心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 1-10 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00001

研究构想

好奇影响灵感产生的现象与机制:认知与情绪双加工路径

陈晓曦,1, 陈凤玲1, 李斌,1,2, 刘耀中1

1 暨南大学管理学院

2 暨南大学企业发展研究所, 广州 510632

The influence of curiosity on inspiration: Phenomenon and mechanism based on cognitive and affect processes

CHEN Xiaoxi,1, CHEN Fengling1, LI Bin,1,2, LIU Yaozhong1

1 Department of Management, Jinan University

2 IThe Institute of Enterprise Development, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

通讯作者: 陈晓曦, E-mail: txiaoxi@jnu.edu.cnchen.psy @qq.com;李斌, E-mail: bingoli@jnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-12-13   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金青年项目.  71701080, 71601084
广东省自然科学基金项目.  2017A030313398, 2016A03 0313113
暨南大学广东省哲学社会科学重点实验室—“神经管理学实验室” .  2015WSYS005

Received: 2017-12-13   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

当前我国经济正在从要素驱动,投资驱动转向创新驱动, 如何促进和持续创新的问题引起了学界和企业的广泛关注.现有研究发现好奇和灵感是创新的重要阶段, 灵感具有独立的心理结构和不同的过程, 又受到意识情绪的影响.研究拟从灵感产生的认知和情绪的双加工视角出发, 深入揭示灵感产生现象的本质特点和规律, 阐明好奇影响灵感的行为和脑机制.研究成果不仅可为创新的理论发展提供崭新视角,也可为企业员工和创业者创新能力的培养提供参考.

关键词: 好奇 ; 灵感 ; 认知 ; 情绪 ; 社会联结

Abstract

The Chinese market economic system is led by the government to a great extent, which has impeded the transformation of the Chinese economy from a factor driven economy to an innovation driven one. The question of how to maintain and promote innovation has caused wide concern of the researchers and enterprises. Researchers have found that the curiosity and inspiration belong to subprocess and component of creativity and innovation. Moreover, inspiration has a dependent psychological construct and varied process, which can be influenced by conscious emotions. Based on these findings, this project started from the perspective of dual-process theory (cognitive and affect processes) to reveal the phenomenon of inspiration triggered by curiosity. The project intends to testify processing mechanism of inspiration on both behavioral science and cognitive neuroscience levels. This project can not only contribute to the development of inspiration theory, but also help to foster the creativity and innovation of entrepreneur and employees.

Keywords: curiosity ; inspiration ; cognitive ; affect ; social connectedness

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本文引用格式

陈晓曦, 陈凤玲, 李斌, 刘耀中. (2019). 好奇影响灵感产生的现象与机制:认知与情绪双加工路径 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 1-10

CHEN Xiaoxi, CHEN Fengling, LI Bin, LIU Yaozhong. (2019). The influence of curiosity on inspiration: Phenomenon and mechanism based on cognitive and affect processes. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 1-10

1 问题提出

随着我国经济发展进入新常态, 需要从要素驱动,投资驱动转向创新驱动.2015年6月, 《国务院关于大力推进大众创业万众创新若干政策措施的意见》指出“推进大众创业,万众创新, 是培育和催生经济社会发展新动力的必然选择, 也是激发全社会创新潜能和创业活力的有效途径”.同年的《政府工作报告》中指出要把“大众创业,万众创新”打造成为推动中国经济继续前行的“双引擎”.创新问题一直是学者,企业,政策制定者共同关注的话题.在互联网时代, 创业的门槛变得很低, 但生存和发展则不容易.互联网信息的高速传递和膨胀塑造了新的思维方式, 人们的思维变得更加“浅薄”, 缺乏深度思考(Carr, 2011).那么, 创业者和企业员工如何在互联网情境下创新呢?

创造力(creativity)和创新(innovation)的概念在心理学和管理学里都有广泛研究(Hennessey & Amabile, 2010; 沈伊默, 周婉茹, 魏丽华, 张庆林, 2017; 袁媛 等, 2016; 张亚坤, 陈龙安, 张兴利, 施建农, 2018).广义的层面上, 创造力和创新是试图发展和介绍新事物,提出新方法的过程,结果和产品; 狭义的层面上, 创造力特指想法的诞生, 而创新还包括想法的实践等后续活动(Anderson, Potočnik, & Zhou, 2014).技术创新和组织学习的相关研究显示, 组织或团队的创新主要源于个体层面的探索行为和应用行为(张勇, 龙立荣, 2013), 员工的创新对于组织转型发展乃至产业升级都具有重要意义(Gong, Wu, Song, & Zhang, 2017; Zhou, Wang, Song & Wu, 2017), 因此本研究聚焦员工个体层面的创新行为.

1.1 好奇的概念和分类

好奇(curiosity)作为人类的本能(Day, 1971), 是对探索新事物,挑战和不确定事件的识别,追求的强烈渴望, 是人类进行探索性和创造性活动时需要具备的重要心理特征(Litman, Collins, & Spielberger, 2005; 李天然, 俞国良, 2015).好奇能够激励人们学习感兴趣的信息并沉浸其中, 通过

关注新颖和挑战来扩展信息,知识和技能, 用新的方式思考,探索和行动.具体来说, 好奇是一种情绪状态, 能够扩展个人的知识和技能, 提高自我意识, 会促使个体探索环境来获得满足和愉悦感(Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004).内部动机视角认为, 好奇满足个体的内部需求, 是人类探求新知识,自身学习和发展的内在动力.而奖赏视角认为好奇引发预期奖赏的过程(Kang et al., 2009)和奖赏寻求的行为(reward seeking, Wang, 2014; Wang & Huang, 2017), 是奖赏敏感系统的基本机制之一(参见Kashdan & Silvia, 2009).好奇对个体的影响是多方面的:在认知功能方面可以促进主动探索行为,降低不确定感(Litman & Jimerson, 2004)和创造性地解决问题(Hardy III, Ness, & Mecca, 2017); 在社会功能方面可以促进社会交往(Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011)和文化学习(Baumeister, Zhang, & Vohs, 2004)等.

好奇由何而来呢?信息缺口(information gap)理论认为好奇状态由自身兴趣(即兴趣型好奇, curiosity as a feeling of interest, CFI)或信息缺口(即剥夺型好奇curiosity as a feeling of deprivation, CFD, Litman & Jimerson, 2004; Litman, 2008)诱发的不确定感所引起(Loewenstein, 1994).同时, 根据来源和对象的不同, 大致分为认知好奇(cognitive curiosity)和人际好奇interpersonal curiosity, Litman & Pezzo, 2007).认知好奇是对物理世界的好奇, 包括感知觉好奇, 例如一张新奇的图片或一段新奇的旋律; 新的感官体验, 例如VR (虚拟现实)技术; 也包括对抽象刺激的好奇, 即认识性好奇(epistemic), 是由知识上的不确定性,认知缺口引发的, 例如想要了解小米手机是如何成功的?个体不仅对物理世界的规律感到好奇, 也对环境中的人产生好奇, 即人际好奇.它是指对社会信息的好奇, 想要知道他人的行为,想法和感受(Farley, 2011).互联网时代, 人际交往的概念发生了巨大转变, 社交网络逐渐将线下生活的完整的信息流转移到线上进行低成本管理, 让虚拟社交越来越与现实世界的社交出现交叉.因此, 互联网时代, 好奇也突破了地理位置的限制, 其重要性与日俱增.社交网络的重要特征就是以用户为中心, 不论是Facebook,Twitter,微博等都是用户分享信息,平等交流和自由发表意见的平台.

1.2 灵感的概念和结构

灵感(inspiration)一词由来已久, 是指思维过程中认识飞跃的心理现象, 被广泛使用于问题解决和创造力等诸多领域.人们常用“茅塞顿开”,“柳暗花明”来形容个体感到被启发,被鼓舞或被激励的状态或过程(刘亚, 周长江, 杨哈韬, 2012).企业家拍卖一场“巴菲特的晚餐”, 到硅谷的知名企业走访, 这些丰富新颖的环境刺激,榜样的经验都是灵感诞生的来源.尽管普罗大众和学术作品都坚信灵感在创新中的重要作用, 经典的创造力理论却很少谈及灵感(Amabile, 2012; Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, & Herron, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1997).究其原因, 一是灵感常常被披上神秘的外衣, 二是灵感的过程常被忽略.Thrash和Elliot (2003, 2004)的“灵感的结构说”用法则网络法(nomological network)提出了灵感的结构和测量方法, 构建了灵感的操作性定义(特质性灵感)和产生过程(状态性灵感).他们认为:灵感包含唤起,超越和趋向动机三个核心特征.唤起(evocation)是指灵感是被自我之外的某事或某物所唤起和激发的, 不是人为控制的, 也不需要个人来负责, 因而灵感的唤起性具有低责任性和低可控性(Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, 2015).灵感的源泉, 既可以来自于大脑活动(如无意识的豁朗,前意识的自由联想), 也可以来自于外界环境(例如, 大自然,榜样,他人的善举)甚至是超自然的力量(例如, 上帝) (刘亚 等, 2012).超越(transcendence)是指灵感能够启发个体突破现实的局限, 意识到更多的可能性, 追求更好的目标; 伴随着精神体验(spirituality),自我实现的意义(meaning)和顿悟或明朗(illumination).趋向动机(approaching motivation)包括动机强度,目标清晰性和兴趣, 是指灵感能激励并引导个体的行为, 使个人的想法或愿望转化为行动.灵感既可以是一般性的,被启发的过程(inspired by成分), 感知到个体的内部价值在唤起的物体上实现的过程; 也可以是特殊性的/被启发去做某件事(inspired to成分), 即一个受启发的个体在动机的驱使下, 针对有形的物体(词语,绘画,合适的行动)传递,扩展和表达具有内在价值的观点(Stephan et al., 2015).唤起和超越是“inspired by”过程的特点, 而趋向动机是“inspired to”过程的特点(Thrash, Maruskin, Cassidy, Fryer, & Ryan, 2010).灵感一词用于描述两个过程同时发生的情形(Belzak, Thrash, Sim, & Wadsworth, 2017).与其他表示自我超越的情感——敬畏,钦佩和崇高等不同, 灵感是对感知到的内在价值的动机反应, 其功能是趋近性的, 激励个体将感知到的内在价值传递下去(transmission), 为了微小的可能性去努力实现.此外, 灵感的影响因素可以分为认知方面, 如新异刺激,无意识思考, 和情绪两个方面, 例如, 有意识的情绪,积极情绪(Amabile, Barsade, Mueller, & Staw, 2005).

1.3 好奇,灵感在创新过程中扮演的角色

首先, 创新的过程可以分解为几个阶段(Sadler-smith, 2015; Van Wulfen, 2016) (部分代表性理论见表1所示):1)准备期/提出问题:个体沉浸专注于一些不确定的问题, 这些问题引起了个体的兴趣和好奇; 2)酝酿期:加工信息, 常在潜意识的层面进行; 3)明朗期:顿悟和产生新想法; 4)验证期:判断新想法是否具有价值和值得追求; 5)加工或评价结果:个体通过转换,发展和提炼来实践新想法(Csikszentmihalyi, 1997).各个阶段之间的关系是递归,动态,进化的, 个体根据每一阶段的结果可以在前后阶段之间切换调整(Mainemelis, 2010; Zeng, Proctor, & Salvendy, 2011), 实施的效果也可以激发新的发现和可能性.以上创新理论暗示了好奇有助于对机会的识别和提出问题, 影响创新的早期阶段.根据灵感的传递模型(Thrash et al., 2010), 灵感是对顿悟的动机反应, 能提高产品的创造性(Oleynick, Thrash, LeFew, Moldovan, & Kieffaber, 2014).

表1   创造性思维的阶段对比

作者 阶段
Wallas, 2014 准备 preparation 酝酿 incubation 明朗 illumination 验证 verification
Mainemelis, 2010 准备 酝酿 明朗 评价 加工
Amabile, 2012 提出问题 准备和酝酿 产生反应 验证反应 评价结果
Busse & Mans-
field, 1980
选择问题 投入努力 设置约束条件 改变约束条件和
重新建构问题
验证和阐述所提出的解决方案

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其次, 从创新的构成要素来看, 创造力成分模型(componential model, Amabile et al., 1996)提出了三个重要成分:内在任务动机,领域相关知识技能,创造性相关技能; 其中, 任务动机具有指向性, 包括兴趣和承诺, 因此好奇属于任务动机.创造性相关技能需要个体突破心理定势, 利用直觉产生创造性的想法(创意), 启发个体创新.创新的三个成分之间的关系可以表述为, 任务动机通过学习从而获得领域相关技能, 然后启动或中断创造性相关技能.创新的实质是问题解决(Lubart, 2001; Runco & Dow, 1999).创新的三个成分可以影响创新过程的特定阶段(Amabile, 2012)的完成情况或者问题解决的特定阶段所花费的时间.任务动机影响问题识别和产生反应阶段, 领域相关技能影响准备和反应评价阶段, 创造性相关技能影响产生反应阶段.综上, 好奇与内在任务动机有关, 灵感与创造性相关技能有关, 能够对创新的过程产生特异性的影响.

综上, 创新领域关于创新的过程和成分都谈及好奇和灵感, 同时, 过往的相关关系研究指出好奇与灵感是与创新紧密相关的研究变量:个体的经验开放性是创造力的重要表现, 一方面, 好奇特质与经验开放性和外向性以及积极的人际关系呈正相关(Hartung & Renner, 2011), 能够预测个体的创造能力(Day & Langevin, 1969).另一方面, 经验开放性与灵感特质以及个体每日的灵感体验呈显著正相关(Trash & Elliot, 2003).

那么好奇如何具体作用于灵感呢?不同类型的好奇, 能够引发相应的探索行为, 满足自身的需求.通过对所关注知识的搜索, 个体更新了原有知识结构(Menon & Soman, 2002), 突破现有局限, 因此, 好奇能重建认知结构.人际好奇则有利于个体与他人之间产生积极的社会交往, 建立良好的人际关系(Kashdan et al., 2011), 更新自我认知结构——如社会联结(Social Connectedness, Lee & Robbins, 1998).社会联结作为个体的一种基本需求, 会影响人们的情感,关系认知以及在社会活动中的表现(Baumeister & Leary, 1995).感知社会联结与认知开放和探索环境行为相关, 研究结论发现感知社会联结能够促进灵感的产生(Stephan et al., 2015).

在创造力研究领域, 灵感被认为是创意实现的动机状态.Trash等(2010)研究区分了创意和灵感, 认为二者是独立的过程, 创意激励个体, 提高个体的敏感性, 发生在前; 灵感是对有启发性的刺激物(包括想法,人或者行为)的唤醒和维持, 灵感的功能是传递, 能将创造性的思想传输给大众并将其转化为创造性的产品.

1.4 研究不足与发展趋势

首先, 创新行为的测量方法常使用自评或他评的整体性的创新问卷(Wu, Parker, & de Jong, 2011), 综合评定员工的创新行为, 这种测量方式有可能混淆了个体对创新的态度和实际的创新行为, 也模糊了创新的不同阶段.Anderson等人(2014)提出创造和创新的过程应区分不同的阶段——创新观念的产生和实施, 属于相对独立的过程.未来的研究应该针对每个阶段进行具体测量, 例如评估灵感的产生能真实地测量员工的创新观念阶段, 包括灵感的频率,强度,持续时间等(Thrash et al., 2010).

其次, 情绪对创新的影响的实证结果争议很大, 创新作为一种复杂的心理功能, 仅仅依据情绪的效价来预测是不够的(Amabile et al., 2005; Bledow, Rosing, & Frese, 2013), 更应该专注于具体情绪的作用(Lerner et al., 2015).当员工面临新鲜事物和挑战时, 员工会有多种情绪反应(Kashdan & Silvia, 2009), 关于好奇的研究被极大地忽略了.好奇既是一种情绪状态(自我意识情绪, Keltner & Shiota, 2003)也是一种认知状态, 好奇与创新密不可分, 对二者的关系探讨却面临一些缺陷.一方面, 二者测量的题目有很大重合(例如好奇量表Berlyne, 1963与创造力量表Barron-Welsh Art Scale, Welsh & Barron, 1959), 说明过往的测量方式没有把这两个变量清晰地区分开.另一方面, 好奇与创新的研究以人格特质研究居多(Reio & Callahan, 2004), 状态性的好奇与创新的关系的实证研究相对缺乏.利用实验情景激发个体的创新观念对于组织管理有重要启示, 对于管理实践来说, 如何调动员工的好奇状态来提高创新能力, 此类研究非常缺乏.那么, 好奇是否影响灵感?不同类型的好奇的心理机制和脑机制基础是什么?好奇对灵感的影响是否受到人格特质的调节?

综上所述, 本研究拟解决的研究问题包括: (1)认知好奇与人际好奇是否是相互独立的过程?(2)好奇如何影响个体灵感的产生, 其作用机制是怎样的?(3)好奇对灵感的影响是否受到其他因素影响?对这些问题的深入探讨, 不仅对灵感理论的发展有重要贡献, 而且对企业创新实践,员工创新能力提升有很强的实践指导意义.

2 研究构想

本研究将整合好奇和灵感领域的研究, 结合社会心理学,认知心理学等学科方法, 探索好奇对灵感的作用机制以及影响因素.本研究预期信息缺口引发好奇状态, 认知好奇与人际好奇具有相对独立的加工过程, 通过相应的探索行为来更新自我, 自我在认知层面或社会联结层面的重建能够激发个体, 使个体受到启发,产生灵感, 灵感的趋近性动机有利于创新动机和创新行为.此结果不仅可以进一步明确灵感的产生机制, 还进一步拓展了灵感助推创新行为的发生路径.上述研究构想将分为三个部分进行阐述:

2.1 研究构想一:好奇类型的双加工路径的存在和脑机制

互联网信息环境给人类的行为带来了深远的影响, 信息的丰富和获取的便捷达到了前所未有的状态, 给创业者带来了崭新的机遇.丰富的环境信息是好奇心萌发的土壤.

本研究关注剥夺型好奇的双加工路径.当个体意识到当前的知识储备与想要获得的知识存在差距(即信息缺口)时, 就会产生相对剥夺感, 体验到好奇, 促使个体探索新知识来验证自己的假设, 以缓解剥夺感.这类好奇的体验更深刻, 激发的探索行为更频繁.现有研究通过设置信息缺口引发个体的好奇状态, 发现认知缺口的设置必须是适度和可控的(认知缺口大小与好奇程度呈倒U形关系, 参见Berlyne, 1960), 使得个体获得相关线索, 与已有知识产生连结, 才能激发动机行为(Menon & Soman, 2002).

认知开放的个体, 他们觉得自己是好奇的,认为好奇是成长的机会(Kumashiro & Sedikides, 2005).好奇是内在的情绪和动机状态, 搜索行为是外在的行为表现(Gottlieb, Oudeyer, Lopes, & Baranes, 2013).不同信息缺口定义的好奇类型会引发怎样的搜索行为呢?现有研究发现认知领域的好奇, 能够提高由于尝试新事物或跳出舒适区而觉察到的自我沮丧状态的容忍性, 促使个体去探索世界和挑战自我, 触发信息搜索, 引起注意投入, 开展认知加工(Menon & Soman, 2002; van Dijk & Zeelenberg, 2007; Wang, 2014; Wang & Huang, 2017; Zhou et al., 2017).本研究预期在问题解决任务中, 认知好奇可以反映在以知识为线索的搜寻上, 表现为对关键理论的追寻,对产品信息的挖掘.

而在社会领域, 高人际好奇的个体对他人的行为,情感和经验等持开放和接纳的态度, 在与人交流时更多地表现出积极探索, 例如询问,作出回应,眼神交流等(Hartung, 2010).人际好奇帮助个体获得关于他人的信息, 丰富自身的社会经验, 建立起良好的人际关系, 有利于个体的社会交往和自身的生存和发展.本研究预期在社交媒体情境下, 人际好奇可以反映在以人际为线索的探索行为上, 例如Follow, Like, 点赞, 转发, 评论等, 表现为追踪关键人物及其社会关系网络, 发掘人物的个人信息等.这些好奇所引发的行为是人际互动中的理想行为也是关系发展的形成阶段(Kashdan & Silvia, 2009).

过往研究对于好奇所引发的探索行为时设置的信息缺口模糊(Wang & Huang, 2017), 且认知领域和社会人际领域割裂开来.本研究拟在实验情境中, 同时考察两类好奇状态引发特定的外显的探索行为.另外, 好奇状态具有特定的神经活动模式, 过往研究利用不同的好奇诱导范式, 探索了奖赏脑区的激活包括尾状核(caudate nucleus),额下回(inferior frontal gyrus) (Kang et al., 2009)和纹状体奖赏回路以及中脑多巴胺脑区和伏隔核(nucleus accumbens) (参见Kidd & Hayden, 2015).参与加工好奇的脑电成分包括LPC成分(late positive component, Han et al., 2013).综上所述, 我们提出假设1.

假设1:信息缺口引发不同类型的好奇, 认知好奇会引发基于知识线索的信息搜寻, 人际好奇则引发基于人际线索的信息搜寻.

我们将通过以下系列实验进行验证:(1)信息缺口诱发认知好奇和人际好奇, 引发特定的搜索模式(眼动实验).(2)信息缺口诱发认知好奇和人际好奇, 引发特定的神经活动模式.

2.2 研究构想二:认知好奇和人际好奇影响灵感的双加工路径

好奇诱发个体的探索行为, 有助于发现如何利用这些事物(Li, Maggitti, Smith, Tesluk, & Katila, 2013).不同的信息搜索类型对所收获的奖赏回馈可能是不同的:Levitt等人(2009)列举好奇心的重要机能包括:激发学习和探索行为, 促进人际交往和亲密感的形成, 最终帮助个体灵活应对复杂多变的环境.那么这些奖赏回馈能否激发起灵感呢?

认知好奇可以引发基于知识的搜索(Koo & Choi, 2010), 个体围绕特定的主题展开搜寻, 对新奇和挑战性事件投入努力, 最终丰富或修正自身的知识结构,技能, 达到知识结构的更新和重建.好奇引发的认知重构与问题解决领域的顿悟有很大相似, 都涉及表征的突然转换或重新建构(袁媛等, 2016).顿悟是创造性思维赖以实现的基础, 因此好奇引发的认知重构有利于灵感的产生.

人际好奇可以引发关于人际信息的搜索, 包括公开的或私人的行为,经历,思想和感觉(Litman & Pezzo, 2007).社会认知和进化心理学领域的研究者们认为个体不断寻求关于社会的,他人的信息是为了有效地控制环境.个体越是对他人好奇, 就越容易接受社会活动中的模糊性, 他们通过与他人分享新奇事件并从他人身上发现新的信息来获得成长的机会.这个社会化的过程能够提高该社会事件的内在价值和和动机, 从而启发后续行为.人际信息搜寻是围绕人际信息的, 例如目标人物的经历,观点,社会关系等.通过人际信息的搜索, 产生熟悉感,联结感, 缓解剥夺感,疏离感; 最终重构了自我的认知结构——社会联结.高社会联结的个体易于认同他人, 认为他人友好可亲, 社会适应较快, 社会联结能正向预测灵感产生(Stephan et al., 2015), 因此本研究预期好奇可以通过社会联结促进灵感产生.由于创新的阶段理论认为创新的各个过程之间不一定是线性关系, 因此本研究所假设的从好奇到灵感的各个阶段之间的关系也可能是非线性的关系.综上所述, 我们提出假设2.

假设2:认知好奇通过基于知识的搜索, 达到知识结构的重构, 最终影响了灵感的产生和目标追寻.人际好奇通过基于人际信息的搜索, 达到自我结构的重构(社会联结), 最终影响了灵感的产生和创新动机和产品的创造性.

灵感的传输理论认为灵感能够传输产品的创造性(Thrash et al., 2010), 是创意和产品创造性之间的中介机制.实证研究表明灵感能够预测科技,科幻创作以及诗词创作的创造力.对于个体而言, 灵感的峰值能够预测创造力的峰值(Thrash et al., 2010).由此可见, 灵感可以预测产品的创新性, 但是从灵感到产品创新的路径研究缺乏实证证据支持.研究发现怀旧诱发的灵感能够引起追求目标的动机(Stephan et al., 2015), 因此灵感也可能会促进目标的形成,维持和完成.同时学习目标导向影响领域内和创造力相关技能(Hirst, Van Knippenberg, & Zhou, 2009), 据此我们提出假设3.

假设3:灵感能够触发创新动机, 引发对创新目标的追求, 最终促进了产品的创造性.

我们将通过以下系列实验进行验证:(1)好奇与灵感产生的相关研究; (2)认知好奇对灵感产生过程的影响(情境实验); (3)人际好奇对灵感产生过程的影响(情境实验); (4)灵感通过目标动机促进产品的创造性研究.

2.3 研究构想三:好奇影响灵感产生的影响因素

灵感的产生需要个体对事物内在价值敏感, 能够欣赏和吸取无意识中的丰富的观点, 因此灵感更容易降临在能够跳出思维定势和接收环境刺激的个体身上(Thrash & Elliot, 2004).人们对社会和非社会刺激的认识在新颖性,复杂性,不确定性等方面不同, 高好奇的个体能够获取直接而持久的心理和社会收益.研究发现创造力高的个体喜欢描述自己是好奇的(李天然, 俞国良, 2015), 特质性好奇是一种持续稳定的人格特质, 能够预测个体的创新表现(Day & Langevin, 1969; Hardy III et al., 2017), 这类个体关注新知识或者他人信息, 探索信息的动机高(Berlyne, 1963).

同时, 灵感特质能调节个体的灵感体验:高灵感的个体做事积极主动, 目标导向行为多, 专注于将自己的注意力聚焦于事物的积极一面, 使个体沉浸于刺激的卓越品质, 也能更好地融入到他们所处的环境中(刘亚等, 2012).灵感特质与创造力自我概念相关, 能预测个体日常的创造力自我评定水平(Trash & Elliot, 2003).对于专利拥有者, 灵感体验的频率与专利数目呈显著正相关(Trash & Elliot, 2003).

另外, 个体的调节焦点 (regulatory focus, Higgins,) 1997也可能调节创新行为(Zhou et al., 2017).定向调节理论(Regulatory Focus Theory)概述了人 们的行为追求的两个目标:促进焦点(promotion focus)强调了努力完成目标, 获得收益, 回避焦点(prevention focus)强调了责任和安全, 避免损失.促进焦点的个体注重积极结果, 并采用各种促进的策略去获得成功, 而回避焦点的个体对负性结果敏感, 使用回避的策略去避免损失和失败(王怀勇, 刘永芳, 2014).个体的调节焦点能引发后续的心理状态.研究发现, 促进焦点影响个体对物体或事件的新奇性的察觉, 促进焦点的个体对可能的改进更加敏感, 会做出探索行为,更想接近目标(Higgins, 1997, 1998).促进性调节焦点能够调节创意与灵感之间的关系(Trash et al., 2010).综上所述, 我们提出假设4.

假设4:个体的人格特质和调节焦点倾向在好奇影响灵感产生中起调节作用.

我们将通过以下系列实验进行验证:(1)好奇特质对好奇引发灵感的双路径的调节作用; (2)灵感特质对好奇引发灵感的双路径的调节作用; (3)调节焦点倾向对好奇引发灵感的双路径的调节作用.

3 理论建构与创新

创新是企业乃至国家发展壮大的源动力, 创新的理论不断推陈出新(Bledow et al., 2013; Mainemelis, 2010).本研究聚焦创新行为的关键环节——灵感的迸发, 探索灵感的前因变量,作用机制以及边界条件.灵感尽管处于创新思维中的关键阶段, 但是有关其诱发的机制以及对创新行为的实施的实证研究并不丰富(参见Thrash & Elliot, 2003, 2004; Thrash et al., 2010).好奇是人类的基本需求之一, 能够提高自我意识,内省和感受性, 这种对知识和发现的不可遏制的渴望, 推动了学术,科学,技术等领域的创新.好奇与创新的关系密切, 好奇特质能够通过信息获取来影响创造力表现(Hardy III et al., 2017), 但好奇状态对创新的影响则缺少实证证据支持.本研究基于认知和情感的双加工视角, 由不同类型的信息缺口诱发相应的好奇状态, 产生驱动力(Wang, 2014), 驱使个体做出探索行为(信息搜索), 来满足填补信息缺口和满足自身需求.

认知领域的信息搜寻,加工和学习(Menon & Soman, 2002)能够达到一种认知专注(cognitive absorption, Agarwal & Karahanna, 2000; Roche & McConkey, 1990), 提高对信息的理解和注意, 会带来知识结构的丰富和重建.相对而言, 人际好奇会引发以人际线索的信息搜寻, 提高参与度(engagement),响应能力(responsiveness)和应对他人多样化观点的灵活性(Kashdan & Silvia, 2009), 帮助建立社会联结, 带来自我的重建.社会联结是安全型依恋的标志, 这类个体认为自己是认知开放的, 这种认知开放状态提高了对内在价值的敏感性.不论是专注还是开放性, 都是灵感重要的前因变量(Trash & Elliot, 2004), 有利于个体接纳性地参与环境信息(engaging receptively), 突破原有思维定势, 产生豁朗,顿悟, 孕育创意.创意进而激发了灵感状态, 个体感受到自己被启发了,被激发了, 这种被启发的状态有利于个体对目标的追求以及创造性产品的诞生.个体的人格特质则在其中起调节作用.理论框架如图1所示.

图1

图1   研究理论框架


本研究在理论方面, 针对好奇引发灵感的研究问题, 提出了认知和情绪的双路径模型, 为现有关于灵感的诱发的相关研究提供了崭新的视角和思路.灵感作为创新行为的起点, 在创新领域的研究中并未引起研究者的重视, 因此本研究的结论可以补充和推进现有创新和创造力领域的研究.传统的创新理论立足问题解决范式, 强调利用发散思维突破思维定势.随着人们对于创新的认识的加深, 新的视角不断涌现.例如微创新(Boyd & Goldenberg, 2013), 提出在熟悉的领域,既定框架内, 运用特定策略对产品或服务做出微小改变, 创造伟大产品.即使是微小的改变, 在问题解决的过程中, 不论是提出问题还是解决问题都需要创意以及灵感, 微创新与大创新对灵感的强度需求可能不同.

同时, 本研究将系统区分不同类型的好奇的加工路径, 揭示好奇促进创新行为的内在机制以及边界条件.工作场所的人际好奇, 例如职场闲聊(gossip)的积极影响已经引起了研究者的关注(Peters, Jetten, Radova, & Austin, 2017), 本研究将扩展人际好奇的后效研究.在研究方法方面, 将结合行为科学研究方法如实验室实验,情境实验,ERP实验, 深入揭示好奇影响灵感产生的行为和脑机制.近年来, 神经管理领域方兴未艾, 但具体的研究范式却相对欠缺, 本研究对该领域的问题切入和研究手段选择做出了尝试, 有利于启发新的研究问题和技术手段的突破.最后, 在实践方面, 关于灵感的研究, 尽管已经有成熟的测量方法, 但是其前因变量的实证研究却非常缺乏.本研究试图在管理领域应用实证的方法观察和测量个体的灵感产生, 探索创业者和研发部门员工的好奇与灵感的关系及内在机制, 为管理实践中如何培养员工的好奇, 激发员工的灵感提供对策和依据.企业为了调动员工的创新积极性, 需要让微创新和大创新并驾齐驱.微创新可以带来快速回报帮助成长, 积蓄经验; 随着企业成熟期的到来, 大创新能够助力中国企业的再次腾飞.

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动机是心理学领域研究的重要课题。长期以来,强调趋近快乐和回避痛苦的享乐主义原则(hedonic principle)主导了学者们对人类动机的理解和预测。Higgins(1997)超越和发展了动机的这一原则,提出了两种密切相关的动机理论——调节焦点理论(regulatoryfocus theory)与调节匹配理论(regulatory fit theory),随着这两种动机理论的不断发展和成熟,越来越多的研究者开始其应用于决策领域进行相关探索。而本研究正是立足于这一学术前沿,将调节匹配理论与决策的重要形式——多属性决策(multi-attribute decisionmaking)整合起来考察多属性决策制定过程中,决策者的调节焦点与其信息搜索模式之间的调节匹配效应及其背后的心理机制。结果表明:(1)个体的调节焦点、信息搜索模式分别对其决策后评价的影响效应不显著;(2)个体的调节焦点和信息搜索模式对其决策后评价的交互影响效应显著,即决策过程中出现了调节焦点与信息搜索之间的调节匹配效应:在提升焦点条件下,使用基于属性的搜索模式的被试对其所作决策给予了更积极的评价,而在防御焦点条件下,使用基于选项的搜索模式的被试对其所作决策给予了更积极的评价;(3)加工流畅性可以部分地解释调节焦点与信息搜索模式之间达成的调节匹配效应。本研究的发现不仅能够丰富和完善调节焦点、调节匹配及决策领域的相关研究,而且对提升投资者、消费者等人群的决策后满意度和忠诚度,帮助相关组织扩大和维持客户资源,实现自身的发展目标亦具有较强的启示和指导意义。

袁媛, 沈汪兵, 施春华, 刘畅, 刘取芝, 刘昌 . (2016).

顿悟体验的心理与神经机制.

心理科学进展,24(9), 1329-1338.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

顿悟体验研究是揭示顿悟本质的重要途径.先前研究从认知角度对顿悟问题解决中的“旧而无效解题思路如何抛弃”与“新而有效解题思路如何形成”过程进行了颇多探讨,但较少探讨顿悟体验本身.顿悟体验研究对理清创造性顿悟中关键过程间的关系及阐明顿悟的科学规律均有重要的意义.基于创造性顿悟的“新旧交替”的动态视角,本项目拟借助多元方法来对言语类和视图类问题解决过程中尝试解题阶段和答案闪现阶段的顿悟体验的心理实质与脑机制进行研究.本项目成果不仅可以丰富和优化顿悟问题研究的方法学体系,而且能从知情转化层面深化对创造性顿悟脑机制的认识.

张亚坤, 陈龙安, 张兴利, 施建农 . (2018).

融合视角下的西方创造力系统观.

心理科学进展,26(5), 810-830.

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张勇, 龙立荣 . (2013).

绩效薪酬对雇员创造力的影响: 人-工作匹配和创造力自我效能的作用.

心理学报,45(3), 363-376.

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Over the past three decades, a debate has being burgeoning in academic circles over the effects of extrinsic rewards on the likelihood of generating creativity. The learning theoretical approach has suggested that promised reward may bolster creativity by establishing a contingency between novel behavior and reinforcement. This view has been supported by a variety of studies, in which rewards offered for high performance have indeed increased creativity. However, a competing humanist approach has made the very opposite prediction, asserting that promised reward should undermine creativity by reducing perceived autonomy and thereby undermining the intrinsic motivation posited to drive creativity. It has also been proposed within this camp that promised rewards reduce creativity by drawing attention toward the rewards rather than the creative process. In previous studies, the relationship between pay for performance (PFP) intensity and creativity is inconclusive. In this study, we propose a process model based on social cognitive theory to explain how and when PFP affect individual creativity. Based on the cognitive evaluation theory and the learned industriousness theory, it is hypothesized that there is an inverted U shape relationship between PFP and creativity, and the impact of PFP on creativity is mediated by creative self-efficacy based on the social cognitive theory. Additionally, taking an interactional perspective, it is proposed that the interaction between PFP and person-job fit would be significant such that for those employees rating high on person-job fit, the positive effect of intermediate level of PFP on creativity would be stronger and the negative effect of high level of PFP on creativity would be weaker, and this interaction will also be mediated by employees’ creative self-efficacy. Data were collected from 296 dyads of employees and their immediate supervisors in 44 enterprises. The questionnaire for employee included PFP, creative self-efficacy, and person-job fit. Employees’ creativity and job complexity was rated by their immediate supervisors. Theoretical hypotheses were tested by hierarchal regression analysis. Results of analyzing the matched sample showed that PFP had unique reversed U shape indirect effects on employee creativity via creative self-efficacy. Further, moderated path analysis revealed person-job fit augmented intermediate PFP’s direct positive effect on creative self-efficacy and indirect positive effect on creativity, and attenuated high PFP’s direct negative effect on creative self-efficacy and indirect negative effect on creativity. In contrast to previous studies, the research demonstrated that employees would achieve highest creativity at intermediate level of PFP, this result clarified the relationship between objective incentive intensity and employees’ creativity in workplace. Second, by examining the mediating effect of creative self-efficacy, the results contributed to our understanding on the mechanism through which PFP influence creativity. Finally, through investigating the moderating effect of person-job fit, we confirmed it as an important bounded condition of the effect of PFP on employees’ creativity.

Agarwal ,R., & Karahanna E. , (2000).

Time flies when you're having fun: Cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage.

MIS Quarterly, 24(4), 665-694.

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Extant explanations of why users behave in particular ways toward information technologies have tended to focus predominantly on instrumental beliefs as drivers of individual usage intentions. Prior work in individual psychology, however, suggests that holistic experiences with technology as captured in constructs such as enjoyment and flow are potentially important explanatory variables in technology acceptance theories. In this paper, we describe a multidimensional construct labeled cognitive absorption and defined as a state of deep involvement with software. Cognitive absorption, theorized being exhibited through the five dimensions of temporal dissociation, focused immersion, heightened enjoyment, control, and curiosity, is posited to be a proximal antecedent of two important beliefs about technology use, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. In addition, we propose that the individual traits of playfulness and personal innovativeness are important determinants of cognitive absorption. Based on the conceptual definition of this construct, operational measures for each dimension are developed. Using the World Wide Web as the target technology, scale validation indicates that the operational measures have acceptable psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis supports the proposed multi-dimensional structure. Structural equation analysis provides evidence for the theorized nomological net of cognitive absorption. Theoretical and practical implications are offered.

, Amabile T.M . (2012).

Componential theory of creativity.

Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.

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Amabile T. M., Barsade S. G., Mueller J. S., & Staw B. M . (2005).

Affect and creativity at work.

Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3), 367-403.

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This study explored how affect relates to creativity at work. Using both quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data from the daily diaries of 222 employees in seven companies, we examined the nature, form, and temporal dynamics of the affect-creativity relationship. The results indicate that positive affect relates positively to creativity in organizations and that the relationship is a simple linear one. Time-lagged analyses identify positive affect as an antecedent of creative thought, with incubation periods of up to two days. Qualitative analyses identify positive affect as a consequence of creative thought events, as well as a concomitant of the creative process. A preliminary theory of the affect-creativity cycle in organizations includes each of these links and proposes mechanisms by which they may operate.

Amabile T. M., Conti R., Coon H., Lazenby J., & Herron M . (1996).

Assessing the work environment for creativity.

Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 1154-1184.

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We describe the development and validation of a new instrument, KEYS: Assessing the Climate for Creativity, designed to assess perceived stimulants and obstacles to creativity in organizational work environments. The KEYS scales have acceptable factor structures, internal consistencies, test-retest reliabilities, and preliminary convergent and discriminant validity. A construct validity study shows that perceived work environments, as assessed by the KEYS scales, discriminate between high-creativity projects and low-creativity projects; certain scales discriminate more strongly and consistently than others. We discuss the utility of this tool for research and practice.

Anderson N., Potočnik K., & Zhou J . (2014).

Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework.

Journal of Management, 40(5), 1297-1333.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Creativity and innovation in any organization are vital to its successful performance. The authors review the rapidly growing body of research in this area with particular attention to the period 2002 to 2013, inclusive. Conceiving of both creativity and innovation as being integral parts of essentially the same process, we propose a new, integrative definition. We note that research into creativity has typically examined the stage of idea generation, whereas innovation studies have commonly also included the latter phase of idea implementation. The authors discuss several seminal theories of creativity and innovation and then apply a comprehensive levels-of-analysis framework to review extant research into individual, team, organizational, and multilevel innovation. Key measurement characteristics of the reviewed studies are then noted. In conclusion, we propose a guiding framework for future research comprising 11 major themes and 60 specific questions for future studies.

, Baumeister R.F., & Leary M.R . (1995).

The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.

Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529.

URL     PMID:7777651      [本文引用: 1]

A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.

Baumeister R. F., Zhang L. Q., & Vohs K. D . (2004).

Gossip as cultural learning.

Review of General Psychology, 8(2), 111-121.

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Belzak W. C. M., Thrash T. M., Sim Y. Y., & Wadsworth L. M . (2017).

Beyond hedonic and eudaimonic well- being: Inspiration and the self-transcendence tradition.

In M. D. Robinson & M. Eid (Eds.), The happy mind: Cognitive contributions to well-being(pp. 117-138). Cham: Springer.

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Abstract In this chapter, we examine the role of inspiration in the promotion of well-being. We begin by reviewing conceptualizations of inspiration and theory concerning the two most prominent well-being traditions: hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being. We then present theoretical arguments for a role of inspiration in promoting hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and we present empirical evidence in support of such effects. In the final section, we argue that inspiration may be regarded as an indicator of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in its own right. However, the two-tradition hedonic-eudaimonic perspective fails to provide an adequate historical-intellectual foundation for the type of well-being that inspiration represents. We conclude that inspiration is a paradigmatic exemplar of a third type of well-being—self-transcendent well-being—that has deep historical roots but that has been neglected by psychologists to date.

Berlyne D.E . (1960).

McGraw-Hill series in psychology. Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York:.

McGraw-Hill.

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, Berlyne D.E . (1963).

Complexity and incongruity variables as determinants of exploratory choice and evaluative ratings.

Canadian Journal of Psychology, 17(3), 274-290.

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Abstract Reports an error in "Complexity and incongruity variables as determinants of exploratory choice and evaluative ratings" by D. E. Berlyne (Canadian Journal of Psychology Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 1963, Vol 17[3], 274-290). Table 1 is incorrect. The corrected version is provided. In Experiment I patterns differing in irregularity, amount of material, or incongruity were projected in turn for either 0.5, 1.3, or 4 sec. S decided which of each pair to look at again. Typically, the more irregular (MI) pattern was selected for a short initial exposure and the less irregular (LI) for the longer one. In Experiment II patterns were presented singly and S rated each on a scale of "pleasingness" or "interestingness." MI patterns were more interesting, but LI patterns more pleasing. Differences are related to perceptual curiosity and diversive exploratory behavior.

Bledow R., Rosing K., & Frese M . (2013).

A Dynamic perspective on affect and creativity,

Academy and Management Journal, 56(2), 432-450.

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We argue that creativity is influenced by the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect: High creativity results if a person experiences an episode of negative affect that is followed by a decrease in negative affect and an increase in positive affect, a process referred to as an “affective shift.” An experience-sampling study with 102 full-time employees provided support for the hypotheses. An experimental study with 80 students underlined the proposed causal effect of an affective shift on creativity. We discuss practical implications for facilitating creativity in organizations.

Boyd D.& Goldenberg J. , (2013).

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Busse T.V., &Mansfield R.S . (1980).

Theories of the creative process: A review and a perspective.

Journal of Creative Behavior, 14(2), 91-132.

URL    

Theories of the creative process--including psychoanalytic, Gestalt, association, perceptual, humanistic, cognitive-developmental, and composite theories--are summarized and a new one offered, based on studies of creative scientists' descriptions of their work.

Carr N. . (2011).

The shallows: What the internet is doing to our brains.

New York: W. W. Norton &Company.

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Csikszentmihalyi M. . (1997).

Flow and creativity.

Namta Journal, 22(2), 60-97.

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Day H.I . (1971).

The measurement of specific curiosity.In H. I. Day, D. E. Berlyne, & D. E. Hunt (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation: A new direction in education.

New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

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Day H.I., & Langevin R. (1969).

Curiosity and intelligence: Two necessary conditions for a high level of creativity.

The Journal of Special Education, 3(3), 263-268.

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Abstract 1. Discusses creativity as a personality variable normally distributed across the population and argues that 2 necessary conditions for a high level of creative production are curiosity and intelligence. Results from testing 75 female nursing students on 2 creativity

Farley S.D . (2011).

Is gossip power? The inverse relationship between gossip, power, and likability.

European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(5), 574-579.

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Despite widespread conjecture regarding the functions and consequences of gossip, little empirical attention has investigated how gossipers are perceived by others. In the present study, 128 individuals were asked to think about a person who either frequently or rarely discussed others while not in their presence. Gender of the target and valence of the gossip were also manipulated. High-frequency gossipers were perceived as less powerful and were liked less than low-frequency gossipers, and those who gossiped negatively were liked less than those who gossiped positively. High-frequency negative gossipers emerged as the least powerful and least likable targets. These results are discussed in relation to the transfer of attitudes recursively effect. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gong Y., Wu J., Song L. J., & Zhang Z . (2017).

Dual tuning in creative processes: Joint contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(5), 829-844.

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Abstract Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations often coexist and can serve important functions. We develop and test a model in which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations interact positively to influence personal creativity goal. Personal creativity goal, in turn, has a positive relationship with incremental creativity and an inverted U-shaped relationship with radical creativity. In a pilot study, we validated the personal creativity goal measure using 180 (Sample 1) and 69 (Sample 2) employees from a consulting firm. In the primary study, we tested the overall model using a sample of 657 research and development employees and their direct supervisors from an automobile firm. The results support the hypothesized model and yield several new insights. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations synergize with each other to strengthen personal creativity goal. Personal creativity goal in turn benefits incremental and radical creativity, but only up to a certain point for the latter. In addition to its linear indirect relationship with incremental creativity, intrinsic motivational orientation has an inverted U-shaped indirect relationship with radical creativity via personal creativity goal.

Gottlieb J., Oudeyer P-Y., Lopes M., & Baranes A . (2013).

Information-seeking, curiosity, and attention: Computational and neural mechanisms.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(11), 585-593.

URL     PMID:4193662      [本文引用: 1]

Intelligent animals devote much time and energy to exploring and obtaining information, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We review recent developments on this topic that have emerged from the traditionally separate fields of machine learning, eye movements in natural behavior, and studies of curiosity in psychology and neuroscience. These studies show that exploration may be guided by a family of mechanisms that range from automatic biases toward novelty or surprise to systematic searches for learning progress and information gain in curiosity-driven behavior. In addition, eye movements reflect visual information searching in multiple conditions and are amenable for cellular-level investigations. This suggests that the oculomotor system is an excellent model system for understanding information-sampling mechanisms.

Han C., Li P., Warren C., Feng T., Litman J., & Li H . (2013).

Electrophysiological evidence for the importance of interpersonal curiosity.

Brain Research, 1500, 45-54.

URL     PMID:23333374      [本文引用: 1]

Interpersonal curiosity (IPC) is an important intrinsic motivation in social interaction, yet studies focused on its neural mechanism are rare. In a three-agent (Self, Other, or Computer) interactive gambling task, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to a cue stimuli indicating whether participants will be informed of their own, of another participant's or the computer's outcomes such that curiosity will be satisfied (CWS) or curiosity will not be satisfied (CWN). The results showed that relative to the CWS cue stimuli the CWN cue evoked a larger late positive component (LPC) between approximately 400 ms and 700 ms after cue onset in both the Self and Other conditions, but not in the Computer condition. Additionally, participants reported stronger curiosity in the Other's outcomes than in the Computer's outcomes. Most importantly, participants' subjective rating of curiosity was significantly correlated with the amplitude of the LPC elicited by the CWN cue. Furthermore, scores in the "curiosity about emotion" subscale of the IPC Scale was significantly correlated with the LPC amplitude when the participants learn they will not be informed of the Other's outcomes. We suggest that (1) interpersonal information is of great significance to individuals and IPC is an important social motivator, and (2) LPC amplitude is sensitive to IPC. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hardy III J. H., Ness A. M., & Mecca J . (2017).

Outside the box: Epistemic curiosity as a predictor of creative problem solving and creative performance.

Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 230-237.

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61We examined the effects of trait epistemic curiosity on creative problem solving.61Subdimensions of epistemic curiosity include diversive and specific curiosity.61Diversive curiosity predicted ratings of solution quality and originality.61Effects of diversive curiosity were mediated by early stage information seeking.61Specific curiosity did not predict creative problem solving or creative performance.

Hartung F-M. . (2010).

Social curiosity and its functions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).

Universität Konstanz

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Hartung F-M. & Renner B. (2011).

Social curiosity and interpersonal perception: A judge × trait interaction.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(6), 796-814.

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The present study examined the impact of social curiosity on the utilization of social information and the accuracy of personality judgments. In total, 182 individuals who never met each other before were asked to interact for 10 minutes and afterwards to evaluate the personality (Big Five) of their interaction partner. High socially curious judges were more accurate in evaluating the degree of Extraversion and Openness of their interaction partners. Interestingly, high and low curious judges differed significantly in the utilization of verbal and nonverbal cues displayed by their interaction partner. Specifically, high socially curious judges more often used valid cues for inferring Extraversion and Openness. No differences in interpersonal accuracy and cue utilization were found for Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. The results suggest that high socially curious individuals are more accurate in judging visible traits and that this higher accuracy is grounded in a more comprehensive utilization of valid cues.

Hennessey B.A., &Amabile T.M . (2010).

Creativity.

Annual Review of Psychology, 61(1), 569-598.

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Higgins E.T . (1997).

Beyond pleasure and pain.

American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280-1300.

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Higgins E.T . (1998).

Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as a motivational principle.

Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 30(2), 1-46.

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The hedonic principle that people approach pleasure and avoid pain has been the basic motivational principle throughout the history of psychology. This principle underlies motivational models across all levels of analysis in psychology from the biological to social. However, it is noted that the hedonic principle is very basic and is limited as an explanatory variable. Almost any area of motivation can be discussed in terms of the hedonic principle. This chapter describes two different ways in which the hedonic principle operates—namely, one with a promotion focus and other with a prevention focus. These different ways of regulating pleasure and pain, called “regulatory focus,” have a major impact on people's feelings, thoughts, and actions that is independent of the hedonic principle per se. The chapter also presents some background information about another regulatory variable, called the “regulatory reference.” A self-regulatory system with a positive reference value essentially has a desired end state as the reference point.

Hirst G., Van Knippenberg D., & Zhou J . (2009).

A cross- level perspective on employee creativity: Goal orientation, team learning behavior, and individual creativity.

Academy of Management Journal, 52(2), 280-293.

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We developed and tested a cross-level model of individual creativity, integrating goal orientation theory and team learning research. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found cross-level interactions between individuals' goal orientation and team learning behavior in a cross-national sample of 25 R&D teams comprising 198 employees. We hypothesized and found a nonlinear interaction between individual learning orientation and team learning behavior: in teams higher in team learning behavior, the positive relationship between learning orientation and creativity was attenuated at higher levels of learning orientation. An individual approach orientation was positively related to creativity only when team learning behavior was high.

Kang M. J., Hsu M., Krajbich I. M., Loewenstein G., McClure S. M., Wang J. T. Y., & Camerer C. F . (2009).

The wick in the candle of learning: Epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory.

Psychological Science, 20(8), 963-973.

URL     PMID:19619181      [本文引用: 5]

Curiosity has been described as a desire for learning and knowledge, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they read trivia questions. The level of curiosity when reading questions was correlated with activity in caudate regions previously suggested to be involved in anticipated reward. This finding led to a behavioral study, which showed that subjects spent more scarce resources (either limited tokens or waiting time) to find out answers when they were more curious. The functional imaging also showed that curiosity increased activity in memory areas when subjects guessed incorrectly, which suggests that curiosity may enhance memory for surprising new information. This prediction about memory enhancement was confirmed in a behavioral study: Higher curiosity in an initial session was correlated with better recall of surprising answers 1 to 2 weeks later.

Kashdan T. B., McKnight P. E., Fincham F. D., & Rose P . (2011).

When curiosity breeds intimacy: Taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations.

Journal of Personality, 79(6), 1369-1402.

URL     PMID:3356784      [本文引用: 2]

Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In 3 studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 (98 college students) showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small talk; less curious people anticipated poor outcomes in both situations. We hypothesized that curious people underestimate their ability to bond with unacquainted strangers during mundane conversations. Studies 2 (90 college students) and 3 (106 college students) showed that curious people felt close to partners during intimate and small-talk conversations; less curious people only felt close when the situation offered relationship-building exercises. Surprise at the pleasure felt during this novel, uncertain situation partially mediated the benefits linked to curiosity. We found evidence of slight asymmetry between self and partner reactions. Results could not be attributed to physical attraction or positive affect. Collectively, results suggest that positive social interactions benefit from an open and curious mind-set.

Kashdan T. B., Rose P., & Fincham F. D . (2004).

Curiosity and exploration: Facilitating positive subjective experiences and personal growth opportunities.

Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(3), 291-305.

URL     PMID:15151805      [本文引用: 1]

In an effort to expand research on curiosity, we elaborate on a theoretical model that informs research on the design of a new measure and the nomological network of curiosity. Curiosity was conceptualized as a positive emotional-motivational system associated with the recognition, pursuit, and self-regulation of novelty and challenge. Using 5 independent samples, we developed the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI) comprising 2 dimensions: exploration (appetitive strivings for novelty and challenge) and absorption (full engagement in specific activities). The CEI has good psychometric properties, is relatively unaffected by socially desirable responding, is relatively independent from positive affect, and has a nomological network consistent with our theoretical framework. Predicated on our personal growth facilitation model, we discuss the potential role of curiosity in advancing understanding of various psychological phenomena.

Kashdan T. B. & Silvia, P. J. , (2009).Curiosity and interest:The benefits of thriving on novelty and challenge In C R Snyder & S J Lopez (Eds), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp 367-374) USA: Oxford University Press The benefits of thriving on novelty and challenge. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 367-374) . USA: Oxford University Press.

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, Keltner D. &Shiota M.N . (2003).

New displays and new emotions: A commentary on Rozin and Cohen (2003).

Emotion, 3(1), 86-91.

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In this article, the authors elaborate on 3 ideas advanced in P. Rozin and A. B. Cohen's (2003) innovative study of facial expression. Taking a cue from their discovery of new expressive behaviors (e.g., the narrowed eyebrows), the authors review recent studies showing that emotions are conveyed in more channels than usually studied, including posture, gaze patterns, voice, and touch. Building on their claim that confusion has a distinct display, the authors review evidence showing distinct displays for 3 self-conscious emotions (embarrassment, shame, and pride), 5 positive emotions (amusement, desire, happiness, love, interest), and sympathy and compassion. Finally, the authors offer a functional definition of emotion to integrate these findings on "new" displays and emotions.

Kidd C. &Hayden B.Y . (2015).

The psychology and neuroscience of curiosity.

Neuron, 88(3), 449-460.

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Kidd and Hayden summarize the current state of research into curiosity and propose that, rather than focusing on definitions and taxonomy, it is more useful to take a functional perspective, such as that offered by Tinbergen’s four questions.

Koo D-M. & Choi Y-Y. , (2010).

Knowledge search and people with high epistemic curiosity. C

omputers in Human Behavior, 26(1), 12-22.

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Porter sites have tried to increase their business potentials by helping users easily engage in diverse online activities such as search, entertainment, online communities, and others. Knowledge search engine is one of the most successful killer applications increasing user loyalty. However, most studies have independently focused on search engine technology such as search keyword algorithm, presentation of information and user characteristics such as cognitive style, search experiences, and skill levels, However, these previous studies lack an integrated understanding of causal links among critical factors predicting user motives and intention involving more situation-specific user characteristics. To fill these gaps in the literature, the present study focuses on whether knowledge characteristics such as specialization, preciseness, and diversity, and system characteristics such as interactivity, responsiveness, and communication richness are important in forming user motives and intention. The present study also identifies a moderating role of epistemic curiosity in the links between motives and intention. Two hundred and fifty-five data from Korean university students confirmed that knowledge and services characteristics such as specialty, preciseness, diversity, communication richness improve user motives, which have a positive impact on intention. Epistemic curiosity has a moderating effect on the links between motives and intention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in conclusion.

Kumashiro M. & Sedikides C. (2005).

Taking on board liability-focused information: Close positive relationships as a self-bolstering resource.

Psychological Science, 16(9), 732-739.

URL     PMID:16137260      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Do close positive relationships function as a self-bolstering resource, armoring the self against potentially threatening information? After taking a difficult and important intellectual ability test, participants visualized a relationship that was close positive, close negative, or neutral (Experiment 1) or a relationship that was close positive, close negative, distant positive, or distant negative (Experiment 2). All participants received bogus unfavorable feedback about their performance and subsequently indicated their interest in obtaining further liability-focused information about the performance domain and the underlying intellectual ability. Participants who visualized close positive relationships expressed the highest interest in receiving such information, despite rating it as unpleasant. State self-esteem and mood did not account for this effect, although warm affect for the relational partner did. Close positive relationships function as a psychological resource that bolsters the self against feedback about a newly discovered liability to the point where receptivity to additional liability-relevant information actually increases.

Lee R.M., &Robbins S.B . (1998).

The relationship between social connectedness and anxiety, self-esteem, and social identity.

Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(3), 338-345.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

High, and low, social-connectedness scores were related to measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and social identity. Study 1 (N=185) used college women who presented with anxiety symptoms; Study 2 (N=44) was a follow-up study of connectedness in social situations. Results are presented and discussed in relation to therapy options. (Author/EMK)

Lerner J. S., Li Y., Valdesolo P., & Kassam K. S . (2015).

Emotion and decision making.

Annual Review of Psychology, 66(1), 799-823.

[本文引用: 2]

Levitt H. M., Williams D. C., Uruk A. C., Kannan D., Obana M., Smith B. L., .. Biss W. J . (2009).

The experience of depth curiosity: The pursuit of congruence despite the danger of engulfment.

Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 22(3), 187-212.

URL    

This article presents a grounded theory analysis of the experience of sustaining an abiding curiosity. Results emphasize how curiosity became inherently motivating and pleasurable, and led to deeper understandings of interpersonal differences and an enriched sense of identity. Despite the experience of curiosity strengthening, waning, and shifting across time, it was experienced as a longstanding driving force. At the same time, if consuming, curiosity holds risks for participants and could lead to alienation from others and despair. The discussion puts forward a more integrated understanding of a somewhat fragmented literature and highlights the complexities that depth curiosity entails.

Li Q., Maggitti P. G., Smith K. G., Tesluk P. E., & Katila R . (2013).

Top management attention to innovation: The role of search selection and intensity in new product introductions.

Academy of Management Journal, 56(3), 893-916.

[本文引用: 1]

Litman J.A . (2008).

Interest and deprivation factors of epistemic curiosity.

Personality and Individual Differences, 44(7), 1585-1595.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The extent to which two measures of epistemic curiosity (EC), the Epistemic Curiosity Scale (ECS; Litman & Spielberger, 2003) and the curiosity as a Feeling-of-Deprivation Scale (CFDS; Litman & Jimerson, 2004), differentiated between interest (I) and deprivation (D) type curiosity was examined in four studies. In studies 1 ( N = 725) and 2 ( N = 658), exploratory factor analyses of the ECS and CFDS subscales yielded two factors; the first (I-type) involved pleasure associated with discovering new ideas, while the second (D-type) emphasized spending time and effort to acquire a specific answer or solution. In study 3 ( N = 762), confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a 2-factor model comprised of the I- and D-type curiosity items identified in study 2 had the best fit. In study 4 ( N = 515), correlations between revised I- and D-type measures and different learning goals were evaluated. As hypothesized, the I-EC scale correlated with mastery-oriented learning, whereas the D-EC scale was related to failure-avoidance and success-orientation. The results suggest that I-EC is concerned with stimulating positive affect, diversive exploration, learning something completely new and mastery-oriented learning; D-EC involves the reduction of uncertainty, specific exploration, acquiring information that is missing from an existing knowledge-set and performance-oriented learning.

Litman J. A., Collins R. P., & Spielberger C. D . (2005).

The nature and measurement of sensory curiosity.

Personality and Individual Differences, 39(6), 1123-1133.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

To determine if sensory curiosity (SC) could be identified as a meaningful psychological construct, a pool of SC items was administered to 552 undergraduate students (402 women, 150 men), along with measures of perceptual and epistemic curiosity. Participants also responded to the trait anxiety, anger, and curiosity scales of the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), and subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Factor analyses of the SC items identified one strong factor, from which 10 items were selected to form a SC scale. Positive correlations of the SC scale with the other curiosity scales that were stronger than the correlations of the SSS subscales with these measures, provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the SC scale. Divergent validity was evidenced by essentially zero correlations of the SC scale with the STPI anxiety, anger and depression measures.

Litman J.A., &Jimerson T.L . (2004).

The measurement of curiosity as a feeling of deprivation.

Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(2), 147-157.

URL     PMID:15041521      [本文引用: 2]

Curiosity as a feeling of deprivation (CFD) reflects feelings of uncertainty and tension that motivate information-seeking and problem-solving behavior. Twenty-seven CFD items were administered to 321 participants (248 women, 73 men) along with other measures of curiosity and other personality traits such as anxiety, anger, and depression. Factor analyses of the CFD items identified 3 factors from which 5-item subscales were developed: (a) a need to feel competent, (b) intolerance experienced when information is inaccessible or inadequate, and (c) a sense of urgency to solve problems. Moderately high correlations of the CFD scales with other measures of curiosity provided evidence of convergent validity, whereas divergent validity was demonstrated by minimal correlations of the CFD scales with the other personality traits.

Litman J.A., &Pezzo M.V . (2007).

Dimensionality of interpersonal curiosity.

Personality and Individual Differences, 43(6), 1448-1459.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

<h2 class="secHeading" id="section_abstract">Abstract</h2><p id="">Interpersonal curiosity (IPC) is the desire for new information about people. Fifty-one IPC items were administered to 321 participants (248 women, 73 men), along with other measures of curiosity and personality. Three factors were identified from which five-item subscales were developed that had good internal consistency: <em>Curiosity about Emotions</em>, <em>Spying and Prying</em>, and <em>Snooping</em>. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the three-factor model had acceptable fit. The IPC scales correlated positively with other curiosity measures and interest in gossip, providing evidence of convergent validity. Divergent validity was demonstrated in finding the other curiosity scales correlated more highly with each other than with IPC; parallel results were found for the gossip measures.</p>

Loewenstein G. . (1994).

The psychology of curiosity: A review and reinterpretation.

Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 75-98.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Lubart T.I . (2001).

Models of the creative process: Past, present and future.

Creativity Research Journal, 13(3-4), 295-308.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The creative process, one of the key topics discussed in Guilford's (1950) address to the American Psychological Association and his subsequent work, refers to the sequence of thoughts and actions that leads to novel, adaptive productions. This article examines conceptions of the creative process that have been advocated during the past century. In particular, stage-based models of the creative process are discussed and the evolution of these models is traced. Empirical research suggests that the basic 4-stage model of the creative process may need to be revised or replaced. Several key questions about the creative process are raised, such as how the creative process differs from the noncreative process and how process-related differences may lead to different levels of creative performance. New directions for future research are identified.

Mainemelis C. (2010).

Stealing fire: Creative deviance in the evolution of new ideas.

Academy of Management Review, 35(4), 558-578.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

What happens when an employee generates a new idea and wants to further explore it but is instructed by a manager to stop working on it? Among the various possibilities, the employee could choose to violate the manager's order and pursue the new idea illegitimately. I describe this action as creative deviance and, drawing on the creativity literature and deviance literature, propose a theory about its organizational conditions and implications.

Menon S. & Soman D. (2002).

Managing the power of curiosity for effective web advertising strategies.

Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 1-14.

[本文引用: 4]

Oleynick V. C., Thrash T. M., LeFew M. C., Moldovan E. G., & Kieffaber P. D . (2014).

The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: Challenges and opportunities.

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 436.

URL     PMID:4070479      [本文引用: 1]

Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than “perspiration” (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas “fire the soul,” such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society.

Peters K., Jetten J., Radova D., & Austin K . (2017).

Gossiping about deviance: Evidence that deviance spurs the gossip that builds bonds.

Psychological Science, 28(11), 1610-1619.

URL     PMID:28898164      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract We propose that the gossip that is triggered when people witness behaviors that deviate from social norms builds social bonds. To test this possibility, we showed dyads of unacquainted students a short video of everyday campus life that either did or did not include an incident of negative or positive deviance (dropping or cleaning up litter). Study 1 showed that participants in the deviance conditions reported having a greater understanding of campus social norms than those in the control condition; they also expressed a greater desire to gossip about the video. Study 2 found that when given the opportunity, participants did gossip about the deviance, and this gossip was associated with increased norm clarification and (indirectly) social cohesion. These findings suggest that gossip may be a mechanism through which deviance can have positive downstream social consequences.

Reio T.G., &Callahan J.L . (2004).

Affect, curiosity, and socialization-related learning: A path analysis of antecedents to job performance.

Journal of Business and Psychology, 19(1), 3-22.

Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

<a name="Abs1"></a>This study examined the influence of affect, curiosity, and socialization-related learning on job performance, with 233 service industry employees from a diverse variety of occupations completing surveys at their places of work. Both state and trait curiosity and socialization-related learning (learning associated with employee socialization) were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between affect (operationalized as state and trait anxiety and anger) and job performance. Structural equation analyses indicate that the data are consistent with the theoretical models proposed. As expected, anxiety negatively influences curiosity, socialization-related learning, and job performance; conversely, anger positively influences curiosity, socialization-related learning, and job performance. Overall, the findings suggest that affects indeed predict perception of job performance, but through the mediation of curiosity and the learning associated with the socialization process. These results highlight the importance of the complex interplay between affect, curiosity, and learning when thinking about successful employee socialization and best possible job performance.

Roche S.M., &McConkey K.M . (1990).

Absorption: Nature, assessment, and correlates.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(1), 91-101.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT This article reviews theoretical and empirical work on absorption and the relationship of absorption with selected variables. Absorption is defined as a characteristic that involves an openness to experience emotional and cognitive alterations across a variety of situations. The nature and assessment of absorption and the relationship of absorption with (a) hypnosis and hypnotizability, (b) imagery, daydreaming, and consciousness, and (c) attentional processing and psychophysiological responding are considered. Conceptual and methodological issues are examined, and directions for future research are specified. Absorption is argued to be central to an understanding of the nature of subjective experience as well as to aspects of cognition and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Runco M. A. , & Dow, G.(1999). Problem finding. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds. ), Encyclopedia of creativity (Vol. 2, pp. 433-435). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Sadler-smith E. . (2015).

Wallas’ four-stage model of the creative process: More than meets the eye?

Creativity Research Journal, 27(4), 342-352.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Based on a detailed reading of Graham Wallas’Art of Thought(1926) it is argued that his four-stage model of the creative process (Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, Verification), in spite of holding sway as a conceptual anchor for many creativity researchers, does not reflect accurately Wallas’ full account of the creative process. Instead, it is suggested that a four-stage model that gives due recognition to the detailed treatment Wallas gave to the Intimation stage is a more authentic representation of his explanation of creativity. A version of this model with three levels ofproximity to consciousness(nonconsciousness; fringe consciousness; consciousness) and five stages (Preparation; Incubation; Intimation; Illumination; Verification) is presented as a general conceptual architecture within which relevant concepts and theories from more recent creativity research, including neuroscience and intuition, are positioned and from which a number of implications are drawn.

Stephan E., Sedikides C., Wildschut T., Cheung W.-Y., Routledge C., & Arndt J . (2015).

Nostalgia-evoked inspiration: Mediating mechanisms and motivational implications.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(10), 1395-1410.

URL     PMID:26228477      [本文引用: 4]

Six studies examined the nostalgia nspiration link and its motivational implications. In Study 1, nostalgia proneness was positively associated with inspiration frequency and intensity. In Studies 2-3, the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences increased both general inspiration and specific inspiration to engage in exploratory activities. In Study 4, serial mediational analyses supported a model in which nostalgia increases social connectedness, which subsequently fosters self-esteem, which then boosts inspiration. In Study 5, a rigorous evaluation of this serial mediational model (with a novel nostalgia induction controlling for positive affect) reinforced the idea that nostalgia-elicited social connectedness increases self-esteem, which then heightens inspiration. Study 6 extended the serial mediational model by demonstrating that nostalgia-evoked inspiration predicts goal-pursuit (intentions to pursue an important goal). Nostalgia spawns inspiration via social connectedness and attendant self-esteem. In turn, nostalgia-evoked inspiration bolsters motivation.

Thrash T.M., &Elliot A.J . (2003).

Inspiration as a psychological construct.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 871-889.

URL     PMID:12703654      [本文引用: 4]

Abstract Inspiration has received little theoretical or empirical attention within psychology. Inspiration is conceptualized herein as a general construct characterized by evocation, motivation, and transcendence. In Studies 1a and 1b, a trait measure of inspiration was developed and was found to have strong psychometric properties. Studies 2a-2c documented a nomological network consistent with the present conceptualization. Study 3 related inspiration to the holding of U.S. patents. Study 4 linked trait inspiration to daily experiences of inspiration, extended the nomological network to the state level, documented antecedents and consequences, and established incremental validity. This research provides a foundation for further study of inspiration, both as a general construct and in specific content domains (e.g., religion, creativity, interpersonal relations).

Thrash T.M., &Elliot A.J . (2004).

Inspiration: Core characteristics, component processes, antecedents, and function.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 957-973.

URL     PMID:15598117      [本文引用: 3]

The authors examined the core characteristics, component processes, antecedents, and function of state inspiration. In Studies 1 and 2, inspiration was contrasted with baseline experience and activated positive affect (PA) using a vivid recall methodology. Results supported the tripartite conceptualization of inspiration. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that inspiration may be decomposed into separate processes related to being inspired "by" and being inspired "to." Study 3 found that daily inspiration is triggered by illumination among individuals high in receptive engagement, whereas activated PA is triggered by reward salience among individuals high in approach temperament. Approach temperament was also implicated in being inspired "to." Inspiration and activated PA appear to serve different functions: transmission and acquisition, respectively.

Thrash T. M., Maruskin L. A., Cassidy S. E., Fryer J. W., & Ryan R. M . (2010).

Mediating between the muse and the masses: Inspiration and the actualization of creative ideas.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(3), 469-487.

URL     PMID:20175625      [本文引用: 7]

Within the creativity domain, inspiration is a motivational state posited to energize the actualization of creative ideas. The authors examined the construct validity, predictive utility, and function of inspiration in the writing process. Study 1, a cross-lagged panel study, showed that getting creative ideas and being inspired are distinct and that the former precedes the latter. In Study 2, inspiration, at the between-person level, predicted the creativity of scientific writing, whereas effort predicted technical merit. Within persons, peaks in inspiration predicted peaks in creativity and troughs in technical merit. In Study 3, inspiration predicted the creativity of poetry. Consistent with its posited transmission function, inspiration mediated between creativity of the idea and creativity of the product, whereas effort, positive affect, and awe did not. Study 4 extended the Study 3 findings to fiction writing. Openness to aesthetics and positive affect predicted creativity of the idea, whereas approach temperament moderated the relation between creativity of the idea and inspiration. Inspiration predicted efficiency, productivity, and use of shorter words, indicating that inspiration not only transmits creativity but does so economically.

van Dijk E., & Marcel Z. (2007).

When curiosity killed regret: Avoiding or seeking the unknown in decision- making under uncertainty.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(4), 656-662.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

In two experimental studies we investigated how curiosity and regret aversion affect decision-making under uncertainty. Building on insights derived from information-gap theory [Loewenstein, G. (1994). The psychology of curiosity: a review and reinterpretation. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 75 98], we demonstrate that curiosity may overcome regret aversion. In Experiment 1, we concentrate on the reluctance to opt for alternatives with uncertain outcomes and demonstrate that curiosity about the uncertain outcomes may override regret aversion. In Experiment 2, we focus on reluctance to expose oneself to potential regret-inducing information and demonstrate that curiosity may overcome this reluctance.

Van Wulfen G. (2016).

Creating innovative products and services: The FORTH innovation method (pp. 103-105). London:.

Routledge.

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Wallas G..(2014). The art of thought. London: Solis Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Wang C. . (2014).

What satisfies a curious mind? Curiosity prompts novel reward seeking (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of British Columbia.

[本文引用: 3]

Wang C. & Huang Y. (2018).

“I Want to Know the Answer! Give Me Fish’ n’ Chips!”: The impact of curiosity on indulgent choice.

Journal of Consumer Research, 44(5), 1052-1067.

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Welsh G. S. , & Barron, F.(1959). Barron-Welsh art scale. Consulting Psychologists Press.

Wu C.-H., Parker S. K ., & de Jong, J. P. J. (2011).

Need for cognition as an antecedent of individual innovation behavior.

Journal of Management, 40(6), 1511-1534.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The authors propose that need for cognition, an individual’s tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, is associated with individual innovation behavior. Moreover, drawing on an interactionist perspective, the authors suggest that need for cognition becomes more important when individuals face lower job autonomy and time pressure in their work. This is because, when these job characteristics are low, there is no contextual driving force for individual innovation, so personality has a stronger influence. In a multisource study of 179 employees working in a Dutch research and consultancy organization, the authors’ expectations were largely supported. They found that need for cognition was positively associated with peer-rated innovation behavior, as were job autonomy and time pressure, even when controlling for openness to experience and proactive personality. Furthermore, the relationship between need for cognition and innovation behavior was strongest for individuals with low job autonomy and low time pressure and indeed was nonexistent at high levels of these contextual variables. This study, therefore, suggests that context can substitute for an individual’s need for cognition when it comes to individual innovation.

Zeng L., Proctor R. W., & Salvendy G . (2011).

Can traditional divergent thinking tests be trusted in measuring and predicting real-world creativity?

Creativity Research Journal, 23(1), 24-37.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 3]

Derived from the psychometric tradition of creativity research, divergent thinking (DT) tests are the major instrument for measuring people's creative potential. Although still prevalent, DT testing has received substantial criticism of its validity and practical value. This article focuses on the issue of how to reliably and validly assess and predict people's real-world creative potential. Based on reviews of the literatures on the concept of creativity, creative thinking process, the psychometric approach, and DT tests, we examine 6 major weaknesses of traditional DT instruments: lack of construct validity; not testing the integrated general creative process; neglect of domain specificity and expertise; and poor predictive, ecological, and discriminant validities. This evaluation calls for development of improved psychometric instruments to better capture people's creativity in specific professional domains of interest. Broadening the conceptions of creativity and assessment instruments should allow development of more realistic models and theories and enable the psychometric approach to studying creativity to thrive.

Zhou J., Wang X. M., Song L. J., & Wu J . (2017).

Is it new? Personal and contextual influences on perceptions of novelty and creativity.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(2), 180-202.

URL     PMID:27893257      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Novelty recognition is the crucial starting point for extracting value from the ideas generated by others. In this paper we develop an associative evaluation account for how personal and contextual factors motivate individuals to perceive novelty and creativity. We report 4 studies that systematically tested hypotheses developed from this perspective. Study 1 (a laboratory experiment) showed that perceivers regulatory focus, as an experimentally induced state, affected novelty perception. Study 2 (a field study) found that perceivers promotion focus and prevention focus, measured as chronic traits, each interacted with normative level of novelty and creativity: perceivers who scored higher on promotion focus perceived more novelty (or creativity) in novel (or creative) targets than those who scored lower, whereas perceivers who scored higher on prevention focus perceived less novelty (or creativity) in novel (or creative) targets than those who scored lower. Study 3 (a field study) showed that organizational culture affected the perception of novelty and creativity. Study 4 (a laboratory experiment) found perceiver-by-idea-by-context 3-way interaction effects: for perceivers with prevention focus, the positive relation between normative level of novelty and novelty ratings was weakened in the loss-framing condition versus the gain-framing condition. We discuss implications of the findings for future research and management practice.

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