.11
Teng et al., 2011 B 0 大学生 21.00 79 S A T-test 0.06
Whitaker & Bushman, 2012 A 46 大学生 19.6 101 E B T-test -0.19
Whitaker & Bushman, 2012 B 39 大学生 19.4 65 E B T-test 0.05
Zhen et al., 2011 44 儿童青少年 14.68 795 S A Correlation -0.22

注:(1)为节省篇幅大部分文献只列出了第一作者; (2)同一研究的多个独立样本用字母表示区分; (3) “*”表示同一作者在同一年份发表的不同研究; (4) S表示量表法, E表示实验法; (5) A表示亲社会情感, B表示亲社会行为, C表示亲社会认知

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2.4 数据分析

2.4.1 效应量

采用Comprehensive Meta Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0)进行数据编码与分析。元分析通常使用的效果量有标准化平均差(d)与相关系数(r), 本文选择相关系数(r)作为效果量。计算效果量目的在于整合自变量与因变量之间的关系(郑昊敏, 温忠麟, 吴艳, 2011)。无论原始数据是报告了相关系数r, 还是报告了均值, 样本量, t, χ2等数据, CMA软件都可以将原始编码的数据都转化为相应的效应量, 实现相关系数的合成。

2.4.2 模型选择

目前元分析可以采用固定效应模型(fixed effect model)和随机效应模型(random effect model)来分析结果。固定效应模型假设元分析中所有研究背后只存在一个真效应量, 而每个研究效应量的不同是由抽样误差引起的。随机效应模型则认为每个研究的真效应量都是不同的, 每个研究效应量的不同是由真效应量的不同和抽样误差共同引起的。具体来说, 如果元分析的总效应量只针对该研究总体, 不推广到其他的总体的话, 应使用固定效应模型; 反之, 如果元分析文献的被试群体、测量工具、实验范式等不同时, 这些差异会影响最终的结果, 此时使用随机效应模型较为合理(吴鹏, 刘华山, 2014)。本文的元分析原本就想探讨各变量的调节作用, 因此使用随机效应模型更符合实际情况。

3 研究结果

3.1 异质性检验

元分析同质性检验结果如表2所示。同质性检验Q值为1081.34 (p < 0.001); I-squared值为94.27%, 证明在暴力视频游戏和亲社会性之间的关系中94.27%的观察变异是由这一关系中的真正差异所造成的。以上的数据均证明文献之间存在异质性。当效应值异质时, 通常采用随机效应模型进行元分析, 符合之前的推论。

表2   效应值异质性检验

模型 独立样本 异质性 Tau-squared
Q df (Q) p I-squared Tau-squared SE 方差 Tau
随机效应 63 1081.34 62 0.00 94.27% 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.17

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3.2 主效应检验

采用随机效应模型对符合要求的文献进行主效应检验。结果如表3所示, 暴力视频游戏对玩家亲社会性影响的平均效应值为-0.10 (p < 0.001), 95%的置信区间不包括0。Cohen指出r为0.1代表效应值较小, 0.25表示效应为中, 0.4表示效应较大, 该元分析的结果显示暴力视频游戏和亲社会性呈显著负相关, 但效应值低。

表3   随机模型分析

模型 独立样本 N 效应值及0.95的置信区间 双尾检验
点估计 下限 上限 z p
随机效应 63 18554 -0.10 -0.15 -0.05 -4.14 0.00

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3.3 调节效应检验

考察男性被试比例、被试群体、平均年龄、测量类型与亲社会性指标的调节效应, 结果见表4。从结果来看, 四个调节变量对暴力视频游戏与亲社会性间的影响在0.05、0.01与0.001的水平上显著, 其中男性比例越大, 效应值越高, 当男性比例在70%~100%之间时, 效应值达到-0.15 (p < 0.01); 被试群体中, 儿童组、儿童青少年组的效应值比成年组高(r = -0.18, -0.20, -0.10); 平均年龄中, 6~12岁组的效应值比18岁以上组的效应值高(r = -0.18, -0.10); 测量类型中, 量表组的效应值比实验组高且显著; 亲社会性指标中, 不同的亲社会性指标间存在显著的差异。其中暴力游戏对亲社会行为与亲社会情感影响的效应值在0.001的水平上显著, 亲社会行为和亲社会认知呈现边缘显著。

表4   调节变量随机模型分析

调节变量 同质性分析 类别 独立样本 效应值及95%置信区 双侧检验
Q组间 df p 点估计 下限 上限 z p
男性比例 5.93 2 0.05 40%以下 16 -0.03 -0.10 0.05 -0.69 0.49
40%~70% 20 -0.08 -0.20 0.05 -1.24 0.22
70%~100% 27 -0.15 -0.20 -0.09 -4.81 < 0.001
被试群体 10.59 3 0.01 儿童 11 -0.18 -0.28 -0.07 -3.18 < 0.001
青少年 19 -0.08 -0.16 0.01 -1.82 0.07
儿童与青少年 3 -0.20 -0.24 -0.15 -9.00 < 0.001
大学生与成人 30 -0.10 -0.16 -0.03 -2.91 < 0.001
平均年龄 6.21 2 0.045 6~12 17 -0.18 -0.21 -0.14 -9.07 < 0.001
12~18 16 -0.06 -0.19 0.07 -0.88 0.38
18岁以上 30 -0.10 -0.16 -0.03 -2.91 < 0.001
测量类型 3.78 1 0.05 量表 40 -0.13 -0.18 -0.07 -4.38 < 0.001
行为实验法 23 -0.03 -0.11 0.05 -0.82 0.42
亲社会性
指标
12.06 2 < 0.001 亲社会行为 43 -0.05 -0.12 0.01 -1.66 0.10
亲社会情感 19 -0.19 -0.25 -0.14 -6.77 < 0.001
亲社会认知 1 -0.37 -0.66 0.01 -1.92 0.06

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3.4 出版偏差检验

Egger test (回归截距法)显示, t = 0.27, p = 0.38, 证明不存在出版偏差。同时, 如图1所示, 漏斗图分布基本对称, 表明本元分析存在出版偏差的可能性不大。漏斗图右下方的点较少, 证明效应值大、精度差的研究数量较少; 另外, 大部分点集中在漏斗图的顶部, 点集中在顶点, 表明误差较小, 样本量较大。综合以上结果判断, 本研究的元分析受出版偏差的影响很小。

图1


4 总结与讨论

4.1 主效应讨论

本元分析结果初步显示暴力视频游戏对个体的亲社会性有较弱的负面影响。根据元分析主效应的结果, 暴力视频游戏与玩家亲社会性呈显著的负相关, 但效应值却很低(r = -0.10, k = 64, N = 18554)。该结果与Anderson和Bushman (2001), Greitemeyer和Mügge (2014)的元分析结果基本一致。其中Anderson及同事的元分析结果显示总效应值r为-0.16 (k = 8, N = 676); Greitemeyer及同事考察了暴力游戏对玩家亲社会行为、认知与情感的影响, 结果显示效应值r分别为-0.11 (k = 15, N = 10904), -0.14 (k = 3, N = 842), -0.16 (k = 12, N = 11350), 与本研究的结果较为吻合。综上, 本研究主效应的结果证明了暴力视频游戏对玩家的亲社会性有负性影响, 但效应较小。

4.2 调节效应讨论

4.2.1 性别与年龄的调节效应

目前有关暴力视频游戏与亲社会性关系的元分析尚未分析调节变量的作用, 调节变量的分析可以整体把握暴力视频游戏与亲社会性间存在的微弱作用的原因。根据本元分析调节效应的结果, 纳入文献中男性被试的比例、被试群体类型与被试的平均年龄在暴力游戏与亲社会性的关系中皆存在显著的调节作用。

随着纳入文献中男性被试比例升高, 效应值也逐级增大, 可能是由于男性接触暴力视频游戏的几率与对暴力视频游戏的喜爱程度都显著的高于女性, 在长期接触暴力视频游戏的过程中形成了暴力脱敏(Bushman & Anderson, 2009; Brockmyer, 2015; 雷浩, 2012), 进而表现出亲社会性的大幅降低。此外, 有研究者专注于探究视频游戏对玩家行为影响的性别差异, 如以Coyne为代表, 致力于探究合作游戏给男孩女孩带来的不同影响, 结果表明与父母一同玩视频游戏只会增加女孩的亲社会行为, 对男孩却无显著影响(Coyne et al., 2011, 2016), 可见视频游戏对玩家行为的影响存在性别差异。

被试群体的调节效应分析中, 儿童组与儿童青少年组的效应值显著高于大学生组, 证明暴力视频游戏对大学生亲社会行为的影响较弱。同样的, 平均年龄的调节效应分析显示, 18岁以上组的效应值低于6~12岁组, 再次证明了暴力游戏对不同年龄的被试群体亲社会性影响的差异性。该结果与已有的实证研究结果相吻合(Greitemeyer & Osswald, 2010; Tear & Nielsen, 2013, 2014; 牛玉柏, 肖帅, 温广辉, 唐志东, 2012)。针对该结果, Tear与Nielsen认为可能是由于成年被试的亲社会倾向已经建立完善, 只靠短时的游戏接触无法对亲社会行为产生显著的影响, 而儿童非常容易受游戏内容的影响(Tear & Nielsen, 2014)。然而, 无论是群体类型还是年龄的调节作用, 青少年组(12~18岁)的效应值在被试群体中最小且不显著(r1 = -0.08, r2 = -0.06), 可能是纳入元分析的文献中青少年被试多采用量表施测的原因。相比青少年被试, 大学生与儿童群体多采用行为实验范式, 且范式较符合该年龄段的认知发展水平, 如对大学生采用囚徒困境, 对儿童采用七巧板范式、辣椒酱范式等, 因而削减了暴力游戏对青少年群体作用的效应量。

4.2.2 测量类型与亲社会性指标的调节效应

有关暴力视频游戏对玩家亲社会性影响的实证研究通常采用行为实验与量表施测两种方式。其中, 行为实验通常采用的范式主要包括七巧板任务、捐款任务、捡笔任务等。此外, 研究者还采用词汇选择任务(LDT)与竞争反应时任务(CRTT)来间接反映被试的亲社会行为。然而本元分析的结果显示, 量表法施测的效应值比行为实验的效应值高且显著, 证明行为实验范式的效果存在问题。造成实验范式效应值不显著的原因可能存在以下两点, 第一, 实验范式的适用范围不明确。比如七巧板任务最先由Gentile在游戏成瘾对青少年的研究中使用, 后Saleem等改进这种范式并探究视频游戏对青少年儿童行为的影响, 得到了显著的结论(Saleem et al., 2012a)。当被试为大学生群体时, 七巧板范式所反映的亲社会行为间无显著的差异(Tear & Nielsen, 2014), 李俊一与靳宇倡(2014)同样选择了大学生被试, 也没有得到助人行为间的显著差异, 这些都证明了七巧板范式可能只适用青少年与儿童被试, 不适合成人被试; 第二, 实验范式不够标准。尽管大部分实验范式一直都是经典范式并被广泛使用, 其标准化程度还是存在问题。如慈善捐款任务, 实施程序是在实验结束后给被试5个一美元硬币, 并让他们决定捐给慈善机构的金额, Tear与Nielsen (2013, 2014)的研究没有发现捐款数额的差异可能是因为该任务的捐款总额过少, 被试的助人动机并未驱动, 究竟该使用多少金额较为恰当尚无明确说法。又如, 词汇选择与竞争反应时任务, 作为社会心理学常用的实验测量范式, 就CRTT任务至少存在13种计算被试行为反应的方法, 且有很多类型的测试程序(Elson, Mohseni, Breuer, Scharkow, & Quandt, 2014), 严重影响了实验结果的精准度。

不同亲社会性衡量指标的调节作用显示, 以亲社会情感作为因变量的效应值高于以亲社会行为为因变量的研究。造成亲社会情感效应较大可能是由于测量亲社会情感通常以共情作为指标, 通常采用量表法(Barthlow, Sestir, & Davis, 2005; Krahé & Möller, 2010; Gentile et al., 2009; Happ, Melzer, & Steffgen, 2013), 且量表多选自戴维斯编制的人际反应指数量表中反应共情的四个维度(Davis, 1980, 1983), 该量表的信度较高, 其中共情分量表的信度均在0.6以上(Zhen et al., 2011)。相比量表施测, 行为实验范式的有效性值得怀疑且针对性不强, 这些可能是造成亲社会行为效应量较小的原因。此外, 目前常用的实验范式往往既能反应玩家的攻击性, 又能反应亲社会性, 实验流程通常是先记录被试的任务成绩, 再通过检验实验组与对照组间成绩的差异来证明暴力游戏对攻击性或亲社会性的促进或抑制(Sestir & Bartholow, 2010), 这样得到的结果通常是相对的, 且导致很多研究者认为增加攻击行为就等同于减少亲社会行为, 概念的模糊也可能造成实验效应值降低。另外, 亲社会认知的效应值较大且呈现边缘显著, 可能是由于纳入的文献仅有1篇, 无足够的说服力, 需要通过更多的研究证明暴力游戏对亲社会认知产生的作用。

4.3 研究不足与展望

本研究的不足包括以下几个方面:第一, 虽然本研究初步避免了出版偏差的影响, 但由于语言限制, 依然存在少数研究(如德国、日本等)未纳入至本元分析中; 第二, 在调节效应的分析中, 各调节变量的样本分布不够均衡, 部分组别只包含了几个独立研究, 这可能会影响调节效应的分析结果; 第三, 调节变量只进行了被试性别、被试年龄、测量类型与测量指标的分析, 还有更多可能存在的调节变量尚未纳入讨论的范围。

针对暴力视频游戏对亲社会性影响的领域中存在的问题, 未来的研究可以考虑以下几个问题:

首先, 现有关暴力视频游戏对亲社会性影响的研究通常以一般学习模型为指导, 虽然一般学习模型能够很好解释暴力视频游戏影响玩家亲社会行为的削弱, 但无法解释为什么暴力视频游戏会对亲社会行为造成非负面的影响。目前有少数实证研究采用新型理论解释行为实验的结果, 如有研究者采用冰桶实验测量被试的自我惩罚程度, 结果显示实验组的被试在回忆自己的不道德行为时较之控制组倾向于体验更多的身体惩罚并反馈更多的痛苦体验(Bastian, Jetten, & Fasoli, 2011), 说明人们潜意识会用自我惩罚的方式来减轻罪过, 这种效应被称为道德净化(moral cleansing), 又称麦克白效应。该理论可以解释暴力游戏对亲社会行为的正向影响。具体来说, 游戏越暴力, 玩家就越倾向在现实情境中表现亲社会行为来补偿与赎罪; 另外, Denzler, Häfner和Förster (2011)采用Freud的宣泄理论(Catharsis)和目标满足理论(goal- fulfillment theory)证实了暴力游戏对攻击行为的抑制, 即当设定玩游戏的目标为宣泄愤怒情绪时, 玩家在满足宣泄的目的后攻击水平会随之降低(Förster, Liberman, & Higgins, 2005)。该实验虽未证实对亲社会性的影响, 依然为如何解释暴力视频游戏对玩家亲社会行为的影响提供了新的理论依据。综上, 不同的理论可以解释实证研究的多样结果。

其次, 虽然有关暴力视频游戏对玩家亲社会性影响的研究结论基本趋于一致, 但依然存在少量未能证明暴力游戏接触能削弱亲社会性的研究。针对这种情况, Gentile等(2011, 2014)认为, 视频游戏对玩家的影响并非单一因素的作用, 而是多因素多维度复杂的交互作用导致的, 因此应客观地看待视频游戏带来的效应。这一观点已渗透进部分研究, 如Prot, McDonald, Anderson和Gentile (2012)根据五维度论对家庭教育与临床干预提供了建议, 认为恰当控制玩游戏的时间并选择教育类与亲社会游戏会对儿童产生积极的作用; 此外, 也有研究发现, 玩策略型游戏较多的玩家会有更强的问题解决能力(Adachi & Willoughby, 2016), 玩带有亲社会动机的暴力游戏可以减少玩家的攻击性, 提高亲社会认知水平(Gitter, Ewell, Guadagno, Stillman, & Baumeister, 2013), 这些研究都表明游戏自身的特质会影响其对玩家产生的作用。目前的研究对游戏数量和游戏内容研究较多, 对其他变量考察较少, 未来研究可考虑对多种调节变量效应的探讨。

最后, 目前测量玩家亲社会性的实验范式包括七巧板任务、捡笔任务、捐款任务、辣椒酱范式、囚徒困境任务等, 在实证研究中通常与测量攻击性的实验范式相同, 这就造成少数研究者将攻击性的增加等同于亲社会性的降低。因此, 未来的研究应该优化实验范式, 采用更有信效度的实验范式来测量暴力视频游戏与亲社会性之间的关系。如Greitemeyer等(2010, 2012)分别采用灾后及时帮助任务测量助人行为, 双人捐款两难任务测量合作行为, 这些新型的实验范式可以更有效地揭示暴力游戏与亲社会性之间的关系。

5 结论

本研究得到以下结论:

(1)暴力视频游戏与个体的亲社会性存在较弱的负相关;

(2)暴力视频游戏对亲社会性的作用受性别、群体类型、平均年龄、测量类型与亲社会性指标的调节。总体表现为暴力游戏对男性亲社会性的影响高于女性, 暴力游戏对儿童亲社会性影响高于青少年与大学生群体, 以量表法作为测量方式较实验法效应值更大, 因变量为亲社会情感的效应量高于亲社会行为与亲社会认知的效应量。

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Journal of Adolescent Health, 49( 2), 160-165.

URL     PMID:21783048      [本文引用: 1]

Video game use has been associated with several behavioral and health outcomes for adolescents. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between parental co-play of video games and behavioral and family outcomes. Participants consisted of 287 adolescents and their parents who completed a number of video game-, behavioral-, and family-related questionnaires as part of a wider study. Most constructs included child, mother, and father reports. At the bivariate level, time spent playing video games was associated with several negative outcomes, including heightened internalizing and aggressive behavior and lowered prosocial behavior. However, co-playing video games with parents was associated with decreased levels of internalizing and aggressive behaviors, and heightened prosocial behavior for girls only. Co-playing video games was also marginally related to parent hild connectedness for girls, even after controlling for age-inappropriate games played with parents. This is the first study to show positive associations for co-playing video games between girls and their parents.

Davis M.H . ( 1980).

A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy

JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.

[本文引用: 1]

Davis M.H . ( 1983).

Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113-126.

[本文引用: 1]

Denzler M., Förster J., & Liberman N . ( 2009).

How goal-fulfillment decreases aggression

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45( 1), 90-100.

URL    

We suggest that the goal to aggress increases accessibility of aggressive thoughts, and that after goal-fulfillment, accessibility of aggressive content is reduced. Experiment 1 showed an increase in accessibility of aggression after imagining an aggression-eliciting situation compared to non-aggressive content. After goal-fulfillment the accessibility of aggression was reduced, regardless of whether fulfillment was achieved by imagining physical or symbolic revenge. Experiment 2 showed similar effects for a non-aggressive conflict-resolution and, in addition, demonstrated a post-fulfillment reduction in actual aggressive behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrated that aggressive acts that do not constitute goal-fulfillment instead increase accessibility of aggression. Relations between our model and previous views on catharsis of aggression are discussed.

Denzler M., Häfner M., & Förster J . ( 2011).

He just wants to play: How goals determine the influence of violent computer games on aggression

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37( 12), 1644-1654.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Generally, the accessibility of goal-related constructs is inhibited upon goal fulfillment. In line with this notion, the current studies explored whether violent computer games may reduce relative accessibility of aggression if the game involves the fulfillment of an aggressive goal. Specifically, in Study 1, participants who watched a trailer for a violent computer game that fulfilled the goal of venting anger showed less relative accessibility of aggression compared to participants who watched the trailer without goal fulfillment. In Study 2, actually playing a violent computer game to vent anger also decreased the relative accessibility of aggression compared to a control condition in which the game was played without such a goal. Lastly, in Study 3, the relative accessibility of aggression was reduced after playing a violent computer game for participants who reported a high general tendency to vent their anger.

Elson M., & Ferguson C.J . ( 2014).

Does doing media violence research make one aggressive? The ideological rigidity of social-cognitive theories of media violence and a response to Bushman and Huesmann (2013), Krahé (2013), and Warburton (2013)

European Psychologist, 19( 1), 68-75.

URL    

ABSTRACT Replies to comments by Bushman and Huesmann (see record 2013-43943-001), Krah (see record 2013-43945-001), and Warburton (see record 2013-43944-001) on the authors' original review of digital game violence research (see record 2013-43946-001). This is obviously a field where considerable controversy continues to exist and an opportunity for cordial debate could help resolve differences in the field. These comments run the gamut from keeping to reasonable points of disagreement (Warburton), to relying on sometimes snide comments (Krah ), to the use of ad hominem attacks (Bushman and Huesmann). They also tend to restate old arguments that have been discredited either in our review or other past reviews. Some of these statements confirm our initial concerns that the debate on violent media effects has shifted from science to ideology. At a fundamental level, it may be time for this field to consider serious changes in both theory and in communicating to the public. We contend that the traditional media effects paradigm has failed for the simple reason that it does not comport its own predictions of societal developments. Current theories are arguably too mechanistic, assume viewers are passive receptacles of learning, rather than active shapers and processors of media culture. We do not believe data support the traditional paradigm. We call on scholars to move past the traditional media effects paradigm, and to an understanding of the interaction between media, behavior, and culture, that is shaped by media users, not media content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

Elson M., Mohseni M. R., Breuer J., Scharkow M. & Quandt T.. ,( 2014) .

Press CRTT to measure aggressive behavior: The unstandardized use of the competitive reaction time task in aggression research

Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 419-432.

URL     PMID:24447279      [本文引用: 1]

The competitive reaction time task (CRTT) is the measure of aggressive behavior most commonly used in laboratory research. However, the test has been criticized for issues in standardization because there are many different test procedures and at least 13 variants to calculate a score for aggressive behavior. We compared the different published analyses of the CRTT using data from 3 different studies to scrutinize whether it would yield the same results. The comparisons revealed large differences in significance levels and effect sizes between analysis procedures, suggesting that the unstandardized use and analysis of the CRTT have substantial impacts on the results obtained, as well as their interpretations. Based on the outcome of our comparisons, we provide suggestions on how to address some of the issues associated with the CRTT, as well as a guideline for researchers studying aggressive behavior in the laboratory.

Ferguson C.J . ( 2007).

The good, the bad and the ugly: A meta-analytic review of positive and negative effects of violent video games

Psychiatric Quarterly, 78( 4), 309-316.

URL     PMID:17914672      [本文引用: 2]

Objective Video game violence has become a highly politicized issue for scientists and the general public. There is continuing concern that playing violent video games may increase the risk of aggression in players. Less often discussed is the possibility that playing violent video games may promote certain positive developments, particularly related to visuospatial cognition. The objective of the current article was to conduct a meta-analytic review of studies that examine the impact of violent video games on both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition in order to understand the full impact of such games. Methods A detailed literature search was used to identify peer-reviewed articles addressing violent video game effects. Effect sizes r (a common measure of effect size based on the correlational coefficient) were calculated for all included studies. Effect sizes were adjusted for observed publication bias. Results Results indicated that publication bias was a problem for studies of both aggressive behavior and visuospatial cognition. Once corrected for publication bias, studies of video game violence provided no support for the hypothesis that violent video game playing is associated with higher aggression. However playing violent video games remained related to higher visuospatial cognition ( r x = 0.36). Conclusions Results from the current analysis did not support the conclusion that violent video game playing leads to aggressive behavior. However, violent video game playing was associated with higher visuospatial cognition. It may be advisable to reframe the violent video game debate in reference to potential costs and benefits of this medium.

Ferguson C.J . ( 2015).

Do angry birds make for angry children? A meta-analysis of video game influences on children’s and adolescents’ aggression, mental health, prosocial behavior, and academic performance

Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10( 5), 646-666.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

*Ferguson C.J., & Garza A. , ( 2011).

Call of (civic) duty: Action games and civic behavior in a large sample of youth

Computers in Human Behavior, 27( 2), 770-775.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The positive and negative influences of violent/action games, henceforth called ldquoaction gamesrdquo, remains controversial in the scholarly literature. Although debate continues whether action games influence aggressive behavior, little research has examined the influence of action games on civic engagement. The current study addresses this gap by examining the correlation between exposure to action games on civic engagement and on-line prosocial behavior in a sample of 873 teenagers. Results indicated that girls as well as teens who had parents who were more technologically savvy tended to engage in more civic behaviors. Exposure to action games predicted more prosocial behavior on-line, but did not predict civic engagement either positively or negatively. However, exposure to action games and parental involvement interacted to promote youth civic engagement. Action-game-playing-youth whose parents were involved in game play and supervision were most civically involved, compared to youth who did not play action games, or whose parents were less involved. These results indicated little support for the belief that exposure to violence in video games decreases prosocial behavior and/or civic engagement. Conversely some support was found for the possibility that playing action games is associated with small increased prosocial behavior and civic engagement in the real world, possibly due to the team-oriented multiplayer options in many of these games. [All rights reserved Elsevier].

Ferguson C.J., & Olson C.K . ( 2013).

Friends, fun, frustration and fantasy: Child motivations for video game play

Motivation and Emotion, 37( 1), 154-164.

URL    

Although a considerable amount of attention has examined potential positive and negative consequences of video game play in children, relatively little research has examined children's motivations for using games. The current study hopes to address this gap in the literature by examining children's motivations for video game play in a large sample of youth (n = 1254). Results indicated that video game use was common, and often a social activity. Social play was mainly predicted by motivations related to socialization, fun/challenge and current stress level. Preference for violent games was more common in males and predicted by fun/challenge motivations and beliefs such games could be cathartic for stress. Children with clinically elevated levels of depressive and ADHD symptoms did not play more games, or more violent games, but were more inclined to endorse catharsis motivations for video game use. Results from this study provide understanding of what motivates children to use games, and how the motivations of children with symptoms of psychosocial problems (as identified via subscales of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist) may differ from others.

Förster J., Liberman N., & Higgins E. T . ( 2005).

Accessibility from active and fulfilled goals

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41( 3), 220-239.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In six studies participants searched for a target stimulus among other stimuli. Lexical decision and Stroop measures of accessibility showed that accessibility of target-related words was enhanced prior to finding the target and reduced after finding it, relative to both a preceding stage, relative to a control, no-goal condition and relative to a condition in which the goal was not fulfilled. In addition, Studies 4, 5, and 6 showed that goal-related accessibility and post-fulfillment inhibition were proportional to the goal’s expectancy, the goal’s value, and their interaction. Together, these studies support the notion that goals enhance accessibility of the goal-related constructs, which is maintained as long as the goal is active, goal fulfillment inhibits accessibility of goal-related constructs, and these effects are proportional to the strength of the motivation.

*Fraser A. M., Padilla-Walker L. M., Coyne S. M., Nelson L. J., & Stockdale L. A . ( 2012).

Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41( 5), 636-649.

URL     PMID:22302216      [本文引用: 8]

Abstract age02=0219.60, SD02=021.86, range02=0218–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood.

*Gentile D. A., Anderson C. A., Yukawa S., Ihori N., Saleem M., Ming L. K., .. Sakamoto A . ( 2009).

The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: International evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35( 6), 752-763.

URL     PMID:2678173      [本文引用: 10]

Although dozens of studies have documented a relationship between violent video games and aggressive behaviors, very little attention has been paid to potential effects of prosocial games. Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. We report three studies conducted in three countries with three age groups to test this hypothesis. In the correlational study, Singaporean middle-school students who played more prosocial games behaved more prosocially. In the two longitudinal samples of Japanese children and adolescents, prosocial game play predicted later increases in prosocial behavior. In the experimental study, U.S. undergraduates randomly assigned to play prosocial games behaved more prosocially toward another student. These similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence of a prosocial game content effect, and they provide support for the General Learning Model.

*Gentile D. A., Choo H., Liau A., Sim T., Li D., Fung D., & Khoo A . ( 2011).

Pathological video game use among youths: A two-year longitudinal study

Pediatrics, 127( 2), e319-e329.

URL     PMID:21242221     

Objectives: We aimed to measure the prevalence and length of the problem of pathological video gaming or Internet use, to identify risk and protective factors, to determine whether pathological gaming is a primary or secondary problem, and to identify outcomes for individuals who become or stop being pathological gamers. Methods: A 2-year, longitudinal, panel study was performed with a general elementary and secondary school population in Singapore, including 3034 children in grades 3 (N = 743), 4 (N = 711), 7 (N = 916), and 8 (N = 664). Several hypothesized risk and protective factors for developing or overcoming pathological gaming were measured, including weekly amount of game play, impulsivity, social competence, depression, social phobia, anxiety, and school performance. Results: The prevalence of pathological gaming was similar to that in other countries ( 9%). Greater amounts of gaming, lower social competence, and greater impulsivity seemed to act as risk factors for becoming pathological gamers, whereas depression, anxiety, social phobias, and lower school performance seemed to act as outcomes of pathological gaming. Conclusion: This study adds important information to the discussion about whether video game "addiction" is similar to other addictive behaviors, demonstrating that it can last for years and is not solely a symptom of comorbid disorders.

Gentile D. A., Coyne S., & Walsh D. A . ( 2011).

Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: A short-term longitudinal study

Aggressive Behavior, 37( 2), 193-206.

URL     PMID:21274855      [本文引用: 4]

Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd615th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. Aggr. Behav. 37:193–206, 2011. 08 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Gentile D. A., Li D., Khoo A., Prot S., & Anderson C. A . ( 2014).

Mediators and moderators of long-term effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior: Practice, thinking, and action

JAMA Pediatrics, 168( 5), 450-457.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.63

Gitter S. A., Ewell P. J., Guadagno R. E., Stillman T. F., & Baumeister R. F . ( 2013).

Virtually justifiable homicide: The effects of prosocial contexts on the link between violent video games, aggression, and prosocial and hostile cognition

Aggressive Behavior, 39( 5), 346-354.

URL     PMID:23650097      [本文引用: 1]

Previous work has shown that playing violent video games can stimulate aggression toward others. The current research has identified a potential exception. Participants who played a violent game in which the violence had an explicitly prosocial motive (i.e., protecting a friend and furthering his nonviolent goals) were found to show lower short-term aggression (Study 1) and show higher levels of prosocial cognition (Study 2) than individuals who played a violent game in which the violence was motivated by more morally ambiguous motives. Thus, violent video games that are framed in an explicitly prosocial context may evoke more prosocial sentiments and thereby mitigate some of the short-term effects on aggression observed in previous research. While these findings are promising regarding the potential aggression-reducing effects of prosocial context, caution is still warranted as a small effect size difference (d65=65.2–.3), although nonsignificant, was still observed between those who played the explicitly prosocial violent game and those who played a nonviolent game; indicating that aggressive behavior was not completely eliminated by the inclusion of a prosocial context for the violence. Aggr. Behav. 39:346–354, 2013. 08 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

*Greitemeyer T. & Osswald S., ( 2010).

Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98( 2), 211-221.

URL     PMID:20085396      [本文引用: 3]

Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well.

Greitemeyer T., & Mügge D.O . ( 2014).

Video games do affect social outcomes: A meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40( 5), 578-589.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

*Greitemeyer T., Osswald S., & Brauer M . ( 2010).

Playing prosocial video games increases empathy and decreases schadenfreude

Emotion, 10( 6), 796-802.

URL     PMID:21171755      [本文引用: 3]

Past research provided abundant evidence that exposure to violent video games increases aggressive tendencies and decreases prosocial tendencies. In contrast, research on the effects of exposure to prosocial video games has been relatively sparse. The present research found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games is positively related to prosocial affect and negatively related to antisocial affect. More specifically, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increased interpersonal empathy and decreased reported pleasure at another's misfortune (i.e., schadenfreude). These results lend further credence to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of media exposure on social tendencies.

*Greitemeyer T., Traut-Mattausch E., & Osswald S . ( 2012).

How to ameliorate negative effects of violent video games on cooperation: Play it cooperatively in a team

Computers in Human Behavior, 28( 4), 1465-1470.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The present research tests the idea that playing a team-player video game in which players work together as teammates and assist each other in achieving a common goal ameliorates the negative effects of violent video game play on cooperative behavior. In fact, two studies revealed that, relative to a single-player mode, playing a cooperative team-player violent video game increased cooperation in a decision dilemma task. Importantly, cooperative behavior generalized across targets in that the decision dilemma was played with a partner who was not the video game play partner. Mediation analyses revealed that cooperative team-play promoted feelings of cohesion, which activated trust norms, which in turn increased cooperative behavior. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Happ C., Melzer A., & Steffgen G . ( 2013).

Superman vs. BAD man? The effects of empathy and game character in violent video games

Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16( 10), 774-778.

URL     PMID:23745616      [本文引用: 1]

Recent findings indicate that events in video games, as well as players' perceptions of game characters, moderate well-established video game effects. This includes the level of identification with game characters, and players' interpretation of whether or not the actions of the characters are conceived as moral. In the present study, it was tested whether manipulating empathy for well-known game characters influences video game effects in a violent beat-'em-up game. As was expected, playing the comic hero Superman led to more prosocial behavior (i.e., returning a lost letter) than playing the evil villain Joker. A similar positive effect was observed for inducing game characters as warm and empathic before playing. Compared to a neutral text, participants in the empathy text condition judged the violence in the game as less justified, irrespective of game character. When looking at hostile perception, an interaction was found between empathy and game character. For Superman, empathy led participants to interpret neutral faces as less aggressive. When playing the evil Joker, however, empathy even increased hostile perception. This is in line with previous findings that empathy may not be positive per se. In fact, it may backfire depending on the interaction of game characters and the empathy players feel for them.

Jerabeck J.M., & Ferguson C.J . ( 2013).

The influence of solitary and cooperative violent video game play on aggressive and prosocial behavior

Computers in Human Behavior, 29( 6), 2573-2578.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research examining the issue of video game violence influences on aggression continues to be debated within the scientific community. Thus far, no consensus has been reached regarding the influence of such games. This study adds to the prior literature by examining how violent video games may promote prosocial or aggressive behavior when played either cooperatively or alone. Results indicated that violent content in video games had no influence on prosocial behavior, aggressive behavior, or self-perceptions of empathy. Playing cooperatively was associated with less aggressive behavior, whether games were violent or not. [All rights reserved Elsevier].

*Jin Y.C., & Li J.Y . ( 2017).

When newbies and veterans play together: The effect of video game content, context and experience on cooperation

Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 556-563.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This paper explores the effect of video game content, context and experience on cooperative behavior over three research studies. Study 1 is a cross-sectional correlation study exploring the relationship between the video game team-play frequency and pro-social behavior, Study 2 is a 2 (game content: violent video game and neutral video game) 2 (game context: single-play and team-play) design with the dependent variable being cooperative behavior and Study 3 is a single factor design experiment which examines the effect of the gaming experience on cooperative behavior under a collaborative context. The main findings were that the team-play frequency had a positive correlation with pro-social behavior, and pro-social video game exposure significantly predicted pro-social behavior. Collaborative play was found to significantly increase cooperation in both violent and neutral video games. However, the level of gaming experience tended to moderate the relationship between collaborative play and the level of cooperation.

Krahé B. & Möller I., ( 2010).

Longitudinal effects of media violence on aggression and empathy among German adolescents

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31( 5), 401-409.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

To address the longitudinal relation between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and aggressive behavior and empathy, = 1237 seventh and eighth grade high school students in Germany completed measures of violent and nonviolent media usage, aggression, and empathy twice in twelve months. Cross-lagged panel analyses showed significant pathways from T1 media violence usage to higher physical aggression and lower empathy at T2. The reverse paths from T1 aggression or empathy to T2 media violence usage were nonsignificant. The links were similar for boys and girls. No links were found between exposure to nonviolent media and aggression or between violent media and relational aggression. T1 physical aggression moderated the impact of media violence usage, with stronger effects of media violence usage among the low aggression group.

*Krahé B. & Möller I., ( 2011).

Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents

Journal of Adolescence, 34( 2), 279-287.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

*Li D., Choo H., Khoo A., & Liau A. K . ( 2012).

Effects of digital game play among young Singaporean gamers: A two-wave longitudinal study

Journal for Virtual Worlds Research, 5( 2).

[本文引用: 2]

Mitrofan O., Paul M., Weich S., & Spencer N . ( 2014).

Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: Seeing aggression on television and video games

BMC Psychiatry, 14( 1), 287-297.

URL     PMID:25404041      [本文引用: 1]

Background Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children???s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). Methods In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7???11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Results Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. Conclusions There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children???s lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.

Ogletree S.M., & Drake R. , ( 2007).

College students’ video game participation and perceptions: Gender differences and implications

Sex Roles, 56( 7-8), 537-542.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

As growing numbers of youth in the United States play video games, potential effects of game playing are being considered. We focused on gender-related aspects of gaming in a study of 206 college students. Men were significantly more likely than women to play video games two or more hours a week and to indicate that video game playing interfered with sleeping and with class preparation. A greater proportion of women than men complained about the amount of time their significant other played video games. Participants rated female video game characters as significantly more helpless and sexually provocative than male characters and as less likely to be strong and aggressive. Gender differences in participation and character portrayals potentially impact the lives of youth in a variety of ways.

*Prot S., Gentile D. A., Anderson C. A., Suzuki K., Swing E., Lim K. MLam B. C. P. ., ( 2014).

Long-term relations among prosocial-media use, empathy, and prosocial behavior

Psychological Science, 25( 2), 358-368.

URL     PMID:24335350      [本文引用: 7]

Despite recent growth of research on the effects of prosocial media, processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Two studies explored theoretically relevant mediators and moderators of the effects of prosocial media on helping. Study 1 examined associations among prosocial- and violent-media use, empathy, and helping in samples from seven countries. Prosocial-media use was positively associated with helping. This effect was mediated by empathy and was similar across cultures. Study 2 explored longitudinal relations among prosocial-video-game use, violent-video-game use, empathy, and helping in a large sample of Singaporean children and adolescents measured three times across 2 years. Path analyses showed significant longitudinal effects of prosocial- and violent-video-game use on prosocial behavior through empathy. Latent-growth-curve modeling for the 2-year period revealed that change in video-game use significantly affected change in helping, and that this relationship was mediated by change in empathy.

Prot S., McDonald K. A., Anderson C. A., & Gentile D. A . ( 2012).

Video games: Good, bad, or other?

Pediatric Clinics of North America, 59( 3), 647-658.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

*Saleem M., Anderson C. A., & Gentile D. A . ( 2012 a).

Effects of prosocial, neutral, and violent video games on children's helpful and hurtful behaviors

Aggressive Behavior, 38( 4), 281-287.

URL     PMID:25363697      [本文引用: 5]

Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9 14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects. Aggr. Behav. 38:281-287, 2012. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

*Saleem M., Anderson C. A., & Gentile D. A . ( 2012 b).

Effects of prosocial, neutral, and violent video games on college students’ affect

Aggressive Behavior, 38( 4), 263-271.

URL     PMID:22549724      [本文引用: 1]

Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions and helpful behaviors [Gentile el al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009; 2010; 2011]. These results are consistent with social-cognitive models of social behavior [e.g., the “General Learning Model,” Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. The social-cognitive learning models suggest that in addition to influencing cognitions, media content may also influence affect. However, past studies on prosocial video games have failed to find a significant effect on affective measures [Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010]. The present research examined the effects of prosocial, neutral, and violent video games on state hostility and positive affect. Also examined were moderating effects of trait aggressiveness, trait altruistic helping, and trait egoistic helping. Prosocial games reduced state hostility and increased positive state affect. Violent video games had the opposite effects. These effects were moderated by trait physical aggression. Altruistic participants reported relatively more positive affect and less state hostility. Egoistic participants reported relatively more aggravated and mean feelings. Aggr. Behav. 38:263–271, 2012. 08 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sestir M.A., & Bartholow B.D . ( 2010).

Violent and nonviolent video games produce opposing effects on aggressive and prosocial outcomes

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46( 6), 934-942.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Experimental studies routinely show that participants who play a violent game are more aggressive immediately following game play than participants who play a nonviolent game. The underlying assumption is that nonviolent games have no effect on aggression, whereas violent games increase it. The current studies demonstrate that, although violent game exposure increases aggression, nonviolent video game exposure decreases aggressive thoughts and feelings (Exp 1) and aggressive behavior (Exp 2). When participants assessed after a delay were compared to those measured immediately following game play, violent game players showed decreased aggressive thoughts, feelings and behavior, whereas nonviolent game players showed increases in these outcomes. Experiment 3 extended these findings by showing that exposure to nonviolent puzzle-solving games with no expressly prosocial content increases prosocial thoughts, relative to both violent game exposure and, on some measures, a no-game control condition. Implications of these findings for models of media effects are discussed.

*TearM. M.J., & Nielsen M. ,( 2013).

Failure to demonstrate that playing violent video games diminishes prosocial behavior

PLoS One, 8( 7), e68382.

URL     PMID:3700923      [本文引用: 10]

Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc.) and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior.

Tear M.J., & Nielsen M. , ( 2014).

Video games and prosocial behavior: A study of the effects of non-violent, violent and ultra-violent gameplay

Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 8-13.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Experimental evidence has pointed toward a negative effect of violent video games on social behavior. Given that the availability and presence of video games is pervasive, negative effects from playing them have potentially large implications for public policy. It is, therefore, important that violent video game effects are thoroughly and experimentally explored, with the current experiment focusing on prosocial behavior. 120 undergraduate volunteers (Mage=19.01, 87.5% male) played an ultra-violent, violent, or non-violent video game and were then assessed on two distinct measures of prosocial behavior: how much they donated to a charity and how difficult they set a task for an ostensible participant. It was hypothesized that participants playing the ultra-violent games would show the least prosocial behavior and those playing the non-violent game would show the most. These hypotheses were not supported, with participants responding in similar ways, regardless of the type of game played. While null effects are difficult to interpret, samples of this nature (undergraduate volunteers, high male skew) may be problematic, and participants were possibly sensitive to the hypothesis at some level, this experiment adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that violent video game effects are less clear than initially thought.

*Teng S. K., Chong G. Y., Siew A. S., & Skoric M. M . ( 2011).

Grand Theft Auto IV comes to Singapore: Effects of repeated exposure to violent video games on aggression

Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14( 10), 597-602.

URL     PMID:21381967      [本文引用: 4]

Abstract Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

*Whitaker J.L., & Bushman B.J . ( 2012).

“Remain calm. Be kind.” Effects of relaxing video games on aggressive and prosocial behavior

Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3( 1), 88-92.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

ABSTRACT Research shows that violent video games increase aggressive behavior and decrease prosocial behavior, but could relaxing video games have the opposite effects? In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to play a relaxing, neutral, or prosocial video game for 20 min. In Experiment 1, participants competed with an ostensible partner on a competitive reaction time task in which they could behave in an aggressive manner (by blasting their partner with loud noise), or in a prosocial manner (by giving their partner money). In Experiment 2, participants reported their mood after playing the video game. After the study was over, they could help the experimenter by sharpening pencils. Compared to those who played violent or neutral video games, those who played relaxing video games were less aggressive and more helpful. Playing a relaxing video game put people in a good mood, and those in a good mood were more helpful.

*Zhen S. J., Xie H. L., Zhang W., Wang S. J., & Li D. P . ( 2011).

Exposure to violent computer games and Chinese adolescents’ physical aggression: The role of beliefs about aggression, hostile expectations, and empathy

Computers in Human Behavior, 27( 5), 1675-1687.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Previous research shows that playing violent computer games (VCG) influences physical aggression. However, the mediation processes of this influence and potential gender and age differences have not been well investigated. The present study (a) tested, in an integrated model, how three factors (i.e., beliefs about aggression, hostile expectations, and empathy) simultaneously mediated the relationship between playing VCG and physical aggression, and (b) determined if the mediation process varied across gender and age groups. A total of 795 (44% females) Chinese adolescents from three grade levels (Grade 5, 8 and 11) completed measures of exposure to VCG, physical aggression, beliefs about aggression, hostile expectations, and empathy. Results indicated that paths involving each of the three mediators as the sole mediator were significant in the whole sample. Beliefs about aggression (e.g., “it’s O.K. to hit someone”) were the most robust mediator across gender and age groups. Empathy was a more important mediator in females than in males in Grade 5 and Grade 8. The direct and/or indirect associations (e.g., VCG → beliefs about aggression → physical aggression) between playing VCG and physical aggression were stronger among younger adolescents than among older adolescents. The implications of these findings are discussed.