心理科学进展, 2019, 27(2): 251-267 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00251

研究前沿

退休规划的研究现状和本土化发展

张丽瑶, 王忠军,

华中师范大学心理学院 暨青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室、湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室, 武汉 430079

Research status and localization development of retirement planning

ZHANG Liyao, WANG Zhongjun,

Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China

通讯作者: 王忠军, E-mail: wangzj@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-11-22   网络出版日期: 2019-02-15

基金资助: * 国家社科基金一般项目.  17BGL108
湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室开放课题.  20161202

Received: 2017-11-22   Online: 2019-02-15

摘要

退休规划是个体在退休前为保障将来的退休生活做出的长期准备。退休规划不仅有利于退休人员生活幸福, 还有助于缓解社会保障体系的压力, 在较早进入老龄化的国家已经得到重视。通过回顾国外相关研究, 本文归纳出退休规划的六个具体领域(财务、健康、社交休闲、工作、心理、居住), 总结并评价了过去研究应用的主要理论基础(角色理论、计划过程理论、资源视角、生态系统理论)和有代表性的测量工具。汇总分析了退休规划在人口学、环境和心理三层面上的影响因素以及对过渡型就业和退休适应两阶段的影响。基于研究概念的发展以及中国国情, 未来研究应该首先开发本土化工具, 合理选择理论视角并系统研究规划的各个领域, 验证并创新退休规划的影响因素研究, 注重中国国情问题并加强干预研究。

关键词: 老龄化 ; 退休 ; 退休规划 ; 过渡型就业 ; 退休适应

Abstract

Retirement planning refers to one’s long-term effort in preparation for his/her post-retirement life. It has garnered increasing attention in countries that have entered into aging societies. Retirement planning will not only benefit retirees’ well-being, but will also help reduce the pressure confronted by the Social Security system. Based on the literature of retirement planning, this review provides a summary of studies in six major planning domains (i.e., financial, health and well-being-related, social activities/leisure-related, work-related, psychological, and housing), four main theoretical framework (i.e., role theory, planning- process theory, resource theory, and ecological systems theory), and representative measurement. Furthermore, this review discussed demographic factors, environment factors, and psychological factors as the antecedents of retirement planning and its consequences on bridge employment and retirement adjustment. According to the theoretical development and the current realities in China, it is recommended that future research should develop localized measurement tools, choose the appropriate theoretical framework, and systematically study retirement planning in various domains. Future research should also innovatively examine other antecedents of retirement planning. In addition, researchers could conduct intervention studies on retirement planning that correspond to China’s national realities.

Keywords: aging ; retirement ; retirement planning ; bridge employment ; retirement adjustment

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本文引用格式

张丽瑶, 王忠军. (2019). 退休规划的研究现状和本土化发展 . 心理科学进展, 27(2), 251-267

ZHANG Liyao, WANG Zhongjun. (2019). Research status and localization development of retirement planning. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(2), 251-267

1 引言

在人口生育率下降和平均预期寿命加长的双重影响下, 世界各国都出现了不同程度的老龄化危机。数据显示, 到2020年, 欧洲60岁以上的人口将占到25%; 美国到2030年, 65岁以上的人口将占到20%; 亚洲老人的数量到2025年要占到世界老人总数的58% (Glass & Flynn, 2000; Heraty & McCarthy, 2015; Lim, 2003)。人口老龄化和退休人口剧增对各国社会保障制度带来了较大冲击, 为保障退休生活的质量和幸福, 个体应该积极参与退休规划。研究表明, 退休规划不仅能够促进个体对退休生活的有效调整(Noone, Stephens, & Alpass, 2009), 还可以缓解退休人口增加对公共资源带来的压力(刘泓利, 方远华, 余林, 2016)。

近些年, 退休收入保障问题已经成为国际经济的焦点(Hershey, Henkens, & Van Dalen, 2010)。得益于医疗科技水平的提高, 世界婴儿潮一代的寿命延长以及提早退休的现象使他们在退休中的时间比前人都要长, 这将给公共养老金制度带来前所未有的负担(柳如眉, 柳清瑞, 2016)。在西方, 许多婴儿潮一代的人, 特别是没有退休规划的人, 面对储蓄不足以及身体机能的不断下降, 过着长期贫穷、幸福感低的退休生活(Gurd & Or, 2011; Leandro-França, Murta, Hershey, & Martins, 2016; Lee, 2003)。美国退休人员协会的一项包含10个国家的调查发现, 只有1/4的成年员工报告自己考虑过退休问题, 48%的人表示在退休后不得不从事某种工作(Hershey et al., 2010)。新加坡的一项调查也发现, 69%的工人认识到他们的公积金不够退休支出, 80%以上的人知道不能依靠政府和子女, 但90%的人仍持“坐等”的态度而不采取行动(Gurd & Or, 2011)。由于大多数国家缺乏对退休规划的关注, 这对退休人员自身和国民经济都会有影响。

通过对退休规划相关文献进行搜寻整理发现, 学术界研究退休规划问题有早有晚且侧重不同。西方国家相较于亚洲国家进入老龄化社会较早, 关注退休规划问题也较早, 从研究早期主要关注于退休前的财务规划(Dorfman, 1989; Glass & Flynn, 2000), 拓展到包括健康规划、心理规划、人际休闲规划、居住规划、工作规划等(Noone, Stephens, & Alpass, 2010; Yeung, 2013)。财务规划固然是退休生活资金的保障, 但其他领域同样发挥重要作用, 不可忽视。除内容外, 研究者们更加关心影响退休规划的因素, 并试图回答“什么样的人会进行退休规划”, 并为个体、组织和国家在实践中提供对策和建议。但以往研究仍有不足, 且直接“拿来主义”必然不符合中国特有的国情。

中国作为发展中国家和世界第一人口大国, 其面对的人口老龄化危机将是世界上以往任何一个国家都无法预测和想象的。据预测, 到2025年, 我国的社会养老保险基金缺口将达到1.8万亿元(张文学, 任彦霏, 2012), 退休金延迟发放问题以及老年就业问题存在矛盾, 养老服务业发展与老龄化进程不同步(高建伟, 李佩, 2017), 计划生育让传统的“养儿防老”观念转为“养钱防老”等等特殊的情况都说明, 有关退休规划的研究意义重大, 是需要引起人们高度关注的问题, 然而相关实证研究在中国大陆尚是空白。本文通过总结梳理国外对退休规划研究的脉络、内容、理论依据、测量问卷、影响因素等, 呈现出目前国外的研究现状和问题, 并结合我国国情提出了未来研究的方向和建议, 希望为相关研究提供一些参考和启示。

2 退休规划的概念及具体领域

2.1 退休规划的概念

退休规划是退休前的一项重要活动, 是指个体为保障将来的退休生活(如财富、健康和幸福)做出的长期准备(Yeung, 2013)。退休规划的类型从信息获取渠道上可分为正式与非正式两种, 个体可以参加正式结构化的规划课程, 也可以从个人需求出发在财务、居住地、活动等诸多方面自行规划, 这两种形式都可增加个体在随后的退休过渡中的信心与资源(Taylor-Carter, Cook, & Weinberg, 1997)。随着退休的临近, 人们参与退休规划的内容和数量都会变化, 规划领域也更广更细分(Adams & Rau, 2011)。此外, 有研究者认为退休规划是一个能动过程, 会受到人口学因素、个体差异和外部环境的影响(Glass & Kilpatrick, 1998; Kemp, Rosenthal & Denton, 2005; Phua & McNally, 2008; Topa, Moriano, Depolo, Alcover, & Morales, 2009)。

综上, 退休规划是个体根据自身的资源和退休后的需要在财务、健康、心理、居住、人际休闲、工作等领域做出认知或行为上的规划(Lee, 2003; Noone et al., 2010; Petkoska & Earl, 2009; Yeung, 2013)。这些准备可以帮助退休人员建立现实的退休期望, 并设立清晰而长远的目标, 从而促进退休转变与适应(Topa et al., 2009)。

2.2 退休规划的领域

早期研究认为, 退休规划的主要领域涉及财务规划、居住规划、活动规划和工作规划(Szinovacz, 1982)。之后研究者们相继提出健康规划、心理规划、社交规划、休闲规划、生活方式规划(Lee, 2003; Mock & Cornelius, 2007; Petkoska & Earl, 2009)。通过理解各领域的含义, 这里将退休规划的内容概括为如下六方面:

2.2.1 财务规划

特指人们为保障退休后生活的经济基础进行的一系列准备。具体可分为两类:财务知识储备和资金储备。前者包括多种信息搜集活动, 如接触金融投资或退休咨询、参加理财讲座或通过大众媒体获取相关退休财务知识, 其目的在于增加经济知识和提高金融素养(Hershey, Mowen, & Jacobs-Lawson, 2003)。研究表明, 退休财务知识、财务规划行为和储蓄活动紧密相关(Ekerdt, Hackney, Kosloski, & DeViney, 2001)。后者是通过一系列工具性活动(如整理财务和投资记录、预估未来生活成本、确定社会保障收益、比较不同投资工具的特点)进行的财务准备, 通常是对养老金和其他投资(如财产, 股份和个人储蓄)的所有权进行评估(Noone et al., 2010; Stawski, Hershey, & Jacobs-Lawson, 2007)。

在没有工作收入和充满未知的退休生活中, 要想维持先前的生活质量, 财务规划对个体而言至关重要。面对老龄化趋势和劳动力人口的紧缺, 政府在养老支出方面压力巨大, 财务规划的责任由政府转向个人。有关财务规划的研究始于上世纪七八十年代, Dorfman (1989)发现财务规划与退休满意度和幸福感直接相关。自此, 研究者们开始关注区分人们有无财务规划的因素。如在人口学变量上, 退休储蓄倾向与年龄正相关(Petkoska & Earl, 2009); 在心理变量上, 那些对自身控制老龄化能力更有信心的老年员工, 更可能进行财务规划(Heraty & McCarthy, 2015)。这些研究为我们更好地干预退休财务规划提供了依据(Lim, 2003)。需要注意的是, 个体在财务规划总量上的需求不同, 在评估财务规划时需考虑主观充足问题。还应该明确, 没有财务保障, 其他的规划都是难以维持的(Mock & Cornelius, 2007)。

2.2.2 健康规划

良好的健康状况是退休生活满意的先决条件之一, 它将影响个体日常生活质量和参与社交娱乐活动的能力(Kim & Feldman, 2000)。面对老年期身体各器官组织退行性变化的特点, 个体在退休前对自身的健康进行规划弥足重要(Petkoska & Earl, 2009)。虽然大多数国家在医疗与卫生服务上都有一些保障措施, 相关政府支出也在逐年增加(Lee & Law, 2004), 但补救型的医疗措施和较高的医疗成本替代不了个体的健康规划。Lee (2003)通过质性研究提出健康退休活动应包括:加入医疗保险计划、定期锻炼、定期体检、改掉不健康习惯四种。Noone等人(2010)进一步将其分为两类活动, 一是医学上, 包括医学检查、疾病筛查; 二是生活方式上, 包括改善饮食健康和均衡营养、改掉不健康习惯、锻炼身体、培养健康习惯等。除此之外, 也有研究者测量购买保健品和治疗仪器、了解环境安全与健康知识等行为(Glass & Flynn, 2000; Hunter, Wang, & Worsley, 2007; Petkoska & Earl, 2009)。健康规划行为众多, 研究者们在测量时应筛选出对于个体健康最重要的行为, 还应注意到在这些行为上的个体差异。

以往研究大多关注于影响健康规划的人口学变量。Lee (2003)发现, 随着年龄的增长人们报告的健康规划越来越多, 并且在具体表现上存在性别差异。男性更可能购买医疗保险或者定期健身, 女性更可能去体检或改掉不健康的习惯。除性别外, 收入水平和受教育程度与健康规划成正相关(Glass & Flynn, 2000; Petkoska & Earl, 2009)。而当前的健康状况是否能促进健康规划尚没有一致结论(Noone et al., 2010)。除人口学变量, Petkoska和Earl (2009)发现, 目标的设立是个体参与所有规划领域的重要预测变量。然而研究者们没有更多地关注影响人们健康规划的心理变量, 一个可能原因是, 大多数人在一定程度上已经认识到健康规划的重要性, 但在具体如何实施上还需要专业医师或营养师的建议。

2.2.3 社交休闲规划

社交休闲规划领域包括规划退休后的人际社交、娱乐休闲活动。根据社会情绪选择理论, 老年人由于自身情感需要的增多, 会更加重视社交圈的完善, 更加倾向于在社交活动中投入时间。而退休的到来意味着个体的工作角色将削弱, 家庭和社区成员的角色将增强, 为度过长达15~20年的退休生活, 人际交往和休闲活动也是必不可少的(Adams & Rau, 2011)。概括来讲, 可以包含如下:培养或发展兴趣爱好、继续或开始休闲活动/旅行、阅读或通过大众媒体了解休闲活动/旅行、加入或咨询休闲活动的组织团体、组织与朋友/家人的出行、与朋友/家人的接触和联系、结交新朋友等(Lee, 2003; Lee & Law, 2004; Petkoska & Earl, 2009)。

社交休闲活动与更好的身心健康、退休满意度和生活满意度相关(Adams & Rau, 2011)。但它会受到个体身体健康和财务资源的制约(Reitzes & Mutran, 2004)。研究表明, 个体在退休前参与的休闲活动可以预测其在退休后的活动参与程度(De Vaus & Wells, 2004), 退休前的活动规划或活动参与能够促进人们积极适应退休。但往往在退休后人们才有现实条件参加新的社交休闲活动, 所以测量这一领域的规划不能仅仅侧重在实际活动, 还应该测量观念上的规划。

2.2.4 工作规划

当前社会, 退休已不再是个体职业生涯的终止。研究表明, 退休后从事某种形式的工作与退休后满意度显著正相关(Kim & Feldman, 2000)。Shultz (2003)将年老员工在从离开原有的职业到完全离开劳动力市场的过程中发生的再就业称为过渡型就业(bridge employment)。Topa等人(2009)认为, 过渡型就业虽然发生在退休后, 但却与退休规划有高相关。有研究证实了这一说法, 如Maestas (2010)发现, 退休后与工作相关的活动并非是对财务资源短缺的突然反应, 而通常都是在退休前做出的决定。我们将这些与退休后工作相关的意图或想法, 以及实际活动称为工作规划(Wöhrmann, Deller, & Wang, 2013)。

工作规划是个相对较新的领域, 研究大多出现在21世纪后。研究者们的关注点在于工作规划的预测因素, 如, Petkoska和Earl (2009)在年龄、性别、教育程度和收入这些人口学变量中发现了低收入与工作规划正相关。此外, 在退休规划中更积极主动的人更有可能规划退休后工作(Griffin & Hesketh, 2008)。近年来, 研究者在考察工作规划潜在的心理机制和边界条件上也有一些成果, 如Wöhrmann等(2013)提出, 组织可以通过提高老年员工的退休结果期望来加强工作规划, 有社会支持的工作氛围有利于老年员工产生退休后再工作的意愿。未来研究还应关注于工作规划与过渡型就业之间的关系, 以及工作规划的效益。

2.2.5 心理规划

为接受并适应伴随退休带来的变化, 心理准备也是退休规划中的重要内容(Lee & Law, 2004)。退休意味着工作角色的缺失和生活时间结构的重组, 个体在面临这一重大转变时需要很长的适应时间, 如果没有充分的心理准备, 很可能会造成种种不适应, 甚至出现退休综合征。总结以往研究, 心理规划具体包括:与同事、家人和已退休人员谈论退休, 通过大众媒体获取有关退休信息(Dorfman, 1989), 参与退休辅导和咨询项目等(Lee & Law, 2004)。家庭成员在心理规划过程中扮演重要角色, 那些与家人或其他亲人讨论过退休规划的员工对职业生涯的结束表现出更好的心理适应(Atchley, 1976)。Noone等(2009)Yeung (2013)通过实证研究再次验证了心理规划活动有助于退休人员更好地准备退休生活, 同时能够促进退休过渡中的心理健康。

Lee和Law (2004)的研究发现, 人们虽然参与心理规划的活动较少, 但通过大众媒体获得有关退休的信息却非常便利。尤其在便携式设备已十分普及的今天, 退休知识的传播和获取变得越来越容易, 增强老年人的学习意识非常关键。此外, 不能将心理规划与其他规划领域割裂开, 因为不论是财务规划、健康规划, 还是人际休闲规划等, 它们都可以在心理层面为退休人员提供保障, 如更多的资金保障可以提高财务安全感, 使得人们对退休的到来更有信心。

2.2.6 居住规划

随着身体机能的下降, 老年人对居住条件也会有特殊要求, 为满足退休生活需求以保证退休幸福感, 居住规划同样不可忽视。居住规划的内容可以包括, 决定退休后居住地、对房子的修整、是否与子女住在一起等。Glass和Flynn (2000)在一项对美国乡村老人的调查发现, 拥有自己房子的老人并不关心居住规划, 而研究者Lee和Law (2004)通过一项电话调查发现, 中国的中年人却很重视居住问题。可见, 居住规划问题和本国国情也有很大关系。如, 雾霾天气已经引发了部分北方老年人“冬天向南迁徙”的现象; 独生子女一代无法与老人一起生活的问题; 家庭的适老化设施改造问题等。

目前没有太多的实证研究考察居住规划, 这也和这一领域的特殊性有关。一般而言, 居住条件和环境的选择及改善需要建立在经济、健康等物质基础上, 而且在退休初期身体并没有出现重大问题时, 房子的修整不会有具体详尽的方案。但是, 从退休满意度的角度出发, 居住规划也是重要一环, 它与老年人的身心健康、人际交往、社会活动密切相关。未来研究可以探寻居住规划与其他领域规划的联系和相互作用。

综上, 我们从以往研究中归纳出与退休满意度和生活幸福感密切相关的六个规划领域, 它们之间并非相互独立, 其重要程度也有个体差异, 在未来的研究中要格外注意。

3 退休规划的相关理论

为了更好地理解退休规划, 研究者们试图运用多种理论从不同角度将其诠释, 具体如下。

3.1 角色理论(role theory)

角色理论强调从职场到退休过程中的角色退出(role exit)和角色转换(role transition)的重要性(Wang, Zhan, Liu, & Shultz, 2008)。首先, 根据角色理论, 与一个角色关联越深, 在退出时越难, 即角色认同显著性对于个体的行为表现起着重要作用。如员工对其工作角色认同感很高, 其开始退休规划的时间可能要晚。因此, 具体衡量员工的角色认同显著性是充分了解其规划行为和需求的重要组成部分(Davis, 2007)。其次, 退休不仅意味着工作角色的退出或削弱, 还有家庭成员角色和社区成员角色的增强, 而适应新角色的好坏与这些角色的预期社会化(anticipatory socialization)直接相关(Dorfman, 1989)。预期社会化是个体为成功地扮演所期望的社会角色而获得社会价值观、社会行为规范和知识、技能的过程。具体可以通过观察已退休人员、同已退休人员交谈, 或者通过大众媒体等渠道了解退休情况, 这一学习过程就是角色理论看来的退休规划。因此, 衡量员工在这些方面的学习投入也是了解其退休规划行为的重要组成部分。Aiken (2002)认为, 个体在保留工作角色时对退休角色进行的准备, 将有助于其建立现实的退休期望、形成积极的态度并减少对退休的焦虑。最后, 角色理论认为个体担当的角色越多, 越能满足生活的需求, 多重角色的维护与更好的健康相关(Davis, 2007)。

综上, 角色理论可以从两方面帮助个体和研究者了解退休规划。一是角色理论通过将规划定义为新角色准备的方式, 可以启发研究者探索人们参与退休规划的个体差异的原因, 通过衡量个体为学习新角色的具体过程开发测量工具。二是在审查退休规划与退休适应的关系中, 角色理论可以从适应过程的角度来理解退休规划的作用, 比如通过活动规划、工作规划等方式创造或维持多种角色, 有利于个体缓冲退休带来的潜在负面影响, 从来提高退休后满意度(Dorfman, 1989)。但角色理论不能提供所有个体退休规划的影响因素, 比如控制感(Griffin & Hesketh, 2008)。又因为角色本身的复杂性以及退休后新旧角色的交替过程的复杂性, 因此很难直接对角色理论进行检验(Noone et al., 2010; Reitzes & Mutran, 2004)。

3.2 计划过程理论(A process theory of planning)

Friedman和Scholnick (1997)认为, 计划是一个过程, 具体分为五个阶段。Noone等人(2010)将此理论对应成为退休规划过程的四个阶段, 如图1所示。

图1

图1   计划过程理论和退休规划过程步骤图


首先, 如何对未来事件进行准备是一个具体问题, 形成这一问题的空间心理表征, 即是把外部物理刺激转换成内部心理符号的过程, 对应退休规划过程即是指个体使用先前的知识将现状与退休期望作对比, 形成退休环境表征。第二, 对问题有了认知理解后, 开始设立未来目标, 对应退休目标清晰度(retirement goal clarity), 指个体对未来退休生活设立的具体目标, 强调清晰度而不是数量。第三, 个体决定开始规划或采取行动以达成目标, 决定的依据是时机和行为的效能, 可能还会受到社会规范的影响。第四, 制定计划或策略以达成目标。最后, 实施计划及在必要时进行修改。这两步对应退休规划。这样, 计划过程理论将退休规划视为一个发展的过程。

相较于角色理论, 计划过程理论将退休规划细分为四个步骤, 这样对各个步骤的关键变量进行测量相对容易, 在实证研究中更易得到检验。例如, Noone等人(2010)便是依据此理论开发了退休规划过程量表(The Process of Retirement Planning Scale, PRePS), 通过测量每个阶段下的实施情况, 可以了解退休规划的程度。

3.3 资源视角(resource perspective)

在退休研究中, Wang和Shultz (2010)将资源分为物质资源、认知资源、激励资源、财务资源、社会资源和情绪资源, 他们认为资源视角提供了解释退休过程中多种变化模式的一般机制。具体而言, 当人们拥有更多资源以满足退休需求时, 他们在退休转变过程中将面临更少的困难。另一方面, 资源的减少会对人们的退休调整产生不利影响。因此, 为了解和分析个体退休过程的动态变化, 研究者可以考察退休人员的各类资源以及直接影响资源的变量。Muratore和Earl (2015)进一步探究了资源和退休各阶段(退休规划、退休过渡、退休适应)之间的关系, 但由于该研究的一些局限性, 资源视角对退休规划(退休前阶段)的解释力相对较小。该研究的被试均是自愿参与、已退休且受过高等教育的澳大利亚人, 可能会导致其结果很难推广到经济欠发达的国家或者有强制退休年龄的国家(Szinovacz, 2003)。因此, 研究者还需要继续考察资源理论在退休规划领域的应用价值。

虽然目前没有足够的实证证据支持这一理论观点(Leung & Earl, 2012), 尤其是在退休规划研究中, 但资源理论的独特优势在于, 它可以从多层次来解释个体资源的变化, 包括个体层次、工作层次、组织层次等方面的影响因素(Wang, Henkens, & van Solinge, 2011), 而以往理论只能提供某一层次的影响变量, 只能解释个体的一部分行为结果。我们需要一个具有较高普适性的理论来指导今后退休领域的研究。事实上, 退休规划的目的就在于积累未来退休所需的各种资源, 资源视角有助于研究者更全面地了解退休过渡和退休适应结果是如何产生的。

3.4 生态系统理论(ecological systems theory)

生态系统理论(Bronfenbrenner, 1979)是社会学和发展心理学领域中的主导理论之一, 强调发展个体嵌套于相互影响的一系列环境系统之中, 这些系统由社会关系和环境的多个维度定义, 包括微观、中间、外层、宏观和历时系统。基于这一理论, Szinovacz (2003)提出了退休规划生态模型, 由微观、中间和宏观三个层面组成。见图2

图2

图2   退休规划生态模型


微观层面即个人因素, 如健康、财务、婚姻、家庭和职业状况以及对工作和退休的态度等, 该理论强调微观层面是退休计划和决策的最重要影响因素。中间层面包括与雇主、工会、组织、地方和区域基础设施的相互作用。例如, 社区提供的退休娱乐设备可能对退休规划产生正面影响。宏观层面即社会层面, 包括人口结构、社会保障条例、私人养老金和福利制度等。这一生态模型系统整合了影响退休规划的不同层面的因素, 不仅可以启发研究者从多种角度考察个体退休规划的影响因素, 还可能将新的理论引入到退休规划研究中。如最近的一项研究发现, 个体与同龄人在退休储蓄多少上的社会比较间接影响了其自身的储蓄行为(Koposko, Kiso, Hershey, & Gerrans, 2016)。此外, 生态系统理论可为研究假设模型的构建提供思路, 为实证研究同时考虑不同层次的多种变量提供了方向, 但这无疑也加大了难度。

4 退休规划的测量

已有研究大多通过问卷法对退休规划进行测量, 但目前并没有形成一个通用量表。早期研究主要集中于测量财务规划领域(Hershey et al., 2003), 并且题目宽泛而含糊, 忽略了其他领域的规划对退休后幸福感的重要性(Anderson, Li, Bechhofer, McCrone, & Stewart, 2000)。随后出现的量表在非财务领域的测量范围和具体题目上也并没有达成一致。如, 工作规划、心理规划并不是所有研究者都会考虑的。这主要是因为研究早期对退休规划的测量并没有依据任何理论, 而是采用访谈法、经验法或文献搜集这种自下而上的方式编制问卷, 直至Noone等(2010)以计划过程理论为基础开发了退休规划过程量表PRePS。但量表开发本身是否依据了某个理论并不能成为判断其应用价值的唯一依据, 因此, 我们搜集到了文献中出现过的问卷或量表并分类汇总, 详细信息见表1

表1   退休规划量表汇总

研究者/量表
开发者(年代)
国家 结构维度 计分方式 题目
数量
Dorfman (1989) 美国 正式/非正式 4点计分(0=没有, 3=非常多)
是否
12
Juster & Suzman (HRS, 1995) 美国 财务/非财务/正式/非正式
Glass &Flynn (2000) 美国 退休活动/财务支持/身体健康/幸福感/居住/家庭因素 4点计分(1=有计划, 4=
还没开始)
59
Lim (2003) 新加坡 4点计分(1=从不, 4=经常) 7
Lee & Law (2004) 中国香港 财务/健康/生活安排/心理规划 是否 19
Mock & Cornelius (2007) 美国 财务/生活方式规划(包括健康/居住/休闲/工作) 百分制 7
Griffin & Hesketh (2008) 澳大利亚 财务/非财务规划 11
Petroska & Earl (RPQ, 2009) 澳大利亚 财务/健康/人际休闲/工作规划 是否 36
Muratore & Earl (RPQII, 2010) 澳大利亚 公共保护/自办保险/自我保护 5点计分(1=非常少的努力, 5=非常多的努力) 28
Noone, Stephens, & Alpass (2009) 新西兰 财务/社会心理规划 4点计分(0=没有, 3=非常多)
是否
5
Noone, Stephens, & Alpass (PRePS, 2010) 新西兰 财务/健康/生活方式/社会心理
Yeung (2013) 中国香港 财务/健康/社会生活/心理 是否 20

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由于国家、样本、研究目的和角度的不同, 自下而上的量表在内容、形式、题目数量等方面很难达成一致。考虑到已有量表对我国退休规划研究的应用价值, 这里重点介绍两个量表:退休规划过程量表(The Process of Retirement Planning Scale, PRePS)和退休规划问卷II (Retirement Planning Questionnaire, RPQII)。PRePS的开发者Noone等(2010)认为, 在PRePS之前的量表存在几点问题。首先, “是非”题型的量表缺乏区分度(Lee & Law, 2004; Petkoska & Earl, 2009; Yeung, 2013), 条目如“是否为退休进行了存款”测量不出资金的充足问题。第二, 不是所有量表都考虑到人们对日常活动规划的不同方式, 如有的人是通过媒体了解退休生活方式的信息, 有的人致力于发展兴趣爱好。第三, 心理规划的测量不全面, 还应包括对退休后积极变化的心理准备, 如成为祖辈享受天伦之乐, 参加义务劳动等。再有, 最重要的问题是缺乏引导退休规划测量的理论。至此, 他们以计划过程理论为基础开发了退休规划过程量表PRePS。该量表采用李克特5点计分法, 共52个条目, 涵盖从退休表征、退休目标、决定为退休做准备到退休规划这四个阶段, 评估了财务、健康、生活方式和心理社会规划四个领域。PRePS不仅解决了以上提出的问题, 还可用于确定不同群体致力于规划的哪个阶段, 从而有利于退休干预的精准实施。但它在某些分量表上的信度较低(生活方式规划:α = 0.67; 健康规划:α = 0.65; 退休决策:α= 0.52-0.66), 未来研究还需要优化相关条目。此外, PRePS仍没有考虑到国家对于个体退休生活的保障程度, 从养老金到医疗保障, 再到基础设施建设。虽然退休规划指的是个体行为, 但国家政策保障是个人规划的前提基础, 在跨情境的测量中不能忽视。Muratore和Earl (2010)在这一点上进行了改善。

Muratore和Earl (2010)借鉴反身生活规划模型(reflexive life planning model)开发了退休规划问卷II (Retirement Planning Questionnaire, RPQII)。反身生活规划是为了个体更好地应对后期生活中日益增加的社会风险和金融风险所做的准备(Giddens, 1991)。Denton等(2004)利用这一概念模型提出三种后期生活规划方式:公共保护(public protection)、自办保险(self-insurance)和自我保护(self-protection)。在RPQII中, 它们作为三个维度分别表示:由被试评估政府福利、个人财务准备和个人非财务准备。该量表共29个条目, 例如“健康生活方式”、“生活成本”、“娱乐活动”等。采用李克特5点计分, 从“1”代表“投入很少努力”到“5”代表“投入很多努力”, 三维度信度分别为0.85、0.88和0.80。RPQII作为一个在线调查工具, 在全国性普查上具有成本效益, 能有效测量多领域的规划行为, 且它还测量了政府在退休规划上的责任, 有利于在不同国家进行推广。未来研究可以检验此量表在中国情境下的适用性。

5 退休规划的影响因素及影响效应

个体是否参与退休规划以及规划水平受到主观、客观、心理、环境等多种因素影响。回顾该领域的研究, 目前可以将退休规划的影响因素分为三个层面, 即人口学变量、环境变量和心理变量。

5.1 影响退休规划的相关因素

5.1.1 人口学变量

在以往关于退休规划前因变量的研究中, 人口学变量(性别、年龄、教育程度、收入水平、健康状况)最先得到关注。

(1)性别。很多研究发现, 女性在退休规划水平上显著低于男性(Glass & Kilpatrick, 1998; Heraty & McCarthy, 2015; Moen, Sweet, & Swisher, 2005; Noone et al., 2010), 且女性倾向于将自己的退休计划活动与其丈夫的退休计划活动结合在一起(Moen et al., 2005)。进一步讲, 男性较之女性更倾向于参与财务规划, 女性则侧重在健康、居住和心理领域的规划(Lee, 2003)。此外, 在活动上的规划也存在性别差异, 但研究结果存在矛盾, 如Petkoska和Earl (2009)发现, 女性更倾向于规划人际或休闲活动, 但Hunter等人(2007)的结果是, 男性在过渡型就业、爱好、社会俱乐部方面的计划水平更高。研究者们试图从资源和心理机制角度来解释这样的性别差异, 有可能与社会经济地位、寿命因素有关, 也可能与风险承受能力、对退休的认知等心理机制有关(Gurd & Or, 2011; Noone et al., 2010)。

(2)年龄。随着年龄增长和退休的迫近, 人们会更加广泛关注退休规划, 在不同领域的参与度也更高(Petkoska & Earl, 2009)。研究显示年轻员工主要参与财务规划, 但年轻人如何看待财务规划却有不同的研究结果。Phua和McNally (2008)认为, 年轻男性觉得为退休进行储蓄将与当前其他消费活动产生冲突, 因此相较于年长员工参与财务规划较少。但Moorthy等人(2012)认为, 年龄在26~35岁的员工对于退休规划有更好的认知, 他们很清楚提早规划有很多优势和好处, 有利于在退休生活中追求目标和梦想。Heraty和McCarthy (2015)的研究结果证实, 并非是更接近退休的人参与财务规划更多, 它会受到个体观念及受教育程度、组织与国家政策的影响。

(3)婚姻状况。在婚姻状况对退休规划的影响上, 研究者们有不同的看法。一些研究发现, 已婚人士对退休规划的参与度更高(Anderson et al., 2000; Glass & Kilpatrick, 1998), 如已婚女性在退休储蓄水平上远高于离婚或未婚女性(Glass & Kilpatrick, 1998)。但很多研究并没有发现婚姻状况与退休规划有显著相关, 尤其是在财务规划领域(Gurd & Or, 2011; Lee, 2003; Noone et al., 2009; Reitzes & Mutran, 2004)。Kemp等(2005)认为, 婚姻状况对于退休规划可以是一个促进因素, 也可以是一个抑制因素。

(4)教育程度。受教育程度高的人更可能参与财务规划(Gurd & Or, 2011; Jung, 2011; Moorthy et al., 2012), 这与他们拥有更多的资金和信息资源有关。并且, Dendinger, Adams和Jacobson (2005)认为受教育程度高的中老年群体更有可能有代际关怀(generativity)的需要, 愿意将知识、想法和价值观传递给下一代, 所以会表现出更多的工作规划。也正因为受教育高的年长者往往有突出的工作能力, 在退休后才能够获得更多的就业机会(Griffin & Hesketh, 2008)。Petkoska和Earl (2009)发现, 这一群体还有较高的健康规划水平, 更多知识和信息的获取使得他们能够了解退休规划的重要性。

(5)收入水平。一般认为, 收入水平高的个体会参与更多的财务规划(Gurd & Or, 2011; Jung, 2011; Moorthy et al., 2012; Petkoska & Earl, 2009), 收入作为一种经济来源可以为个体提供更多的选择。如, Gurd和Or (2011)认为, 收入水平高和受教育程度高有关, 除了在退休信息的可得性上占有优势外, 在过渡型就业问题上将不受物质需求的限制。这一解释也符合Petkoska和Earl (2009)的研究发现, 即降低一个人的收入, 他更有可能会计划在退休后工作。此外, 研究者认为一些心理变量如退休目标清晰度, 会在收入和规划活动水平间起中介作用(Hershey et al., 2007)。

(6)健康状况。健康作为一种个人资源, 能够保障个体在退休后扮演更多的角色和参与更多活动(Reitzes & Mutran, 2004)。以往很少有研究把健康因素作为退休规划的前因变量, 但身体健康的个体会对退休持有更积极的态度, 根据计划行为理论, 积极的态度可以促进人们参与退休规划(Griffin, Loe, & Hesketh, 2012)。然而也有研究发现, 恰恰是健康状况良好的个体却很少会谈论和思考退休(Kosloski, Ekerdt, & DeViney, 2001), 这可能与个体的自我认知和对退休的认知有关。所以, 个体如何看待自身的健康状况, 这其中的心理机制才是关键。

5.1.2 环境变量

环境因素主要可以分为家庭因素、工作与组织因素和社会因素。

(1)家庭因素。由于大多退休规划行为发生于中年期, 而这一时期的人还要承担很多家庭责任, 如来自子女、配偶、父母的问题, 这些都可能会影响其退休规划的参与程度。在Glass和Flynn (2000)的调查中发现, “是否在退休时与子女同住”将影响被试的活动规划。夫妻关系更亲密的人倾向于参与更多的退休规划, 而成为祖辈这一身份的转变也与提早退休正相关(Hochman & Lewin- Epstein, 2013)。这说明在退休时与谁一起生活、关系质量如何都是人们在退休规划时考虑的因素, 夫妻关系和睦或者在退休时可以享受天伦之乐将有利于人们更积极地进行退休规划, 但如果子女因为离异或经济等原因不得不返回家中居住, 即将退休的父母会承担更多的经济或心理压力, 同样如果有需要赡养的父母, 尤其是病重的父母, 这会影响他们参与财务规划。除财务规划外, 在工作规划上, 家庭支持起中介作用。Wöhrmann, Deller和Wang (2014)发现, 个人即便有退休再工作的意愿, 如果其家人出于健康或安全的考虑表示不赞同, 也会影响其最终决定。

(2)工作与组织因素。在工作与组织层面上, 研究者主要关注财务规划与工作规划这两个领域。当组织为员工提供退休规划辅导或研讨会时, 员工会因财务知识的获得而更多地参与财务规划(Hershey et al., 2003)。除了组织提供的培训和辅导, 来自同事和组织的社会支持也得到研究者们的关注, 但其是否直接促进了员工的退休规划尚未形成一致结论。有研究者认为, 来自组织的社会支持将提高员工的退休目标清晰度, 从而促进其参与退休规划(Humphrey, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007)。但在Froidevaux, Hirschi和Wang (2016)的研究中, 并没有发现社会支持与退休规划有直接相关, 他们认为社会支持提高了自我重要性, 但自我重要性一方面提高了行为的动机, 另一方面也提高了一个人对生活和未来的自信, 这样即使不做退休规划, 个体依然认为自己的存在对周围的世界有价值。Wöhrmann等人(2013)同样发现, 社会支持仅是通过提高员工对退休后的工作期望从而间接影响其退休工作规划的参与。

(3)社会因素。在考察宏观社会因素上, 心理学远不及经济学和社会学领域已获得的研究成果。但也有心理学研究对比了美国和荷兰的养老金机制发现, 在美国, 特别是年轻人, 由于缺乏对联邦政府的信任, 他们在财务规划上会更加积极(Hershey et al., 2010)。中国学者游文峰、庄伟和周郑屹(2009)通过计算发现, 即使是平时收入5倍于社会平均工资的人, 其退休后如果没有自己的退休规划, 仅靠养老金是难以维持原有生活水平的。除社会保障体系外, Gurd和Or (2011)调查了亚洲文化价值(养儿防老、风水、命运、运气等)对退休规划的影响, 他们发现新加坡人重视“风水”在退休规划中的作用。我国养儿防老的观念自古有之, 然而受独生子女政策和劳动力市场现状的影响, 退休父母将会呈现一些特有现象, 如空巢老人、大城市养老(吴要武, 2013)等。可以预想, 社会保障系统、国家政策、劳动力市场现状、文化氛围等宏观因素不仅影响人们的退休规划行为, 还会影响人们对退休的心理感受和态度, 在退休过渡和退休适应阶段同样发挥重要作用。另外, 研究者应关注在我国特有的国情下, 退休人员对于不同退休规划领域的需求和参与现状, 不仅需要挖掘其中的心理机制还要考虑可行的干预措施。

5.1.3 心理变量

除上述的外在影响变量外, 心理学家更加关注退休规划中的心理机制。Hershey等(2007)对心理影响因素进行了分类, 包括人格因素、认知因素和动机因素。虽然这一分类建立在财务规划的基础上, 但不可否认财务规划是退休规划最主要的领域, 且以往大多研究也只是对财务规划和工作规划的心理变量进行单独讨论, 目前这一分类还是比较合理可行的。

(1)人格因素。人格因素主要包括时间观、时间折扣、控制感和主动型人格这几个因素。由于退休规划在大多数情况下是一个未来导向的事件, 未来时间观(future time perspective, FTP)这一因素得到很多研究者的关注(Hershey et al., 2007; Petkoska & Earl, 2009; Yang & Devaney, 2011; Earl, Bednall, & Muratore, 2015)。在未来时间观分量表中得分高的人更加注重未来目标和收益以及现在的行为是否会影响将来的问题。研究者们认为, 一旦在未来时间观与退休规划之间找到正相关或预测倾向, 就可以以此鼓励持有其他时间观的人改变自己现有的观念从而促进退休规划。然而Earl等人(2015)的实证研究提出, 时间观是一个稳定的特质, 与其挑战“重置心理时钟”, 不如深入了解现有的时间观如何作用于退休规划并充分利用。再有, 如果将时间和未来收益结合则会产生时间折扣(time discount)这一概念, 它是指个体对延时得到的收益的主观低估倾向。对于时间折扣水平高的人来说, 因关注于当前利益, 他们不太倾向于为退休进行储蓄(Griffin, Loe et al., 2012)。除了时间观之外, 控制感在财务规划中的积极作用也得到一些研究的证实(Hira, Rock, & Loibl, 2009; Griffin & Hesketh, 2008)。这里的控制感(mastery)指的是个体感觉到的对自身生活的控制程度。高控制感水平的个体能够表现出更多的退休储蓄活动。此外, Griffin, Loe等(2012)发现, 主动性人格与工作规划和财务规划也有正相关。

(2)认知因素。认知因素包括个体所具备的相关知识、对退休规划的认知、对退休前工作的认知评价等。个体所具备的财务知识对退休规划的正向预测作用已经被很多研究者证实(Almenberg & Säve-Söderbergh, 2011; Bucher-Koenen & Lusardi, 2011; Hershey et al., 2007; van Rooij, Lusardi, & Alessie, 2011)。值得注意的是, 这些研究被试虽然来自不同国家, 但财务知识水平低的往往是低受教育水平的老年女性。因此, 我们有充分的理由推广金融与财务知识的普及, 尤其是在弱势群体中。另外, 最近的一项研究结果表明, 个体对退休规划的元认知也会影响财务规划活动的参与(Kiso & Hershey, 2017)。换言之, 员工在进行财务规划时可能会因为有限的知识面临认知困难, 而个体对这种认知困难的消极感知与财务规划活动的参与呈负相关。除财务规划领域外, 员工对退休前工作的评价将影响其工作规划, 如个体对当前工作产生倦怠, 将不太可能萌生退休后有偿或义务工作的意愿(Griffin & Hesketh, 2008)。有趣的是, 如果员工认为自己的工作超负荷, 结果却完全相反。映像理论对此的解释是, 评价为超负荷的人往往具有主动性行为方式, 这样的人在一定程度上有“工作狂”的倾向, 并且注重自己作为一个忙碌者的自我映像, 所以在未来退休生活中也会有更高水平的活动承诺。这给我们的启示是, 将某个理论迁移到退休规划领域时, 可能某一研究变量并没有达到预期, 这时候不必急于否定该理论, 而是应尝试理解变量的实际意义并寻找其相关变量。

(3)动机因素。Hershey等人(2007)提出, 动机因素包括退休目标清晰度、个人价值观和自我信念等。其中, 目标清晰度对于退休规划的正向预测作用已经被很多研究证实(Moorthy et al., 2012), 且在计划过程理论中, 目标的设立是计划形成前的必要一环。在自我信念上, 自信对于财务规划的预测能力甚至超过一个人实际具备的知识(Parker, de Bruin, Yoong, & Willis, 2012)。除此之外, 研究者也关注个体对“老龄化”的自我认知(self-perceptions of aging)对退休规划的影响。对老龄化的结果持消极认知, 持续意识到自己正在老去的人, 更可能参与私人退休金计划(Heraty & McCarthy, 2015)。

相比较人口学变量, 探讨心理因素有助于更细微地理解退休规划本身如何被个体内化(Heraty & McCarthy, 2015)。比如, 将年龄转换为主观寿命这一心理因素后, 我们可以更好地理解退休规划行为产生的原因。主观寿命(subjective life expectancy, SLE)是个体通过评估自身心态、健康状况和生活状态后, 对自己的寿命长短的预估。Griffin, Hesketh和Loh (2012)基于社会情绪选择理论发现, 主观寿命更长的人倾向于选择面向未来的信息并确定目标, 比如参与更多的工作规划。

综上, 我们分类总结了影响退休规划的前因变量, 但影响这一行为的因素很复杂, 不可能用单一的变量或视角诠释所有。比如Hershey, Jacobs -Lawson, McArdle和Hamagami (2007)提出的财务规划模型就是一个复杂多维度的模型。并且, 不同规划领域存在自己一系列独特的变量(Petkoska & Earl, 2009), 这就要求研究者们更加聚焦于退休规划的某个领域进行研究。虽然这些影响变量可能来自不同类别, 但它们往往协同发生, 研究者们还应关注这些影响因素的累积作用。

5.2 退休规划的影响效应

从退休规划的目的和退休的过程来看, 研究者们非常关心退休规划对接下来的退休阶段的影响, 即过渡型就业与退休转换和退休适应(Shultz & Wang, 2011; Wang & Shultz, 2010)。研究者们普遍认同将退休分为三个阶段, 包括:退休前的退休规划; 退休转换(退休过渡, retirement transition)阶段, 关注个体如何退休和改变; 退休适应(retirement adjustment)阶段, 是指退休员工对退休后的生活环境进行适应的过程。此外, 退休规划对于个体健康、退休时间也会产生影响。

5.2.1 过渡型就业

西方国家由于经济衰退和老龄化问题导致人才缺失严重, 许多组织在退休政策中会与即将退休的员工签订“返聘”合同以维持市场竞争力, 同时降低人才流动产生的成本。过渡型就业本身对个人、组织和社会有诸多好处。它为退休员工提供了时间分配结构和额外的收入, 并且与心理健康和退休适应有关。组织和社会也可以从中获得巨大的经济效益。现有证据表明, 健康、财富、性别、退休前工作压力等因素确实会影响退休后工作的选择(Davis, 2003; Griffin & Hesketh, 2008; Kim & Feldman, 2000)。

那么, 退休规划对这一阶段是否有影响呢?Topa等人(2009)采用元分析发现了退休规划对过渡型就业的促进作用, 他们猜测退休规划可以明确退休目标, 比如从事过渡型就业。然而Wang等(2008)发现, 较少考虑退休的员工更倾向于从事过渡型就业。这可能与退休前的工作满意度有关, 用连续性理论可以解释, 那些退休规划少的个体为了在退休后保持连续性, 会努力避免工作角色的缺失, 因而更可能参与过渡型就业。事实上, 很少有研究关注退休规划对过渡型就业结果变量的影响。这可能是因为退休规划的研究主要集中在财务规划上, 虽然后续一些学者关注到工作规划, 但影响个体是否参与过渡型就业的因素复杂, 且随着时间的推移, 很难在动态情景中找到两者的直接关系。综上, 退休规划与过渡型就业之间的关系尚不明确, 但Maestas (2010)发现, 退休后与工作相关的活动通常都是在退休前做的决定, 后续研究可以关注退休规划中的目标设定与工作规划对过渡型就业的影响。

5.2.2 退休转换和退休适应

Wang和Shultz (2010)在总结了有关退休过渡和退休适应的文献后提出, 资源理论作为一个具有较高普适性的理论可以指导今后该领域的研究。Muratore和Earl (2015)通过实证研究证实了该建议的价值, 他们基于资源理论以及动态视角建立了退休三阶段的理论模型并检验了退休规划对于退休转换和退休适应的作用。在他们的研究中, 退休转换由控制、困难和准备组成, 并且基于前人研究(Donaldson, Earl, & Muratore, 2010; Wong & Earl, 2009)将三者合并为退出条件(exit condition)这一变量。结果表明, 退休结果可以通过退休规划来优化退出条件并建立关键资源加以改善。但他们并没有验证出规划和适应之间的直接关系。

再有, 通常退休适应的指标包括幸福感、退休满意度、生活满意度等(Gall, Evans, & Howard, 1997)。退休满意度从退休规划早期研究开始就是其重要的结果变量(Dorfman, 1989), 但退休满意度并非与退休规划中所有领域都有正相关。如休闲活动规划太多可能会带来心理困扰(Yeung, 2013), 其原因可能是个体在退休前没有长期的爱好, 在退休时培养的爱好并不是出于个体主动或者适合个体的。幸福感、生活满意度、退休满意度是很宽泛的心理舒适度变量, 我们可以从中析出很多中介变量和调节变量来更好地了解退休的动态变化。例如, 横向和纵向研究都证明了退休规划在维持心理健康、对退休的积极态度、更低的焦虑水平上有积极作用(Reitzes & Mutran, 2004; Topa et al., 2009; Wang, 2007)。综上, 将退休规划放在整个退休过程进行研究是目前的趋势。

5.2.3 健康状况和退休时间

除了退休后活动和心理舒适度变量之外, 个体退休后的健康状况也可能与退休规划相关。Gubler和Pierce (2014)发现, 个体在退休前积极进行财务规划与未来的健康改善高度相关。这说明健康状况差与财务状况不佳可能由同样的潜在心理变量所驱动, 这些变量就和贴现特质一样很难改变且可以在多个维度上预测个体的长期行为。换句话说, 这样的跨时期选择问题是会复现在同一个人身上的, 如果我们可以识别这样的群体, 在退休规划上甚至其他领域就可以做到精准辅助, 这将是相关辅导机构需要考虑的。

此外, 退休规划对退休时间也会产生影响。有研究认为, 为退休做过计划和准备好退休的人更可能较早地离开工作领域(Taylor & Shore, 1995)。然而我国刚刚实行延迟退休政策, 人力资本质量及水平不同的各类人员在退休决策上有很大的不平衡(邹铁钉, 叶航, 2015), 如建筑工人等体力劳动者就要比大学教授、外科医生以及科研工作者承担更大的风险和经济的不自由。所以, 退休时间的问题首先要排除经济因素才能够成为个人意愿的选择。

6 评价与研究展望

6.1 退休规划未来研究的重要议题

退休生活通常可以占到人生时间的1/4到1/3, 是人们在辛勤劳作后终于可以享受生活的时光。为了保障晚年生活的幸福, 退休人员不能够仅仅依靠社会养老保障和子女, 必须主动出击提前为退休生活作出规划。尤其是在我国人口老龄化日益严重的趋势下, 要想实现十九大报告描绘的老有所养、老有所依、老有所乐、老有所安, 让老年人更有获得感、幸福感、安全感的宏伟蓝图, 加强个体在退休前的规划意识, 增加其规划行为也是重要一环。退休规划作为退休前阶段的主要活动, 可以缓冲过渡阶段产生的幸福感剧变, 可以积累相关资源, 有助于保障退休后的健康和满意度(Muratore & Earl, 2015)。然而现阶段我国有关退休的研究尚处于起步阶段, 总结以往有关退休规划的研究后, 我们认为, 可以从以下几方面开展相关研究工作。

第一, 退休规划的时间问题。有关退休规划发生的时间, 以往大多数研究认为退休规划是退休前这一阶段的活动, 但事实上退休规划在退休后也会持续(Donaldson et al., 2010), 尤其是面对退休概念和环境的快速变化, 很多因素都是未知的。另外, Ekerdt (2004)提出, 退休不再仅仅是下半生需要关注的事, 特别是在资产累积上, 越早规划压力越小。而且在不同的生活阶段, 退休规划的重点也会有很大差异(Phua & McNally, 2008)。越是到后期, 社交规划、心理规划和健康规划的作用越明显。所以, 还应进一步考察退休规划的概念, 以及在不同年龄段的规划重点。

第二, 退休规划的具体领域研究和测量工具的开发。为了明确退休规划不同领域的联系与差异, 在退休规划的内容和测量上, 未来研究应该遵循过去的单独研究(Petkoska & Earl, 2009)与系统性研究(Muratore & Earl, 2015)并举的策略。一方面, 需要单独研究不同领域的特殊性并开发特定的测量工具, 比如工作规划对过渡型就业的影响, 心理规划对退休适应的影响等。另一方面, 还应全面系统地研究6个方面的退休规划内容, 考察不同规划领域的相互关系并开发统一的、适应跨文化的一般退休规划测量工具。从以往研究来看, 不同国家在退休规划领域上的侧重有所不同, 如中国香港格外关注女性在财务和居住方面的规划(Jung, 2011; Lee, 2003), 美国格外关注乡村人民的财务规划(Dorfman, 1989; Glass & Flynn, 2000), 德国格外关注工作规划等(Wöhrmann et al., 2013; 2014)。不同国家的退休规划很多时候会呈现出“别具一格”的影响因素、内容形式、过程与结果, 我国需要结合自身特有的国情和现阶段“不平衡不充分发展”的特点探究不同规划领域的制约因素, 并开发适应本土的测量工具。从时间紧迫性来看, 系统性研究更能尽快了解我国不同地域、不同工种、不同性别的中老年员工的规划现状, 从而能够有的放矢地采取措施和应对方案。

第三, 理论的鉴别和整合。以往无论在工具的开发还是实证研究的开展上, 所依据的理论视角众多, 各有利弊。如角色理论有很强的解释力, 但在操作化和开展实证研究上则不太容易。而资源理论和生态系统理论能够整合不同层面的因素对退休规划进行全面动态地了解, 但这也给研究的具体操作带来一定的难度。计划过程理论聚焦在规划过程本身, 忽视了个体心理机制和人与环境的交互作用, 但它可以表征出个体的规划程度, 在工具开发上有很大优势。所以, 理论视角的选择还应建立在具体研究问题上, 或者开展对比研究、整合研究。

第四, 退休规划影响因素的研究。关于退休规划的影响因素, 以往研究也颇有成果, 我国除了验证和创新有关前因变量的研究外, 还应格外关注女性、低收入、受教育水平低、非城镇户口、未参加养老保险、赶上“下岗潮”或“延迟退休”、失独丧偶等类群体在退休规划上的限制因素, 这也是科研工作者为更精准更全面地补齐民生“短板”, 在弱有所扶上能够做出的贡献。

第五, 退休规划影响效应的研究。对于退休规划结果变量的研究不足。首先, 仍然需要更多的纵向研究证实退休规划对退休后生活的长期与短期影响(Wang & Shultz, 2010)。虽然有研究(Muratore & Earl, 2015)验证过退休规划在退休过渡和退休适应阶段的直接和间接作用, 但其样本是高收入、高技能群体, 其背景是在发达国家, 可推广性差。其次, 在结果变量的选取上不仅应增加更多的客观指标, 如健康状况, 还要更加精准。现有的结果因素(如幸福感、满意度)因为概念宽泛在退休变化的反应上不够灵敏, 如退休不满意可能由多种因素引起。最后, 以往在结果变量的研究结果中存在大量的矛盾和争议之处(Donaldson et al., 2010; Muratore & Earl, 2010; Petkoska & Earl, 2009; Topa et al., 2009), 未来研究要谨慎地选择更容易取得统一结论的理论基础、研究问题、研究工具和研究设计。

6.2 中国情境下的退休规划研究

鉴于退休规划的社会生态模型的启示, 众多社会、政治、经济、文化、组织等因素会影响退休规划的过程与结果, 立足国情开展中国式的退休规划研究十分重要。除了上述几点, 还有一些方面需要注意。

首先, 也是最重要的问题, 我国现阶段中老年人的受教育水平低, 人们意识不到退休规划的重要性。2010年第六次人口普查数据显示, 60~64岁组和65岁及以上组老年人口受教育水平以小学及以下为主, 比例超过2/3 (张航空, 2016)。因不具备相关金融知识和缺乏指导, 当退休真正到来时,资金不足、心理障碍、生活单调等问题接踵而来, 再去解决已为时已晚。知识的普及和信息的传播应首先引起各方重视。再有, 在我国的传统文化中, “老有所养, 老有所依”的观念使得子女在退休规划中同样扮演重要角色。然而, 计划生育政策实施以来, 截止2011年, 我国大约形成近1.5亿个独生子女家庭(向德平, 周晶, 2015)。在我国全面建成小康社会的决胜期和老龄化社会的大环境下, 独生子女需要承担着来自社会和家庭的双倍的责任, 旧的养老模式已经不能适应社会发展的需要。个体应该改变观念, 积极参与退休规划, 特别是人际与休闲规划、工作规划、心理规划等。

其次, 中国人口老龄化是在经济社会发展水平尚不发达时到来的, 属于典型的“未富先老”, 尚未形成相对成熟的经济社会条件以应对老龄化社会的挑战(范煜, 陈云, 2017), 但在现有养老保障体系结构调整的趋势下, 个体将承担更大的责任。一方面, 积极主动的财务规划可以有效保障个体退休后的资金充足问题。另一方面, 工作规划也有利于老年人口的就业需求和可持续生计, 但开发老年人力资源将增加就业的总量压力, 需要新的适合老年人口的就业岗位和途径。此外, 我国农村老人数量庞大, 相较于城镇地区, 空巢老人、社会保障制度不完善、老龄化速度加快、未富先老等问题更突出更严重(李越, 崔红志, 2014)。同时, 自我保障是我国农村老年保障实践中最主要的方式, 但这种方式也面临着经济自养能力不足、日常生活照料自理困难以及情感自抚不易等困境(黄闯, 2015)。所以, 未来研究不仅应该继续以往有关退休规划的概念、理论、内容、测量、影响因素的研究, 还更应该据此提出更切合实际的干预方案并对组织、社会、国家提出科学合理的意见。比如, 欧洲最近的一项研究关注到一类特殊人群(被迫自营职业者)在退休财务规划上表现出劣势, 其讨论的重点就是改变现有的不利体制和公共政策(Hershey, van Danlen, Conen, & Henkens, 2017)。

最后, 一些国家已有专门针对退休财务管理的干预机构、退休前教育和专题讨论会等, 可为个人或组织提供知识与信息、具体的目标设定和心理准备等。我国养老资产管理行业发展空间巨大, 应设立退休前教育机构和金融管理指导机构, 增加养老服务人员, 营造退休再就业、创业文化氛围等(Froidevaux et al., 2016; Hershey et al., 2003; Heraty & McCarthy, 2015; Leandro-França et al., 2016; Lee & Law, 2004)。

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文章主要以社会福利最大化为基 本前提,假定社会福利最大化条件下的退休年龄为最优平均退休年龄,通过建立人口年龄结构变动下的最优退休年龄动态模型,以陕西省人口数据和养老保险相关数 据为基础,测算了社会福利最大化条件下的陕西省最优平均退休年龄。得出结论:满足社会福利最大化时,陕西省最优平均退休年龄将会从2010年的58.4 岁,逐步提高到2020年的59.6岁,进而提高到2030年的61.3岁。

邹铁钉, 叶航 . ( 2015).

普遍延迟退休还是分类延迟退休——基于养老金亏空与劳动力市场的联动效应视角

.财贸经济, ( 4), 134-145.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本文从养老金亏空与劳动力市场的联动效应出发,为延迟退休方案的选择机制构建了一个数理模型,并对分类延迟退休和普遍延迟退休的经济效率和政治可行性进行了模拟分析。研究结果表明,延迟退休时间的长短和延迟退休的类型到底该如何选择,取决于养老金亏空降解效果的好坏、就业挤出效应的大小以及政治可行性的高低。从延迟退休的政策效果来看,轻度延迟退休要好于深度延迟退休,分类延迟退休要好于普遍延迟退休。而参保者的人力资本状况及其个体差异性所带来的工资率和工作成就感的差异则是政策效果不一致性的根本原因。根据人力资本积累规律和劳动力供求情况分类延迟参保者的退休时间,会取得更好的养老金亏空降解效果,对新增劳动力的就业冲击也会更少。然而,要想切实提高延迟退休的政策效果,还得依赖于人力资本状况的改善。强化参保者尤其是低劳动技能者的职业培训和学历教育,是化解养老金亏空危机和缓解社会就业压力的必由之路。

Adams G.A., & Rau, B.L . ( 2011).

Putting off tomorrow to do what you want today: Planning for retirement

.American Psychologist, 66( 3), 180-192.

URL     PMID:21341881      [本文引用: 3]

In this article we note that in the coming years, a larger number of people will be experiencing retirement for a longer period of time than ever before and that despite this fact, many will find themselves unprepared for this stage of their lives. We review the literature on retirement preparation, structuring our review around the key questions that need to be addressed when planning for retirement: (a) What will I do? (b) How will I afford it? (c) Where will I live? and (d) Who will I share it with? We make a number of suggestions for research and practice. We conclude that although psychology has begun to play a role in understanding and addressing retirement preparation, there are considerable opportunities for psychologists to engage with this issue in their research and applied work.

Aiken, L. ( 2002).

Attitudes and related psychosocial constructs: Theories, assessment, and research.

Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage Publications.

[本文引用: 1]

Almenberg J. & Säve-Söderbergh, J. ( 2011).

Financial literacy and retirement planning in Sweden

.Journal of Pension Economics & Finance, 10( 4), 585-598.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We use data from the Swedish Financial Supervisory 2010 consumer survey to look at levels of financial literacy and retirement planning in the Swedish population. The results indicate that many adults have low financial literacy. In general, financial literacy levels are lower among the young, the old, women and those with low income or low educational attainment. People who report having tried to plan for retirement have higher levels of financial literacy. In particular, an understanding of risk diversification is strongly correlated with planning for retirement. We relate our findings to features of the Swedish pension system.

Anderson M., Li Y., Bechhofer F., McCrone D., & Stewart R . ( 2000).

Sooner rather than later? Younger and middle-aged adults preparing for retirement

.Ageing & Society, 20( 4), 445-466.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The contribution made by informal carers to the provision of care in the community in the UK is formally acknowledged in the 1995 Carers (Recognition and Services) Act. This legislation has focused attention, once again, on the relationship between formal services and those providing informal care. The Act has re-created a lack of clarity about the position carers hold in the carer dyad. Findings are presented here from an exploratory study about the experience of dementia. This seeks to examine the realities of caring for a relative with dementia in the context of three particular aspects of the caring activities which relate to role ambiguity: the needs of carers, their relationship with formal services and their position as being experienced and skilled in the care of their relatives.

Atchley R.C . ( 1976).

Selected social and psychological differences between men and women in later life

.Journal of Gerontology, 31( 2), 204-211.

URL     PMID:1249411      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Older men and women (3630) were examined for sex differences in selected social and psychological characteristics. Compared to older men, older women were found to be as work-oriented and more likely to take a long time adjusting to retirement. Older women were more likely to report "negative" psychological symptoms, while older men were more likely to see changes in social participation. Implications of the findings for current theories are discussed.

Bronfenbrenner, U. ( 1979).

The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design

.American Psychologist, 32, 513-531.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT To understand the way children develop, Bronfenbrenner believes that it is necessary to observe their behavior in natural settings, while they are interacting with familiar adults over prolonged periods of time. His book offers an important blueprint for constructing a new and ecologically valid psychology of development.

Bucher-Koenen T. & Lusardi, A. ( 2011).

Financial literacy and retirement planning in Germany

.Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, 10( 4), 565-584.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We examine financial literacy in Germany using data from the SAVE survey. We find that knowledge of basic financial concepts is lacking among women, the less educated, and those living in East Germany. In particular, those with low education and low income in East Germany have low financial literacy compared to their West German counterparts. Interestingly, there is no gender disparity in financial knowledge in the East. In order to investigate the nexus of causality between financial literacy and retirement planning, we develop an instrumental variables strategy by making use of regional variation in the financial knowledge of peers. We find a positive impact of financial knowledge on retirement planning.

Davis M.A . ( 2003).

Factors related to bridge employment participation among private sector early retirees

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63( 1), 55-71.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Many retirees choose to participate in some form of bridge employment—part time, self-employment or temporary work that follows an individual’s long-term or career job and precedes permanent retirement ( Feldman, 1994). In this study, correlates of bridge employment participation were examined using a sample of 133 early retirees from an oil and gas services firm. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that organizational tenure, certainty of retirement plans, and career-related pull factors accounted for a significant portion of the variance in overall participation in bridge employment after controlling for the effects of age, gender, and marital status. At the same time, the significance of organizational tenure, career-related pull factors, and entrepreneurial orientation, varied as a function of the category of bridge work performed by retirees, that is, whether retirees were employed within the same industry or a different industry. Differences between these results and those of previous studies using public sector employees are discussed.

Davis G.D . ( 2007).

From worker to retiree: A validation study of a psychological retirement planning measure (Unpublished doctorial dissertation)

Bowling Green State University.

[本文引用: 2]

De Vaus D., & Wells, Y. ( 2004).

What should mature-age workers do to promote health and wellbeing in retirement? Health Issues, 80, 23-26

[本文引用: 1]

Dendinger V. M., Adams G. A., & Jacobson J. D . ( 2005).

Reasons for working and their relationship to retirement attitudes, job satisfaction and occupational self-efficacy of bridge employees

.The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 61( 1), 21-35.

URL     PMID:16060331      [本文引用: 1]

Although the Baby Boomers are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and they are quickly approaching retirement age, research has widely neglected to look at the reasons as to why many of them intend on opting for bridge employment as opposed to completely retiring. This study examined the relationships among four reasons for working (social, personal, financial, and generative) and three attitudinal responses to bridge employment (job satisfaction, retirement attitudes, and occupational self-efficacy). In a sample of 108 recent retirees holding bridge employment positions, it was found that generativity served as a reliable predictor of job satisfaction and attitudes toward retirement, whereas the social reason for work was only a reliable predictor of attitudes toward retirement.

Donaldson T., Earl J. K., & Muratore A. M . ( 2010).

Extending the integrated model of retirement adjustment: Incorporating mastery and retirement planning

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77( 2), 279-289.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Extending earlier research, this study explores individual (e.g. demographic and health characteristics), psychosocial (e.g. mastery and planning) and organizational factors (e.g. conditions of workforce exit) influencing retirement adjustment. Survey data were collected from 570 semi-retired and retired men and women aged 45 years and older. Findings suggest that higher income, and having better psychological and physical health accounted for better retirement adjustment. After controlling for the effects of demographics and health, a higher personal sense of mastery and more favorable conditions of exit significantly predicted adjustment to retirement. Pre-retirement planning was not related to retirement adjustment. However, analyses revealed that the effect of post-retirement planning on retirement adjustment was mediated by mastery. Practical implications for the design of interventions to promote mastery in later life and provide control over the transition from the workforce are discussed.

Dorfman L.T . ( 1989).

Retirement preparation and retirement satisfaction in the rural elderly

.Journal of Applied Gerontology, 8( 4), 432-450.

URL     [本文引用: 8]

ABSTRACT This study investigated preparation for retirement in the rural elderly and the relationship between that preparation and retirement satisfaction. A number of anticipatory socialization for retirement mechanisms were investigated including planning for retirement, preretirement education, gradual versus immediate retirement, discussion of retirement with others, and exposure to written information and mass media programs about retirement. Respondents were 252 men and 199 women who participated in the retirement substudy of an 8-year epidemiological investigation of persons aged 65 and over in two rural Iowa counties. Planning for retirement, reading about retirement, and exposure to radio or television programs about retirement were significant correlates of retirement satisfaction for both sexes. Gradual retirement was a significant correlate of retirement satisfaction for males only. After health, planning for retirement was the second strongest predictor of retirement satisfaction for males.

Earl J. K., Bednall T. C., & Muratore A. M . ( 2015).

A matter of time: Why some people plan for retirement and others do not

.Work, Aging and Retirement, 1( 2), 181-189.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract. This study explored time perspective (TP) as a predictor of retirement antecedents (retirement planning) and consequences (adjustment, well-being, an

Ekerdt D.J . ( 2004).

Born to retire: The foreshortened life course

.The Gerontologist, 44( 1), 3-9.

URL     PMID:14978315      [本文引用: 1]

Retirement is no longer a concern solely for the second half of life. Rather, the idea that we will someday retire is increasingly present to all adults and it is even urged on adolescents. The earliest reaches of adulthood are being colonized by frequent reminders that it takes individual effort to achieve retirement. The changing nature of pensions, the identification of retirement saving with financial markets, the politics of Social Security, the aging baby boom generation, and the interests of a powerful industry and of government are daily compelling people's attention to retirement as a lifelong goal. With retirement as adulthood's great project of deferred gratification, the result could be greater personal readiness to retire but also some ironic outcomes, such as a stronger retirement norm, reluctance to spend on children, and outsized expectations for later life.

Ekerdt D. J., Hackney J., Kosloski K., & DeViney S . ( 2001).

Eddies in the stream: The prevalence of uncertain plans for retirement

.The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56( 3), S162-S170.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Friedman S.L., & Scholnick, E.K . ( 1997).

The developmental psychology of planning: Why, how, and when do we plan? Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

[本文引用: 1]

Froidevaux A., Hirschi A., & Wang M . ( 2016).

The role of mattering as an overlooked key challenge in retirement planning and adjustment

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 94, 57-69.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

61Mattering plays an important role for retirement adjustment but not for planning.61Mattering explains older workers' positive impact of social support at work on life satisfaction.61Mattering explains retirees' positive impact of general social support on positive affect.61Caregiving activities do not predict mattering or retirement adjustment.

Gall T. L., Evans D. R., & Howard J . ( 1997).

The retirement adjustment process: Changes in the well-being of male retirees across time.

The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 52B(#3), 110-117.

URL     PMID:9158562      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The purpose of this prospective study was to (1) evaluate the impact of retirement, (2) monitor the change in adjustment across time, and (3) identify the resources predictive of short- and long-term adjustment in retirement. A sample of 117 male retirees was assessed on indices of physical and psychological health, perceived control, retirement satisfaction, and life satisfaction at 2-4 months preretirement, 1 year post-, and 6-7 years postretirement. The results provided support for a positive impact of retirement, as retirees evidenced increases in well-being during the first year. There was also evidence of a retirement adjustment process, in that aspects of well-being (i.e., psychological health) changed from short- to long-term retirement. Finally, physical health, income, and voluntary retirement status predicted short-term adjustment, while internal locus of control was an additional resource for long-term adjustment. Changes in resources over time also differentially predicted short- and long-term adjustment (e.g., an increase in internal locus of control predicted an increase in activity satisfaction at 1 year but not at 6-7 years postretirement).

Giddens, A. ( 1991).

Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age

. Stanford university press.

[本文引用: 1]

Glass, J. C., & Flynn, D.K . ( 2000).

Retirement needs and preparation of rural middle-aged persons

.Educational Gerontology, 26( 2), 109-134.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

Review of preretirement and retirement literature suggests that attention is placed on similarities of rural and urban persons in their retirement needs and concerns. The existing literature shows a lack of data on perceptions of future retirement needs and retirement actions implemented by rural middle-aged persons (45-64 years old). This study, conducted in three rural counties, had as its purpose to identify the following: (a) issues important in retirement for rural middle-aged persons; (b) preparation plans being made by rural middle-aged persons; (c) rural middle-aged persons perceptions of future needs regarding certain aspects of retirement; and (d) relationship of issues, plans, and perceptions to selected demographic variables. A number of relationships were found between issues identified as Important to Me and items labeled Actions I Have Taken. Study conclusions have implications for those concerned with preretirement education.

Glass J.C., & Kilpatrick, B.B . ( 1998).

Gender comparisons of baby boomers and financial preparation for retirement

.Educational Gerontology: An International Quarterly, 24( 8), 719-745.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

This study compared men and women, focusing on three middle ear age groups incorporating the baby boomers, in relation to the level of savings for retirement and the number of savings vehicles utilized. The research tapped into a study conducted by the National Center for Women and Retirement Research. Usable responses were received from 1,287 persons, 872 females and 415 males. Multiple linear regression identified certain personal characteristics, economic factors, psy hosocial factors, attitudes, and investing methods that appeared to be related to the level of savings for retirement. Certain personal characteristics, economics, and psychosocial factors were identified for the investments used. The identified factors were true for both genders, thus a profile of the person most likely to have a higher level of savings for retirement and likely to own investments emerged. The males best fit the savings and investing profiles. Neither gender was saving adequately for retirement or taking full advantage of portfolio diversification, with women the lowest. Recommendations are made, based on the findings, for educators, financial institutions and advisors, employers, and policy makers.

Griffin B. & Hesketh, B. ( 2008).

Post‐retirement work: The individual determinants of paid and volunteer work

.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81( 1), 101-121.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

This research investigates the prediction of post-retirement work. Unlike prior research, we examined both paid and volunteer post-retirement work, showing the similarities and differences in their prediction. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, a framework based on image theory was tested, which included evaluations of pre-retirement work, attitudes to retirement, behavioural style and demographics, and used to predict both intentions to work in retirement in a pre-retiree sample (N = 987) and actual work in retirement in a sample of retirees (N = 725). Both volunteer and paid post-retirement work were strongly related to people's evaluation of their pre-retirement work and for pre-retirees, a proactive style of behaviour was also predictive. However, gender, health and retirement satisfaction more related to volunteer work and education to paid work.

Griffin B., Hesketh B., & Loh V . ( 2012).

The influence of subjective life expectancy on retirement transition and planning: A longitudinal study

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81( 2), 129-137.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their retirement planning and decision making. Longitudinal data from 1908 participants showed that SLE measured at Time 1 predicted mature-aged workers' intended retirement age and the extent that they were engaged in retirement preparation 12 months later at Time 2. Furthermore, a shorter SLE at Time 1 increased the odds of actual retirement by Time 2 after controlling for a set of known predictors of retirement. In contrast, a longer SLE at Time 1 increased the odds that a Time 1 retiree had returned to paid work by Time 2. The discussion highlights ways in which SLE can inform financial and vocational counselling for late career decision-makers.

Griffin B., Loe D., & Hesketh B . ( 2012).

Using proactivity, time discounting, and the theory of planned behavior to identify predictors of retirement planning

.Educational Gerontology, 38( 12), 877-889.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This study developed and tested a model to identify the predictors of retirement planning based on an extension of the theory of planned behavior ([TPB], Ajzen, 1991) that included individual differences in proactivity and time discounting. The results showed that personal attitudes, sense of control, social influence, and stable traits have a significant influence on the extent to which late-career workers are engaged in retirement planning over and above the effect of demographic variables. However, some gender differences in the prediction of retirement planning were identified that have important implications for the design of programs and interventions to encourage planning.

Gubler T. & Pierce, L. ( 2014).

Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Retirement planning predicts employee health improvements

.Psychological Science, 25( 9), 1822-1830.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Gurd B. & Or, F. K.H . ( 2011).

Attitudes of Singaporean Chinese towards retirement planning

.Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies, 14( 4), 671-692.

URL     [本文引用: 8]

http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219091511002354

Heraty N. & McCarthy, J. ( 2015).

Unearthing psychological predictors of financial planning for retirement among late career older workers: Do self-perceptions of aging matter?

Work, Aging and Retirement, 1( 3), 274-283.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

Abstract. In this study, we explore psychological predictors of retirement planning behavior among late career older workers. Drawing on a sample of 1,946 olde

Hershey D. A., Henkens K., & Van Dalen H. P . ( 2010).

Aging and financial planning for retirement: Interdisciplinary influences viewed through a cross-cultural lens

.The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 70( 1), 1-38.

URL     PMID:20377164      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract Current theoretical models support the existence of interactions between the individual and socio-environmental forces when it comes to the formation and enactment of life plans (Friedman & Scholnick, 1997; Shanahan & Elder, 2002). In this investigation, we examine the social, economic, and psychological forces that impact financial planning for retirement. The collective force of these three broad sets of influences was examined from developmental and cross-cultural perspectives, among respondents from two countries with very different retirement financing systems. Participants were 419 American and 556 Dutch working adults, 25-64 years of age. Path analysis models were created to examine differences in planning associated with age and national origin. Compared to younger individuals, older respondents in both countries were more involved in nearly all aspects of the financial planning process. Differences across cultures were also observed in the social support mechanisms that underlie planning and the impact economic forces have on perceptions of saving adequacy. The discussion focuses on the value of developing interdisciplinary theoretical models of planning, and how such models can inform the development of savings-oriented intervention and public policy initiatives.

Hershey D. A., Jacobs-Lawson J. M., McArdle J. J., & Hamagami F . ( 2007).

Psychological foundations of financial planning for retirement

.Journal of Adult Development, 14( 1-2), 26-36.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Hershey D. A., Mowen J. C., & Jacobs-Lawson J. M . ( 2003).

An experimental comparison of retirement planning intervention seminars

.Educational Gerontology, 29( 4), 339-359.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The need for effective financial planning interventions has recently increased, as members of the baby boom generation near retirement. In the present study, the efficacy of three different retirement seminars was evaluated one year following intervention. The retirement seminars focused on either (1) information about financial planning and investing, (2) financial goal-setting exercises, or (3)acombination of financial information and goal-setting exercises. Post-intervention goal clarity and planning and savings practices were compared across the three groups, as well as to individuals in a control condition who received a memory improvement seminar. Intervention had the strongest impact on those in the combined (information and goals) condition, and a moderate influence on the behavior of those who attended the information-only seminar. These findings suggest that the influence of information-based seminars (the most common form of motivational intervention) can be enhanced by the addition of a supplemental goal-setting module.

Hershey D. A., van Dalen H. P., Conen W., & Henkens K . ( 2017).

Are “voluntary” self-employed better prepared for retirement than “forced” self-employed?

Work, Aging and Retirement, 3( 3), 243-256.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Hira T. K., Rock W. L., & Loibl C . ( 2009).

Determinants of retirement planning behaviour and differences by age

.International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33( 3), 293-301.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the determinants of retirement planning behaviour and differences among three age groups: 21- to 39-year-olds, 40- to 59-year-olds and those aged 60 years and older. A national survey of 911 individuals from households with incomes of $75 000 or greater was conducted in the US. The significance of socio-demographic variables, the ability to recover from loss, behavioural tendencies and perceived or actual personal control were investigated; together with their role in the prediction of maximization of retirement contributions and ownership in the personal individual retirement account (IRA) or Keogh accounts. The results identified several significant variables in the prediction of ownership in a personal IRA or Keogh, including age, sources of financial information, being an early investor and investor activity. The results also identified several significant variables in the prediction of the maximization of retirement contributions, including employment, income, savings activity, ex ante research, review of investment performance, early investor, investor activity, such as planning for financial future, setting up automatic deposits and reviewing financial information in the mail.

Hochman O. & Lewin-Epstein, N. ( 2013).

Determinants of early retirement preferences in Europe: The role of grandparenthood

.International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 54( 1), 29-47.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Various family characteristics are acknowledged as important determinants of retirement preferences. Yet, the relevance of the third family generation - the grandchildren - has been largely overlooked. In this article we bring the association between grandparenthood and retirement preferences to the fore. We expect to find such a relationship for two main reasons: first, rising participation rates in the labor market, especially among mothers, increases the need for childcare which, in some countries, is only partially provided by the state. Second, for many people grandparenthood marks the transition to a new phase in the life-course, implying new role-identities. We thus expect grandparenthood to decrease anxieties associated with retirement and with the potential loss of one's role-identity as a working person. We test the association between grandparenthood and retirement preferences using data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The findings confirm that grandparenthood increases an individual's chances of looking forward to retiring early, thus supporting the claim that individuals' lives are linked to the lives of their family members. Contrary to expectations, the association of grandparenthood with retirement preferences is particularly strong in countries that provide extensive childcare support.

Humphrey S. E., Nahrgang J. D., & Morgeson F. P . ( 2007).

Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature

.Journal of Applied Psychology, 95( 5), 1332-1356.

[本文引用: 1]

Hunter, W.,Wang W. & Worsley, A. ( 2007).

Retirement planning and expectations of Australian babyboomers

.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1114( 1), 267-278.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Jung, E. ( 2011).

Longitudinal trajectories of financial retirement planning of baby boomer women: The role of demographic characteristics and attitudes toward retirement (Unpublished doctorial dissertation).

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

[本文引用: 3]

Kemp C. L., Rosenthal C. J., & Denton M . ( 2005).

Financial planning for later life: Subjective understandings of catalysts and constraints

.Journal of Aging Studies, 19( 3), 273-290.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

This paper examines the conditions under which individuals begin or do not begin making financial plans for their later years. The data are drawn from a sample of mid- and later-life individuals ( n = 51) who participated in qualitative, life-history interviews. Participants identified three types of circumstances that acted as both catalysts and constraints to their planning: financial, personal and familial. Catalytic financial influences included employer programs and enrolment in retirement courses, while job loss and unforeseen expenses were viewed as constraints. Personal influences such as health and age, as well as familial transitions such as the death of a spouse, divorce, or remarriage served as both catalysts and constraints, depending on the individual. For example, divorce was viewed by some as a constraint, while others viewed it as a catalyst. Participants' locations in the social structure influenced the onset of financial preparation, however, subjective perceptions of life circumstances were also pivotal.

Kim S. & Feldman, D.C . ( 2000).

Working in retirement: The antecedents of bridge employment and its consequences for quality of life in retirement

.Academy of management Journal, 43( 6), 1195-1210.

[本文引用: 3]

Kiso H. & Hershey, D.A . ( 2017).

Working adults’ metacognitions regarding financial planning for retirement

.Work, Aging and Retirement, 3( 1), 77-88.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract. In this article, we introduce a new perceptual measure of retirement planning metacognition, which was evaluated in the United States across 2 differ

Koposko J. L., Kiso H., Hershey D. A., & Gerrans P . ( 2015).

Perceptions of retirement savings relative to peers

.Work, Aging and retirement, 2( 1), 65-72.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract. Do individuals’ perceptions of how much others save for retirement influence their own long-range financial saving decisions? In this study, social

Kosloski K., Ekerdt D., & DeViney S . ( 2001).

The role of job-related rewards in retirement planning

. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 56 B(3), 160-169.

URL     PMID:11316834      [本文引用: 1]

The authors used data from the first wave of the Health and Retirement Study ( F. Juster and R. Suzman 1995) to evaluate whether certain job-related gratifications might reduce retirement planning. Three definitions of retirement planning were evaluated and then regressed separately on a set of variables that included 3 types of job-related satisfactions (intrinsic gratification, positive social relations, and ascendance in the workplace) and 7 covariates: education, age, sex, health, marital status, race, and pension eligibility. Findings indicated that jobs high in ascendance were related to an increase in certain types of retirement planning, but jobs high in intrinsic rewards and positive social relations were related to less planning, regardless of how planning was defined. The findings suggest that information about work-related rewards may be useful in targeting individuals who might benefit from retirement planning programs, in developing planning programs to help workers realize more complex retirement plans, and in assisting employers who hope to retain older workers.

Leandro-França C., Murta S. G., Hershey D. A., & Martins L. B . ( 2016).

Evaluation of retirement planning programs: A qualitative analysis of methodologies and efficacy

.Educational Gerontology, 42( 7), 497-512.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The objective of this integrative literature review was to evaluate the quality of retirement planning programs described in the extant literature. This was accomplished through a qualitative analysis of methodological and efficacy criteria as described by Flay et al. (2005), Kazdin (1982, 2010 and Murta (2005). Several databases were consulted in searching for retirement program articles, including: Academic Search Premier, Medline, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, among others. Retirement planning intervention articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish were considered, with a focus on their evaluation methods and results. Eleven studies were identified that described the procedures for both program implementation and intervention evaluation. Results revealed methodological shortcomings in the papers reviewed, with concerns being related to a lack of experimental or quasi-experimental approaches, a failure to use previously validated measurement instruments and longitudinal assessments, and insufficiently robust data analysis procedures. That said, however, there was evidence from multiple investigations that the intervention programs examined led to increases in knowledge, positive changes in attitudes linked to retirement, and an increase in retirement-linked planning and preparation behaviors. Identification of strengths and weaknesses in the methods used and efficacy of these interventions could facilitate the construction of a research agenda aimed at promoting more favorable research designs. Use of more rigorous designs would stand to improve the internal validity of these retirement programs and, consequently, progress in this field.

Lee W. K.M . ( 2003).

Women and retirement planning: Towards the “feminization of poverty” in an aging Hong Kong

.Journal of Women & Aging, 15( 1), 31-53.

URL     PMID:12678184      [本文引用: 9]

Hong Kong's population is aging but retirement research is largely missing from the research agenda in Hong Kong. This study, based on a telephone survey of 1,078 respondents, examines middle-aged adult's retirement planning activities in Hong Kong. The findings show men are more likely to be involved in financial planning, while women are more likely to take part in some forms of health, living arrangement and psychological planning for retirement. Further, there are age, education and income differences in the various forms of retirement planning activities within genders. Women are living longer; because of their lack of financial retirement planning, they are prime candidates for poverty. The discussion concludes with policy implications related to assisting midlife individuals, in particular women, in planning for retirement.

Lee W. K.M., & Law, K. W.K . ( 2004).

Retirement planning and retirement satisfaction: The need for a national retirement program and policy in Hong Kong

.Journal of Applied Gerontology, 23( 3), 212-233.

URL     [本文引用: 8]

This study, based on a telephone survey, examines retirement planning behaviors and retirement satisfaction of 1,078 middle-aged respondents in Hong Kong. The findings show that, in general, middle-aged Hong Kong adults do little retirement planning. Retirement planning behaviors focus on a very narrow set of activities, including financial and health planning. Of the 19 planning variables, only a few were significantly related to perception of sufficiency in retirement planning and retirement satisfaction. More important, middle-aged adults in Hong Kong no longer feel that they can depend on their family for support for retirement planning or satisfaction during retirement. The lack of private and public support for retirement planning left the respondents feeling unsure as to whether they have the capability to plan sufficiently for retirement. The discussion concludes with policy implications related to assisting middle-aged individuals in planning for retirement.

Leung C.S., & Earl, J.K . ( 2012).

Retirement Resources Inventory: Construction, factor structure and psychometric properties

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81( 2), 171-182.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

78 We design a new measure to determine the resources used in retirement. 78 Excellent internal consistency (0.81–0.89) is reported. 78 Excellent test–retest reliability (0.83–0.88) within 1month 78 Variance accounted for: retirement satisfaction (16%); retirement adjustment (22%) 78 X-lagged panel analysis—resources predict retirement outcomes not the reverse.

Lim V. K.G . ( 2003).

An empirical study of older workers’ attitudes towards the retirement experience

.Employee Relations, 25( 4), 330-346.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This study examined the attitudes of older workers towards work and retirement, retirement planning and their willingness to continue working after retirement and to undergo retraining. Data were collected via questionnaire surveys. Respondents consisted of 204 individuals aged 40 and above who attended courses at a local institute of labor studies. Findings suggested that work occupied a salient part of the respondents' lives. In general, respondents also held rather ambivalent attitudes with regard to the prospect of retirement, i.e. while they did not view retirement negatively, they were nevertheless anxious about certain aspects of retirement. Results also suggested that majority of respondents preferred to remain employed in some ways even after they have officially retired from the workforce, i.e. partial rather than full retirement was preferred. Implications of findings for organizations and policy makers were discussed.

Maestas, N. ( 2010).

Back to work expectations and realizations of work after retirement

.Journal of Human Resources, 45( 3), 718-748.

[本文引用: 2]

Mock S.E., & Cornelius, S.W . ( 2007).

Profiles of interdependence: The retirement planning of married, cohabiting, and lesbian couples

.Sex roles, 56( 11-12), 793-800.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

As the traditional nuclear family gives way to diverse couple types, questions regarding planning and satisfaction within relationships can be applied to partnerships outside of traditional marriages. The levels of interdependence in retirement planning and timing were investigated across three couple types: married heterosexual couples, cohabiting heterosexual couples, and lesbian couples. Analyses suggested that although all couples were interdependent in their retirement plans, this may be particularly the case for lesbian couples financial planning. In addition, relationship satisfaction was significantly associated with retirement lifestyle planning, but more so for lesbian couples than for heterosexual couples. The results are discussed in terms of gender, couple dynamics, and the social structures inherent in the three different couple types.

Moen P., Sweet S., & Swisher R . ( 2005).

Embedded career clocks: The case of retirement planning

.Advances in Life Course Research, 9( 9), 237-265.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

We investigate employees’ expectations and planning about a key later life course transition, retirement. Drawing on an organizationally derived sample of workers in dual-earner households in upstate New York, we find that personal mastery, along with health, income, and job conditions, are key predictors of planning. Also important are prior biographical pacing, gender, and relational contexts (at home and at work). Members of today's mostly baby boom cohort tend to plan more financially than for life after retirement, and most anticipate retiring earlier than the conventional age of 65.

Moorthy M. K., Durai T., Chelliah L., Sien C. S., Leong L. C., Kai N. Z., & Teng W. Y . ( 2012).

A study on the retirement planning behaviour of working individuals in Malaysia

.International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 1( 2), 54-72.

[本文引用: 4]

Muratore A. M.M., & Earl, J.K . ( 2010).

Predicting retirement preparation through the design of a new measure

.Australian Psychologist, 45( 2), 98-111.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Researchers' capacity to investigate retirement planning behaviour is impeded by the lack of rigorous measurement within the literature. For this study, a comprehensive measure based on the reflexive planning domains of public protection, self-insurance, and self-protection was developed and evaluated in a sample of 174 employees aged 45 years. Variables of gender, age, income and core self-evaluations were examined for their influence on planning effort in each of the three domains. Results indicated a clean, three-factor structure for retirement planning behaviours. All variables emerged as predictors of planning effort in one or more domains. Implications of results for future research into retirement planning and the targeting of planning interventions are discussed.

Muratore A.M., & Earl, J.K . ( 2015).

Improving retirement outcomes: The role of resources, pre-retirement planning and transition characteristics

.Ageing & Society, 35( 10), 2100-2140.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Retirement is an inherently complex process due to the multitude of variables that influence it. The present article proposes that by combining our understanding of retirement phases (a conceptual framework) with a theory that specifies a general mechanism for retirement adaptation (a theoretical framework), we can improve how we research retirement. Accordingly, this study proposes and tests a model exploring the antecedents and consequences of the retirement process across three stages: Pre-retirement, Transition and Adaptation, using data collected from 550 Australian retirees. Multiple outcomes are explored, including adjustment, wellbeing and life satisfaction, as well as variables including planning, perception of wealth, resources and mastery. The model showed a significant influence of resources on both phases and outcomes, with mastery showing the strongest relationships of all the resources. Results suggest that outcomes in retirement may be improved by promoting retirement planning, improving exit conditions and building key resources, in particular, mastery. Overall, the model demonstrates the value of combining theory and conceptual frameworks to inform the specification of statistical models to research retirement. Research implications and alternative models are discussed.

Noone J. H., Stephens C., & Alpass F. M . ( 2010).

The process of retirement planning scale (PRePS): Development and validation

.Psychological Assessment, 22( 3), 520-531.

URL     PMID:20822264      [本文引用: 13]

Although a substantial proportion of the western population is approaching retirement age, little is known about how they are preparing for the future. Much attention has been paid to the consumption of educational material and retirement wealth in the present literature, but the process of retirement planning has been ignored. S. L. Friedman and E. K. Scholnick's (1997) theoretical model provided the basis for a comprehensive measure of retirement planning. According to their process theory, individuals develop an understanding of the problem, set goals, make a decision to start preparing, and finally undertake the behaviors needed to fulfill their goals. Fifty-two items were developed to assess each stage of the planning process for financial, health, lifestyle, and psychosocial retirement planning. These were tested on a population sample of 1,449 New Zealanders aged 49-60. Confirmatory factor analysis, bivariate correlations, and hierarchical regression provided support for the valid use of the measure. Necessary antecedents, such as the tendency to look to the future, and locus of control were significantly related to the Process of Retirement Planning Scale (PRePS). The PRePS also outperformed retirement planning measures used in the Health and Retirement Study (F. T. Juster & R. Suzman, 1995) after controlling for socioeconomic and psychological variables. This measure will enable social policy makers to determine which stages of retirement planning require support and intervention. The PRePS will also help to determine which domains of retirement planning predict well-being in later life and the factors which differentiate those who are planning from those who are not.

Noone J. H., Stephens C., & Alpass F. M . ( 2009).

Preretirement planning and well-being in later life: A prospective study

.Research on Aging, 31( 3), 295-317.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Parker A. M., de Bruin W. B., Yoong J., & Willis R . ( 2012).

Inappropriate confidence and retirement planning: Four studies with a national sample

.Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25( 4), 382-389.

URL     PMID:23049164      [本文引用: 1]

Financial decisions about investing and saving for retirement are increasingly complex, requiring financial knowledge and confidence in that knowledge. Few studies have examined whether direct assessments of individuals' confidence are related to the outcomes of their financial decisions. Here, we analyzed data from a national sample recruited through RAND's American Life Panel, an Internet panel study of US adults aged 18 88 years. We examined the relationship of confidence with self-reported and actual financial decisions, using four different tasks, each performed by overlapping samples of American Life Panel participants. The four tasks were designed by different researchers for different purposes, using different methods to assess confidence. Yet, measures of confidence were correlated across tasks, and results were consistent across methodologies. Confidence and knowledge showed only modest positive correlations. However, even after controlling for actual knowledge, individuals with greater confidence were more likely to report financial planning for retirement and to successfully minimize fees on a hypothetical investment task. Implications for the role of confidence in investment behavior (even if it is unjustified) is discussed. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Petkoska J. & Earl, J.K . ( 2009).

Understanding the influence of demographic and psychological variables on retirement planning

.Psychology and Aging, 24( 1), 245-251.

URL     PMID:19290760      [本文引用: 20]

Abstract The authors examined the degree to which workers were engaging in financial, health, interpersonal/leisure, and work planning for retirement, exploring whether demographic and psychological variables inhibited or promoted planning in each of these domains. Planning in each domain was influenced by a unique set of variables. Goals emerged as a consistent and positive predictor of planning. Gender accounted for health and interpersonal/leisure planning, while work planning behavior was negatively predicted by income. Time perspective also helped to clarify the amount of retirement planning undertaken in the financial and interpersonal/leisure domains. Practical implications for designing retirement interventions are discussed.

Phua V. & McNally, J.W . ( 2008).

Men planning for retirement: Changing meanings of preretirement planning

.Journal of Applied Gerontology, 27( 5), 588-608.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Reitzes D.C., & Mutran, E.J . ( 2004).

The transition to retirement: Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment

.The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 59( 1), 63-84.

URL     PMID:15453412      [本文引用: 5]

Abstract A set of older workers from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina metropolitan area were followed from pre-retirement to 24 months post-retirement in order to explore stages in retirement and the impact of social psychological, social background, and gender factors on the retirement adjustment. First, we found general support for Atchley's model of retirement adjustment (1976). Second, the factors that influence retirement adjustment in the data analysis revealed that: 1) pre-retirement self-esteem and friend identity meanings, as well as pension eligibility, increased positive attitudes toward retirement at six months, 12 months, and 24 months post-retirement; 2) retirement planning and voluntary retirement increased positive attitudes toward retirement earlier, but not later, in the first two years of retirement; 3) poor health decreased positive attitudes toward retirement later rather than earlier in the first two years of retirement; and 4) there were only limited gender effects.

Shultz K.S . ( 2003).

Bridge employment: Work after retirement

In G. A. Adams & T. A. Beehr (Eds.), Retirement: Reasons, processes, and results( pp. 214-241). New York: Springer.

[本文引用: 1]

Shultz K.S., & Wang, M. ( 2011).

Psychological perspectives on the changing nature of retirement

.American Psychologist, 66( 3), 170-179.

URL     PMID:21341880      [本文引用: 1]

The concept and the process of retirement are rapidly evolving. As a result, psychologists are in a unique position to understand and explain the dynamics behind the changing face of retirement. We begin this article with a brief overview of the history of retirement and then note the various definitions used when studying retirement. We then propose that taking a temporal view of studying retirement would be most advantageous for psychologists. Psychological conceptualizations of retirement are then discussed, and we link these conceptualizations to studying the changing nature of retirement. Finally, we conclude with some suggestions for future research in the area of retirement that would be particularly relevant for psychologists to consider.

Stawski R. S., Hershey D. A., & Jacobs-Lawson J. M . ( 2007).

Goal clarity and financial planning activities as determinants of retirement savings contributions

.The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 64( 1), 13-32.

URL     PMID:17390963      [本文引用: 1]

Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities predict retirement savings practices was examined among 100 working adults. Path analysis techniques were used to test two competing models, both of which were designed to predict savings contributions. Findings provide support for the model in which retirement goal clarity is a significant predictor of planning practices, and planning, in turn, predicts savings tendencies. Two demographic variables-income and age-were also revealed to be important elements of the model, with income accounting for roughly half of the explained variance in savings contributions. The results of this study have implications for the development of age-based models of planning, as well as implications for retirement counselors and financial planners who advise workers on long-term saving strategies.

Szinovacz, M. ( 1982).

Retirement plans and retirement adjustment

In M. Szinovacz (Ed.), Women’s retirement: Policy implications of recent research( pp. 139-150). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

[本文引用: 1]

Szinovacz M. E. ( 2003).

Contexts and pathways: Retirement as institution, process, and experience.

In G. A. Adams & T. A. Beehr (Eds.), Retirement: Reasons, processes, and results (pp. 6-52). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

[本文引用: 2]

Taylor M.A., & Shore, L.M . ( 1995).

Predictors of planned retirement age: An application of Beehr's model

.Psychology and Aging, 10( 1), 76-83.

URL     PMID:7779319      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Given the aging workforce, understanding the retirement process is an area of increasing interest to organizations. T. A. Beehr's (1986) model of retirement behavior was used in this study as a basis for selecting personal, psychological, and organizational predictors of subsequent planned retirement age. In addition, potential differences in predictors of the planned retirement age of retirement-eligible and retirement-ineligible respondents were explored. Two hundred sixty-four respondents working for a large multinational firm completed 2 surveys on their attitudes toward work and retirement. Results showed that chronological age, employee health, and self-perceptions of the ability to adjust to retirement predicted subsequent planned retirement age. Interactions of the predictors with retirement eligibility are reported along with implications for retirement-planning programs.

Taylor-Carter M. A., Cook K., & Weinberg C . ( 1997).

Planning and expectations of the retirement experience

.Educational Gerontology: An International Quarterly, 23( 3), 273-288.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research suggests that retirement planning can benefit individuals in a number of ways. In this study, two types of informal retirement planning and participation in a retirement planning seminar were used to predict retirement expectations and self‐efficacy, or subjects’ confidence in their ability to make the retirement transition. Results suggested that informal leisure planning had a positive impact on expectations and self‐efficacy, whereas effects of participating in the planning seminar were limited to retirement expectations. Suggestions for designing planning seminars are discussed in view of these findings.

Topa G., Moriano J. A., Depolo M., Alcover C-M., & Morales J. F . ( 2009).

Antecedents and consequences of retirement planning and decision-making: A meta-analysis and model

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75( 1), 38-55.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement planning (poor health, negative working conditions and positive attitudes toward retirement) was obtained (ranging from r = .05 to r = .19), whereas a medium ES was obtained for work involvement and job satisfaction ( r = .31 and r = .34). Regarding retirement decision, lower effect sizes were obtained. Effect sizes for the relationships with consequences were medium for retirement planning and bridge employment ( r = .28), for retirement decision-volunteer work ( r = .26), and for retirement decision-retirement satisfaction ( r = .26). Structural equation analysis using the pooled correlation matrix allowed us to test a more complex model. Potential moderator variables were examined, and it was found that they explained only a small percentage of variability of primary studies. Results are discussed, and theoretical and empirical implications are suggested.

Van Rooij M., Lusardi A., & Alessie R . ( 2011).

Financial literacy and stock market participation

.Journal of Financial Economics, 101( 2), 449-472.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We have devised two special modules for De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) Household Survey to measure financial literacy and study its relationship to stock market participation. We find that the majority of respondents display basic financial knowledge and have some grasp of concepts such as interest compounding, inflation, and the time value of money. However, very few go beyond these basic concepts; many respondents do not know the difference between bonds and stocks, the relationship between bond prices and interest rates, and the basics of risk diversification. Most importantly, we find that financial literacy affects financial decision-making: Those with low literacy are much less likely to invest in stocks.

Wang, M. ( 2007).

Profiling retirees in the retirement transition and adjustment process: Examining the longitudinal change patterns of retirees' psychological well-being

.Journal of Applied Psychology, 92( 2), 455-474.

URL     PMID:17371091      [本文引用: 1]

The author used role theory, continuity theory, and the life course perspective to form hypotheses regarding the different retirement transition and adjustment patterns and how different individual and contextual variables related to those patterns. The longitudinal data of 2 samples (n(1) = 994; n(2) = 1,066) from the Health and Retirement Survey were used. Three latent growth curve patterns of retirees' psychological well-being were identified as coexisting in the retiree samples through growth mixture modeling (GMM) analysis. On the basis of the latent class membership derived from GMM, retiree subgroups directly linked to different growth curve patterns were profiled with individual (e.g., bridge job status) and contextual variables (e.g., spouse working status). By recognizing the existence of multiple retiree subgroups corresponding to different psychological well-being change patterns, this study suggests that retirees do not follow a uniform adjustment pattern during the retirement process, which reconciles inconsistent previous findings. A resource perspective is further introduced to provide a more integrated theory for the current findings. The practical implications of this study are also discussed at both individual level and policy level.

Wang M., Henkens K., & van Solinge H . ( 2011).

Retirement adjustment: A review of theoretical and empirical advancements

.American Psychologist, 66( 3), 204-213.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In this article, we review both theoretical and empirical advancements in retirement adjustment research. After reviewing and integrating current theories about retirement adjustment, we propose a resource-based dynamic perspective to apply to the understanding of retirement adjustment. We then review empirical findings that are associated with the key research questions in this literature: (a) What is the general impact of retirement on the individual? and (b) What are the factors that influence retirement adjustment quality? We also highlight important future research directions that may be fruitful for psychologists to pursue in this area.

Wang M. & Shultz, K.S . ( 2010).

Employee retirement: A review and recommendations for future investigation

.Journal of Management, 36( 1), 172-206.

[本文引用: 4]

Wang M., Zhan Y., Liu S., & Shultz K. S . ( 2008).

Antecedents of bridge employment: A longitudinal investigation

.Journal of Applied Psychology, 93( 4), 818-830.

URL     PMID:18642986      [本文引用: 2]

Bridge employment is the labor force participation pattern increasingly observed in older workers between their career jobs and their complete labor force withdrawal. It serves as a transition process from career employment to full retirement. Typical bridge employment decisions include full retirement, career bridge employment, and bridge employment in a different field. In the current study, 3 dominant theories (i.e., role theory, continuity theory, and life course perspective) on retirement processes were reviewed. On the basis of these theories, the authors proposed 4 categories of antecedents (i.e., individual attributes, job-related psychological variables, family-related variables, and a retirement-planning-related variable) of different types of bridge employment decisions. The authors used longitudinal data of a large, nationally representative sample from the Health and Retirement Study (F. Juster & R. Suzman, 1995) to test the current hypotheses. These data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression, and most of the hypotheses were supported by the results. The implications of this study are discussed at both theoretical and practical levels.

Wöhrmann A. M., Deller J., & Wang M . ( 2013).

Outcome expectations and work design characteristics in post- retirement work planning

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83( 3), 219-228.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

61We applied social cognitive career theory to post-retirement work planning.61Intention mediated the relationship of outcome expectations and planning activity.61Social support at work strengthened the relationship of outcome expectations and intention.61Physical demands were positively related to post-retirement work intention.

Wöhrmann A. M., Deller J., & Wang M . ( 2014).

A mixed-method approach to post-retirement career planning

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84( 3), 307-317.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

61We investigated post-retirement career planning qualitatively and quantitatively.61Outcome expectations and facilitating factors were identified in interviews.61Outcome expectations were related to post-retirement career intention.61All identified facilitating factors were related to post-retirement career intention.61Social approval strengthened the effect of outcome expectations on intention.

Wong J.Y., & Earl, J.K . ( 2009).

Towards an integrated model of individual, psychosocial, and organizational predictors of retirement adjustment

.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75( 1), 1-13.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This cross-sectional study examines three predictors of retirement adjustment: individual (demographic and health), psychosocial (work centrality), and organizational (conditions of workforce exit). It also examines the effect of work centrality on post-retirement activity levels. Survey data was collected from 394 retirees (aged 45 93 years). Results suggested that better psychological health, higher income, and being married predicted better retirement adjustment. Work centrality was neither related to retirement adjustment nor to post-retirement activity levels. Conditions of exit significantly predicted retirement adjustment, even after controlling for lower-level individual and psychosocial influences. Practical implications for the design of retirement planning programs and organizational exit strategies are discussed.

Yang T.Y., & Devaney, S.A . ( 2011).

Intrinsic rewards of work, future time perspective, the economy in the future and retirement planning

.Journal of Consumer Affairs, 45( 3), 419-444.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study incorporated intrinsic rewards of work, future time perspective and perspective on the economy in the future to create a model for the psychological mechanism of planning for retirement. The data set included those who were not retired (N = 2,266) in the 1992 Health and Retirement Study. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling were used. The analyses were conducted separately on the different types of retirement plans. The results suggest that human resource professionals should (1) encourage employees who perceive high intrinsic rewards of work to plan for their retirement, and (2) remind employees that retirement might be closer than they anticipate.

Yeung D.Y . ( 2013).

Is pre-retirement planning always good? An exploratory study of retirement adjustment among Hong Kong Chinese retirees

.Aging & Mental Health, 17( 3), 386-393.

URL     PMID:23072256      [本文引用: 7]

The impacts of four types of pre-retirement planning activities (financial, health, social life, and psychological planning) on retirement adjustment were investigated in a sample of Chinese retirees residing in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two phases of data collection, pre-retirement and post-retirement phases. Pre-retirement planning behaviors and psychological health (including attitudes toward retirement, adjustment to retirement, anxiety toward retirement, psychological well-being (PWB), and psychological distress) six months before and after retirement were measured. The final sample consisted of 90 Hong Kong Chinese retirees. Compared with the pre-retirement phase, retirees exhibited more positive attitudes toward retirement and better adjustment after they had actually retired, whereas their level of anxiety and psychological distress remained low over time. Pre-retirement planning was found to be predictive of changes in psychological health, though its impact was not always positive depending on the type of planning activities. In particular, greater psychological planning was associated with positive attitudes toward retirement and better PWB, whereas more social life planning activities were associated with greater psychological distress. In addition to financial and health planning, psychological planning activities should also be prompted to facilitate a smooth adjustment to retirement.

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