心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 149-159 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00149

研究前沿

建议采纳的认知机制

陈琳1, 田晓明,2, 段锦云,1

1 苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123

2 苏州科技大学城市发展智库,心理学系, 苏州 215009

The cognitive mechanism of advice taking

CHEN Lin1, TIAN Xiaoming,2, DUAN Jinyun,1

1 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China

2 Department of Psychology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China

通讯作者: 田晓明, E-mail:tianxm@mail.usts.edu.cn段锦云, E-mail:mgjyduan@hotmail.com

收稿日期: 2017-09-21   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

Received: 2017-09-21   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

决策者的认知特点, 以及决策过程中建议者,任务特征,环境因素等都会影响决策者的认知加工, 并最终影响建议采纳.目前建议采纳过程中的认知研究主要集中于决策者方面, 本文通过总结以往研究, 从决策者的认知风格,社会认知复杂性,认知策略以及情绪对认知的影响等四个方面, 系统阐述了认知对建议采纳的影响.同时, 结合态度改变理论,解释水平理论,具身认知理论以及认知失调理论等进一步讨论了建议采纳的认知发生机制, 并在此基础上初步构建了建议采纳认知机制模型.未来研究可进一步探讨决策者的认知灵活性,认知闭合需要等对建议采纳的影响, 以及建议提出的认知机制, 以丰富建议采纳领域研究.

关键词: 建议采纳 ; 认知机制 ; 态度改变理论 ; 解释水平理论 ; 具身认知理论 ; 认知失调理论

Abstract

This article reviews the research of the relationship between cognition and advice taking in recent years. The advisor, task characteristics and the situation will affect the adoption of advice through the cognitive process of decision maker. Firstly, this article briefly introduced antecedent variables. Based on previous research, we summarized cognitive factors which affect advice taking in four aspects-cognitive style, cognitive complexity, cognitive strategy and emotion. Then we tried to explain the mechanism of advice taking through four theories, which are attitude change theory, construal level theory, embodied cognition theory and cognitive dissonance theory. By analyzing the cognitive factors which mentioned above, we attempted to put forward the comprehensive model of cognitive mechanism. Finally, the article suggests that future research can enrich advice taking in following aspects, the effect of cognitive flexibility of decision makers, the need for cognitive closure on advice adoption and the cognitive mechanism of advice giving.

Keywords: advice taking ; cognitive mechanism ; attitude change theory ; construal level theory ; embodied cognition theory ; cognitive dissonance theory

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本文引用格式

陈琳, 田晓明, 段锦云. (2019). 建议采纳的认知机制 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 149-159

CHEN Lin, TIAN Xiaoming, DUAN Jinyun. (2019). The cognitive mechanism of advice taking. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 149-159

1 引言

建议提出和建议采纳渗透在我们生活的每个角落.不确定的决策困境遍布于生活之中, 小到午餐吃什么,约会穿什么,大到志愿选择,健康问题等, 仅凭个人力量很难做出尽善尽美的决策, 因此, 别人的建议是帮助我们提高决策质量的重要资源(Larrick, Mannes, & Soll, 2012), 合理使用他人建议也是我们人生必备的一项技能.虽然专业性的建议对我们提高决策质量至关重要, 但是在现实生活中, 我们常常为了维护自己的权威或证明自己的正确性而忽略他人的建议(Brooks, Gino, & Schweitzer, 2015), 从而产生建议折扣现象.这也引起了学者们的兴趣并由此展开了一系列的研究(Schultze, Rakotoarisoa, & Schulzhardt, 2015; Comes & Schwabe, 2016), 目前建议采纳 研究大多采用“决策者-建议者系统”范式(Judge- Advisor System, JAS; Sniezek & Buckley, 1995), 该范式包括决策者,决策任务和建议者三个主要元素.在面对不确定问题时, 决策者会收到一条或多条建议, 建议可以来自于真实存在的建议者, 也可以是根据实验目的事先设定好建议值, 最后决策者对建议进行认知加工, 决定是否采纳建议, 并做出最终决策.JAS范式并不是一成不变, 可以按照初始决策-参考建议-最终决策的模式(independent-then-revise advice sequence)来开展研究, 也可以直接呈现建议, 再让决策者做出决策(Rader, Soll, & Larrick, 2015).

建议采纳研究的核心问题是什么时候建议更容易被接受(段锦云, 周冉, 陆文娟, 李晶, 朱宜超, 2013), 以往对建议折扣的探究大都关注决策过程中的情境因素, 例如任务难度(Gino & Moore, 2007; Schrah, Dalal, & Sniezek, 2006),建议特征(Tzioti, Wierenga, & van Osselaer, 2014)等, 近年来, 一些研究开始聚焦于个体差异对建议采纳的影响(Kausel, Culbertson, Leiva, Slaughter, & Jackson, 2015; 段锦云, 古晓花, 孙露莹, 2016), 而认知因素就是重要的影响源之一.当面对众多建议时, 决策者是充耳不闻还是从谏如流, 不仅仅是决策者与建议者人际互动的结果, 也是其对信息进行认知加工的结果.从认知角度来说, 决策者和建议者的认知特征都会影响到决策者对建议的评估, 从而影响建议采纳.那么认知究竟如何影响建议采纳?目前还没有相关文献对此进行全面论述, 本文尝试围绕JAS系统, 对建议采纳中的认知研究进行梳理与整合, 基于相关决策理论, 从决策者自身认知特征, 如认知风格, 认知复杂性, 认知策略以及情绪对认知的影响等方面来归纳建议采纳的认知发生机制, 寻找促进或阻碍建议采纳行为的认知因素并加以整合, 并构建了建议采纳的认知机制模型.最后文章对未来研究方向提出了具体建议, 旨在为建议采纳及相关决策研究提供参考和借鉴.

2 建议采纳的认知影响因素

结合以往研究, 本节将主要从认知风格,社会认知复杂性,认知策略以及情绪对认知的影响四个方面着重分析和阐述决策者的认知特点对建议采纳的影响.

2.1 认知风格

认知风格是影响个体进行判断和行为决策的重要因素(Armstrong, Cools, & Sadler-Smith, 2012), 它反应的是个体思考和解决问题的偏好.在相关研究中, Witkin (1964)的研究将认知风格按依存特征划分为场独立型和场依存型两种类型.

大量研究表明, 认知风格会在不同情境下影响决策行为及建议采纳.有研究发现, 在群体情境中, 认知风格在很大程度上影响了个体对他人建议的反应, 场独立个体倾向于坚持自己的初始决策, 不愿接受他人建议; 而场依存个体则会仔细地考虑他人观点.闫婷婷,杜秀芳和李假(2014)在前人研究基础上进一步探究, 发现场依存型比场独立型的决策者更愿意采纳建议, 这是因为场独立型的决策者根据内部经验和逻辑分析来加工信息(Wang, Hao, Maguire, & Hu, 2016), 在信息加工过程中投入更多的注意资源和认知努力, 且基本不受决策问题表述方式的影响(韩玉昌, 张健, 杨文兵, 2014), 因此能更独立自主的做出决策; 而场依存型的决策者更加被动, 并且缺乏主见, 做决策时更多依赖参照信息.

也有学者从信息加工方式的角度将认知风格分为系统1和系统2, 系统1又称直觉系统(intuitive system), 其特征为决策速度快,自动化的,内隐的,欠考虑的; 系统2又称分析系统(analytical system), 其特征为决策速度慢,受控制的,有意识的,基于规则的,深思熟虑的(Stanovich & West, 2000; Kahneman, 2003; Dewberry, Juanchich, & Narendran, 2013).Tzioti等人(2014)在其研究中根据建议提出时所采用的信息加工方式不同, 将建议分为直觉型建议和分析型建议, 结果发现比起直觉型建议(根据我的经验), 决策者更偏好分析型建议(市场调查结果表明), 但是这种关系受到决策者和建议者资历的影响, 当建议者资质较低时, 决策者不受其直觉型建议的影响, 而其分析型建议则会使决策者在一定程度上改变观点; 当建议来自资质较高的建议者时, 无论是直觉型建议还是分析型建议, 都能使决策者改变其观点.也就是说, 对直觉型建议的利用依赖于建议者的资质, 而对分析型建议的采纳则不受资质影响.

建议者认知加工方式的不同会导致提出的建议类型不同, 分析型的建议更易受到决策者的青睐, 而直觉型建议只有当建议者资质高(比如是专家)时才会被采纳, 这也进一步说明了认知加工方式(或风格)不仅会影响决策者, 也会影响到建议者的建议提出, 进而影响建议采纳.

2.2 社会认知复杂性

除了个体的认知风格外, 认知复杂性也是影响建议采纳的重要因素.社会认知复杂性(social cognitive complexity)反映的是个体的一种认知能力, 认知复杂性高的人具有高度复杂的思维能力和认知特点, 个体也具有较强的自我意识(van Seggelen-Damen, 2013).Lohman和Lakin (2009)发现社会认知复杂性与个人的推理能力是相挂钩的, 即社会认知复杂性在一定程度上反映了个人推理能力的高低, 而复杂的推理能力是优化决策必须具备的重要能力之一(Lohman & Lakin, 2011), 高推理能力者能做出相对正确的决策, 而缺乏推理能力会降低决策质量(Moore & Tenbrunsel, 2014).那么个体的社会认知复杂性是否影响其决策过程中的建议采纳?

卜楠和杜秀芳(2015)在前人研究的基础上探讨了认知复杂性对建议采纳的影响, 结果发现, 低认知复杂性者更容易采纳他人意见, 其中人际信任起部分中介作用.由于低认知复杂性者推理能力低, 对问题的思考和分析不够深入, 多采用启发式的加工策略, 更依赖和信任他人的建议; 而高认知复杂性者的认知方式倾向于沉思型(van Seggelen-Damen, 2013), 推理能力高, 对问题的表征更复杂, 思考更深入, 多采用分析式加工策略, 他们更相信自己能够解决问题, 对于自身原有意见的改变显得较为保守, 对建议的采纳程度也就较低.研究也发现, 决策者的认知能力会影响建议接受速度(Barham, Chavas, Fitz, & Schechter, 2018), 以此类推, 认知复杂性可影响决策者对建议内容的分析与判断以及对建议者的信任, 进而影响建议采纳.由于目前关于认知复杂性对建议采纳的研究还较少, 后续研究可以继续探讨它对建议采纳的影响机制及边界条件等.

2.3 认知策略

认知策略是个体支配认知的技能.布鲁纳首次提出了“认知策略”一词, 后来, 人们把这个词语和人的内在加工联系起来, 突出了个人对自我意志的操控.在建议采纳研究领域中, 有研究者就认知策略的影响进行了相应的研究.例如标签效应(label effect)就是认知策略之一, 就像给生活中不同的事物贴上不同的相对应的标签一样, 人也会根据自己的内在认知, 给自己贴上相应的标签, 在标签的作用下, 朝着被规定的方向去发展, 或者以标签作为自己的行为标准, 使得自己的行为与标签暗示的内容相一致(Guadagno & Burger, 2007).因此拥有正面自我标签的人, 其行为活动也多是积极的, 希望维护自己正面形象的.段锦云,周冉和古晓花(2014)将标签效应引入到建议采纳领域, 发现正面的自我标签有利于促进建议的采纳, 并将正面自我标签,有无获益,是否公开三者联系起来, 进一步探讨了标签效应对建议采纳的影响, 研究通过两个实验发现在公开条件下, 无论是有获益希望还是无获益希望, 决策者启动正面自我标签都会促进其建议采纳, 但两者内部心理机制不同, 无获益希望的公开条件下, 决策者采纳建议是为了维护自己的正面形象, 获得大家的认可, 而有获益希望的公开条件下的决策者启动正面自我标签后, 会有更多积极情绪的体验, 从而促进建议采纳.然而, Norton, Dunn, Carney和Dan (2012)却发现, 对建议者启动标签后, 发现被污名化的建议者更加具有说服力, 健全的人更容易被残疾人说服, 这可能是受印象管理的影响, 人们都有在陌生人或群体面前维护自己形象的愿望, 被贴有负面标签的建议者(如残疾人)与决策者属于不同群体时, 决策者出于获得外群体认同的需要, 更容易被对方的信息所说服, 但是, 此研究并不能充分说明是因为给建议者贴上负面标签而导致其更有说服力, 还是仅仅给建议者贴上不同标签后, 增加了决策者获得外群体认同和维护自己形象的渴望, 而导致其更容易被说服.因此, 未来研究可进一步探讨给建议者贴不同的标签, 对建议采纳的影响及其心理机制等.

2.4 其它因素对决策者认知加工的影响

决策者作为建议采纳的主体, 其自身的许多特征也会显著影响建议采纳, 因此同样的建议产生的说服效果不仅因情况而异, 也因人而异, 比如自恋的人更不愿意寻求和采纳别人的建议(Kramer, 2016; Kausel et al., 2015).除了个性特征, 决策者的情绪也是一个重要的影响因素, 很多研究都强调了情绪在人们认知和决策等方面的重要作用(Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, 2015).例如, 当决策者产生焦虑情绪时, 会降低其自信程度, 在做决策时更喜欢寻求外界的帮助, 并依赖他人建议(Gino, Brooks, & Schweitzer, 2012; Jung & Young, 2012); 决策者的预期后悔情绪也同样会影响建议采纳, 采纳错误建议带来的后悔情绪会降低决策者后期的建议采纳意愿, 而忽视正确建议的后悔情绪会提高决策者后期建议采纳意愿(Tzini & Jain, 2017); de Hooge, Verlegh和Tzioti (2014)则发现, 决策者的归因方式影响了情绪和建议采纳的关系, 他人归因时积极情绪(感激)比消极情绪(生气)更利于建议采纳; 而当自我归因时, 出现了反转现象, 消极情绪(内疚)比积极情绪(骄傲)更利于建议采纳.情绪影响建议采纳的认知机制是学者们一直热衷的研究课题, 但从信息加工的角度探讨焦虑情绪的研究尚存在争议, 焦虑对建议采纳的认知加工机制有待进一步明确(朱月龙, 张开华, 段锦云, 2017).

早期有关权力如何影响建议采纳的研究一致发现, 相比于低权力者, 高权力者更不易采纳他人建议, 因为高权力者更加自信, 更容易忽视和不信任他人(Mourali & Yang, 2013; See, Morrison, Rothman, & Soll, 2011; Tost, Gino, & Larrick, 2012, 2013).近来的研究从认知角度对此结论提出了质疑, de Wit, Scheepers, Ellemers, Sassenbegr和Scholl (2017)从权力的建构角度探讨了权力对建议采纳的影响, 发现将权力看作机会的个体更不容易采纳建议, 而将权力看作责任的个体则更倾向于采纳他人建议.还有研究发现, 睡眠剥夺(24小时不闭眼睡觉)者更易采纳建议(Häusser, Leder, Ketturat, Dresler, & Faber, 2016), 从认知的角度来解释, 睡眠不足会损害认知功能, 从而损害个体的注意力和记忆力, 导致认知加工水平降低(Lim & Dinges, 2010), 从而盲从建议.

随着网络技术的不断发展和普及, 越来越多的人开始在网上咨询专业意见, Nguyen, Dabbish和Kiesler (2015)发现, 在个人主页上展示建议者在此领域的工作活动时, 能提高其可信度, 继而促进他人的建议采纳; 而主页上只呈现与工作无关的活动时, 建议采纳程度则会降低.但在控制两位建议者的可信度之后, 在个人主页上展示与工作无关的活动时也能促进建议采纳, 这可能是在可信度明确且相同的情况下, 其他无关信息的展示提高了决策者对建议者的熟悉和了解, 从而促进建议采纳; 也有研究发现, 决策者认为高解释水平的建议者更像专家, 更具能力, 也更喜欢他们的建议(Reyt, Wiesenfeld, & Trope, 2016), 这些研究都表明, 建议者方面的微妙线索特征有助于决策者形成对建议者的整体判断, 并影响最终的建议采纳程度(Reyt, Batia, & Trope, 2016; 孙露莹, 陈琳, 段锦云, 2017).

由此可见, 近年来学者们开始聚焦个体认知差异来探讨建议采纳的影响因素, 这无疑有助于拓展建议采纳领域研究, 也促使更多的研究者关注比个体差异更深层的认知因素.

3 建议采纳认知机制模型建构及理论基础

上述以往研究从微观视角阐述了以往实证研究结果, 那么建议采纳中的认知机制或理论如何?本部分将结合行为决策领域的相关认知理论, 包括态度改变理论,解释水平理论,具身认知理论和认知失调理论, 对建议采纳的认知过程进行分析和阐述, 并尝试建构建议采纳的认知机制模型, 以期获得宏观层面的整体理解.

3.1 态度改变理论

态度改变指在接受某一信息的影响后, 个体对事物已经形成的态度会产生相应变化.态度改变理论认为, 当后期获得的信息与自己早前的意愿相差甚远时, 个体往往都会坚持自己的看法(Sherman & Cohen, 2010).因此, 在做决策时, 个体倾向于坚持自己的初始观点, 并且随着建议和决策者初始观点的差距增大, 建议被赋予的权重会随之降低.态度改变的解释机制是基于认知加工系统, 早期的认知加工系统主要包括双系统模型和精细加工可能性模型 (the elaboration likelihood model, ELM).双系统模型包括基于直觉的启发式系统和基于理性的分析式系统.在启发式系统中, 信息加工特点表现为速度快,自动化的,内隐的,欠考虑的; 而在分析式系统中, 信息加工特点表现为速度慢,受控制的,有意识的,基于规则的,深思熟虑的(Kahneman, 2003; Kruglanski & Gigerenzer, 2011).与此不同, ELM提出用信息加工的中心路线和边缘路线来解释态度改变.中心路线(central route)指个体通过详细的认知加工过程, 对信息进行深度加工, 仔细思考和评判信息以及分析周边线索; 边缘路线(peripheral route)则类似于启发式系统, 对信息加工较粗糙, 通过捷径快速的发生态度改变.

不论是双加工模型还是精细加工可能性模型, 都依赖于信息加工深度和决策者的认知能力及认知资源的投入, 当个体具有较强的认知动机和能力时, 倾向于采用分析式或中心路线加工信息, 加工速度慢, 需要投入更多的认知资源; 而当个体认知动机和能力均不强时, 更多采用启发式或边缘路线加工速度快, 需要较少的认知资源.不同的加工方式影响着个体的态度改变和最终决策.如Lim和Dinges (2010)基于认知加工模型探讨建议采纳的认知机制, 他们认为那些影响建议采纳的因素会降低或提高个体的认知加工水平, 在此理论基础上, Pfundmair, Aydin和Frey (2016)等人发现相比那些被接纳的个体, 被他人排斥过的个体更容易被低质量的信息说服, 这可能是因为排斥经历导致了认知缺陷, 使个体缺乏认知动机, 在决策过程中, 更依赖外界信息, 而不过多的评估建议质量, 从而提高建议采纳.

3.2 解释水平理论

解释水平是个体认知表征的一个重要描述符号, 认知表征可以由低解释水平到高解释水平进行组织.该理论认为, 从语言风格能够推断出 其解释水平(Vallacher & Wegner, 1989).Reyt和Wiesenfeld (2015)认为通过评估人们对活动的描述可以判断他们的解释水平, 低解释水平注重事情如何做(how); 高解释水平注重为什么要这么做(why) (Trope & Liberman, 2010).人们的心理表征是从低解释水平到高解释水平的连续体, 高解释水平会使个体与情境的心理距离更远(Trope & Liberman, 2010).

先前研究表明建议者和决策者心理倾向会影响建议采纳(Danziger, Montal, & Barkan, 2012).Danziger等(2012)发现, 由于他们与决策的心理距离更远, 建议者对问题的陈述往往比决策者更抽象.van Swol和Sniezek (2005)提出建议采纳取决于决策者对建议者的评价, 有研究发现语言抽象性与他人对自己能力的认知密切相关(Wakslak, Smith, & Han, 2014; Palmeira, 2015).Reyt等人(2016)从建议者解释水平的角度研究其对建议采纳的影响, 结果发现, 高解释水平的建议者更可能被认为是专家, 更有能力, 其建议也就更容易被采纳.这也证明了建议者的解释水平影响了决策者对其的认知, 从而影响了建议采纳.

3.3 具身认知理论

具身认知理论(embodied cognition theory)认为身体的形态结构,感觉系统,运动系统以及 表征身体的神经系统均会影响人们的认知加工(Glenberg, 2010; Goldman & de Vignemont, 2009).简而言之, 认知是我们的身体,大脑同环境相互作用的结果(Borkent, 2015), 也就是说, 我们的一颦一笑, 甚至温度的变化等都会影响到我们对事物的认知加工.有研究发现在让被试进行书面自我报告时, 相比于在结尾处签名, 在开头处签名能够减少被试不诚实的报告(Shu, Mazar, Gino, Ariely, & Bazerman, 2012); 除此之外, 咖啡温度(温热vs冰冷)会影响到个体对他人友善程度的感知(Williams & Bargh, 2008), 但这种影响会受到双方关系性质的调节, 具体表现为当对方是假想的竞争对手时, 相比于手握冰冷咖啡, 手握温热咖啡的被试认为其对手更友善, 而当对方是假想的合作伙伴时, 咖啡温度对搭档友善度的感知影响并不显著(Citron & Goldberg, 2014).这可能是因为人们对温度和友善的认知是有共同特征的, 友善的人具备温暖的特质, 所以温热的咖啡能够提高个体对他人友善的感知, 而冰冷恰恰相反.这也说明了感觉系统影响了我们的认知加工(Kaspar, Krapp, & König, 2015).基于建议者的善意程度与建议采纳是正向关系(张艳梅, 杜修芳, 王修欣, 2015), 我们可以推测, 如果建议者在提建议前递给决策者一杯温热的咖啡, 会促使决策者对其做出更友善的评价, 从而促进建议采纳, 未来研究可以进一步去验证两者的关系.

3.4 认知失调理论

认知失调理论(cognitive dissonance)最早由Festinger提出, 该理论认为在一般情况下, 人们往往会因为生活中的各种不一致而感到难受, 为了能将这种不一致的失调感受调节到最低, 人们往往会努力去减少这些不协调, 寻求一种稳定的感受.因此, 当自己原有的认知信念和后期获得的信息不符的时候, 就会体验到认知失调(Festinger, 1957).认知失调理论自提出以来备受青睐, 也被广泛的应用到行为决策领域, 用来解释态度产生和行为改变(Hinojosa, Gardner, Walker, Cogliser, & Gullifor, 2017).在 JAS系统中, 当人们感知到建议和早期的成本不符时, 认知就会产生失调, 人们很可能将建议视为有价值的, 以此来调节自己的认知失调, 这也就解释了那些即使很平庸的付费建议也更容易被采纳的原因.如前所述, 段锦云等(2014)发现在公开场合下建议人们参加无报酬的活动时, 启动决策者正面自我标签能够促进建议采纳, 其原因在于启动正面标签后, 决策者对自己的形象产生了一个积极的认知, 相比于参加无报酬活动的建议, 人们更喜欢采纳让其参加有报酬活动的建议, 因此对于参与无报酬活动的建议, 人们的潜在认知是不想采纳的, 但由于在公开的场合下, 又被贴上了正面标签, 此时就会出现认知失调, 为了维护好自己的正面形象, 决策者可能会改变自己的态度和行为, 从而增加建议采纳.

综上所述, 态度改变,解释水平,具身认知和认知失调理论都是基于个体的认知加工方式来探讨建议采纳的发生机制.此外, Sniezek, Schrah和Dalal (2004)的研究验证了心理契约在建议采纳中的作用, 他们通过操控建议者知识和金钱报酬分配时间, 使其产生心理契约, 结果发现心理契约对于建议采纳程度和决策质量有着显著的影响.沉没成本是指由过去的决策带来的现在或将来都无法改变决策的成本, 我们把这些已经发生不可收回的支出, 称为沉没成本效应(Thaler, 1980).如果在决策之前, 对建议投入了成本, 即使建议质量不高, 决策者也会倾向于采纳有成本的建议(Gino, 2008), 与沉没成本相吻合.虽然心理契约理论与沉没成本理论分别从社会交换的角度和对成本和收益衡量的角度解释建议采纳的发生机制, 但并未过多涉及深层次的认知加工, 在此就不过多赘述.

整合以往研究可发现, 在理解建议采纳的认知机制中, 信息的作用十分关键, 不论是认知风格,社会认知复杂性,认知策略还是情绪, 本质上都是通过影响信息的产生,传递,接受与分析过程而作用于建议采纳.包括态度改变理论在内的理论解释, 也是对决策过程中的信息进行有所偏重的整合分析.结合对已有文献的梳理以及对相关理论的阐述, 我们初步构建了建议采纳认知机制模型, 见图1.

图1

图1   建议采纳的认知机制模型


首先, 决策者本身的认知特征会影响到信息加工方式, 例如场依存型认知方式或认知复杂性低的个体多采用启发式(边缘路线)分析和评估信息, 而场独立型和认知复杂性高的个体多采用分析式(中心路线)分析和评估信息; 此外, Duan, Xia和van Swol (2018)发现, 低认知需要的决策者更容易采纳包含表情符号的建议, 这也进一步说明, 在决策过程中, 低认知动机的决策者其认知加工走的是边缘路线, 决策者容易被一些表面特征所吸引, 如信息源特征,情感线索,表情符号等(Till & Michael, 2000; Tormala, Brinol, & Pett, 2006), 从而促进建议采纳.

其次, 决策者的情绪,权力以及社会经历等也会影响到自身的认知动机以及对建议内容或建议者的认知评价, 从而影响建议采纳; 情绪和认知是双向互动的, 除了外在的情境特征会引发不同情绪外, 个体的认知动机,能力等同样会影响到决策时的情绪, 而情绪也会反过来影响决策者的认知动机和能力及进一步的信息加工等, 除此之外, 情绪也可能直接作用于建议采纳.

从建议者的角度来说, 其认知方式会影响建议提出(经验型vs.分析型), 解释水平以及个人信息的展示会影响决策者对其专业性和可信度的评估, 进而影响建议采纳.不难发现, 不管是来自于建议者还是决策者的认知特征以及情绪, 都共同作用于认知评估过程, 最终影响建议采纳.

4 总结与展望

建议采纳的认知因素远不止这些, 从以上的归纳中可发现, 仍然有许多疑问在过去的研究中并没有解释清楚.在未来研究中, 可以进一步深入分析并完善模型, 例如, 决策者的认知闭合需要,认知灵活性与建议采纳的关系, 以及建议提出的认知机制, 等等.

4.1 认知闭合需要与建议采纳

前人研究从认知风格,认知复杂性,认知策略等角度讨论了认知对建议采纳的影响, 但目前还未有学者从认知动机的方向展开研究, 作为认知动机的认知闭合需要(need for cognitive closure)一定对建议采纳发生影响.根据Kruglanski (1993)的定义, 认知闭合需要是指个体应对模糊性和不确定性情境时表现出的快速而坚定的做出决策的动机和愿望.高认知闭合需要的个体对模糊性的容忍度较低, 会产生更多的压力和焦虑情绪, 所以即使在没有充足证据的情况下也会选择立即决策, 以此来缓解压力和焦虑; 与此相反, 低认知闭合者对模糊性的容忍程度较高, 在面对模糊性情境时产生的焦虑较轻, 不急于立刻消除不确定性, 他们会倾向于延迟做出决策, 因此具有更强烈的动机进一步搜集相关信息或者对信息进行更深入地分析和思考, 以期决策最优(Jaśko, Czernatowicz- Kukuczka, Kossowska, & Czarna, 2015).除此之外, 认知闭合还影响到人际信任, Acar-Burkay, Fennis和Warlop (2014)在其研究中发现认知闭合和人际亲密度交互影响人际信任, 相比陌生人, 高认知闭合需要者会更信任亲近的人(朋友); 但对于低认知闭合者, 人际亲密度并不影响其信任程度.那么可以推测, 在决策情境中, 高认知闭合者由于缺乏认知动机, 对问题模糊性的容忍度低, 迫切需要解决问题消除不确定感, 而倾向于采纳 建议, 未来研究可以进一步研究认知闭合对建议采纳的影响以及是否会受到人际亲密度等因素的调节.

4.2 认知灵活性与建议采纳

如前文所述, 决策者的认知策略会直接影响建议采纳, 而认知灵活性反映的是个体能够采取认知加工策略来适应变化多端的环境的能力, 所以也必然会影响决策者的行为表现.认知灵活性包含三层含义:一是在任何环境下都能意识到自己有多种选择; 二是能够灵活的适应环境; 三是坚信自己具备灵活处理事情的能力(Martin & Rubin, 1995).认知灵活性高的个体对自己的行为表现更加自信(Bandura, 1978).认知灵活性与情绪相互作用, 通常积极情绪下的个体以满意化的结果为目标, 运用自上而下的信息加工策略, 这种信息加工策略提高了发散思维能力和认知灵活性.消极情绪下的个体以最优化的结果为目标, 采用自下而上的信息加工策略, 关注环境信息的细节, 将注意力局限于当前刺激物的细节信息, 这种信 息加工策略降低了发散思维能力和认知灵活性(George & Zhou, 2002).在积极情绪的作用下, 认知灵活性也会相应地提高, 从而有利于形成正确的决策.由于高认知灵活性表现为较强的思维发散能力和注意转换能力, 从信息加工的角度来说, 认知灵活性高的个体多采用自上而下加工策略, 注意转换能力强.因此在决策环境中面对众多建议时, 高认知灵活性者对建议的信息加工和整合能力也相对较高, 可以不局限于环境信息, 从而降低了建议采纳程度.未来研究可以就此猜想进一步探讨认知灵活性与建议采纳的关系, 同时研究情绪的调节作用.

4.3 建议提出的认知机制

为了使决策最优化, 我们常常不止从一方获取建议, 当存在多个建议者时, 除了建议者本身能力外, 建议者的认知偏差也会影响到建议的质量, 从而影响建议采纳.那么在什么情况下第二建议者的存在对决策者来说是有益的, 什么时候又是不利的?Sah和Loewenstein (2015)对此展开了一系列研究, 发现当第一建议者意识到决策者有第二建议可获得时, 他们就会启动自利模式, 给出更有偏差的建议; 当第一建议者认为第二建议是低质量时, 会加剧建议偏差; 当第二建议是高质量并且容易获得时, 第一建议者会减小建议偏差.这可能是因为当有其他可获得的资源或建议时, 第一建议者的职业道德感,责任感会被忽视, 而启用自我受益模式.也就是说, 第二建议的质量和可获得性会影响到第一建议者的认知偏差, 从而启动自利模式或者道德模式, 继而影响到建议质量.

虽然真诚的,高质量的建议会提高决策质量, 但并非每一条真诚的建议都会被采纳(Sah & Loewenstein, 2014, 2015; Sah, Loewenstein, & Cain, 2013), 当建议被决策者拒绝时, 建议者的社会价值感会降低, 这会导致建议者减少亲社会行为, 并在随后的交流中给出不诚实的建议, 但如果决策者在拒绝建议时表达出感激之情, 则会减少这种效应(Belkin & Kong, 2018), 这说明决策者对建议的态度会直接影响到建议者后期建议的质量.以往研究还发现文化差异(Chentsova-Dutton & Vaughn, 2012)和情感支持(Feng, 2008)等因素都会影响建议提出(孙露莹等, 2017).未来研究还可继续探讨诸如建议者情绪,其它的环境因素等是否会影响建议者产生认知偏差, 从而提出有偏差的建议等议题.

参考文献

卜楠, 杜秀芳 . (2015).

社会认知复杂性对个体建议采纳的影响: 人际信任的中介效应.

应用心理学,21(4), 378-384.

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通过"决策者—建议者"这一经典研究范式,以162名大学生为被试,采用库格测验、人际信任量表以及硬币估计任务探讨社会认知复杂性和人际信任对建议采纳的影响。结果发现:(1)个体的社会认知复杂性水平不同,建议采纳程度也不同,认知复杂性水平低的个体更易采纳他人建议;(2)人际信任和建议采纳呈显著正相关,人际信任水平越高,建议采纳程度越高;(3)人际信任在社会认知复杂性和建议采纳的关系中起部分中介作用。因此,社会认知复杂性对建议采纳的影响是部分通过人际信任起作用的。

段锦云, 古晓花, 孙露莹 . (2016).

外显自尊,内隐自尊及其分离对建议采纳的影响.

心理学报,48(4), 371-384.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

研究探讨了外显自尊和内隐自尊及其分离对建议采纳的影响。研究1通过测量的方式来探讨外显自尊、内隐自尊以及自尊分离对建议采纳的影响;研究2通过启动高内隐自尊,进一步验证自尊分离对建议采纳的影响;研究3通过加入自我概念清晰性的测量,考察自我概念清晰性是否中介了自尊分离对建议采纳的关系。运用回归分析、Bootstrap等方法对数据进行处理,结果显示,外显自尊与建议采纳成负相关,内隐自尊与建议采纳的相关不显著;自尊分离时,建议采纳程度越高,这种现象在低外显/高内隐的自尊种类下更显著;而自我概念清晰性部分中介了自尊分离对建议采纳的影响。

段锦云, 周冉, 古晓花 . (2014).

正面自我标签对建议采纳的影响.

心理学报,46(10), 1591-1602.

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Advice taking, which is a decision-making process formulated by decision-makers with the reference of others suggestions, has become a research hotspot as the interactive process between advisers and decision-makers, and receives more attention in the field of behavioral decision making. In this study, we proposed that the labeling for decision maker is a potential predictor in the advice taking process. Specifically, whether the decision-maker takes the advice from others will be influenced effectively by the descriptions (labeling stick to the decision maker). This study assumed that labeling in advance will exert an influence on advice taking by different mechanism in different decision-making scenarios. Using widely-used udge-Advisor System (JAS) experimental model, this paper explored the influence of the prime of positive self-labeling on advice taking in three decision making scenarios which were decided by whether there are hopes to benefit or not, and whether they are public or in private. 3 studies have been done in this research in a gradually deepening logical sequence. Study 1 included preliminary and formal experiments, and used 2 (Positive Self-labeling Priming: Yes/No) 2 (Hope of Benefit: Yes/No) between-subject design to explore whether the advice taking process and the cognitive dissonance of the decision maker will be influenced by positive self-labeling in the public condition. Study 2 used between-subject design to further explore whether the prime of positive self-labeling will influence the advice taking in the private condition of the scenario that there is likely no benefit will be available. Further, study 3 explored whether the positive emotion of decision-makers will be promoted by the prime of positive self-labeling of decision makers, and whether positive meaning-finding acts as a mediator between the positive emotion and advice taking under the public condition of hopefully benefiting decision scene. The participants are university students and the number is 91 (experiment 1), 135 (experiment 2) and 96 (experiment 3) respectively. The results found that the prime of the positive self-labeling of decision makers would promote them to take the advice no matter in the hopefully benefiting decision scene or in the likely no benefit scene, but it only caused cognitive dissonance of decision makers in no- benefiting decision scene in the public condition, and there is not a significant effect on the advice taking and cognitive dissonance. It also showed that positive meaning-finding mediated the effect between the positive emotion and advice taking under the public condition of hopefully benefiting decision scene. The implications, limitations and future directions of the study were discussed as well.

段锦云, 周冉, 陆文娟, 李晶, 朱宜超 . (2013).

不同反应线索条件下调节匹配对建议采纳的影响.

心理学报,45(1), 104-113.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

研究的目的是为了探究不同反应线索条件下调节匹配对建议采纳的影响。实验中有两个反应线索:言语性反应线索(实验一)与非言语性反应线索(实验二),两个实验均采用2(调节取向:促进/防御)×2(建议策略:渴望/警惕)的混合设计。实验一、二的被试分别是81和79名在校大学生,年龄均在19~25岁之间。实验结果表明,在言语反应线索条件下,调节匹配时人们对建议的采纳程度更高;在非言语性反应线索条件下,防御取向时,调节匹配时人们显著提高了建议的采纳程度,但促进取向条件人们对建议的采纳程度无明显差异。结果表明在促进取向下非言语性反应线索对调节匹配具有干扰作用,这个结果值得进一步研究。

韩玉昌, 张健, 杨文兵 . (2014).

认知风格影响框架效应的ERP研究.

心理科学, 3, 549-554.

[本文引用: 1]

孙露莹, 陈琳, 段锦云 . (2017).

决策过程中的建议采纳:策略,影响及未来展望.

心理科学进展,25(1), 169-179.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

他人建议往往能帮助决策者提高决策质量,但大多数决策者都不能选择恰当采纳策略,即低估平均策略的效能而选择自我中心的加权策略。决策者对建议的采纳程度主要受四方面因素的影响:(1)建议特征:如建议类型和数量;(2)任务特征;(3)决策者特征:决策者的权力、情绪、自尊、认知风格及认知复杂性等,都影响着建议采纳;(4)建议者特征:如建议者和决策者相似性,建议者的自信度和可靠性都影响着建议采纳的结果。未来研究可以进一步探讨建议者权力类型、决策者评价敏感性对建议采纳的影响;表面采纳及其测量;建议提出的方式与建议评估和采纳的关系,不断丰富建议采纳研究领域。

闫婷婷, 杜秀芳, 李假 . (2014).

情绪和认知方式对个体建议采纳的影响.

心理与行为研究,12(5), 601-608.

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Two experiments were designed to explore the influence of emotions and cognitive styles on people’s advice taking. The emotions were induced by watching different movies video clips. Experiment 1 used choice task, and experiment 2 used estimation task. The results indicated that: (1) The subjects with happiness were more likely to accept other’s advice than the angry subjects. Field-dependent subjects were more likely to accept other’s advice than the field-independent subjects. Females were more likely to accept other’s advice than males. (2) In the estimation task, the degree of advice taking between the field-dependent subjects and field-independent subjects was no significant difference when they were in the state of anger, but was lower than in the state of happiness.

张艳梅, 杜秀芳, 王修欣 . (2015).

焦虑,建议者善意程度对个体建议采纳的影响.

心理科学,38(5), 1155-1161.

[本文引用: 1]

朱月龙, 张开华, 段锦云 . (2017).

建议采纳的情绪机制.

心理科学进展,25(9), 1607-1613.

[本文引用: 1]

Acar-Burkay S., Fennis B. M., & Warlop L . (2014).

Trusting others: The polarization effect of need for closure.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(4), 719-35.

URL     PMID:25111303      Magsci    

Because trust-related issues inherently involve uncertainty, we expected individuals’ social-cognitivemotivation to manage uncertainty—which is captured by their need for closure—to influence their levelof trust in others. Through the results of 6 studies, we showed that higher need for closure was relatedto more polarized trust judgments (i.e., low trust in distant others and high trust in close others) in thecase of both chronic and situational need for closure. Moreover, participants with high need for closuredid not revise their level of trust when they received feedback about the trustees’ actual trustworthiness,whereas participants with low need for closure did. Overall, our findings indicate that polarized (eitherhigh or low, as opposed to moderate) and persistent levels of trust may serve people’s seizing andfreezing needs for achieving cognitive closure.Keywords: need for closure, trust, uncertainty, interpersonal closeness

Armstrong S. J., Cools E., & Sadler-Smith E . (2012).

Role of cognitive styles in business and management: Reviewing 40 years of research.

International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(3), 238-262.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In line with increased attention on the application of cognitive approaches to industrial, work and organizational psychology, the last 40 years have witnessed a growing interest in application of the cognitive style construct to the field of business and management. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we wish to advance understanding of cognitive styles research by elucidating trends and perspectives related to business and management. Second, we identify gaps in the literature and promising areas of research that can be further developed. This is accomplished by means of a review of papers published between 1969 and 2009. Eight themes emerged from our analysis: (a) vocational and occupational issues; (b) national culture; (c) teamwork and interpersonal relationships; (d) learning; (e) decision making; (f) creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship; (g) sales and marketing; and (h) management information systems, information management and use. Third, we identify valid and reliable methods of assessment of cognitive style for use in business and management settings. Finally we draw a number of conclusions regarding the current state of cognitive styles research and promising directions for future research.

Bandura A. . (1978).

Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.

Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1(4), 139-161.

URL     PMID:847061      [本文引用: 1]

Elsevier’s Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature. Search and access research from the science, technology, medicine, social sciences and arts and humanities fields.

Barham B. L., Chavas J. P., Fitz D., & Schechter L . (2018).

Receptiveness to advice, cognitive ability, and technology adoption.

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 149, 239-268.

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We construct a model of technology adoption with agents differing on two dimensions: their cognitive ability and their receptiveness to advice. While cognitive ability unambiguously speeds adoption, receptiveness to advice may speed adoption for individuals with low cognitive ability, but slow adoption for individuals with high cognitive ability. We conduct economic experiments measuring US farmers cognitive ability and receptiveness to advice and examine how these characteristics impact their speed of adoption of genetically modified (GM) corn seeds. The empirical analysis shows that early adopters are those who are both quite able cognitively and not receptive to advice.

Belkin L.Y., &Kong D.T . (2018).

Implications of advice rejection in repeated exchanges: Advisor responses and advisee gratitude expression as a buffer.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 78, 181-194.

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Using interpersonal theory as a framework and drawing upon sociometer theory and emotions as social information (EASI) model, we examine the implications of advice rejection in repeated advising exchanges. In five experiments ( n 62=621788), we identified an advisor's reduced social worth as an intermediary mechanism explaining how an advisee's rejection (vs. acceptance) of previous advice could reduce the advisor's prosocial motivation toward the advisee and lead to dishonest (vs. honest) advice giving in a subsequent advising exchange. The advisee's gratitude expression, compared to neutral/no expression and ingratitude expression, served as a buffer, which elevated an advisor's social worth in the condition of advice rejection. The findings were robust, whether the second advising exchange involved conflict of interest or not.

Brooks A. W., Gino F., & Schweitzer M. E . (2015).

Smart people ask for (my) advice.

Management Science, 61(6), 1421-1435.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Although individuals can derive substantial benefits from exchanging information and ideas, many individuals are reluctant to seek advice from others. We find that people are reticent to seek advice for fear of appearing incompetent. This fear, however, is misplaced. We demonstrate that individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent than those who do not seek advice. This effect is moderated by task difficulty, advisor egocentrism, and advisor expertise. Individuals perceive those who seek advice as more competent when the task is difficult than when it is easy, when people seek advice from them personally than when they seek advice from others, and when people seek advice from experts than from non-experts or not at all.

Chentsova-Dutton Y.E., & Vaughn A. (2012).

Let me tell you what to do: Cultural differences in advice-giving.

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(5), 687-703.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Although few decisions are made without seeking advice, advice can challenge the autonomy of its recipient. As a result, it is viewed as potentially intrusive and is enacted cautiously. In part, these findings may reflect European American culture, which fosters respect for personal autonomy. Cultural models of social relationships can affect advice-giving. In contrast to European American cultural context, Russian cultural context fosters an emphasis on practical interdependence. Because advice can promote the exchange of practical information, it is viewed as helpful and is enacted freely. In three studies, we have compared advice-giving across groups from European American and Russian cultural contexts (European Americans, Russians living in Russia, and Russian Americans). Russians living in Russia were more likely than European Americans to give advice, particularly practical advice; less likely to modulate their advice-giving based on whether or not it was solicited; and more likely to describe advice as characteristic of supportive relationships. Together, these studies suggest that advice-giving is a culturally embedded behavior. Cultural models of social relationships can promote unsolicited advice, a seemingly intrusive form of social support, as a way to share information and connect with others.

Citron F. M.M., &Goldberg A.E . (2014).

Social context modulates the effect of physical warmth on perceived interpersonal kindness: A study of embodied metaphors.

Language & Cognition, 6(1), 1-11.

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abstract Physical contact with hot vs. iced coffee has been shown to affect evaluation of the personal warmth or kindness of a hypothetical person (Williams & Bargh, 2008). In three studies, we investigated whether the manipulation of social context can modulate the activation of the metaphorical mapping, kindness as warmth. After priming participants with warm vs. cold temperature, we asked them to evaluate a hypothetical ad-hoc ally or adversary on the kindness dimension, as well as on other qualities used as a control. We expected more extreme evaluations of kindness in the adversary than in the ally condition, and no effects on other ratings. We thus replicated the classical effect of physical warmth on kindness ratings and generalized it to a German-speaking population. In addition, when the two German studies were combined, we found evidence suggesting a contextual modulation of the temperature effect: only out-group members, namely adversaries, were judged as more kind when participants had experienced physical warmth; the effect was not evident in the ally (i.e., in-group) condition. These studies suggest that context can modulate metaphorical activation; they therefore represent an initial attempt to add nuance to our understanding of when embodied metaphors affect our decisions.

Comes T., & Schwabe G. (2016).

How to diminish advice discounting with mobile multimedia interventions.

European Conference on Information Systems.

[本文引用: 1]

Danziger S., Montal R., & Barkan R . (2012).

Idealistic advice and pragmatic choice: A psychological distance account.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(6), 1105-1117.

URL     PMID:22268816      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In 6 studies, we found that advice is more idealistic than choice in decisions that trade off idealistic and pragmatic considerations. We propose that because advisers are more psychologically distant from the choosers' decision problem, they construe the dilemma at a higher construal level than do choosers (Trope & Liberman, 2003, 2010). Consequently, advisers are more influenced by idealistic considerations that are salient at a high-level construal, whereas choosers are more influenced by pragmatic considerations that are salient at a low-level construal. Consistent with this view, Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that compared with choosers, advisers weigh idealistic considerations more heavily and pragmatic considerations less heavily, place greater emphasis on ends (why) than on means to achieve the end (how), and generate more reasons (pros) in favor of acting idealistically. Studies 3 and 4 provide converging support for our account by demonstrating that making advisers focus on a lower construal level results in more pragmatic recommendations. In Study 3, we manufactured more pragmatic recommendations by priming a low-level implementation mind-set in a purportedly unrelated task, whereas in Study 4 we did so by reducing advisers' psychological distance from the dilemma by asking them to consider what they would choose in the situation. The results of Study 4 suggest advisers do not spontaneously consider self-choice. Finally, in Studies 5 and 6, we demonstrate the choice-advice difference in consequential real-life decisions. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

de Hooge I. E., Verlegh P. W. J., & Tzioti S. C . (2014).

Emotions in advice taking: The roles of agency and valence.

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27(3), 246-258.

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Recently, advice taking has received attention in decision-making research, and some studies suggest that emotions may play a role in this process. Yet a clear account of how emotions influence advice taking is lacking. The current research introduces a parsimonious explanation by suggesting that such effects can be predicted on the basis of two emotion dimensions: valence (positivity or negativity) and agency (self-focused versus other-focused). In five experiments with different emotion inductions and different measures for advice taking, the effects of positive emotions such as gratitude and pride and of negative emotions such as anger and shame on advice taking were studied. The findings reveal that emotion valence and agency exert an influence on advice taking and that this interaction effect is mediated by the perceived ability of the advisor. Together, these findings provide a unique theoretical and empirical contribution to our understanding of emotions in advice taking.

Dewberry C., Juanchich M., & Narendran S . (2013).

Decision-making competence in everyday life: The roles of general cognitive styles, decision-making styles and personality.

Personality and Individual Differences, 55(7), 783-788.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research indicates that decision-making competence in everyday life is associated with certain decision-making styles. The aims of this article are to extend this research by examining (a) the extent to which general cognitive styles explain variance in decision-making competence over and above decision-making styles, and (b) the extent to which personality explains variance in decision-making competence over and above both types of style variable. Participants (N=355) completed measures of everyday decision-making competence (Decision Outcomes Inventory), decision styles (Decision Style Questionnaire; Maximization Inventory), cognitive styles (the Cognitive Styles Inventory; Rational-Experience Inventory), and the Big Five personality variables (IPIP Big-Five factor scales). The results indicate that cognitive styles offer no incremental validity over decision-making styles in predicting decision-making competence, but that personality does offer substantial incremental validity over general cognitive styles and decision-making styles. Jointly decision-making styles and personality account for a substantial amount of variance in everyday decision-making competence.

de Wit, F. R. C. ScheepersD., Ellemers N., Sassenberg K., & Scholl A . (2017).

Whether power holders construe their power as responsibility or opportunity influences their tendency to take advice from others.

Journal of Organizational Behavior. 38(7), 923-949. DOI: 10.1002/ job.2171.

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Empirical evidence suggests that power elicits a generic tendency to disregard advice. We examined different responses power holders may show in their tendency to take advice depending on the construal...

Duan J. Y., Xia X. T ., & van Swol, L. M. (2018).

Emoticons' influence on advice taking.

Computers in Human Behavior, 79, 53-58.

Feng B. . (2009).

Testing an integrated model of advice giving in supportive interactions.

Human Communication Research, 35(1), 115-129.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Untersuchung eines integrativen Modells des Ratschlag-Gebens in unterstützenden Interaktionen

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

[本文引用: 2]

George J.M., & Zhou J. (2002).

Understanding when bad moods foster creativity and good ones don't: The role of context and clarity of feelings.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 687-697.

URL     PMID:12184573      [本文引用: 1]

Using a mood-as-input model, the authors identified conditions under which negative moods are positively related, and positive moods are negatively related, to creative performance. Among a sample of workers in an organizational unit charged with developing creative designs and manufacturing techniques, the authors hypothesized and found that negative moods were positively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creative performance and clarity of feelings (a metamood process) were high. The authors also hypothesized and found that positive moods were negatively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creativity and clarity of feelings were high.

Gino F. . (2008).

Do we listen to advice just because we paid for it? The impact of advice cost on its use.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 107(2), 234-245.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

When facing a decision, people often rely on advice received from others. Previous studies have shown that people tend to discount others’ opinions. Yet, such discounting varies according to several factors. This paper isolates one of these factors: the cost of advice. Specifically, three experiments investigate whether the cost of advice, independent of its quality, affects how people use advice. The studies use the Judge–Advisor System (JAS) to investigate whether people value advice from others more when it costs money than when it is free, and examine the psychological processes that could account for this effect. The results show that people use paid advice significantly more than free advice and suggest that this effect is due to the same forces that have been documented in the literature to explain the sunk costs fallacy. Implications for circumstances under which people value others’ opinions are discussed.

Gino F., Brooks A. W., & Schweitzer M. E . (2012).

Anxiety, advice, and the ability to discern: Feeling anxious motivates individuals to seek and use advice.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(3), 497-512.

URL     PMID:22121890      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Across 8 experiments, the influence of anxiety on advice seeking and advice taking is described. Anxious individuals are found to be more likely to seek and rely on advice than are those in a neutral emotional state (Experiment 1), but this pattern of results does not generalize to other negatively valenced emotions (Experiment 2). The relationships between anxiety and advice seeking and anxiety and advice taking are mediated by self-confidence; anxiety lowers self-confidence, which increases advice seeking and reliance upon advice (Experiment 3). Although anxiety also impairs information processing, impaired information processing does not mediate the relationship between anxiety and advice taking (Experiment 4). Finally, anxious individuals are found to fail to discriminate between good and bad advice (Experiments 5a-5c), and between advice from advisors with and without a conflict of interest (Experiment 6).

Gino F., &Moore D.A . (2007).

Effects of task difficulty on use of advice.

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20(1), 21-35.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Although prior studies have found that people generally underweight advice from others, such discounting of advice is not universal. Two studies examined the impact of task difficulty on the use of advice. In both studies, the strategy participants used to weigh advice varied with task difficulty even when it should not have. In particular, the results show that people tend to overweight advice on difficult tasks and underweight advice on easy tasks. This pattern held regardless of whether advice was automatically provided or whether people had to seek it out. The paper discusses implications for the circumstances under which people will be open to influence by advisors. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Glenberg A.M . (2010).

Embodiment as a unifying perspective for psychology.

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1(4), 586-596.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Adaptive action is the function of cognition. It is constrained by the properties of evolved brains and bodies. An embodied perspective on social psychology examines how biological constrains give expression to human function in socially situated contexts. Key contributions in social psychology have highlighted the interface between the body and cognition, but theoretical development in social psychology and embodiment research remain largely disconnected. The current special issue reflects on recent developments in embodiment research. Commentaries from complementary perspectives connect them to social psychological theorizing. The contributions focus on the situatedness of social cognition in concrete interactions, and the implementation of cognitive processes in modal instead of amodal representations. The proposed perspectives are highly compatible, suggesting that embodiment can serve as a unifying perspective for psychology. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Goldman A., & de Vignemont F. (2009).

Is social cognition embodied?

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(4), 154.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

<p id="simple-para0030">Theories of embodied cognition abound in the literature, but it is often unclear how to understand them. We offer several interpretations of embodiment, the most interesting being the thesis that mental representations in bodily formats (B-formats) have an important role in cognition. Potential B-formats include motoric, somatosensory, affective and interoceptive formats. The literature on mirroring and related phenomena provides support for a limited-scope version of embodied social cognition under the B-format interpretation. It is questionable, however, whether such a thesis can be extended. We show the limits of embodiment in social cognition.</p>

Guadagno R.E., &Burger J.M . (2007).

Self-concept clarity and responsiveness to false feedback.

Social Influence, 2(3), 159-177.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We examined the extent to which people high and low in helpful and honest self‐concept clarity use labeling to guide decisions about their behavior. High helpful self‐concept clarity participants in Experiment 1 who received feedback indicating they were helpful were more likely to assist a confederate who dropped some pamphlets than were those not receiving this feedback. Low helpful self‐concept clarity participants showed no change in behavior as a result of the labeling. A similar pattern was found in Experiment 2 when participants received feedback indicating they were high in honesty and then presented with an opportunity to admit they received too many credits for their participation. In a partial replication of the first experiment, high helpful self‐concept clarity participants in Experiment 3 rated themselves as more helpful after receiving the feedback, but low helpful self‐concept clarity participants did not. The pattern across all three experiments suggests people with a clear, well‐articulated self‐concept are more likely to rely on self information to guide their behavior than those low on this personality dimension. The implication for social influence researchers is that this is an individual difference characteristic that moderates susceptibility to labeling techniques.

Häusser J. A., Leder J., Ketturat C., Dresler M., & Faber N. S . (2016).

Sleep deprivation and advice taking.

Scientific Reports, 6, 24386.

URL     PMID:4843001      [本文引用: 1]

Incorporating input from others can enhance decision quality, yet often people do not effectively utilize advice. We propose that greater power increases the propensity to discount advice, and that a key mechanism explaining this effect is elevated confidence in one’s judgment. We investigate the relationships across four studies: a field survey where working professionals rated their own... [Show full abstract]

Hinojosa A. S., Gardner W. L., Walker H. J., Cogliser C., & Gullifor D . (2017).

A review of cognitive dissonance theory in management research: Opportunities for further development.

Journal of Management, 43(1), 170-199.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Jaśko K., Czernatowicz-Kukuczka A., Kossowska M., & Czarna A.Z . (2015).

Individual differences in response to uncertainty and decision making: The role of behavioral inhibition system and need for closure.

Motivation and Emotion, 39(4), 541-552.

URL     PMID:4508368      [本文引用: 1]

In two studies, we examined the influence of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and need for closure (NFC) on information processing in decision making. We expected that BIS would regulate behavior in a decisional context and that this relationship would be mediated by epistemic motivation expressed by NFC. In addition, drawing on contradictory findings in the literature on anxiety, NFC, and information processing, we investigated the moderating role of decision rules. The results supported our predictions. BIS was strongly and positively related to NFC, and through NFC it was related to decision-making style. Moreover, decision task characteristics moderated the relationship between NFC and decision making. When a task did not offer a confident decision rule, high NFC participants prolonged the information search more than low NFC individuals. However, when a reliable strategy was suggested, high NFC participants behaved in line with it. These results are discussed within an uncertainty management framework.

Jung H., &Young M.J . (2012).

The de-biasing effect of incidental anger on other-provided anchors.

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25(5), 435-442.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/bdm.739

Kahneman D. . (2003).

A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality.

American Psychologist, 58(9), 697-720.

URL     PMID:14584987      [本文引用: 2]

Early studies of intuitive judgment and decision making conducted with the late Amos Tversky are reviewed in the context of two related concepts: an analysis of accessibility, the ease with which thoughts come to mind; a distinction between effortless intuition and deliberate reasoning. Intuitive thoughts, like percepts, are highly accessible. Determinants and consequences of accessibility help explain the central results of prospect theory, framing effects, the heuristic process of attribute substitution, and the characteristic biases that result from the substitution of nonextensional for extensional attributes. Variations in the accessibility of rules explain the occasional corrections of intuitive judgments. The study of biases is compatible with a view of intuitive thinking and decision making as generally skilled and successful.

Kaspar K., Krapp V., & König P . (2015).

Hand washing induces a clean slate effect in moral judgments: A pupillometry and eye-tracking study.

Scientifc Reports, 5, 10471. doi: 10.1038/srep10471

URL     PMID:25994083      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the "Macbeth effect" direct links between bodily cleansing and one's own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon.

Kausel E. E., Culbertson S. S., Leiva P. I., Slaughter J. E., & Jackson A. T . (2015).

Too arrogant for their own good? Why and when narcissists dismiss advice.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 131, 33-50.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Advice taking is central to making better decisions, but some individuals seem unwilling to use advice. The present research examined the relationship between narcissism and advice taking. In particular, we studied the mechanisms that explain why narcissists are dismissive of advice. In three studies, we found that narcissism and advice taking were negatively related, but only when measuring narcissism at the state level or when controlling for extraversion at the trait level. We also tested two mechanisms and found that confidence did not mediate the relationship; disregard for others did. In Study 4, participants were placed under different accountability pressures to affect self-enhancement. Results showed that the narcissism dvice taking relationship was strongly negative under process accountability. Taken together, these results suggest that narcissists eschew advice not because of greater confidence, but because they think others are incompetent and because they fail to reduce their self-enhancement when expecting to be assessed.

Kramer M.M . (2016).

Financial literacy, confidence and financial advice seeking.

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 131, 198-217.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households. We base these findings on the analysis of two rich data sources from the Netherlands: the DNB Household survey and a sample of investors from a large Dutch retail bank. Our results imply that policy makers should be careful to put financial advice forward as a mechanism to curb the ill effects of low financial literacy and that steering people towards more accurate self-assessments seems a more promising route.

Kruglanski A. W., Webster D. M., & Klem A . (1993).

Motivated resistance and openness to persuasion in the presence or absence of prior information.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 861-876.

URL     PMID:8246114     

Abstract Three experiments investigated the relation between need for cognitive closure and persuasion. In the 1st study, Ss high on an individual-differences measure of need for closure were more resistant to persuasion by their low need-for-closure counterparts than vice versa. In the 2nd study, Ss in a noisy environment, assumed to instill a relatively high need for closure, were more resistant to persuasion than Ss in a quiet environment, but only in presence of an initial informational base for an opinion. In its absence, Ss in the noisy (vs. quiet) environment were less resistant to persuasion. The interaction between need for closure and informational base was replicated in the 3rd experiment reverting to the individual-differences measure of need for closure. The discussion considered implications of these findings for further persuasion phenomena.

Kruglanski A.W., & Gigerenzer G. (2011).

Intuitive and deliberative judgments are based on common principles.

Psychological Review, 118(1), 97-109.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between intuitive and deliberate judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic, and rational processes (assumed to characterize deliberate judgments). In contrast, we provide convergent arguments and evidence for a unified theoretical approach to both intuitive and deliberative judgments. Both are rule-based, and in fact, the very same rules can underlie both intuitive and deliberate judgments. The important open question is that of rule selection, and we propose a 2-step process in which the task itself and the individual's memory constrain the set of applicable rules, whereas the individual's processing potential and the (perceived) ecological rationality of the rule for the task guide the final selection from that set. Deliberate judgments are not generally more accurate than intuitive judgments; in both cases, accuracy depends on the match between rule and environment: the rules' ecological rationality. Heuristics that are less effortful and in which parts of the information are ignored can be more accurate than cognitive strategies that have more information and computation. The proposed framework adumbrates a unified approach that specifies the critical dimensions on which judgmental situations may vary and the environmental conditions under which rules can be expected to be successful.

Larrick R. P., Mannes A. E. , & Soll, J. B.(2012) . The social psychology of the wisdom of crowds. In J. I. Krueger (Ed.), Frontiers of social psychology: Social judgment and decision making (pp. 227-242). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Lerner J. S., Li Y., Valdesolo P., & Kassam K. S . (2015).

Emotion and decision making.

Annual Review of Psychology, 66(1), 799-823.

[本文引用: 1]

Lim J., &Dinges D.F . (2010).

A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive variables.

Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 375-389.

URL     PMID:20438143      [本文引用: 1]

A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (<48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of effect sizes in these domains is not known. To address this question, we conducted a meta-analysis to discover the effects of short-term SD on both speed and accuracy measures in 6 cognitive categories: simple attention, complex attention, working memory, processing speed, short-term memory, and reasoning. Seventy articles containing 147 cognitive tests were found that met inclusion criteria for this study. Effect sizes ranged from small and nonsignificant (reasoning accuracy: g = -0.125, 95% CI [-0.27, 0.02]) to large (lapses in simple attention: g = -0.776, 95% CI [-0.96, -0.60], p < .001). Across cognitive domains, significant differences were observed for both speed and accuracy; however, there were no differences between speed and accuracy measures within each cognitive domain. Of several moderators tested, only time awake was a significant predictor of between-studies variability, and only for accuracy measures, suggesting that heterogeneity in test characteristics may account for a significant amount of the remaining between-studies variance. The theoretical implications of these findings for the study of SD and cognition are discussed.

Lohman D.F., &Lakin J.M . (2009).

Consistencies in sex differences on the cognitive abilities test across countries, grades, test forms, and cohorts.

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(2), 389-407.

URL     PMID:18822186     

Background Strand, Deary, and Smith (2006) reported an analysis of sex differences on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) for over 320,000 UK students 1112 years old. Although mean differences were small, males were overrepresented at the upper and lower extremes of the score distributions on the quantitative and non-verbal batteries and at the lower extreme of the verbal battery.Aims We investigate whether these results were unique to the UK or whether they would be seen in other countries, at other grades, cohorts, or forms of the test.Sample The sample consisted of three nationally representative cohorts of US students in grades 3 through 11 (total N = 318,599) for the 1984, 1992, and 2000 standardizations of the US version of the CAT.Methods We replicated and extended the Strand et al. (2006) results by comparing the proportions of males and females at each score level across countries (UK vs. US), grades (311), and cohorts/test forms (Forms 4, 5, and 6 standardized in 1984, 1992, and 2000, respectively).Results The results showed an astonishing consistency in sex differences across countries, grades, cohorts, and test forms.Conclusions Implications for the current debate about sex differences in quantitative reasoning abilities are discussed.

Lohman D. F. , & Lakin, J. M.(2011). Reasoning and intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg, & S. B. Kaufman (Eds,), The Cambridge handbook of intelligence (2nd ed. pp.419-441). New York:Cambridge University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Martin M.M., &Rubin R.B . (1995).

A new measure of cognitive flexibility.

Psychological Reports, 76(2), 623-626.

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ABSTRACT Two experiments examined the reliability and validity of the Cognitive Flexibility Scale. 247 undergraduates in Exp 1 completed the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, the Communication Flexibility Scale, and the Rigidity of Attitudes Regarding Personal Habits Scale. Scores on cognitive flexibility were positively related to communication flexibility and negatively related to rigidity. Scores on communication flexibility were also negatively related to rigidity. Exp 2 tested the scale's concurrent validity. 275 undergraduates completed the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, the Interaction Involvement Scale, the Self-monitoring Scale, and the Unwillingness to Communicate Scale. Results show the Cognitive Flexibility Scale to be internally reliable and supported its construct and concurrent validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Moore C., &Tenbrunsel A.E . (2014).

“Just think about it”? Cognitive complexity and moral choice.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 123(2), 138-149.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

In this paper, we question the simplicity of the common prescription that more thinking leads to better moral choices. In three studies, we discover that the relationship between how complexly one reasons before making a decision with moral consequences is related to the outcome of that decision in a curvilinear way. Using two different moral decisions and both measuring and manipulating the level of cognitive complexity employed by the decision maker, we find that decisions made after reasoning with low and high levels of cognitive complexity are less moral than those made after reasoning at moderate levels of complexity. These results suggest that the best moral decisions are those that have been reasoned through “just enough”. Further, and at least as important, they illustrate the need to expand our study of ethical behavior beyond simple effects, and to gain a deeper understanding of the thought processes of individuals faced with moral choices.

Mourali M., & Yang Z. (2013).

Power and resistance to social influence: The moderating role of attitude certainty.

Advances in Consumer Research, 43(2), 273-277.

[本文引用: 1]

Nguyen D. T., Dabbish L. A., & Kiesler S . (2015).

The perverse effects of social transparency on online advice taking.

Paper presented at the meeting of ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing(pp.207-217). ACM.

URL    

Increasingly, the advice people receive on the Internet is socially transparent in the sense that it displays contextual information about the advice-givers or their actions. We hypothesize that activity transparency -seeing an advice giver's process while creating his or her recommendations - will increase advice taking. We report three experiments testing the effect of activity transparency on taking mediocre advice. We found that the presence of a web history increased the likelihood of following a financial advisor's advice and reduced participant earnings (Exp. 1), especially when the web history implied greater task focus (Exp. 2, 3). CSCW research usually emphasizes how to increase information sharing; this work suggests when shared information may be inappropriate. We suggest ways to counter activity transparency's potential downsides.

Norton M. I., Dunn E. W., Carney D. R., & Dan A . (2012).

The persuasive “power” of stigma?

Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 117(2), 261-268.

Palmeira M. . (2015).

Abstract language signals power, but also lack of action orientation.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 61, 59-63.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61Abstract speech has been shown to be signal power.61We show that concrete speech signals action orientation.61Power and action orientation have positive impacts on perceptions of job suitability.61Concrete speech increases suitability for entry level or operational positions.61Concrete speech may be useful even for signaling ability for managerial positions.

Pfundmair M., Aydin N., & Frey D . (2016).

Whatever? The effect of social exclusion on adopting persuasive messages.

The Journal of Social Psychology, 157(2), 181-193.

URL     PMID:27216926     

(2017). Whatever? The effect of social exclusion on adopting persuasive messages. The Journal of Social Psychology: Vol. 157, No. 2, pp. 181-193. doi: 10.1080/00224545.2016.1192098

Rader C. A., Soll J. B., & Larrick R. P . (2015).

Pushing away from representative advice: Advice taking, anchoring, and adjustment.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 130, 26-43.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Highlights 61 We explore how the sequence of advice impacts how much advice is used. 61 We call those who receive advice before forming their own opinion “dependent”. 61 Dependent advisees adjusted away from median advice (“push away effect”). 61 Our studies also found a push-away effect using a classic anchoring paradigm. 61 We discuss when push-away effects occur in advice taking and anchoring studies. Abstract Five studies compare the effects of forming an independent judgment prior to receiving advice with the effects of receiving advice before forming one’s own opinion. We call these the independent-then-revise sequence and the dependent sequence, respectively. We found that dependent participants adjusted away from advice, leading to fewer estimates close to the advice compared to independent-then-revise participants (Studies 1–5). This “push-away” effect was mediated by confidence in the advice (Study 2), with dependent participants more likely to evaluate advice unfavorably and to search for additional cues than independent-then-revise participants (Study 3). Study 4 tested accuracy under different advice sequences. Study 5 found that classic anchoring paradigms also show the push-away effect for median advice. Overall, the research shows that people adjust from representative (median) advice. The paper concludes by discussing when push-away effects occur in advice taking and anchoring studies and the value of independent distributions for observing these effects.

Reyt J.N., & Wiesenfeld B.M. (2015).

Seeing the forest for the trees: Exploratory learning, mobile technology and knowledge workers’ role integration behaviors.

Academy of Management Journal, 58(3), 739-762.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Role integration is the new workplace reality for many employees. The prevalence of mobile technologies (e.g., laptops, smartphones, tablets) that are increasingly wearable and nearly always "on" makes it difficult to keep role boundaries separate and distinct. We draw upon boundary theory and construal level theory to hypothesize that role integration behaviors shift people from thinking concretely to thinking more abstractly about their work. The results of an archival study of Enron executives' emails, two experiments, and a multi-wave field study of knowledge workers provide evidence of positive associations between role integration behaviors, higher construal level, and more exploratory learning activities.

Reyt J.N., Wiesenfeld B. M., & Trope Y . (2016).

Big picture is better: The social implications of construal level for advice taking.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 135, 22-31.

URL    

Advice taking is of growing interest to organizational scholars because it is a critical pathway for knowledge transfer and learning. Based on construal level theory, we hypothesize that high construal advisors are viewed as experts and, in turn, others are more likely to take their advice. In a field study of an online community of programmers and a laboratory experiment measuring psychological mechanisms, we find that signaling higher construal by communicating more abstractly is positively associated with expert reputation, which in turn explains others advice-taking behavior. Implications for research on the social consequences of construal level and novel antecedents of expertise and advice taking are discussed.

Sah S., & Loewenstein G. (2014).

Nothing to declare: Mandatory and voluntary disclosure leads advisors to avoid conflicts of interest.

Psychological Science, 25(2), 575-584.

URL     PMID:24379156      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Professionals face conflicts of interest when they have a personal interest in giving biased advice. Mandatory disclosure--informing consumers of the conflict--is a widely adopted strategy in numerous professions, such as medicine, finance, and accounting. Prior research has shown, however, that such disclosures have little impact on consumer behavior, and can backfire by leading advisors to give even more biased advice. We present results from three experiments with real monetary stakes. These results show that, although disclosure has generally been found to be ineffective for dealing with unavoidable conflicts of interest, it can be beneficial when providers have the ability to avoid conflicts. Mandatory and voluntary disclosure can deter advisors from accepting conflicts of interest so that they have nothing to disclose except the absence of conflicts. We propose that people are averse to being viewed as biased, and that policies designed to activate reputational and ethical concerns will motivate advisors to avoid conflicts of interest.

Sah S., & Loewenstein G. (2015).

Conflicted advice and second opinions: Benefits, but unintended consequences.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 130, 89-107.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Second opinions have been advocated as an antidote to bias in advice when primary advisors have conflicts of interest. In four experiments, we demonstrate how primary advisors alter their advice due to knowledge of the presence of a second advisor. We show that advisors give more biased advice and adopt a profit-maximizing frame when they are aware of the mere availability of a second opinion. The bias increases when primary advisors are aware that the second opinion is of low quality, and decreases when they know the second opinion is of high quality and easy to access. Both economic concerns (e.g., losing future business) and noneconomic concerns (e.g., concern that a second advisor will expose the poor quality advice) decrease bias in primary advisors advice. Based on these findings, we discuss circumstances in which second opinions are likely to be beneficial or detrimental to advice-recipients.

Sah S., Loewenstein G., & Cain D. M . (2013).

The burden of disclosure: Increased compliance with distrusted advice.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2),289-304.

URL     PMID:23088229      [本文引用: 1]

Professionals often face conflicts of interest that give them an incentive to provide biased advice, and disclosure (informing advisees about the conflict) is frequently proposed as a solution to the problem. We present 6 experiments that reveal a previously unrecognized perverse effect of disclosure: Although disclosure can decrease advisees' trust in the advice, it can also increase pressure to comply with that advice if advisees feel obliged to satisfy their advisors' personal interests. Hence, disclosure can burden those it is ostensibly intended to protect. Beyond demonstrating the effect, we show that this increased pressure to comply with advice is reduced if (a) the disclosure is provided by an external source rather than from the advisor, (b) the disclosure is not common knowledge between the advisor and advisee, (c) the advisee has an opportunity to change his/her mind later, or (d) the advisee is able to make the decision in private.

Schrah G. E., Dalal R. S., & Sniezek J. A . (2006).

No decision-maker is an island: Integrating expert advice with information acquisition.

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19(1), 43-60.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present research examined the social context of information acquisition. The main purpose was to examine how decision-makers' information acquisition processes changed when they were provided access to expert advice. Results indicated that all decision-makers opted to acquire advice; however, they typically did so only after completing over 75% of their own information search. Decision-makers agreed more with the advice as task complexity increased, but, in general, searched information in two stages - i.e., a pre-advice hypothesis generation stage and a post-advice hypothesis testing stage. To behave in an adaptive manner, decision-makers could have used expert advice either to increase their decision accuracy or to reduce their effort expenditure (or both); they chose the former. Implications and further extensions are discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schultze T., Rakotoarisoa A. F., & Schulzhardt S . (2015).

Effects of distance between initial estimates and advice on advice utilization.

Judgment and Decision Making, 10(2), 144-171.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Six experimentsinvestigated how the distance between ones initial opinion and advice relatesto advice utilization. Going beyond previous research, we relate advicedistance to both relative adjustments and absolute adjustments towards theadvice, and we also investigate a second mode of advice utilization, namelyconfidence shifts due to social validation. Whereas previous research suggeststhat advice is weighted less the more it differs from ones initial opinion, weconsistently find evidence of a curvilinear pattern. Advice is weighted lesswhen advice distance is low and when it is high. This is in particular becauseindividuals are much more likely to retain their initial opinions in the lightof near advice. Also, absolute opinion adjustments towards the advice increasesin a monotone fashion as advice distance increases. This finding is in contrastto the predictions of the theoretical framework previous studies on advicedistance are based on, social judgment theory. Instead, they data are more inline with a simple stimulus-response model suggesting that absolute adjustmentstowards the advice increase with advice distance but---potentially---withdiminished sensitivity. Finally, our data show that advice can be utilized evenwhen it receives zero weight during belief revision. The closer advice was tothe initial opinions, the more it served as a means for social validation,increasing decision-makers confidence in the accuracy of their final opinions.Thus, our findings suggest that advice utilization is a more complex functionof advice distance than previously assumed.

See K. E., Morrison E. W., Rothman N. B., & Soll J. B . (2011).

The detrimental effects of power on confidence, advice taking, and accuracy.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116(2), 272-285.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Incorporating input from others can enhance decision quality, yet often people do not effectively utilize advice. We propose that greater power increases the propensity to discount advice, and that a key mechanism explaining this effect is elevated confidence in one judgment. We investigate the relationships across four studies: a field survey where working professionals rated their own power and confidence and were rated by coworkers on their level of advice taking; an advice taking task where power and confidence were self-reported; and two advice taking experiments where power was manipulated. Results consistently showed a negative relationship between power and advice taking, and evidence of mediation through confidence. The fourth study also revealed that higher power participants were less accurate in their final judgments. Power can thus exacerbate the tendency for people to overweight their own initial judgment, such that the most powerful decision makers can also be the least accurate.

Sherman D.K., &Cohen G.L . (2002).

Accepting threatening information: Self-affirmation and the reduction of defensive biases.

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(4), 119-123.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Why do people resist evidence that challenges the validity of long-held beliefs? And why do they persist mal-adaptive behavior even when persuasive information or personal experience recommends change? We argue that such defensive tendencies are driven, in large part, by a fundamental motivation to protect the perceived worth and integrity of the self. Studies of social-political debate, health-risk assessment, and responses to team victory or defeat have shown that people respond to information in a less defensive and more open-minded manner when their self-worth is buttressed by an affirmation of an alternative source of identity. Self-affirmed individuals are more likely to accept information that they would otherwise view as threatening, and subsequently to change their beliefs and even their behavior in a desirable fashion. Defensive biases have an adaptive function for maintaining self-worth, but maladaptive consequences for promoting change and reducing social conflict.

Shu L. L., Mazar N., Gino F., Ariely D., & Bazerman M. H . (2012).

Signing at the beginning makes ethics salient and decreases dishonest self-reports in comparison to signing at the end.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(38), 15197.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Many written forms required by businesses and governments rely on honest reporting. Proof of honest intent is typically provided through signature at the end of, e.g., tax returns or insurance policy forms. Still, people sometimes cheat to advance their financial self-interestst great costs to society. We test an easy-to-implement method to discourage dishonesty: signing at the beginning rather than at the end of a self-report, thereby reversing the order of the current practice. Using laboratory and field experiments, we find that signing before-rather than after-the opportunity to cheat makes ethics salient when they are needed most and significantly reduces dishonesty.

Sniezek J.A., & Buckley T. (1995).

Cueing and cognitive conflict in judge-advisor decision making.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62(2), 159-174.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Downloadable (with restrictions)! Author(s): Sniezek, Janet A. & Buckley, Timothy. 1995 Abstract: No abstract is available for this item.

Sniezek J. A., Schrah G. E., & Dalal R. S . (2004).

Improving judgement with prepaid expert advice.

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 17(3), 173-190.

URL    

Abstract Decision makers (“Judges”) often make decisions after obtaining advice from an Advisor. The two parties often share a psychological “contract” about what each contributes in expertise to the decision and receives in monetary outcomes from it. In a laboratory experiment, we varied Advisor Experitise and the opportunity for monetary rewards. As expected, these manipulations influenced advice quality, advice taking, and Judge post-advice decision quality. The main contribution of the study, however, was the manipulation of the timing of monetary rewards (before or after the advising interaction). We found, as predicted, that committing money for expert—but not novice—advice increases Judges' use of advice and their subsequent estimation accuracy. Implications for advice giving and taking are discussed. Copyright 08 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Stanovich K.E., &West R.F . (2000).

Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645-726.

URL     PMID:11301544      [本文引用: 1]

Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational limitations, (3) the wrong norm being applied by the experimenter, and (4) a different construal of the task by the subject. In the debates about the viability of these alternative explanations, attention has been focused too narrowly on the model response. In a series of experiments involving most of the classic tasks in the heuristics and biases literature, we have examined the implications of individual differences in performance for each of the four explanations of the normative/descriptive gap. Performance errors are a minor factor in the gap; computational limitations underlie non-normative responding on several tasks, particularly those that involve some type of cognitive decontextualization. Unexpected patterns of covariance can suggest when the wrong norm is being applied to a task or when an alternative construal of the task should be considered appropriate.

Thaler R. . (1980).

Toward a positive theory of consumer choice.

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 1(1), 39-60.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The economic theory of the consumer is a combination of positive and normative theories. Since it is based on a rational maximizing model it describes how consumers should choose, but it is alleged to also describe how they do choose. This paper argues that in certain well-defined situations many consumers act in a manner that is inconsistent with economic theory. In these situations economic theory will make systematic errors in predicting behavior. Kanneman and Tversey's prospect theory is proposed as the basis for an alternative descriptive theory. Topics discussed are: undeweighting of opportunity costs, failure to ignore sunk costs, scarch behavior choosing not to choose and regret, and precommitment and self-control.

Till B.D., & Michael B. (2000).

The match-up hypothesis: Physical attractiveness, expertise, and the role of fit on brand attitude, purchase intent and brand beliefs.

Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 1-13.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Two studies are presented that examine the role of attractiveness and expertise in the "match-up hypothesis." Much "match-up hypothesis" research has focused on physical attractiveness. Study One examined physical attractiveness as a match-up factor and its impact on brand attitude, purchase intent and key brand beliefs. In a 2 2 experiment, endorser attractiveness and product type are manipulated. Results indicated a general "attractiveness effect" on brand attitude and purchase intent but not the match-up predicted in previous literature. Study Two considered expertise as the match-up dimension. The second experiment manipulated product and endorser type. A match-up effect was found as the athlete was most effective as an endorser for the energy bar in increasing brand attitude, but not purchase intent. The variable "fit," or "belongingness," was shown to play an important role in match-up effects.

Tormala Z. L., Briñol P., & Petty R. E . (2006).

When credibility attacks: The reverse impact of source credibility on persuasion.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(5), 684-691.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Recent research on the self-validation hypothesis suggests that source credibility identified after message processing can influence the confidence people have in their own thoughts generated in response to persuasive messages ( Briol, Petty, & Tormala, 2004). The present research explored the implications of this effect for the possibility that high credibility sources can be associated with more or less persuasion than low credibility sources. In two experiments, it is demonstrated that when people generate primarily positive thoughts in response to a message (e.g., because the message contains strong arguments) and then learn of the source, high source credibility leads to more favorable attitudes than does low source credibility. When people have primarily negative thoughts in response to a message (e.g., because it contains weak arguments), however, this effect is reversed hat is, high source credibility leads to less favorable attitudes than does low source credibility.

Tost L. P., Gino F., & Larrick R. P . (2012).

Power, competitiveness, and advice taking: Why the powerful don’t listen.

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 117(1), 53-65.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

Four experiments test the prediction that feelings of power lead individuals to discount advice received from both experts and novices. Experiment 1 documents a negative relationship between subjective feelings of power and use of advice. Experiments 2 and 3 further show that individuals experiencing neutral and low levels of power weigh advice from experts and experienced advisors more heavily than advice from novices, but individuals experiencing high levels of power discount both novice and expert advice. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that this tendency of individuals experiencing high levels of power to discount advice from experts and novices equally is mediated by feelings of competitiveness (Experiment 3) and confidence (Experiments 3 and 4). Finally, Experiment 4 shows that inducing high power individuals to feel cooperative with their advisors can mitigate this tendency, leading them to weigh expert advice more heavily than advice from novices. Theoretical and practical contributions are discussed.

Tost L. P., Gino F., & Larrick R. P . (2013).

When power makes others speechless: The negative impact of leader power on team performance.

Academy of Management Journal, 56(5), 1465-1486.

URL    

We examine the impact of subjective power on leadership behavior and demonstrate that the psychological effect of power on leaders spills over to impact team effectiveness. Specifically, drawing from the approach/inhibition theory of power, power-devaluation theory, and organizational research on the antecedents of employee voice, we argue that a leader's experience of heightened power produces verbal dominance, which reduces perceptions of leader openness and team open communication. Consequently, there is a negative effect of leader power on team performance. Three studies find consistent support for this argument. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Trope Y., & Liberman N. (2010).

Construal-level theory of psychological distance.

Psychological Review, 117(2), 440-463.

URL     PMID:3152826      [本文引用: 2]

People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person's perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self in the here and now, and the different ways in which an object might be removed from that point-in time, in space, in social distance, and in hypotheticality-constitute different distance dimensions. Transcending the self in the here and now entails mental construal, and the farther removed an object is from direct experience, the higher (more abstract) the level of construal of that object. Supporting this analysis, research shows (a) that the various distances are cognitively related to each other, (b) that they similarly influence and are influenced by level of mental construal, and (c) that they similarly affect prediction, preference, and action.

Tzioti S. C., Wierenga B ., & van Osselaer, S. M. J. (2014).

The effect of intuitive advice justification on advice taking.

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27(1), 66-77.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

How do you respond when receiving advice from somebody with the argumentation “my gut tells me so” or “this is what my intuition says”? Most likely, you would find this justification insufficient and disregard the advice. Are there also situations where people do appreciate such intuitive advice and change their opinion accordingly? A growing number of authors write about the power of intuition in solving problems, showing that intuitively made decisions can be of higher quality than decisions based on analytical reasoning. We want to know if decision makers, when receiving advice based on an intuitive cognitive process, also recognize the value of such advice. Is advice justified by intuition necessarily followed to a lesser extent than an advice justified by analysis? Furthermore, what are the important factors influencing the effect of intuitive justification on advice taking? Participants across three studies show that utilization of intuitive advice varies depending on advisor seniority and type of task for which the advice is given. Summarizing, the results suggest that decision makers a priori doubt the value of intuitive advice and only assess it as accurate if other cues in the advice setting corroborate this. Intuitively justified advice is utilized more if it comes from a senior advisor. In decision tasks with experiential products, intuitively justified advice can even have more impact than analytically justified advice. Copyright 08 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tzini K., & Jain K. (2017).

The role of anticipated regret in advice taking.

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 31(1), 74-86.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Across five studies, we demonstrate that anticipated future regret influences receptiveness to advice. While making a revision to one's own judgment based on advice, people can anticipate two kinds of future regret: (a) the regret of following non-beneficial advice and (b) the regret of ignoring beneficial advice. In studies 1a (scenario task) and 1b (judgment task), we find that anticipated regret from erring after following advice is greater than anticipated regret from erring after ignoring advice. Furthermore, receptiveness decreases as the difference between anticipated regret from following and from ignoring advice increases. In study 2, we demonstrate that perceived justifiability of one's own initial decision is greater than that of advice. This difference in perceived justifiability influences anticipated regret and that, in turn, influences receptiveness. In study 3, we investigate the effect of advisor's expertise on perceived justifiability, anticipated regret, and receptiveness. In study 4, we propose and test an intervention to improve receptiveness based on self-generation of advice justifications. Participants who were asked to self-generate justifications for the advice were more receptive to it. This effect was mediated by perceived justifiability and anticipated regret. These findings shed further light on what prevents people from being receptive to advice and how this can be improved. Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Vallacher R.R., &Wegner D.M . (1989).

Levels of personal agency: Individual variation in action identification.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(4), 660-671.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

What factors influence our understanding of metaphoric statements about time? By examining the interpretation of one such statement – namely,Next Wednesday’s meeting has been moved forward by two days –earlier research has demonstrated that people may draw on spatial perspectives, involving multiple spatially based temporal reference strategies, to interpret metaphoric statements about time (e.g.Boroditsky 2000;Kranjec 2006;McGlone and Harding 1998;Nú09ez et al.2006). However, what is still missing is an understanding of the role of linguistic factors in the interpretation of temporal statements such as this one. In this paper, we examine the linguistic properties of this famous temporally ambiguous utterance, considered as an instantiation of a more schematic construction. In Experiment 1, we examine the roles of individual lexical items that are used in the utterance in order to better understand the interplay of lexical semantics and constructional meaning in the context of a metaphoric statement. Following up on prior suggestions in the literature, we ask whether the locus of the ambiguity is centred on the adverb, centred on the verb, or distributed across the utterance. The results suggest that the final interpretation results from an interplay of verb and adverb, suggesting a distributed temporal semantics analogous to the distributed semantics noted for the metaphoric source domain of space (Sinha and Kuteva 1995) and consistent with a constructional view of language (Goldberg 2003). In Experiment 2, we expand the linguistic factors under investigation to include voice and person. The findings suggest that grammatical person, but not grammatical voice, may also influence the interpretation of theNext Wednesday’s meetingmetaphor. Taken together, the results of these two studies illuminate the interplay of lexical and constructional factors in the interpretation of temporal metaphors.

vanSeggelen-Damen I. C.M . (2013).

Reflective personality: Identifying cognitive style and cognitive complexity.

Current Psychology, 32(1), 82-99.

URL     Magsci    

Categorized among learning practices, reflection involves cognitive processing. Some people say they reflect often, whereas others claim they are less inclined to reflect on a regular basis. The present study examines reflection in an academic learning setting. In contrast with previous studies testing reflective task accomplishment, we are interested in personality traits that can predict reflection or a reflective outcome. By means of a survey university students are questioned about their learning practices when working on their final thesis. To test whether certain traits influence reflection and whether reflection produces cognitive outcomes at the individual level, we performed hierarchical regression analysis. In addition, structural equation modeling is used to test for the mediation effects of reflection. The data stress a mediating role of reflection in the relationship between particular personality traits and cognitive complexity.

vanSwol L.M., &Sniezek J.A . (2005).

Factors affecting the acceptance of expert advice.

British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(3), 443-461.

URL     PMID:16238848     

Abstract This paper expands research on the judge advisor system (JAS) by examining advice utilization and trust. Experiment 1 examined five factors that could increase utilization of expert advice: judge's trust in the advisor, advisor confidence, advisor accuracy, judge's prior relationship with the advisor, and judge's power to set payment to the advisor. While judge's trust and advisor confidence correlated with the judge matching the advisor's advice, a stepwise regression found that of the five variables, advisor confidence was the only significant predictor of the judge matching the advisor. Experiment 2 examined trust without the role assignment to judge or advisor. While trust expressed in partner was not higher for the judge than the advisor in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 trust in partner expressed by the low-expertise dyad member was higher than trust expressed by the high-expertise dyad member. Results from the two experiments are discussed in the context of Sniezek and Van Swol (2001).

Wakslak C. J., Smith P. K., & Han A . (2014).

Using abstract language signals power.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(1), 41-55.

URL     PMID:24956313      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Many people hope to achieve power, that is, control over other people. One way to gain power is through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current paper we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Since power tends to activate abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher-power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in four separate experiments, participants perceived respondents who used more abstract language as being more powerful than respondents who used more concrete language.

Wang D., Hao L., Maguire P., & Hu Y . (2016).

The effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty on information processing in decision-making.

International Journal of Psychology Journal International De Psychologie.

URL     PMID:27905108      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty (ETOD) on information processing in decision-making. Eighty undergraduates (73.75% female, M = 21.90), grouped according to their cognitive style (field-dependent or field-independent), conducted an Information Display Board (IDB) task, through which search time, search depth and search pattern were measured. Participants' emotional states were assessed both before and after the IDB task. The results showed that participants experienced significantly more negative emotion under high ETOD compared to those under low ETOD. While both cognitive style and ETOD had significant effects on search time and search depth, only ETOD significantly influenced search pattern; individuals in both cognitive style groups tended to use attribute-based processing under high ETOD and to use alternative-based processing under low ETOD. There was also a significant interaction between cognitive style and ETOD for search time and search depth. We propose that these results are best accounted for by the coping behaviour framework under high ETOD, and by the negative emotion hypothesis under low ETOD.

Williams L.E., &Bargh J.A . (2008).

Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth.

Science, 322(5901), 606-607.

URL     PMID:2737341      [本文引用: 1]

"Warmth" is the most powerful personality trait in social judgment, and attachment theorists have stressed the importance of warm physical contact with caregivers during infancy for healthy relationships in adulthood. Intriguingly, recent research in humans points to the involvement of the insula in the processing of both physical temperature and interpersonal warmth (trust) information. Accordingly, we hypothesized that experiences of physical warmth (or coldness) would increase feelings of interpersonal warmth (or coldness), without the person's awareness of this influence. In study 1, participants who briefly held a cup of hot (versus iced) coffee judged a target person as having a "warmer" personality (generous, caring); in study 2, participants holding a hot (versus cold) therapeutic pad were more likely to choose a gift for a friend instead of for themselves.

Wilson M. . (2002).

Six views of embodied cognition.

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(4), 625-636.

URL     PMID:12613670     

The emerging viewpoint of embodied cognition holds that cognitive processes are deeply rooted in the body interactions with the world. This position actually houses a number of distinct claims, some of which are more controversial than others. This paper distinguishes and evaluates the following six claims: (1) cognition is situated; (2) cognition is time-pressured; (3) we off-load cognitive work onto the environment; (4) the environment is part of the cognitive system; (5) cognition is for action; (6) offline cognition is body based. Of these, the first three and the fifth appear to be at least partially true, and their usefulness is best evaluated in terms of the range of their applicability. The fourth claim, I argue, is deeply problematic. The sixth claim has received the least attention in the literature on embodied cognition, but it may in fact be the best documented and most powerful of the six claims.

Witkin H.A . (1964).

Origins of cognitive style.In C. Scheerer (Ed.), Cognition: Theory, research, promise(pp. 172-205).

New York: Harper & Row.

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