心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 141-148 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00141

研究前沿

社会分类的特性,维度及心理效应

佐斌1, 温芳芳,1, 宋静静2, 代涛涛1

1 华中师范大学心理学院暨社会心理研究中心, 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 武汉 430079

2 中国地质大学应用心理研究所, 武汉 430070

The characteristics, dimensions and psychological effect of social categorization

ZUO Bin1, WEN Fangfang,1, SONG Jingjing2, DAI Taotao1

1 School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Social Psychology, Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China

2 Institute of Applied Psychology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430070, China

通讯作者: 温芳芳, E-mail: wenff@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-10-18   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  31571147
国家社科基金重大项目.  18ZDA331
国家社科基金青年项目.  13CSJ 078
华中师范大学中央基本科研业务费重大培育项目(CCNU18ZDPY12)资助.  

Received: 2017-10-18   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

社会分类是个体基于共享相似性将人群分为不同类别的一种主观心理过程, 具有自动化,灵活性和潜在模糊性等特性.社会分类的维度既包括性别,年龄和种族等自然线索, 也包括语言,职业和社会身份等重要社会线索.在社会分类过程中, 不同维度往往具有相对重要性, 表现为优势维度效应; 不同维度相互之间也会发生作用, 产生交叉分类效应, 研究者从不同的视角对这种交叉分类效应进行了解释.未来研究应该采用多样化的方法和技术从分类主体,分类目标,分类情境以及社会文化因素等多角度探讨社会分类的心理加工机制, 构建更具整合性的社会分类理论模型.

关键词: 社会分类 ; 心理特性 ; 线索维度 ; 优势维度效应 ; 交叉分类

Abstract

Social categorization is a subjective process in which an individual classifies others into groups based on perceived similarities. Social categories are often automatic, flexible and multifaceted, including dimensions of both natural cues (such as gender, age and race) and social cues (such as language, occupation and social status). In such multidimensional social categories (e.g., “rich old celibate bachelor”), some of the constituent categorical dimensions contribute disproportionately to the traits attributed to the category overall. This is termed the “dominant dimension effect,” and is influenced by the valence of the dimensions. Different dimensions will also interact with each other, resulting in a cross-categorization effect. We review these effects in the context of social categorization, and highly important questions that remain for social psychologists interested in processing mechanism of social categorization from the perspective of observer, actor and social situation.

Keywords: social categorization ; psychological characteristics ; dimensions of cues ; dominant dimension effect ; cross categorization

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本文引用格式

佐斌, 温芳芳, 宋静静, 代涛涛. (2019). 社会分类的特性,维度及心理效应 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 141-148

ZUO Bin, WEN Fangfang, SONG Jingjing, DAI Taotao. (2019). The characteristics, dimensions and psychological effect of social categorization. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 141-148

1 引言

分类(Categorization)是人们理解世界的重要方式之一(Bodenhausen, Kang, & Peery, 2012), 对于人类认识自我,理解人与人之间的关系和思考自然环境与社会具有十分重要的作用.社会分类(Social Categorization)主要与人类属性和社会关系网络相关联(Klapper, Dotsch, van Rooij, & Wigboldus, 2017), 是个体基于共享的相似性将他人分为不同群体类别的一种主观心理过程(Dovidio & Gaertner, 2010).社会分类作为人类适应的重要心理机制之一, 形成了一种认知图式, 提供了一种组织规则, 从而满足了人们结构化的需要(Rule & Sutherland, 2017), 不仅有助于创建认知与社会秩序, 促进人际交往与互动, 而且有助于人们在新情境中进行思维决策(Philogène, 2012).

从认知机制来看, 社会分类包括自上而下和自下而上两种加工过程.自上而下加工主要是依据头脑中的抽象心理图式(如对某群体的信念和刻板印象等)来进行分类; 而自下而上的加工则主要借助一些具体的特征或属性(如面孔,声音,身体等线索)来进行分类(Kawakami, Amodio, & Hugenberg, 2017).这两种分类过程都为快速识别他人身份提供了可能.社会分类的动态交互理论表明, 社会分类作为个体建构的早期加工阶段, 涉及一个自上而下和自下而上的动态交互系统, 较低层次的感觉信息和较高层次的认知信息在不同水平上对加工过程产生影响并最终形成稳定的社会分类表征(Freeman & Ambady, 2011; 张凯莉, 张琴, 周静, 王沛, 2017).此外, 人们在社会分类进程中会激活与自我有关的信息并形成内群体和外群体的划分, 而自我分类和社会认同是群际关系互动的心理基础, 因此, 社会分类为更好理解群际互动提供了一个重要窗口(Nicolas, de la Fuente, & Fiske 2017).

2 社会分类的特性

2.1 自动化

当目标对象具有多重社会维度时, 知觉者会采用一般自动化机制(General Automaticity)来判断目标对象具有哪些类别.例如, 第一次见面时, 人们会通过他人的性别,种族,年龄等身份维度特征将陌生人进行快速分类.大量的外显报告,内隐测量和认知神经科学的研究都为一般自动性启动的社会分类提供了证据(Nosek, Greenwald, & Banaji, 2007).

除一般自动化社会分类外, 知觉者也会采用特定自动化(Specific Automaticity)机制进行社会分类, 人们会基于目标对象的群体属性或外在线索进行自动化分类判断.这种特定自动化分类判断通常会受到个人信念,动机和目标的调节, 与基于文化经验和长期易接近性的一般自动化分类判断不同.比如, 在一项模拟决策的射击任务中, 与普通平民相比, 受过训练的警察更少射击高兴的平民, 而在一般自动化的种族偏见中这种趋向却是相同的(Correll et al., 2007).Crisp和Hewstone (2007)认为人们优先和惯用的社会分类维度表现出一定的稳定性, 人们通常会使用性别,年龄这些固有的明显的外部线索进行分类, 而这种稳定性可能与人们对维度的熟悉性有关.

2.2 灵活性

基于社会维度偏向的多样性和普遍性的研究表明, 社会分类体现出一定的灵活性(Kinzler, Shutts, & Correll, 2010).社会分类的情境线索及维度本身的可接近性和突显性也会影响人们社会分类的灵活性.如在启动情境中, 当向被试呈现长城的文化表征图片后, 被试更倾向于采取国民(中国人)维度进行社会分类(Deaux, 2012).社会分类的灵活性也体现在分类主体的灵活性上.基于自我归类理论, 自我的信念,动机,需要和意图等因素均会对社会分类产生影响; 个体的身份改变(如移民)与文化环境的变化也会对社会分类产生影响(Gillespie, Howarth, & Gornish, 2012).此外, 分类主体会根据分类目标的特点进行灵活处理, 例如, 按照年龄维度可分为年轻人和老年人, 而对老年人的分类又存在多样的社会维度线索, 如慈祥的“祖母”,杰出的“元老”,孤独的“老年人”等.

社会分类的灵活性还体现在环境依赖性上.比如, 生活在不同宗教信仰社区的人存在不同的社会分类感知与推理(Smyth, Feeney, Eidson, & Coley, 2017); 与之类似, 与陌生白人面孔相比, 生活在埃塞俄比亚的3个月大的黑人婴儿对黑人面孔的注视时间更短, 而生活在以色列的3个月大的白人婴儿则对白人面孔的注视时间更长时间(Bar-Haim, Ziv, Lamy, & Hodes, 2006).这些研究结果表明, 社会分类的环境依赖性可能与人们所处环境的生存价值进化系统有关, 人们通常会优先关注有可能成为合作群体成员的指标线索(Efferson, Lalive, & Fehr, 2008).

2.3 潜在模糊性

人们往往认为社会分类是“一分为二”的, 即分类具有明确性和固定性的特点, 但是由于社会发展的复杂化和多样化, 社会分类越来越表现出动态不稳定性和潜在的模糊不确定性.这种潜在模糊性主要体现在社会分类所依据的群体属性边界具有一定的模糊性.例如, 性别作为一种重要的社会维度线索, 既可以侧重生理性别的自然属性, 也可以侧重心理和社会性别的社会属性.同样, 关于女同性恋,男同性恋,双性恋和变性者的分类界限也存在一定模糊性(Ghaziani, Taylor, & Stone, 2016), 这可能与知觉者具有的性别本质主义观念相关(Eidson & John, 2014), 而人的社会身份复杂性又使得这种模糊性更加复杂(辛自强, 辛素飞, 2014).

3 社会分类的重要线索维度

现有社会分类研究中关注的维度主要包括自然线索与社会线索两方面, 主要的自然线索包括性别,年龄和种族等, 重要的社会线索包括语言,职业和社会阶层身份等.

3.1 自然线索维度

性别,种族和年龄被称作社会分类的“大三” (Big Three)维度, 大量研究证据表明, 性别,种族和年龄这三大线索维度具有强大的社会分类加工优势(Weisman, Johnson, & Shutts 2015).一系列社会心理学研究表明, 人们会自动化地依赖于个体的性别,种族和年龄这三个具有视觉突显性的线索快速进行分类判断, 并且性别,种族和年龄线索的曝光会引起后续行为的偏差等(Donders, Correll, & Wittenbrink, 2008).大量以儿童为研究对象的发展心理学研究结果也发现, 儿童会首先对他人的性别,种族和年龄信息加以感知并基于这些维度线索进行推理判断(Baron & Banaji, 2006).

虽然性别,种族和年龄三类别在社会分类优先效应中都表现出突显性, 但三者之间也存在相对的分类优势差异.已有研究表明, 性别在社会分类中是特别强大的维度线索, 通常是儿童进行玩伴选择,物体和活动偏好以及对他人进行推理的重要依据(Ruble, Martin, & Berenbaum, 2006), 性别是比种族更有力的社会分类线索(Shutts, Roben, & Spelke, 2013).比较而言, 种族维度主要对于年龄大的儿童更加具有突显性, 如一项研究结果显示, 10个月大的婴儿并没表现出对给他们玩具的白人和黑人女性的种族偏好(Kinzler & Spelke, 2011).这与社会等级制度理论相一致, 即性别是更本质,更稳定,更普遍和更古老的分类线索, 而基于种族维度的分类具有更少的稳定性, 并且更加依赖于社会环境(Diesendruck, Goldfein- Elbaz, Rhodes, Gelman, & Neumark, 2013).

3.2 社会线索维度

3.2.1 语言

与性别,种族和年龄等外在视觉突显线索不同, 语言作为重要的听觉突显线索, 往往传达着关于说话者社会群体成员身份的丰富信息, 如国家,民族,地域来源和社会角色等(Labov, 2006).基于说话者的语言和口音线索, 感知者能快速进行社会分类并对其进行人格类型和外貌长相等特征判断(Dragojevic, Berglund, & Blauvelt, 2017).研究表明, 人们通常会表现出对本族和母语者的语言及口音偏好(Kinzler, Shutts, DeJesus, & Spelke, 2009), 这种偏好往往具有重要的进化意义, 因为语言是短时间和近距离沟通传播的主要方式, 是对群体成员身份判断的重要指标.

3.2.2 职业

职业作为人们的一种重要身份角色, 在社会分类中也扮演着重要的角色.Gottfredson认为, 人们可以根据职业的性别特点和社会声望这两个维度将自我与职业印象相关联, 从而构成职业认知地图(侯志瑾, 梁湘明, 2005).比如, 人们倾向于将“幼儿教师”,“护士”等知觉为传统女性职业, 将“计算机程序员”,“工程师”等知觉为传统男性职业; 将“保安”之类的职业知觉为低地位职业, 将“商人”等职业知觉为高地位职业(Freeman & Ambady, 2011).职业作为重要的社会线索维度, 与生理线索维度存在一定的感知差异, 例如, 北美和以色列5岁与10岁儿童的社会分类客体性感知研究结果发现, 被试倾向于认为性别更加客观和准确, 而职业则更具有灵活性(Diesendruck et al., 2013).

3.2.3 社会阶层身份

社会阶层身份(如高低社会地位,贫富阶层,上下级等)也是重要的社会线索, 对知觉者的社会分类及偏好也会产生一定的影响(Williams, Priest, & Anderson, 2016).例如, 人们可以根据面孔快速进行“富人”与“穷人”社会身份地位的分类(Bjornsdottir & Rule, 2017), 而且与财富线索有关的社会身份会影响社会分类偏好, 人们通常表现出对具有更高经济身份的社会群体的偏好效应(Horwitz, Shutts, & Olson, 2014).有研究显示, 与跟“财富”更少的儿童交朋友相比, 4~6岁的儿童更喜欢与有学习用品,衣服和房子等更多财富信息的儿童交朋友(Shutts et al., 2016).此外, 这种基于财富线索的偏好也会对种族偏好产生一定影响(Shutts, 2015).4岁儿童均认为白人比黑人更富有, 4~5岁来自不同种族背景的儿童均更喜欢拥有高财富线索的儿童(Shutts et al., 2016).

综合来看, 目前对社会分类维度的研究主要集中在自然线索和社会线索两方面, 由于自然线索相对较为稳定和确切, 因此前期有较多研究成果; 而社会线索相对复杂和多样化, 对其探讨只是集中在少数几个方面.除了这两类维度线索外, 社会分类可能存在更广泛的其他线索, 例如, 不同文化背景也会对社会分类维度偏好产生直接影响, Smyth等人(2017)的研究发现以色列和北爱尔兰的儿童更关注突显文化特点的宗教维度.

4 社会分类的优势维度效应与交叉分类效应

在社会分类过程中, 不同维度往往具有相对重要性, 表现为优势维度效应(Rozendal, 2003), 而维度本身的效价也会对这种优势效应产生影响.除此之外, 不同维度相互之间也会发生作用, 产生交叉分类效应(Kang & Bodenhausen, 2015), 不同的研究者从不同的视角对此做出了不同的理论解释.

4.1 优势维度效应

4.1.1 优势维度效应的表现

优势维度效应是指在对由多个类别复合而成的社会分类目标形成印象时, 其中一个构成维度在影响对整体的印象评价中权重作用更大的现象(Rozendal, 2003).比如, 人们对“女性计算机程序员”进行特质评价时, 相对“女性”而言, 人们对其的整体印象评价与对“计算机程序员”的整体印象评价更相似, 那么“计算机程序员”这一职业维度在整体印象评价中就发挥着支配性效应.Hampton (1987)认为, 这种优势维度效应是感知者将不同维度的特征整合成具有单一心理表征的复合原型所起的作用.采用遗传隐喻的方法, Hampton (1987)发现复合原型的特质通常是从它的构成维度中“遗传”而形成.比如, “女性计算机程序员”的复合原型可能来自于性别维度中“女性”是“细心的”和职(专)业维度中“计算机程序员”是“严谨的”两种特质的组合.

当多重社会分类中的一个维度更具有“意义”或在复合原型中占据更高的比重时, 就会存在优势维度效应.比如, 相对“银行出纳员”而言, “女权主义银行出纳员”与“女权主义者”更相似, 此时“女权主义者”这个维度在总体印象中就处于支配地位.研究还发现, 相对于性别,种族等固有的低选择性维度而言, 职业等具有高选择性的维度更能体现出分类目标的潜在自愿意图和动机, 因此, 在多重社会分类的整体印象评价中发挥着更具支配性的作用(Rozendal, 2003).

4.1.2 维度效价对优势维度效应的作用

维度本身的效价会对优势维度效应产生影响, 人们通常会对哪些含有积极能力的信息赋予更高的权重(Nicolas et al., 2017), 从而容易产生肯定的惊讶情绪, 降低消极偏见(Prati, Crisp, & Rubini, 2015).例如, 在对“哈佛毕业的木匠”这一多维社会分类目标的感知中, 除了“木匠”和“哈佛毕业的人”本身的特质属性外, 人们还形成了对该目标是非物质主义的,不墨守成规的相对较为积极的新属性印象.同样, 在对“老年黑人”的知觉中, “黑人”类别可能是“有敌意的”刻板印象, 属于单一的消极效价成分, 而“老年人”则具有“粗鲁的”和“热情的”混合效价.在分类组合中, 知觉者会选择性抑制共同的消极效价成分从而使得独特的积极效价成分作用突显, 结果是人们对“老年黑人”的总体印象是积极的(Kang & Chasteen, 2009).

4.2 交叉分类效应

4.2.1 交叉分类现象及效应

当同时采用多个维度进行社会分类时, 维度之间会形成相互交叉的情形, 研究者称之为交叉分类(Crossed Categorization) (Crisp & Hewstone, 2007).典型的双维交叉分类范式是通过两个类别的交叉形成新的群体类别, 如年龄与种族维度的交叉后, 包括老年白人,老年黑人,年轻白人和年轻黑人四个群体, 分别构成了双内群体(II), 内群体/外群体(IO/OI)和双外群体(OO) (I指In-group, O指Out-group) (黎情, 佐斌, 胡聚平, 2009; Nicolas et al., 2017).

根据刻板印象内容模型对四个群体的热情和能力评价(佐斌, 代涛涛, 温芳芳, 索玉贤, 2015), 交叉分类后的刻板印象群体会出现两种现象:即一致刻板印象类别和冲突刻板印象类别.其中, 一致刻板印象类别指交叉分类的构成维度具有相同的刻板印象线索.相对而言, 冲突刻板印象类别的构成维度在刻板印象内容热情和能力上有着不一致性或冲突性(Song & Zuo, 2016), 例如, 从种族维度看, 人们对“黑人”的刻板印象是“敌意的,高攻击性”的, 对“白人”的刻板印象是“低攻击性”的, 而对年龄维度“老年人”的刻板印象是“友善的,低攻击性的”, 那么“老年白人”这一交叉分类组合就是一种一致的刻板印象类别, 而“老年黑人”组合则属于冲突刻板印象类别(Kang Chasteen, Cadieux, Cary, & Syeda, 2014).

交叉分类被认为是一种能够有效减少群际偏见的方法, 当前利用交叉分类中的冲突刻板印象群体来降低刻板印象偏见的认知机制受到社会心理学家的广泛重视.例如, 针对黑人的“高攻击性”这一消极刻板印象, 研究者分别通过与年龄维度的老年人交叉形成“老年黑人”群体(Kang & Chasteen, 2009; Kang et al., 2014), 从而有效降低了对黑人的攻击威胁性评价.与之类似, 研究者通过种族与性别,性取向维度的交叉, 如采用“男同性恋”与“黑人”交叉分类形成的“男同性恋黑人”, 因为对比而有效降低对黑人的“怀有敌意,危险的”消极刻板印象(Pedulla, 2014).

4.2.2 交叉分类效应的理论解释

针对交叉分类现象及其效应, 不同的研究者从不同视角给出了不同的理论解释.从类别化的视角来看, 交叉分类如果增加共享的内群体身份就会带来积极影响; 相反, 如果突显交叉类别中的外群体身份就会带来消极作用(Crisp & Hewstone, 2007).例如, 让白人男性来判断黑人目标时, 如果突出黑人的男性身份, 会增加与判断者的共享相似性从而削弱群际差异.但如果判断的目标为黑人女性, 则会为目标带来“双重危险”从而导致更为消极的评价(Kang & Chasteen, 2009).

另外, 当交叉分类维度本身的刻板印象相互矛盾或在多个维度上进行交叉时, 人们很可能放弃了维度信息, 将他人视为一个独特的个体而非某类群体的成员, 从而使用个体化信息对他人进行加工即发生去类别化过程, 人们不再依据维度来形成对他人的印象, 而是将他人看作一个独具个性的个体(Crisp & Turner, 2010).例如, 老年黑人是冲突刻板印象交互作用后的受益群体, 从某种意义上就是通过年龄交叉抵消了对黑人的消极刻板印象(Kang et al., 2014; Nicolas et al., 2017).

交叉分类现象还有一种可能的解释是知觉者在评价交叉分类的目标对象时, 各维度的刻板印象被同时激活了, 其中具有高支配性的某个维度将主导低支配性的维度, 最大程度上影响了对整体的评价效果(Kang & Chasteen, 2009).

综合来看, 目前关于社会分类的维度重要性及维度间相互影响的研究仍在集中探讨维度本身的属性以及对维度的认知加工过程, 较少关注社会分类维度的动机和情感过程.例如, 偏好-分类效应表明, 相对于不喜欢的目标人(群), 人们对喜爱的目标的分类更加精细化, 他们也从不同的角度对该效应进行了进一步检验(Smallman & Becker, 2017).个体的动机和情感会影响人们分类时对维度的选择, 对优势维度效应和交叉分类效应的解释也应该引入情绪变量, 从而拓展对社会分类的探究.

5 研究展望

虽然社会分类为人们提供了一种认知上的捷径, 但是无形中也可能会导致刻板印象,偏见和歧视等消极的社会性偏向(Dovidio, Love, Schellhaas, & Hewstone, 2017).消除与平衡这种消极性的社会性偏向需要“对症下药”, 而在某种程度上, 社会分类就是一种有针对性的有效策略.目前, 社会分类日益受到研究者的重视, 再分类,交叉分类和自我-外群体分类联结训练等研究主题成为社会心理学家检验的重点和热点(Kawakami et al., 2017).关于社会分类权重的已有研究成果, 主要聚焦在类别目标的属性方面.而根据社会认知加工的评价目标,评价者和评价情境三要素, 未来研究可以从这三方面考察社会分类的权重.

第一, 现有研究将社会分类的维度属性简单二分为“自然线索”与“社会线索”, 这种二分法存在局限, 比如同样的自然属性或社会属性类别可能存在程度上的不同, 因此, 将社会分类的维度属性作为自然-社会连续变量来考察将会为现有研究提供新视角.另外, 现有研究发现, 可选择性的维度如“职业”在复合社会分类的印象形成中发挥着优势效应, 与预期违背的维度在分类效应中发挥着重要作用, 而仔细分析可能发现, 这些维度之间可能存在一些类似之处, 如维度的“可选择性”与维度的“预期违背”都很重要, 这两者强调的都是社会分类的可改变性和非本质性, 处于本质性思维维度的偏社会性属性方面(Smyth et al., 2017).那么, 在多重社会分类中, 是否存在可改变的具有更多社会性属性的维度更重要的规律, 应有更多的实证研究检验.

第二, 从评价者的角度, 根据自我归类理论, 主要的分类维度是对评价者而言具有更重要心理意义的维度(Hogg, Abrams, & Brewer, 2017), 可见, 评价者的“自我”激活可能在社会分类及权重中发挥着重要作用.如自我动机是社会认知中个体差异的重要变量(Locke & Heller, 2017), 当前对多维社会分类的研究操作的均是目标对象, 很少考虑被试自身的多维社会身份(Nicolas et al., 2017), 自我动机以及多维社会身份等在社会分类中发挥的潜在作用, 也是未来社会分类研究的重要方面.

第三, 从评价情境的角度, 感知者在社会分类时所处的情境也是未来研究的一个重点.如, Song和Zuo (2016)在探讨交叉分类维度重要性时发现, 在“年轻穷人”的能力评价上, 没有发现与在“老年富人”的热情评价上违背预期的类别更重要的规律, 反而表现出了热情与能力评价的不对称性, 那么在分别强调热情和能力的社交与工作情境中, 人们的社会分类又会呈现怎样的类别权重特点呢?对此进行探讨将是个有趣的问题.

此外, 在对社会分类及权重问题的未来探讨时要注重检验方法的多样性.当前的社会分类研究大多采用自我报告法, 进一步采用眼动与认知神经科学的技术与方法, 为社会分类及权重问题提供更丰富可靠的指标, 也将成为未来研究的方向.

最后, 目前对社会分类及权重问题的探讨主要针对特定文化下某一年龄群体, 而来自不同文化背景和不同年龄发展阶段的人群在社会分类时会存在怎样的差异与共同规律, 比如, 婴幼儿,儿童,青年,中年和老年人等不同年龄阶段的人进行社会分类时存在怎样的发展趋势呢?由于中西文化差异, 相比西方的个体主义与本质主义, 是否中国人在社会分类时更侧重社会线索维度进行分类?这些问题也值得进一步探讨.

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Attributes defining pairs of concepts (e.g., SPORTS-GAMES) and their conjunctions (e.g., SPORTS THAT ARE ALSO GAMES) were generated and rated for their importance for defining each concept and conjunction. The results support a model in which a composite prototype for the conjunction is formed as the union of the constitutent attributable sets, subject to two constraints: (1) attributes must have a sufficiently high average importance across the two concepts, and (2) necessity and impossibility of attributes is always inherited. In regression analyses, those concepts identified by Hampton (1985b) as being dominant in determining item typically in conjunctions were again dominant in determining attribute importance and also had greater numbers of important attributes. There was limited evidence of noncompositionality for familiar concept conjunctions. Finally, degree of conflict between the attributes of one concept and those of the other had an independent effect on attribute importance for conjunctions.

Hogg M. A., Abrams D., & Brewer M. B . (2017).

Social identity: The role of self in group processes and intergroup relations.

Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 20(5), 570-581

[本文引用: 1]

Horwitz S. R., Shutts K., & Olson K. R . (2014).

Social class differences produce social group preferences.

Developmental Science, 17(6), 991-1002.

URL     PMID:24702971      [本文引用: 1]

Some social groups are higher in socioeconomic status than others and the former tend to be favored over the latter. The present research investigated whether observing group differences in wealth alone can directly cause children to prefer wealthier groups. In Experiment 1, 4-5-year-old children developed a preference for a wealthy novel group over a less wealthy group. In Experiment 2, children did not develop preferences when groups differed by another kind of positive/negative attribute (i.e. living in brightly colored houses vs. drab houses), suggesting that wealth is a particularly meaningful group distinction. Lastly, in Experiment 3, the effect of favoring novel wealthy groups was moderated by group membership: Children assigned to a wealthy group showed ingroup favoritism, but those assigned to a less wealthy group did not. These experiments shed light on why children tend to be biased in favor of social groups that are higher in socioeconomic status.

Kang S.K., &Chasteen A.L . (2009).

Beyond the double- jeopardy hypothesis: Assessing emotion on the faces of multiply-categorizable targets of prejudice.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(6), 1281-1285.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 4]

Prior research has shown that race influences perceptions of facial expressions, with hostility detected earlier on young male Black than White faces. This study examined whether the interplay of race and age would moderate perceptions of hostility by having participants evaluate facial expressions of multiply-categorizable targets. Using a facial emotion change-detection task, we assessed evaluations of onset/offset of anger and happiness on faces of young and old Black and White men. Significant age by race interactions were observed: while participants perceived anger as lasting longer and appearing sooner on old compared to young White faces, this relationship was reversed for Black faces, with participants perceiving anger lasting longer and appearing sooner on young compared to old Black faces. Similar results were found for perceived happiness. These results suggest that perception during cross-categorization may be more complex than the simple additive function proposed by the double-jeopardy hypothesis, such that co-activation of other stereotypes may sometimes confer a protective benefit against bias.

Kang S. K., Chasteen A. L., Cadieux J., Cary L. A., & Syeda M . (2014).

Comparing young and older adults’ perceptions of conflicting stereotypes and multiply- categorizable individuals.

Psychology and Aging, 29(3), 469-481.

URL     PMID:25244468      Magsci     [本文引用: 4]

Individuals can be simultaneously categorized into multiple social groups (e.g., racial, gender, age), and stereotypes about one social group may conflict with another. Two such conflicting stereotype sets are those associated with older adults (e.g., frail, kind) and with Black people (e.g., violent, hostile). Recent research shows that young adult perceivers evaluate elderly Black men more positively than young Black men, suggesting that components of the elderly stereotype moderate the influence of conflicting Black stereotypes (Kang & Chasteen, 2009). The current research begins to examine whether this pattern of perceiving multiply-categorizable individuals is maintained among older adults or altered, perhaps due to -related cognitive and motivational changes. In three studies using different targets and evaluative tasks, both young and older participants showed evidence of an interplay between Black and elderly stereotypes, such that they perceived elderly Black targets more positively than young Black targets. A similar pattern was observed when assessing emotion change (Study 1), making ratings of warmth and power in the past, present, and future (Study 2), and when directly comparing young and old Black and White targets on traits related to warmth and power (Study 3). The absence of age differences suggests that evaluation of multiply-categorizable targets follows comparable underlying patterns of stereotype activation and inhibition in younger and older adults.

Kawakami K., Amodio D. M., & Hugenberg K . (2017).

Chapter one - Intergroup perception and cognition: An integrative framework for understanding the causes and consequences of social categorization.

Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 41-48.

[本文引用: 2]

Kinzler K.D., &Spelke E.S . (2011).

Do infants show social preferences for people differing in race?

Cognition, 119(1), 1-9.

URL     PMID:3081609      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Do infants develop meaningful social preferences among novel individuals based on their social group membership? If so, do these social preferences depend on familiarity on any dimension, or on a more specific focus on particular kinds of categorical information? The present experiments use methods that have previously demonstrated infants’ social preferences based on language and accent, and test for infants’ and young children’s social preferences based on race. In Experiment 1, 10-month-old infants took toys equally from own- and other-race individuals. In Experiment 2, 2.5-year-old children gave toys equally to own- and other-race individuals. When shown the same stimuli in Experiment 3, 5-year-old children, in contrast, expressed explicit social preferences for own-race individuals. Social preferences based on race therefore emerge between 2.5 and 5 years of age and do not affect social choices in infancy. These data will be discussed in relation to prior research finding that infants’ social preferences do, however, rely on language: a useful predictor of group or coalition membership in both modern times and humans’ evolutionary past.

Kinzler K. D., Shutts K., & Correll J . (2010).

Priorities in social categories.

European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 581-592.

[本文引用: 1]

Kinzler K. D., Shutts K., DeJesus J., & Spelke E. S . (2009).

Accent trumps race in guiding children’s social preferences.

Social Cognition, 27(4), 623-634.

URL     PMID:21603154      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract A series of experiments investigated the effect of speakers' language, accent, and race on children's social preferences. When presented with photographs and voice recordings of novel children, 5-year-old children chose to be friends with native speakers of their native language rather than foreign-language or foreign-accented speakers. These preferences were not exclusively due to the intelligibility of the speech, as children found the accented speech to be comprehensible, and did not make social distinctions between foreign-accented and foreign-language speakers. Finally, children chose same-race children as friends when the target children were silent, but they chose other-race children with a native accent when accent was pitted against race. A control experiment provided evidence that children's privileging of accent over race was not due to the relative familiarity of each dimension. The results, discussed in an evolutionary framework, suggest that children preferentially evaluate others along dimensions that distinguished social groups in prehistoric human societies.

Klapper A., Dotsch R., van Rooij I., & Wigboldus D . (2017).

Four meanings of “categorization”: A conceptual analysis of research on person perception.

Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(8), e12336.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

It is widely assumed that people tend to “categorize” other people. However, the term “categorization” has been used with qualitatively different underlying definitions in the person perception literature. We present a conceptual analysis in which we disentangle four existing definitions: (a) categorization as representing, (b) categorization as dichotomizing, (c) categorization as organizing, and (d) categorization as grouping. Subsequently, we show that seemingly antagonistic viewpoints in the literature may be reconciled by disentangling these definitions. Furthermore, we argue that disentangling these definitions is vital for theoretical interpretations of (past and future) empirical findings. Overall, our work aims to contribute to the clarity of person perception theories, provide novel perspectives on existing debates, and serve as a stepping stone for more differentiated models of person perception.

Labov, W. (2006). The social stratification of English in New York City (2nd ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Locke K.D., & Heller S. (2017).

Communal and agentic interpersonal and intergroup motives predict preferences for status versus power.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(1), 71-86.

URL     PMID:28903646      [本文引用: 5]

Seven studies involving 1,343 participants showed how circumplex models of social motives can help explain individual differences in preferences for status (having others’ admiration) versus power (controlling valuable resources). Studies 1 to 3 and 7 concerned interpersonal motives in workplace contexts, and found that stronger communal motives (to have mutual trust, support, and cooperation) predicted being more attracted to status (but not power) and achieving more workplace status, while stronger agentic motives (to be firm, decisive, and influential) predicted being more attracted to and achieving more workplace power, and experiencing a stronger connection between workplace power and job satisfaction. Studies 4 to 6 found similar effects for intergroup motives: Stronger communal motives predicted wanting one’s ingroup (e.g., country) to have status—but not power—relative to other groups. Finally, most people preferred status over power, and this was especially true for women, which was partially explained by women having stronger communal motives.

Nicolas G., de la Fuente M., & Fiske S. T . (2017).

Mind the overlap in multiple categorization: A review of crossed categorization, intersectionality, and multiracial perception.

Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 20(5), 621-631.

[本文引用: 1]

Nosek B. A., Greenwald A. G. , & Banaji, M. R.(2007) . The Implicit Association Test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review In J A Bargh (Ed), Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of mental processes (pp 265-292) New York: Psychology Press A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of mental processes (pp. 265-292) . New York: Psychology Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Pedulla D.S . (2014).

The positive consequences of negative stereotypes: Race, sexual orientation, and the job application process.

Social Psychology Quarterly, 77(1), 75-94.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

How do marginalized social categories, such as being black and gay, combine with one another in the production of discrimination? While much extant research assumes that combining marginalized social categories results in a "double disadvantage," I argue that in the case of race and sexual orientation the opposite may be true. This article posits that stereotypes about gay men as effeminate and weak will counteract common negative stereotypes held by whites that black men are threatening and criminal. Thus, I argue that being gay will have negative consequences for white men in the job application process, but that being gay will actually have positive consequences for black men in this realm. This hypothesis is tested using data from a survey experiment in which respondents were asked to evaluate resumes for a job opening where the race and sexual orientation of the applicants were experimentally manipulated. The findings contribute to important theoretical debates about stereotypes, discrimination, and intersecting social identities.

Philogène G. . (2012).

Understanding social categories: An epistemological journey.

In S. Wiley, G. Philogène, T. A. Revenson,(Eds).

URL     [本文引用: 1]

When social psychologists take on the difficult task of analyzing social categorization and identity, they go through a certain progression in their conceptual thinking about how the individual is embedded in his or her social context. They realize that their methods and theories must be more relational, viewing meaning as emerging from the relation of the individual to his or her environment (Gibson, 1977, 1986). They also realize that they should address these issues by reaching across the typical divisions of the social sciences. Each discipline has developed its own rich tradition of the dynamic between the individual and his or her environment, and we are well advised to draw from each other. Social psychology, at its best, can and should bridge these disciplinary boundaries because of its uniquely positioned focus on the individual ocial nexus at the very core of the discipline. In this chapter, I illustrate how our discipline has shown its enormous potential in that regard by tracing its epistemological journey from social categorization and identity via cross categorization and intersectionality to social representations and positioning. These are all different facets of a complex web that allows us to grasp how social categories shape our everyday experience. Throughout its evolution, social psychology has benefited from key theorists recognizing the need for multiple frames of reference to understand how the individual gets embedded in the social. Kay Deaux is one example of such theorists. She has consistently proven that she understands the depth of contextualization of individuals in the broader cultural, economic, political, and social facets of contemporary societies. This chapter has two objectives. One, it traces the epistemological development of the notion of social categories to highlight how social psychologists have progressed in their understanding of this concept. The field has gone through major transformations concerning its recognition and understanding of social categories. Of the reasons for this transformation, at least four are crucial. To begin with, we have come to recognize much more profoundly that categories are social constructs and what that means. Social psychologists have begun to explore more systematically how social objects develop in a social context, engaging in the process in more observational research such as field studies or the kind of work done in liberation psychology or action research. The field has also responded to a need to bridge psychological forms of social psychology with sociological ones. Finally, we have benefited from the push for interdisciplinary research, which has allowed us to see given concepts in a fluid and relational sense. This chapter then explores how social categories, once created and becoming real, get concretized through their interplay to allow individuals to take positions concerning important issues in everyday lives. Such actualizations provide a structuring framework through which individuals make sense of the world around them and, at the same time, use to legitimize their own point of view. It is when we take positions about important matters that we engage in relations with others, both to share and to differentiate, as a matter of reaffirming who we are and validating what we think. A full understanding of social categories requires an appreciation of the notion of social positioning to see how collectively constructed categories become real and serve a purpose in the lives of social actors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)

Prati F., Crisp R. J., & Rubini M . (2015).

Counter- stereotypes reduce emotional intergroup bias by eliciting surprise in the face of unexpected category combinations.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 61, 31-43.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61Counter-stereotypes attenuate intergroup stereotyped emotions.61Counter-stereotypes enhance the generation of humanizing emotional attributes.61Surprise and expectancy violation sequentially mediate counter-stereotype effects.61Generalization of counter-stereotype effects using different target groups

Rozendal K. . (2003).

The effects of choice over category membership on social category compound dominance (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). University of.

California.

[本文引用: 3]

Rule N.O., &Sutherland S.L . (2017).

Social categorization from faces: Evidence from obvious and ambiguous groups.

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(3), 231-236.

[本文引用: 2]

Shutts K. . (2015).

Young children's preferences: Gender, race, and social status.

Child Development Perspectives, 9(4), 262-266.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

In this article, I consider how two aspects of societysocial categories (in particular, gender and race) and social statusguide young children's preferences. Research on children's social categories reveals that gender-based social preferences emerge earlier than race-based preferences. Recent studies also show that children are attuned to social status, and the association of race with status differences could explain why race influences children's social preferences. I conclude with questions and suggestions for research.

Shutts K., Brey E. L., Dornbusch L. A., Slywotzky N., & Olson K. R . (2016).

Children use wealth cues to evaluate others.

PLoS ONE, 11(3), e0149360.

URL     PMID:4774995     

Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4–5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4–6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people’s relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5–9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children’s attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development.

Shutts K., Roben C. K. P., & Spelke E. S . (2013).

Children's use of social categories in thinking about people and social relationships.

Journal of Cognition and Development, 14(1), 35-62.

URL     PMID:23646000      [本文引用: 2]

A series of studies investigated White U.S. 3- and 4-year-old children's use of gender and race information to reason about their own and others’ relationships and attributes. Three-year-old children used gender- but not race-based similarity between themselves and others to decide with whom they wanted to be friends, as well as to determine which children shared their own preferences for various social activities. Four-year-old (but not younger) children attended to gender and racial category membership to guide inferences about others’ relationships but did not use these categories to reason about others’ shared activity preferences. Taken together, the findings provide evidence for three suggestions about these children's social category-based reasoning. First, gender is a more potent category than race. Second, social categories are initially recruited for first-person reasoning but later become broad enough to support third-person inferences. Finally, at least for third-person reasoning, thinking about social categories is more attuned to social relationships than to shared attributes.

Smyth K., Feeney A., Eidson R. C., & Coley J. D . (2017).

Development of essentialist thinking about religion categories in Northern Ireland (and the United States).

Developmental Psychology, 53(3), 475-496.

URL     PMID:28230403      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Social essentialism, the belief that members of certain social categories share unobservable properties, licenses expectations that those categories are natural and a good basis for inference. A challenge for cognitive developmental theory is to give an account of how children come to develop essentialist beliefs about socially important categories. Previous evidence from Israel suggests that kindergarteners selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (ethnicity) categories, and that this is attenuated among children in integrated schools. In 5 studies (N = 718) we used forced-choice (Study 1) and unconstrained (Studies 2-4) category-based inference tasks, and a questionnaire (Study 5) to study the development of essentialist reasoning about religion categories in Northern Ireland (Studies 1-3 & 5) and the U.S. (Study 4). Results show that, as in Israel, Northern Irish children selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (religion) categories, and that such reasoning is attenuated among children in integrated schools. However, the development trajectory of essentialist thinking and the patterns of attenuation among children attending integrated schools in Northern Ireland differ from the Israeli case. Meta-analysis confirmed this claim and ruled out an alternative explanation of the results based on community diversity. Although the Northern Irish and Israeli case studies illustrate that children develop selective essentialist beliefs about socially important categories, and that these beliefs are impacted by educational context, the differences between them emphasize the importance of historical, cultural, and political context in understanding conceptual development, and suggest that there may be more than one developmental route to social essentialism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

Smallman R., & Becker B. (2017).

Motivational differences in seeking out evaluative categorization information.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(7), 1020-1032.

URL     PMID:28903700      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Previous research shows that people draw finer evaluative distinctions when rating liked versus disliked objects (e.g., wanting a 5-point scale to evaluate liked cuisines and a 3-point scale to rate disliked cuisines). Known as the preference-categorization effect, this pattern may exist not only in how individuals form evaluative distinctions but also in how individuals seek out evaluative information. The current research presents three experiments that examine motivational differences in evaluative information seeking (rating scales and attributes). Experiment 1 found that freedom of choice (the ability to avoid undesirable stimuli) and sensitivity to punishment (as measured by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System [BIS/BAS] scale) influenced preferences for desirable and undesirable evaluative information in a health-related decision. Experiment 2 examined choice optimization, finding that maximizers prefer finer evaluative information for both liked and disliked options in a consumer task. Experiment 3 found that this pattern generalizes to another type of evaluative categorization, attributes.

Song J., & Zuo B. (2016).

Functional significance of conflicting age and wealth cross-categorization: The dominant role of categories that violate stereotypical expectations.

Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1624.

URL     PMID:27818640      [本文引用: 3]

The purpose of the current study was to identify the functional significance of conflicting stereotypes and to identify the dominant category in such conflicts. In the present research we examined the conflicting crossed categories of age and wealth with regard to warmth and competence perceptions. It was found (Pilot Study and Study 1) that the old-rich targets presented a conflicting stereotype group in the perception of warmth, whereas young-poor targets presented a conflicting stereotype group in the perception of competence. In addition, theoldstereotype dominated the warmth evaluation of old-rich targets, whereas thepoorstereotype dominated the competence evaluation of young-poor targets. In Study 2, participants provided warmth and competence evaluations after they learned about the targets' behaviors which demonstrated high or low warmth and high or low competence. The results suggest that for the warmth evaluation of the old-rich target the category that did not match the behavior (i.e., contradicted the stereotype expectation) was more salient and drove judgments. However, the effect of stereotype expectation violation was not found in the competence evaluation of the young-poor target. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding factors that activate and inhibit stereotyped perceptions.

Weisman K., Johnson M. V., & Shutts K . (2015).

Young children’s automatic encoding of social categories.

Developmental Science, 18(6), 1036-1043.

URL     PMID:4476957     

Abstract The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants made mistakes, they were more likely to confuse targets of the same gender than targets of different genders, but they were equally likely to confuse targets within and across racial groups. However, a social preference measure indicated that participants were sensitive to both gender and race information. Participants with more racial diversity in their social environments were more likely to encode race, but did not have stronger racial preferences. These findings provide evidence that young children do not automatically encode all perceptible features of others. Further, gender may be a more fundamental social category than race. 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Williams D. R., Priest N., & Anderson N. B . (2016).

Understanding associations among race, socioeconomic status, and health: Patterns and prospects.

Health Psychology, 35(4), 407-411.

URL     PMID:27018733      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) are social categories that capture differential exposure to conditions of life that have health consequences. Race/ethnicity and SES are linked to each other, but race matters for health even after SES is considered. This commentary considers the complex ways in which race combines with SES to affect health. There is a need for greater attention to understanding how risks and resources in the social environment are systematically patterned by race, ethnicity and SES, and how they combine to influence cardiovascular disease and other health outcomes. Future research needs to examine how the levels, timing and accumulation of institutional and interpersonal racism combine with other toxic exposures, over the life-course, to influence the onset and course of illness. There is also an urgent need for research that seeks to build the science base that will identify the multilevel interventions that are likely to enhance the health of all, even while they improve the health of disadvantaged groups more rapidly than the rest of the population so that inequities in health can be reduced and ultimately eliminated. We also need sustained research attention to identifying how to build the political support to reduce the large shortfalls in health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

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