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## Behavioral social policy: Nudge in the practice and exploration of public welfare

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School of Government, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

 基金资助: 国家社会科学基金青年项目资助.  18CGL043

Abstract

Behavioral social policy (BSP) is a kind of social policy that uses "nudge" as a tool, based on the characteristics of human behavior. It is the application of behavioral science in the field of social policy. According to people’s behavioral preferences, BSP pursues public welfare in a covert way without significantly changing their economic incentives. From the perspective of policy makers, the method of the voluntary and/or informational nudge can be divided into increase strategy, decrease strategy and adjustment strategy. These three strategies are used in areas such as re-hospitalization rate, children's health, community-based senior care, admission funding, employment, organ transplantation, and precision poverty alleviation to help people make better choices and improve public welfare. As an emerging method and technology, nudge is not always useful. Policy makers need to suit the remedy to the case, accurately identify, trade-off, and avoid “behavior bureaucrats”, in order to realize the modernization of national governance and maximization of social benefits.

Keywords： behavioral science ; social policy ; nudge ; increase strategy ; decrease strategy ; adjustment strategy

ZHANG Shuwei, LIANG Xinyi, YUE Jinglun. (2019). Behavioral social policy: Nudge in the practice and exploration of public welfare. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(3), 429-438

## 2 行为社会政策的工具与策略

2010年, 英国政府邀请行为科学领域的专家成立了世界上首个以助推为特色的“行为洞见研究小组” (Behavioral Insights Team), 将行为经济学和心理学的理论应用于公共政策的创新, 取得了显著效果。此后, 美国政府亦于2014年组建了“白宫社会和行为科学小组” (White House Social and Behavioral Sciences Team), 通过应用助推理论来帮助其制定更有效和低成本的公共政策。荷兰、澳大利亚、新加坡等国家也已经组建或正在组建行为科学团队, 利用助推影响政策。中国虽然没有成立专门的行为助推小组, 但在公共政策的制定和执行中, 已经有类似助推的实践, 值得关注。

### 5.1 框架效应与就业问题

Tversky和Kahneman (1981)提出的“亚洲疾病问题”, 开创了对“框架效应” (Framing Effect)的研究。公共政策中的框架效应指人们的决策行为受媒体或领导人对同一问题的框架表述形式的影响而表现出不同决策偏好的现象(史燕伟等, 2014)。政策制定者可以通过合理利用框架效应来影响政策使用者的决策, 一个成功的应用是解决再就业问题。

### 5.3 心理账户与精准扶贫

2014年12月以来, 西南财经大学经济与管理研究院先后在四川省乐山市五通桥区、乐山市马边县、凉山彝族自治州雷波县等地发起了一项“劳动收入奖励计划”的反贫困实验(5 第一财经. (2017). 补民生短板：四川一个城区的劳动收入奖励实验. http://www.yicai.com/news/5350027.html)。贫困户因“福利依赖”而失去脱贫动力, “等靠要”的思想给扶贫任务带来挑战, 这项实验所针对就是这一难点。“劳动收入奖励计划”的核心就在于对低收入家庭的劳动所得给予一定的现金奖励, 以奖代补, 鼓励贫困户通过增加劳动供给来增加收入。这种“以奖代补”其实是负所得税的一种形式：即政府界定一个最低收入线, 按照一定负所得税税率, 对在最低线下的贫困人口, 根据他们不同的实际收入, 给予一定补助。这显然有利于激励低收入群体增加劳动时间、提高劳动意愿(李庆梅, 聂佃忠, 2010)。

## 参考文献 原文顺序 文献年度倒序 文中引用次数倒序 被引期刊影响因子

Default effect refers to a phenomenon that people tend to maintain the default and do not change the choice in decision making. Default effect widely exists in organ donations, retirement savings plans, consumer decision and other decision-making fields and has great application values in these fields. Currently, there are four ways for researchers to illustrate the formation mechanism of default effect: loss aversion, query theory, implicit recommendations and neural psychological mechanism. The factors to influence default effect include such as follows: effort, the framing of default and personal experience. Further research on default effect needs to deeply investigate our understanding of its causes, to strengthen cross-cultural research and to expand its application values.

“心理账户”是人们在心理上对结果（尤其是经济结果）的编码、分类和估价的过程,它揭示了人们在进行（资金）财富决策时的心理认知过程。心理账户的理论成果主要集中在“非替代性”的本质特征以及特殊的心理运算规则,心理账户在各个应用领域的研究成果主要包括：价格感知;行为资产组合理论;行为生命周期理论以及消费预算的研究。未来将在多元化研究方法的基础上,开展跨文化研究,对心理账户的内在心理机制和认知规律深入探讨。

The framing effect in the public decision-making refers to a phenomenon that people`s decision-making behaviors are influenced by the description of options among media coverage and leader statements and then demonstrate different preferences for decision-making. At present, the prospect theory, query theory and fuzzy- trace theory are three theoretical models to explain this phenomenon in the context of the public decision-making. Evidences show that the framing effect in the public decision-making may be influenced by some factors, such as value orientation, levels of knowledge, interpersonal communication, emotions and characters of framing. Further researches for the framing effect in the public decision-making are expected to explore its theoretical explanation and neural mechanism, conduct cross-cultural researches, and investigate its research paradigm and coping strategies.

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