心理科学进展, 2018, 26(8): 1331-1348 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01331

研究构想

多元企业认同的身份构建及其张力调和机理

李纯青,1,2, 吕俊峰2, 马宝龙2,3, 曹丽2, 谭乐1

1西北大学经济管理学院, 西安 710127

2西安工业大学经济管理学院, 西安 710021

3北京理工大学管理与经济学院, 北京 100081

Constructing multi-company identity and reconciling the tensions among them

LI Chunqing,1,2, Lü Junfeng2, MA Baolong2,3, CAO Li2, TAN Le1

1 School of Economics and Management, Northwest University, Xi’an 710027, China;

2 School of Economics and Management, Xi'an Technological University, Xi'an 710021, China

3 School of Management & Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China

通讯作者: 李纯青, E-mail: lichunqing@nwu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-10-12   网络出版日期: 2018-08-15

基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“基于多元企业认同的企业身份构建及其张力调和机理研究”.  71772144
陕西高校人文社会科学青年英才支持计划项目.  陕教高201424
陕西省自然基金项目“文化库对服务新产品开发的作用机理研究”.  2016JM7003

Received: 2017-10-12   Online: 2018-08-15

摘要

基于认同驱动的营销关系视角, 系统地探讨了基于多元企业认同的企业身份构建及其张力调和机理。具体地, 通过定性和定量相结合的方法, 首先基于社会认同理论和身份理论, 探索多元企业认同的结构; 其次, 从社会心理学和文化创新的视角, 描绘多元企业认同形成及演化过程; 最后, 探究多元企业认同的身份构建以及身份张力调和机制。在理论上将消费者-企业认同扩展到多个利益相关者与企业的认同, 探索多元企业认同的身份构建及调和过程, 揭示其背后深层作用机理。实践上为企业与客户保持长期、和谐、多赢关系提供重要依据。

关键词: 客户-企业认同 ; 多元身份 ; 多元认同 ; 张力调和

Abstract

This research aims to explore the mechanisms of constructing multi-company identity and investigate how to reconcile the tensions among them based on the theory of multiple company identification. We applied both qualitative and quantitative methods in this research. Our objectives are three-fold: a) firstly develop the definition, structure and measurement of multiple company identification based on social identity theory and identity theory; b) secondly explore the process of multiple company identification development from the perspective of social psychology and cultural innovation; and c) examine the mechanisms of reconciling identity tensions among multiple companies during the multi-company identification development process. Our research contributes to the theory by extending customer-company identification into multiple stakeholders-company identification. The results of this study not only explore the mechanisms of constructing a multiple-company identity, but also investigate how to reconcile the tensions among them. The results could be of practical value by offering insights to companies in maintaining long-term and harmonious relationships with their customers.

Keywords: customer-company identification ; multi-company identity ; multiple identification ; reconciling the tension

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本文引用格式

李纯青, 吕俊峰, 马宝龙, 曹丽, 谭乐. (2018). 多元企业认同的身份构建及其张力调和机理 . 心理科学进展, 26(8), 1331-1348

LI Chunqing, Lü Junfeng, MA Baolong, CAO Li, TAN Le. (2018). Constructing multi-company identity and reconciling the tensions among them. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(8), 1331-1348

在数字化、社交媒体和移动技术发达的今天, 产品激增、沟通方式纷繁复杂、买家日益理性、企业与客户的交互愈加便利和广泛、企业所面对的环境愈加复杂多变, 企业要获得成功, 不仅需要取得消费者的认同, 还必须取得中间商、影响者、供应商的认同, 这对企业的身份也提出了新的要求, 企业需要管理好面向各利益相关者的身份, 并使得其多个身份对于利益相关者都是有意义且有吸引力的, 这为客户关系管理提出了前所未有的挑战(Lamberton & Stephen, 2016; Lemon & Verhoef, 2016)。企业如何与外部利益相关者保持深厚的、承诺的和有意义的关系进而使其投入到企业的经营活动中共创客户体验和价值, 越来越受到学术界和实践界的关注(Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; Brodie, Hollebeek, Jurić, & Ilić, 2011; Haumann, Quaiser, Wieseke, & Rese, 2014; Kumar & Pansari, 2016; Lamberton & Stephen, 2016; Lemon & Verhoef, 2016; Ranjan & Read, 2016; Wolter & Cronin, 2016)。一个利益相关者都认同的企业身份在企业与利益相关者保持关系的过程中扮演着重要角色。已有研究关注的焦点集中于消费者-企业认同以及面对消费者的企业身份(Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003), 或者是员工-组织之间的认同以及企业身份。在本文中, 对企业的认同从消费者扩展到多个利益相关者, 原有的消费者-企业认同不足以涵盖所有利益相关者, 且企业身份关注对象也扩展到多个利益相关者, 因此本文提出了多元企业认同以及多元企业身份的概念。认同理论认为“自我”这一概念应该被视为是“多面的”和“有机的”整体, “多角色身份”是个体的多个方面(Lam, 2012)。与个体相似的是企业作为一个有机整体, 面向的不仅仅是消费者, 还有其他利益相关者(中间商、影响者、供应商等), 且一个完整的企业身份并非是企业分别面向消费者的身份和面向供应商、中间商、影响者的身份的简单相加, 这几部分企业身份是互相依存, 互相影响的关系。为了与现有的面向单一利益相关者群体的企业身份区别开来, 我们提出多元企业身份(multiple company identities)的概念, 多元企业身份包含企业自身利益(使命、价值观等)表述以及利益相关者(消费者、中间商、影响者、供应商等)对于企业的利益诉求。多元企业身份以及认同的理论基础是社会认同理论(Social Identity Theory, Tajfel & Turner, 1986)和身份理论(Identity Theory, Stryker, 1968)。

社会认同理论(Social Identity Theory, 以下简称SIT; Tajfel & Turner, 1986)和身份理论(Identity Theory, 以下简称IT; Stryker, 1968)已成为关系营销研究中重要的理论视角, 学者用这两个理论视角进行关系营销的研究, 并将这类研究定义为认同驱动的营销关系(identity-motivated marketing relationships), 即内、外部利益相关者对一个市场主体(可以是个人、团体、品牌或企业)的认同(Lam, 2012)。Lam (2012)在一综述性文章中提到了多 元身份(multiple identities)和多元认同(multiple identification)的概念, 认为多元身份即被认同的目标主体可以有多个身份, 目标主体可以是个人、团体、品牌或企业等市场主体, 多元认同也是涉及内外部利益相关者对市场主体(可以是个人、团体、品牌或企业)的认同。只是这一综述性文章提到的多元身份和多元认同都比较宽泛, 没有具体到某一类市场主体。在本文中, 我们聚焦于外部利益相关者(消费者、中间商、影响者、供应商等)对于企业的认同, 不涉及内部利益相关者, 并且明确了认同的市场主体是企业, 而不是个人或品牌或其他团体。外部利益相关者(消费者、中间商、影响者、供应商等)对企业的认同是本文专门提出的一个概念, 我们将之称为多元企业认同(multiple company identification, 以下简称MCI), 是认同驱动的营销关系的一个重要分支, 其基础是客户-企业认同(customer-company identification, 以下简称CCI), CCI是帮助营销人员与其客户 建立深厚、承诺、有意义关系的首要心理基础(Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003)。

已有研究表明, 在CCI状态下, 客户和企业都会有所收益:一方面, 客户可以利用企业和产品的象征特性, 通过构建和传递身份的重要方面而受益(Bhattacharya, Korschun, & Sen, 2009; Press & Arnould, 2011); 另一方面, 客户显示出忠诚、推荐和支付高价的意愿, 企业也会因此而受益(Lam, 2012; Wolter & Cronin, 2016)。那么在MCI状态下, 外部利益相关者与企业分别会有什么收益呢?企业如何才能达到MCI呢?这种MCI状态下的企业身份又如何构建呢?如何调和企业 为满足各方外部利益相关者自我定义需要(self- definitional needs)与保持企业身份所带来的张力(tension)呢?换句话说, 就是如何构建一个不同外部利益相关者都认同的企业身份, 并调和因各方利益相关者自我定义需要不同而带来的张力, 进而使企业与外部利益相关者保持长期、和谐、多赢的关系, 是本文的研究问题。

1 国内外研究现状述评及问题提出

本文希望研究企业如何构建一个外部利益相关者(消费者、中间商、影响者、供应商等)都认同的身份并调和由此带来的张力, 直接的研究还比较少见, 但与此相关的以下三个方面的研究为本文打下了良好的基础:CCI的相关研究、CCI的形成过程及演化路径的相关研究、企业身份构建及张力调和的相关研究。下面分三个部分进行分别论述。

1.1 CCI的相关研究

本部分我们将从CCI的理论基础、多元身份和多元认同以及CCI的研究现状述评及问题提出三个方面来进行阐述:

1.1.1 CCI的理论基础

CCI的理论基础是社会认同理论(SIT)和身份理论(IT), 并且它们已经成为营销研究领域的两个重要理论视角。Hogg, Terry和White (1995)指出“IT主要是微观社会学理论, 用于解释个人角色的相关行为, 而SIT是社会心理学理论, 用于解释群体过程和群体间关系”。营销研究人员已经将身份和认同的概念用于研究各种各样的现象(Lam, 2012), 例如:客户与企业/品牌/品牌社区之间的关系、客户身份一致行为(例如:由种族身份驱动的消费者行为)和管理问题(例如, 跨职能关系)。认同是个体对某个对象的先区分后与自我关联的内化现象, 既是一个结果状态, 也是一个过程状态, 它不仅有个体与社会之分, 还有内外之别。关于认同的研究, 无论是基于企业还是品牌, 都是着眼于社会认同理论的视角(Lam, 2012; Wolter & Cronin, 2016)。这一视角以社会心理学为依托, 阐释了团队是如何鼓励具有同理心的成员为团队谋取利益的(Hornsey, 2008)。Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)认为客户是企业的象征性成员, 这一概念使得社会身份适用于任何客户关系。比如, 投资人认同共同基金投资公司 (Einwiller, Fedorikhin, Johnson, & Kamins, 2006), 苹果用户认同苹果手机(Lam, Ahearne, Mullins, Hayati, & Schillewaert, 2013), 去动物园参观的客户会相互认同(Fombelle, Jarvis, Ward, & Ostrom, 2012)。这些认同关系对公司十分有利, 会敦促客户进行企业推广(例如, 营造良好的口碑)并一直持续下去(例如, 一直购买企业的产品, Lam, Ahearne, & Schillewaert, 2012)。认同的本质是身份认同。身份认同除了体现为对自身独有特质的个体认同外, 更主要的表现是个体对内群体的社会认同。Tajfel和Turner (1986)认为社会认同(social identification)包含三种成分:认知成分(一个社会群体成员关系上的意识, 即自我分类); 评价成分(赋予这个群体积极或消极的价值判断, 即群体自尊)和情感成分(对这个群体的情感卷入, 即情感承诺)。

1.1.2 多元身份及多元认同

Lam (2012)认为, 认同的目标可以有多元身份(multiple identities), 并且人们可以认同不同的目标。目前至少有两个原因支持多元认同(multiple identification), 一是人们可能有自我的不同方面(Sirgy, 1982; Sirgy, Johar, Samli, & Claiborne, 1991), 二是一个以上的身份可能会吸引个人, 并且这些身份不一定是相互排斥的。例如, 身份可以嵌套(如:一个公司内的各种功能)也可以跨部门(如:正式的工作小组和非正式的派别, Ashforth & Johnson, 2001)。当它们存在的时候, 多元身份按照等级排列, 最显著的身份成为行为的预示(Stryker, 1968), 并且将这种显著性称为身份显著性(identity salience)。另外, 一些营销现象(比如, 品牌重塑、战略联盟、并购、联合品牌、品牌延伸和跨国公司)是应用SIT和IT的沃土。这些营销现象的共同特性是市场主体身份的重要性、多元性和它吸收其他市场主体身份和被其他市场主体身份吸收的能力。

1.1.3 CCI的研究现状述评及问题提出

有关CCI的研究, 主要以概念、前因及结果来展开, 而CCI的结果又从态度和行为两个方面来展开, 代表性的研究如表1所示。

表1   营销和相关领域的CCI研究文献综述

CCI的概念化/操作化 CCI的前因 CCI的结果
态度 行为
(1)整体的CCI测量
Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; Lichtenstein, Drumwright, & Braig, 2004; Ahearne, Bhattacharya, & Gruen, 2005; Hong & Yang, 2009; Netemeyer, Heilman, & Maxham, 2012; Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, & Maxham, 2010; Marín & Ruiz de Maya, 2013; Brashear-Alejandro, Kang, & Groza, 2016; Kang, Alejandro, & Groza, 2015; Karaosmanoglu, Banu Elmadag Baş, & Zhang 2011; Öberseder, Schlegelmilch, Murphy, & Gruber, 2014;Tsai, Joe, Lin, Chiu, & Shen, 2015
(2)集中在两个CCI维度(认知和情感)
Currás-Pérez, 2009; Currás-Pérez, Bigné-Alcañiz, & Alvarado-Herrera, 2009; Einwiller et al., 2006; Algesheimer et al., 2005; Fombelle et al., 2012; Homburg et al., 2009; Wolter & Cronin, 2016
(3)集中在三个CCI维度(认知、情感和评价)
Bagozzi & Yi, 2012; Bagozzi et al., 2012
(1)企业社会责任
Lichtenstein et al., 2004; Currás-Pérez et al., 2009; Currás-Pérez, 2009; Lee, Park, Rapert, & Newman, 2012; Lii & Lee, 2012; Homburg, Stierl, & Bornemann, 2013; Romani, Grappi, & Bagozzi, 2013; Öberseder, Schlegelmilch, Murphy, & Gruber, 2014; Romani & Grappi, 2014; Siu, Zhang, & Kwan, 2014; Swimberghe & Wooldridge, 2014
(2)企业/品牌吸引力
Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; Currás-Pérez et al., 2009; Marín & Ruiz de Maya, 2013
(3)组织或品牌认同
Homburg et al., 2009; Lichtenstein et al., 2010; Bagozzi et al., 2012; Netemeyer et al., 2012
(4)情感依附/归属感需要
Karaosmanoglu et al., 2011; Marín & Ruiz de Maya, 2013
(5)服务/互动/客户导向
Tung, Liang, & Chen, 2014
(6)企业声望/外部形象
Ahearne et al., 2005
(7)企业社会责任慈善声望、信任
Homburg et al., 2013
(1)对企业/品牌的态度/承诺/满意度
Currás-Pérez, 2009; Lii & Lee, 2012; Pérez & Rodríguez del Bosque, 2013; Siu et al., 2014; Swimberghe & Wooldridge, 2014
(2)更苛刻的企业诉求
Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003
(1)企业/客户忠诚
Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; Lichtenstein et al., 2004; Homburg et al., 2009; Currás-Pérez, 2009; Lee et al., 2012; Homburg et al., 2013; Pérez & Rodríguez del Bosque, 2013; Swimberghe & Wooldridge, 2014; Kang et al., 2015; Wolter & Cronin, 2016
(2)购买意向
Currás-Pérez et al., 2009; Currás-Pérez, 2009; Öberseder, Schlegelmilch, Murphy, & Gruber, 2014; Tsai et al.,2015
(3)正面口碑等其他意向
Hong & Yang, 2009; Bagozzi et al., 2012; Romani et al., 2013; Wolter & Cronin, 2016
(4)客户角色内/外行为
Ahearne et al., 2005; Karaosmanoglu et al., 2011; Lii & Lee, 2012
(5)捐款/志愿活动
Lichtenstein et al., 2004; Romani & Grappi, 2014
(6)负面信息恢复
Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; Bagozzi et al., 2012; Wolter & Cronin, 2016

资料来源:作者根据相关文献整理所得。

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表1可以看出, 关于CCI概念和操作化方面, 主要有三类研究, 第一类是将CCI作为一个整体进行测量, 第二类是将CCI分为认知CCI (即组织与个人之间的认知联系, 用以反映个人的自我分类与概念重叠)和情感CCI (组织认同和评价在情感上的积极联系, 客户利用情感因素来反映积极的自我情绪)来进行分别研究, 第三类是将CCI分为认知CCI、情感CCI和评价CCI (一个组织对客户的价值内涵)三个维度。关于CCI的前因, 主要集中在以下七个方面:1)企业社会责任; 2)企业/品牌吸引力; 3)组织或品牌认同4)情感依附/归属感需要; 5)服务/互动/客户导向; 6)企业声望/外部形象; 7)企业社会责任慈善声望、信任等来进行的。关于CCI的结果, 主要有态度(比如对企业/品牌的态度、承诺、满意度以及更苛刻的企业诉求等)和行为(比如客户/企业忠诚、购买意向、客户的角色内/外行为、捐款/志愿活动)两个方面。

表1中所列的文献为我们研究MCI打下了良好的基础。但关于CCI的研究还有以下三个关键问题:

第一, 关于CCI的内涵与结构。现有研究大多数是基于社会认同理论直接从组织认同概念嫁接过来的。这种直接嫁接概念的做法本身容易犯经验主义和主观主义错误。此外, 学者们就CCI的结构始终未能达成一致, 大部分采纳Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)单维结构观点, 即认为CCI只是企业身份满足消费者的自我定义需要的程度, 并进行直接测量, 也有学者提出两维结构, 即认知和情感(Lam, 2012; Wolter & Cronin, 2016), 但社会认同领域的学者认为是三维的, 即认知、情感和评价(Tajfel &Turner, 1986), 并且CCI又是来源于社会认同。由此可见, 对MCI的研究首先要确定CCI的概念内涵与结构, 这是本文要解决的第一个问题, 也是后续研究必须解决的前提问题;

第二, CCI维度对客户行为的预测作用。亲社会行为文献认为CCI的情感维度(类似移情作用的感情关注), 在那些大于或超出叫做责任的、引起个体投入行为中起到很重要的作用(比如, Eisenberg & Miller, 1987)。如果这对认同也是准确的, 那么情感和评价认同应该更能预测客户的角色外行为。Wolter和Cronin (2016)的研究也发现, 情感CCI激发一个客户去共享一家企业, 但认知CCI激发的则是客户对企业更多的保护而非共享。这样, 尽管以往的研究表明认同是与角色内、外行为正向相关的, 但仍不清楚:(1)哪个认同的维度是驱动结果的, 和(2)哪个维度在预测输出时更重要。一个多维度概念化将在澄清以上两个关注点方面更有用(Lam, 2012)。

第三, CCI的发生问题。目前的研究要么是从企业社会责任或声望等入手, 回答了CCI的客观条件:企业社会责任(比如Currás-Pérez, 2009; Currás- Pérez et al., 2009; Homburg et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2012; Lichtenstein et al., 2004; Lii & Lee, 2012; Öberseder, Schlegelmilch, Murphy, & Gruber, 2014; Romani & Grappi, 2014; Romani et al., 2013; Siu et al., 2014; Swimberghe & Wooldridge, 2014)、企业声望/外部形象(比如Ahearne et al., 2005)、企业社会责任慈善声望、信任(比如Homburg et al., 2013); 要么是从消费者入手, 回答了CCI的主观条件:企业/品牌吸引力(比如Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; Currás-Pérez et al., 2009; Marín & Ruiz de Maya, 2013)、情感依附/归属感需要(比如Karaosmanoglu et al., 2011; Marín & Ruiz de Maya, 2013)、服务/互动/客户导向(比如Tung et al., 2014)、组织或品牌认同(比如Bagozzi et al., 2012; Homburg et al., 2009; Lichtenstein et al., 2010; Netemeyer et al., 2012)等。这些主客观条件能够笼统地回答消费者产生CCI的因素, 却不能回答一个特定消费者何时会产生CCI。Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)将CCI界定为一种“积极的、有选择性的、需要意志努力的行为, 该行为受到一个或多个自我定义需要的驱动, 它不能单方面由企业发起, 必须经由消费者自我定义需要的实现而被确认并实施”, 并提出消费者是受自我连续(self-continuity)、自我区别(self-distinctiveness)和自我提升(self-enhancement)三种自我定义需要的驱动而认同企业的。Wolter和Cronin (2016)将消费者的这种自我定义需要称为自我动机(self-motives):“一种聚焦在建立或保持一个自我意识、自我呈现或自我评价的特殊地位的倾向(Leary, 2007)”, 并认为CCI的认知维度和情感维度分别由自我不确定(self-uncertainty)需要和自我提升需要来驱动。自我定义需要/自我动机能够解答特定CCI发生的规律, 但对于一个特定消费者来说, 怎样的自我定义需要/自我动机状态能够促进其哪类维度的企业认同?在MCI的状态, 情况又是如何呢?这是本文要重点解决的核心问题。

1.2 CCI的形成过程和演化研究述评及问题提出

Lam (2012)认为, 认同可以是种心理状态或心理过程。认同作为一种心理状态是大多数组织认同和营销研究的重要主题。尽管问卷调查方面的定量研究也探究产品是如何变成“我”的, 但认同作为一个心理过程最常见于定性研究中(例如:Press & Arnould, 2011)。Chaplin和Roedder John (2005)在研究儿童进入青少年时期是如何改变他们自我-品牌关系时发现, 认同也可能随着时间而改变。还有一些学者进行了具有社会实体特征的认同发展倾向的相关调查研究。例如, Sprott, Czellar和Spangenberg (2009)提出, 自我概念中的品牌互动构念是指消费者倾向中的个人差异, 以便将重要品牌纳入其自我概念之中。总而言之, 营销研究人员把认同作为一种状态提供了有用的见解, 但将认同作为一种过程的见解却少之又少(例如:Press & Arnould, 2011)。在为数不多的认同形成过程的研究中, Press和Arnould (2011)从消费者行为的视角来研究组织认同的形成过程。该研究使用消费者和员工两个情境下收集来的纵向和横截面访谈数据, 发现认同可以通过正式的和非正式的两个渠道(意义赋予和意义建构)、三条路径(显现、仿真和探索)来形成。

除了以上提到的成果外, 与认同形成过程相关的还有两个研究对我们的研究启发很大, 具体如下:

(1)文化创新方面的研究。Holt和Cameron (2010)认为企业可以通过文化创新达到与客户的共鸣, 而共鸣是客户-企业认同的最高形式。文化创新由一系列特定的文化表述构成, 可通过与消费者的接触点传递给对方。文化表述通常由意识形态、神话和文化密码三部分构成:意识形态是对特定观念的态度, 这种观念通常是被广泛认可、被认为是理所当然并被社会的一部分自然地当作“真理”的重要文化观念; 神话是有教育意义的故事, 它能透露出意识形态; 文化密码是由最合适、最引人入胜的文化内容来构成, 而这些内容能够使神话引起消费者的共鸣。该研究为我们探究面向CCI的形成过程启发较大。

(2)通过投入(engagement)来提升竞争优势的研究。Kumar和Pansari (2016)认为企业可以通过投入来提升竞争优势, 他们在投入框架中讨论两个核心构念:客户投入(customer engagement, 以下简称CE)与员工投入(employee engagement, 以下简称EE)的定义, 同时开发和提炼了测量两个构念的题项, 用120家企业两个时期的数据进行验证, 帮助企业提高他们CE和EE策略来改善绩效, 结果发现相对EE来说, CE对公司绩效的作用更大。将认同与投入两个概念联系起来的还有Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)的研究, 他们认为, 强大的消费者-企业关系的基础是消费者对企业的认同, 因为企业能帮他们满足一个或多个关键的自我定义需要。这种认同对消费者而言是主动的、有选择性的、有意愿的, 会导致他们投入(engage in)支持或不支持某企业的行为。该研究对我们探究面向CCI的形成过程启发也较大。

以上研究为我们探究CCI的形成过程打下了很好的基础并带来很大的启发, 但具体面向不同利益相关者的CCI是如何形成的?MCI又是如何在CCI的基础进行演化的?是本文关注的重点内容。

1.3 企业身份构建及张力调和的研究述评及问题提出

企业身份构建以及张力调和方面相关的研究有两个方面:一是企业身份及其构建; 二是张力调和及其机制。下面对这两个方面分别进行论述。

1.3.1 企业身份及其构建

企业身份是在组织身份的基础上发展而来的。在Albert和Whetten (1985)开创性的研究中, 他们将组织身份(organizational identity)定义为组织成员对组织中核心的、独特的、持久的方面感知的共识。组织身份回答了组织是什么以及组织该如何运作的问题, 在实践中也令人信服(Cayla & Peñaloza, 2012), 有人称它为“战略的灯塔(Ashforth & Mael, 1996)”、“可以在组织成长、分散、多样化、全球扩张时将其聚集在一起(Collins & Porras, 1996)”、“企业的DNA (Ravasi & Schultz, 2006)”等。Jo Hatch和Schultz (1997)对组织身份(代表内部利益相关者对公司的看法, 即公司对自身的看法)与企业身份(代表外部利益相关者对公司的看法, 即企业形象或名望等)之间进行了概念上的区分。但这种主要以利益相关者为主的区分方式会随“内部人”和“外部人”之间互动水平的提高及公司透明度的增加而消失(Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003)。而本文从外部利益相关者的视角来研究MCI及企业身份构建和张力调和, 再加上当今数字化、社交媒体和移动营销占主导地位的背景下使企业内、外部互动水平越来越高, 所以, 本文的企业身份兼顾内、外两方利益相关者对企业的看法。但研究的对象主要是从外部利益相关者的角度来展开, 之所以这么做, 主要是因为内部利益相关者(比如员工)更容易被企业所控制。

关于企业身份构建方面相关的研究集中在三个方面:一是企业身份构成要素、二是身份构建、三是身份传播的相关研究。在身份构成要素方面, Scott和Lane (2000)认为目标、使命、实践、价值观和行动(或缺乏行动)对塑造组织身份都有贡献, 因为它们可以通过高层管理者和利益相关者的眼光来区分一个组织与另一个组织; Balmer和Greyser (2002)认为企业的真实身份由企业当前的特性构成。它由一些要素所塑造, 这些要素包括公司所有制、管理的领导力风格、组织结构、商业活动和市场覆盖、提供的产品或服务的范围和质量、所有的经营绩效, 也包括管理人员和员工提出的价值观集合; Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)认为企业身份由核心价值观(包括经营原则、使命和领导力)和人口统计特征(如行业、规模、年龄、市场地位、原始国、地点及其领导、雇员的典型概貌等)组成。在企业身份构建方面, Scott和Lane (2000)开发了一个组织身份的建构模型, 在高层管理者-利益相关者关系的大背景下重构组织身份, 有效地整合组织身份和组织认同理论。他们认为组织身份是从管理者、组织成员和其他利益相关者之间复杂、动态和双向互动中构建出来的, 是由一系列的过程、活动和事件所组成的。组织身份构建本质上是动态的、互惠的和反复的, 它包括(1)管理者和利益相关者在组织事件、政策和活动意义上的反思; (2)对组织形象的构建和呈现; (3)对身份相关反馈的解释和对重新构建活动的认知。Melewar和Jenkins (2002)通过对企业身份的定义、模型和具体要素的界定, 开发了一个全面的企业身份构建模型。作者通过对企业身份具体构成要素的分类, 得出四个中介变量, 即沟通与视觉识别、行为、企业文化、市场条件, 从而构建出企业身份。这两个研究与我们观察到的企业实践和我们对企业身份构建过程的理解比较吻合, 为我们研究多元企业身份构建打下了很好的基础。

另外, 对于身份构建方法方面, Rindova, Dalpiaz和Ravasi (2011)基于文化库的研究对我们将身份构建当作要素库来构建的启发很大。该研究用纵向案例和扎根理论, 通过深入分析新文化资源的载入, 开发一个用新文化库发展非常规战略和战略多样性的理论模型, 并发现文化库丰富和组织身份再定义是促进该过程的两个核心机制, 该模型很好地解释了企业用文化库这一工具在变化中形成非常规战略的现象, 在展示“如何”和“为什么”形成该战略的基础上, 构建了理论。

关于身份传播的相关研究。先前的研究表明, 企业身份是通过多种不同的传播途径传递给消费者的(Whetten & Godfrey, 1998)。Albert和Whetten (1985)指出, 虽然身份通常是通过年报和新闻稿等官方文件传播的, 但有时也会通过标志和符号(如企业总部的标志和外观等)进行传播。与这种由公司控制的内部身份传播(如提供的产品、企业公关、企业社会举措及企业赞助的论坛等)相对立的是并非完全由企业所控制的、数量巨大且可能在不断增长的外部身份传播途径(如媒体、客户、监管部门及渠道成员等) (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003)。

以上研究为我们构建客户认同的企业身份提供了理论基础和参考, 但对于如何在现代数字化、社会媒体和移动营销时代, 构建一个能够满足外部利益相关者自我定义需要的身份并进行传播/反馈和修正还缺乏研究。

1.3.2 张力调和及调和机制

企业身份张力调和的理论基础是组织双元理论(March, 1991)和品牌双元理论(Beverland, Wilner, & Micheli, 2015)。组织双元理论认为:企业为了生存或获得成功, 必须能够兼顾开发(exploitative)和探索(exploratory)两种创新能力并超越对手(Tushman & O’Reilly, 1996), 而张力就来源于这两种相互冲突的力量(March, 1991), 组织双元是指企业管理这种张力的能力(Duncan, 1976; Andriopoulos & Lewis, 2009)。在组织双元理论的基础上, Beverland等人(2015)提出品牌双元的概念, 作者认为品牌双元是指同时兼顾保持现有品牌身份的“一致性”和通过创新及改变来保持“相关性”的能力(而张力来自于一致性和相关性之间的冲突), 并采用改进的扎根理论方法验证了调和这种张力的机制是设计思维——与设计者们相关的实践与逻辑。这些研究为我们调和企业身份张力在问题提出、研究设计以及研究过程等方面提供了理论依据和可借鉴的模式。那么, 在MCI状态下, 调和企业为满足不同外部利益相关者自我定义需要和保持企业身份之间张力的机制方面还缺乏研究。

通过对企业实际的观察和对现有理论的理解, 我们发现可以用关系价值机制来解释张力调和现象, 而关系价值机制在特定的企业间关系安排中反映了成员企业经由何种途径获取关系这种价值并将其移入企业运行中(Lavie, 2006)。已有研究发现, 关系价值机制可以分为两类:一是通过互利性行为(Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995; Gulati & Sytch, 2008)创造新价值(Lavie, 2007), 即价值创造机制, 二是通过自利性行为(Lewicki & Bunker, 1996; Gulati & Sytch, 2008)攫取既存价值(Lavie, 2007; Gulati & Olivia Wang, 2003), 即价值攫取机制。我们发现, 除了以上提到的两个关系价值机制外, 还存在另外两种关系价值机制(价值奉献机制和价值损害价值), 具体调和企业身份张力的机制是什么需要进一步研究。

1.4 小结

通过以上三个方面国内外研究现状和发展动态的分析可以看出, 与本文有关的三个方面的研究分别存在相应的理论缺口:

(1)关于MCI的研究还有以下三个关键问题:

第一, 关于CCI的内涵与结构。CCI与其他认同之间的区别与联系是什么?CCI的维度是一维的认知维度还是两维的认知和情感维度, 还是三维的认知、情感和评价维度, 需要深入研究, 同时, 对于MCI来说又是如何?

第二, MCI维度对客户行为的预测作用。关于这方面的问题还有两个问题需要澄清:1)哪个认同的维度是驱动结果的, 和2)哪个维度在预测输出时更重要。对于MCI来说, 其不同维度对客户行为的预测作用又是如何呢?

第三, MCI的发生问题。即对于一个特定消费者来说, 自我定义需要与CCI的维度之间的对应关系如何?在MCI的状态下, 情况又是如何呢?

在具体研究内容时, 我们将该问题与第二个CCI维度对客户行为的预测作用一起进行研究, 即自我定义需要、MCI结构与行为结果的对应关系研究(具体见研究内容一中第(4)个子内容)。

(2)关于MCI的形成过程及演化路径还存在以下两个关键问题:

第一, MCI是如何形成的?还缺乏相应的研究。但组织认同的形成过程、文化创新方面的研究、通过投入(engagement)来提升竞争优势方面的研究为我们打下了较好的基础并带来一定的启发。

第二, MCI又是如何在CCI的基础上进行演化的?还缺乏相关的研究。但组织认同的形成过程以及多元身份和多元认同的思想与观点对我们的研究会有较好的启发和借鉴。

(3)关于企业身份构建及张力调和方面还存在以下两个关键问题:

第一, 身份构建的动态、反复和互惠性反映方面还缺乏相应的研究。但已有的企业身份构成要素、面向管理者与利益相关者关系的身份构建、身份传播以及基于文化库的相关研究为多元企业身份构建打下了良好的基础。

第二, 调和多元身份张力方面还缺乏相应的研究。但已有组织双元、品牌双元以及关系价值机制方面的研究为我们打下了较好的基础。

2 研究构想

基于上述文献综述和问题分析, 有必要在弄清楚CCI的结构与测量、形成过程及演化路径以及身份构建的基础上, 将MCI的内涵、结构与测量, 形成过程及演化路径, 多元身份构建及其张力调和探究明白。本文在文献梳理、现场观察、专家访谈和管理人员访谈的基础上, 初步开发出如图1所示的多元企业认同(MCI)及企业身份构建模式与张力调和机理的理论框架。本文拟就图1所示的三个方面内容进行重点研究。

图1

图1   理论框架


2.1 研究内容一:MCI的内涵、结构与测量

确定MCI内涵、结构与测量, 是进一步探讨后续研究内容的基础。对于CCI的结构来说, Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)认为CCI只是企业身份满足消费者的自我定义需要的程度, 即认为CCI是一维结构, 也有学者提出两维结构, 即CCI有认知和情感维度(Lam, 2012; Wolter & Cronin, 2016), 但社会认同领域的学者认为CCI的结构是三维的, 包括认知、情感和评价(Tajfel & Turner, 1986)。对于MCI来说, 与CCI的结构相同还是有差异, MCI的结构到底是单维的(认知), 还是二维的(认知、情感), 还是三维的(认知、情感、评价)来对MCI的内涵、结构和测量进行深入研究。

本部分将在文献研究基础上, 通过深度访谈等方法展开以下研究:首先, 确定MCI的具体内涵, 通过与产品认同、品牌认同、组织认同、社会认同等概念的对比分析, 进一步厘清MCI的内涵; 其次, 基于现有对CCI结构的理论成果, 进一步探究企业与中间商、企业与影响者、企业与供应商的认同的结构维度, 并通过深度访谈收集数据, 然后进行探索性因子分析和验证性因子分析来得出MCI的测量题项; 然后对MCI的预测效度进行检验; 最后对MCI的各个维度与利益相关者的自我定义需要之间的对应关系进行探究, 以及MCI的结构维度与其行为结果之间的对应关系进行分析。具体内容包括以下四个部分:

(1) MCI的内涵及其与其他概念的区别与联系

通过文献梳理以及实际观察, 在清楚MCI内涵的基础上, 明确MCI与CCI、产品认同、品牌认同、组织认同、社会认同等概念的区别与联系(具体如图2左边所示)。

图2

图2   多元企业认同(MCI)的内涵、结构及测量研究框架


(2) MCI结构及其测量

具体分为以下四个部分的内容:

1)面向消费者的MCI结构

根据前面的文献综述, 我们将从“认同”与“社会认同”两种研究思路出发, 即认为MCI既有个体与社会之分, 也有内外之别, 且存在认知、评价和情感三个维度。表2是面向消费者的MCI结构做出的12维度预设。

表2   MCI结构预设(消费者)

维度 个体 社会
外在 内在 外在 内在
认知
评价
情感

新窗口打开| 下载CSV


该部分的研究包括定性和定量两部分:

a.定性研究:目的是通过定性研究方法初步探讨MCI的结构, 结合该研究目的制定相应的访谈提纲, 对消费者进行深度访谈;

b.定量研究:为避免访谈人数过少带来的偶然性和不稳定性, 需要在定性研究的基础上, 通过参考已有量表和自编量表相结合的基础上自编MCI问卷, 对更多的消费者进行调查, 来进一步探讨MCI的结构。

具体如图2中间上半部分的MCI结构(消费者)部分。

2)面向其他外部利益相关者的MCI结构

重复1)面向消费者的MCI结构, 将面向中间商、影响者、供应商的MCI结构也研究出来, 过程中访谈的对象由消费者变为中间商、影响者或供应商, 然后得出面向不同外部利益相关者的MCI结构。

3)面向消费者的MCI测量

Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)建议对CCI采用Bergami和Bagozzi (2000)提出的双指标测量方法。其第一个指标采用图文结合的方式来表示重合度的八种情形, 让被试者进行选择; 第二个指标采用七级李克特量表的方式, 让消费者对自我身份和组织身份的匹配程度进行评估。而Bagozzi等(2012)则在Bergami和Bagozzi (2000)认知维度二指标的基础上增加了情感维度和评价维度的四个指标。在本文中, 拟借鉴Bagozzi等(2012)以及Bergami和Bagozzi (2000)提出的对认知、情感、评价三个维度的测量题项, 在除消费者的其他利益相关者情况下对测量题项作相应的修改。

该部分的研究内容就是对1)中得出的MCI结构进行探索与验证, 具体包括两个部分:

a.探索性因子分析:拟采用主成分因子分析法, 得出的若干个比较理想的因子模型, 这些因子模型由MCI的测量因子和对应的题项组成;

b.验证性因子分析:对得出的若干比较理想的模型进行验证性因子分析, 通过比较, 选择出最优模型。

具体如图2中间下半部分的MCI测量(消费者)部分。

4)面向其他外部利益相关者的MCI测量

重复3)面向消费者的MCI测量, 将面向中间商、影响者、供应商的MCI测量也研究出来, 过程中调研的对象由消费者变为中间商、影响者或供应商, 然后得出面向不同外部利益相关者的MCI测量。

根据前面(1)和(2)的研究结果, 通过一定的标准和途径, 最终确定MCI的结构与测量。

(3) MCI的预测效度检验

本部分需要对MCI的预测效度进行检验, 具体可以选一些常用的CCI的结果变量(比如客户忠诚、支付意愿等)来进行验证, 但由于涉及到的是MCI, 需要找2~3个比较有代表性并且又符合实际的结果变量来进行检验, 客户忠诚这个变量是比较合适的, 但支付意愿对于影响者(比如政府)来说就不符合实际(我们暂时用合作意愿来表示), 具体用什么变量作为MCI的结果变量需要进行相应的研究后再确定, 确定下来结果变量后, 对结果变量进行测量题项筛选或开发, 然后再来进行最终的检验(具体如图2右边上半部分所示)。

(4)自我定义需要、MCI维度与行为结果的对应关系研究

首先研究面向消费者的对应关系:在文献研究的基础上, 找出所有相关消费者的自我定义需要以及对应的MCI维度, 然后对这些结构的行为结果进行调查, 具体可以借鉴Wolter和Cronin (2016)中的方法, 采用横截面调查(cross-sectional survey)方法, 在遵从相关协议的基础上, 要求调查对象说出一家他们喜欢的企业, 接着, 这一企业会被加入后面的每一个问题中。为了区分认同量表及合适的环境, 研究者还要求调查对象回答一系列两种量表之间的问题并给出相应的情境。通过这种方法, 我们就可以将消费者的自我定义需要/自我动机、MCI维度与行为结果的对应关系研究出来。然后, 再研究面向其他外部利益相关者的对应关系, 需要在此基础上重复及整合(具体如图2右边下半部分所示)。

2.2 研究内容二:MCI的形成过程及其演化路径

关于CCI的形成及演化:Press和Arnould (2011)从消费者行为的视角来研究组织认同的形成过程。该研究使用消费者和员工两个情境下收集来的纵向和横截面访谈数据, 发现认同可以通过正式的和非正式的两个渠道(意义赋予和意义建构)、三条路径(显现、仿真和探索)来形成。Holt和Cameron (2010)认为企业可以通过文化创新达到与客户的共鸣, 而共鸣是CCI的最高形式。Kumar和Pansari (2016)认为企业可以通过客户投入与员工投入来提升竞争优势, 并指出客户投入对公司绩效的作用更大。将认同与投入两个概念联系起来的还有Bhattacharya和Sen (2003)的研究, 他们认为, 强大的消费者-企业关系的基础是消费者对企业的认同, 因为企业能帮他们满足一个或多个关键的自我定义需要。这种认同对消费者而言是主动的、有选择性的、有意愿的, 会导致他们投入(engage in)支持或不支持某企业的行为。该研究对我们探究面向CCI的形成过程启发也较大。该部分主要是在前面研究的基础上, 通过以下两个方面的内容进行展开:一是面向消费者的MCI形成过程; 二是面向其他外部利益相关者的MCI形成过程。

(1)面向消费者的MCI形成过程

我们通过前期的预研究已经发现面向消费者的MCI形成过程是通过产品文化表述作为消费者与企业的媒介, 通过相应的市场机制和门槛机制从消费者与企业的接触点通过两条不同的路径达到MCI的, 具体如图3中标有消费者的部分所示。消费者的自我定义需要包括自我连续、自我区别、自我提升(Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003), 消费者与企业通过官方网站、社交媒体、产品推介会、企业员工、合作伙伴渠道等企业接触点与企业进行互动, 企业则通过这些接触点将基于消费者需要而形成的产品的文化表述传达给消费者, 使消费者感知到身份相似性、身份独特性、身份名望等, 从而满足了消费者的自我定义需要, 使消费者产生对企业的认同。即:消费者对企业身份的感知与自我定义需要越相符, 对企业的认同程度越高。

图3

图3   面向不同外部利益相关者的MCI形成过程研究框架


(2)面向其他外部利益相关者的MCI形成过程

在消费者-企业认同形成过程已经明确的基础上, 面向其他外部利益相关者的MCI形成过程可以参照消费者-企业认同的形成过程。利益相关者的需求通过与企业的接触点传达给企业, 企业基于利益相关者需求而形成的“供给”通过企业接触点传递给利益相关者, 利益相关对与企业“供给”的感知与其自身的需求相匹配, 因而对企业形成认同。然而对于除消费者之外的利益相关者, 如供应商、影响者、中间商等的需求有别于消费者, 具体是什么需要通过文献研究法和深度访谈法来确定。且针对不同利益相关者的需求, 企业的相应的“供给”也是不同于消费者-企业认同情况的, 具体也需要进一步研究来确定。即:利益相关者对企业身份的感知与自身自我定义需要越相符, 对企业的认同程度越高。

2.3 研究内容三:MCI的企业身份构建模式及其身份张力调和机理

本部分由两方面的研究内容构成, 一个是MCI的企业身份构建模式, 另一个是MCI身份张力调和机理。

2.3.1 MCI的企业身份构建模式

如何构建一个多方外部利益相关者都认同的企业身份, 是引发各外部利益相关者积极投入到企业经营过程中实现价值共创的前提条件。

这个问题是本部分的研究内容, 具体如图4所示, 从图4可以看出, 该部分研究内容包括以下三个方面:

图4

图4   多元认同的企业身份构建过程及张力调和研究框架


(1)消费者认同的企业身份构建

消费者认同的企业身份构建过程是一个企业根据消费者的自我定义需要而进行的动态、反复的过程, 是由一系列的过程、活动和事件所组成的。如何根据消费者的自我定义需要构建出对其有吸引力的动态的、交互的、发展的企业身份是本部分的研究内容。整个企业身份构建由企业与消费者之间的互动而形成, 企业通过自我定义需要来构建基于该需求的初始身份, 然后在内部形成自我身份感知, 通过将此初始身份传播给消费者, 在消费者方形成其对企业的身份感知并与基于消费者自我定义需要形成的消费者身份进行比较, 通过评价两者之间的相符程度给企业进行反馈, 在通过企业身份形成过程再次传播的基础上, 经过客户再次比较、评价、反馈、企业的修正来不断构建(具体如图4中实线表示的标有消费者的部分)。

(2)其他外部利益相关者认同的企业身份构建

企业基于其使命、价值观等构建的初始企业身份通过各种与企业的接触点传播给利益相关者, 利益相关者将感知到的企业身份与自身的自我定义需要相比对, 将两者的相符程度通过接触点反馈给企业, 企业在利益相关者反馈的基础上对企业的初始身份进行修正, 再次通过企业接触点传递给利益相关者。循环往复, 经过传播、感知、比较、评价、反馈等几个环节来构建企业身份。

(3)面向多方外部利益相关者认同的企业身份整合及模式提炼

根据(1)和(2)中面向不同外部利益相关者认同的企业身份的构建子过程, 通过归纳、提炼企业身份要素库等方式来构建一个面向多方外部利益相关者都认同的企业身份并从中提炼中一般规律, 得出MCI的企业身份构建模式。

2.3.2 MCI身份张力调和机理

企业基于自身的使命、价值观等形成的企业身份与为满足利益相关自我定义需要而对企业身份的修正之间存在着张力, 即企业同时面临着保持其初始企业身份的需要和满足利益相关者自我定义需要而对企业身份做修正的需要, 这两个需要对于企业经营者来说是要平衡的, 即企业既不能对利益相关者需要过分迁就, 又不能保持自身身份的一成不变。如何调和这种张力, 使其达到较好地均衡状态, 是本部分的研究内容(具体如图4中虚线表示的部分, 向外的单向虚线箭头表示张力, 双向虚线箭头表示张力的调和。)

(1) MCI身份张力的来源及测量

张力来自于企业为满足各方外部利益相关者自我定义需要与保持企业身份而带来的冲突, 但是具体来说, 张力源于企业自身的自我定义需要与利益相关者不同的自我定义需要之间的冲突, 由于利益相关者的自我定义需要是我们的研究内容之一, 目前除消费者之外, 其他利益相关者的自我定义需要并不明确, 因此, MCI身份张力的来源需要在明确了利益相关者自我定义需要的基础上才能确定。此外, 对于MCI身份张力, 需要有具体的指标来测量。我们拟基于Bergami和Bagozzi (2000)提出的双指标测量方法, 在考虑不同利益相关者需求的基础上, 对Bergami和Bagozzi提出的量表进行调整, 来测量企业身份对利益相关者自我定义需要的满足程度, 即利益相关者感知到的企业身份与自身自我定义需要的相符程度。

(2) MCI身份张力的调和机理

MCI身份张力的调和机理分为调和机制与调和过程两部分。

1) MCI身份张力的调和机制

通过对企业实际的观察和对现有理论的理解, 我们发现可以用关系价值机制来解释多元企业身份张力的调和现象。关系价值机制是在特定的企业间关系安排中反映的成员企业经由何种途径获取关系这种价值并将其移入企业运行中(Lavie, 2006)。在1.3.2部分我们提到, 关系价值机制可以分为价值创造机制和价值攫取机制两类。价值创造机制增强了企业与合作伙伴关系产生价值的能力, 因为它们追求共同目标, 并扩大了有助于联盟组合总体价值的价值链活动范围。这些机制产生的关系租金不能由联盟的个别成员独立产生(Dyer & Singh, 1998)。反过来, 价值攫取机制并没有产生新的价值, 而是决定了企业可以攫取的关系租金的相对份额(Gulati & Olivia Wang, 2003; Hamel, 1991; Khanna et al., 1998)。已有研究显示价值创造机制与企业的互利行为相关(Dyer & Singh, 1998), 而价值攫取机制与联盟中成员的机会主义行为或自利性行为相关(Das, 2006)。而根据我们对企业的观察, 发现除了以上提到的自利行为和互利行为以及与之对应的价值攫取和价值创造机制外, 还存在利他和双输行为以及与之对应的价值奉献机制和价值损害机制。并且我们发现利他行为以及与之对应的价值奉献机制是调和多元企业身份张力的关键。

2) MCI身份张力的调和过程

在找出调和机制基础上, 探讨该机制对MCI身份张力调和的过程。在其调和过程中会遵从什么样的规律和路径, 该规律和路径的逻辑是什么?驱动是什么?从理论上如何解释呢?为什么会是这样呢?是本部分研究的重点。

身份张力调和机理部分的展开可借鉴Beverland等人(2015)的研究, 采用改进的扎根理论研究设计, 该研究设计对研究问题和浮现线索的探究受“理论抽样”与“文献-数据-新兴的理论”之间构念的比较而驱动(Fischer & Otnes, 2006)。

多元认同的企业身份构建模式及其张力调和机理部分的研究需要采用现场观察、深度访谈和焦点小组访谈、改进的扎根理论并结合组织理论、关系营销、客户关系管理等领域的理论梳理和深入研究。

3 理论建构

利益相关者对市场主体的认同作为营销关系的驱动之一, 能够对营销关系研究中的广泛现象作出解释, 例如客户和企业的关系, 客户和品牌的关系, 客户和品牌社区的关系, 客户的基于身份一致性的行为以及各种管理问题(Lam, 2012)。许多国内外关于“认同”的研究关注消费者与企业间的认同(Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; 曹光明, 江若尘, 陈启杰, 2012; 康俊, 江林, 郭益, 2014; 李惠璠, 李鹏, 张金成, 2009; 李惠璠, 张运来, 2016), 然而企业的成功不只是取决于企业与消费者之间的关系, 因此, 认同的研究也不能只局限于消费者与企业之间的认同, 而应该是与企业有关联的各利益相关者与企业的多元认同。鉴此, 本文从企业如何构建一个不同外部利益相关者都认同的企业身份, 并调和因各方利益相关者自我定义需要不同而带来的张力, 进而使企业与外部利益相关者保持长期、和谐、多赢的关系这一现实问题出发, 基于社会认同理论和身份理论, 采用定性研究(比如案例研究、改进的扎根理论等)和定量研究(比如, 探索性因子分析与验证性因子分析、计算机仿真等)相结合的方法深入探讨多元企业身份的构建及其张力调和过程。理论方面, 有助于通过探究多元企业认同身份的内涵、构建与演化来打开该企业身份张力调和过程的“黑箱”, 揭示其背后的深层作用机理; 实践方面, 为企业与客户保持长期、和谐、多赢关系提供重要依据。本文构建的理论框架如图1所示, 主要理论观点如下。

首先, 将CCI的概念扩展到MCI, 同时对MCI的内涵、结构与测量进行深入研究。本文依据现有消费者-企业认同(Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003)的相关理论, 将消费者这一单一利益相关者与企业的认同扩展到多个利益相关者与企业的认同。现有研究只对CCI的前因、结果进行了相关研究, 其内涵和测量相对较少, 更谈不上MCI的研究。而MCI是我们通过现实观察给出的一个新概念, 企业的成功不止需要消费者的认同, 其他利益相关者对于企业的认同也非常重要。消费者是企业收入的主要来源, 消费者对企业的认同决定着企业的存亡, 因此, 企业必须努力与消费者建立认同关系。中间商作为企业与市场的媒介, 是企业产品与服务的传递者, 掌握着企业通往市场的渠道, 因此间接决定着企业的存亡, 对于企业来说, 与中间商的认同关系也是至关重要的。供应商作为企业原材料的提供者, 在买方市场中处于弱势地位, 在卖方市场中处于强势地位, 但市场环境的变化使得双方的地位随时可能发生转变, 因此稳定的、和谐的供应商-企业关系对于企业的成功是非常关键的, 与供应商的认同关系有利于企业原材料的稳定供应和成本控制。影响者如政府对于企业的影响来说是不可抗拒的, 影响者塑造着企业的环境以及游戏规则, 与影响者保持良好的关系能为企业带来无可比拟的竞争优势。因此企业与多个利益相关者保持长期、和谐、多赢的关系, 企业才能获得成功。基于社会认同理论和身份理论, 在已有的CCI研究和认同驱动的营销研究基础上, 我们采用探索性和验证性研究方法, 对MCI的内涵、结构进行探索, 并且对其结构进行测量和检验。

其二, 对MCI的形成过程进行深入研究。CCI的形成过程鲜有人研究(Lam, 2012), MCI的形成过程更为少见。CCI的形成与MCI的形成虽然有相似之处, 但MCI涉及到多个利益相关者, 且各利益相关者对企业的需要并不一致, 因此, 相比单一利益相关者来说, MCI的形成过程更为复杂, 且对MCI形成过程的探究有助于CCI形成过程的打开。利益相关者与企业的认同关系能够为企业带来有形和无形的收益和竞争优势, 但是如何形成这样的认同关系在已有研究中并不能找到答案。消费者、中间商、供应商和影响者对于企业的需要各不相同, 这些需要中有时甚至是矛盾的, 而企业的资源是有限的, 因此MCI的形成过程更为复杂。由于一般的量化研究遵从实证主义传统, 概念以不同的变量形式出现, 理论是因果性和演绎性的, 因此只能回答“是什么(what)”的问题, 而关于“为什么(why)”以及“怎么样(how)”可能更适合通过案例研究等质性研究方法加以探索才能 深入揭示(Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007; Liden & Antonakis, 2009; 谭乐, 宋合义, 杨晓, 2016)。因此, 本文在MCI形成过程中采用案例研究等质性方法来构建理论模型, 然后再通过现场观察、深度访谈和第三方数据等来加以验证。在面向消费者的CCI形成过程的基础上, 从社会心理学(Press & Arnould, 2011)和文化创新的视角(Holt & Cameron, 2010), 采用案例研究的方法对面向其他外部利益相关者的MCI形成过程来进行探究, 再用计算机仿真的方法模拟出面向不同的利益相关者的MCI演化过程。

其三, 对MCI的企业身份构建进行深入研究。CCI的身份构建方面的研究相对较少, MCI的构建需要在前人的研究基础上, 将多方企业认同考虑进去。我们用质性研究的方法, 将其构建过程打开, 在数字化、社交媒体和移动营销盛行的背景下, 外部利益相关者与企业的适时交互越来越多, 外部利益相关者投入的热情与愿望也越来越强烈, 企业身份的构建就越发具备动态、互惠、反复和实时的特性, 所以多元企业认同的企业身份构建是一个复杂的过程, 我们将在前两个研究预期的基础上, 给出MCI的身份构建过程。通过对实践的观察和研究, 我们发现MCI的形成过程实质上是企业多元身份的构建过程, 整个企业多元身份构建由企业与利益相关者之间的互动而形成, 企业通过自我定义需要来构建基于该需要的初始身份, 然后在内部形成自我身份感知, 通过将此初始身份传递给利益相关者, 利益相关者通过评估二者之间的相符程度给企业进行反馈, 企业通过不断的修正、传递、反馈等环节最终与利益相关者形成认同的关系。

其四, 对MCI中企业多元身份张力的来源及其调和机理进行深入研究。本文依据个体多重身份(Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Allen, Wilder, & Atkinson, 1983; Hoelter, 1983, 1985; McCall & Simmons, 1978)和组织多元身份(Lam, 2012; Pratt & Foreman, 2000)的研究, 在关系价值机制和双元理论的基础上, 采用改进的扎根理论设计, 揭示企业多元身份张力的来源及测量, 发现企业多元身份张力的调和机制, 并打开企业多元身份张力的调和过程。在与多个利益相关者建立认同关系的过程中, 企业面临着诸多挑战, 比如各个利益相关者对于企业的需要不尽相同, 有时甚至是矛盾的, 企业有限的资源如何配置才能使得各个利益相关者的需要被满足, 从而与企业建立认同关系, 而如前所述, 企业与利益相关者认同的形成实质上是利益相关者认同的企业多元身份的构建过程。因此企业面临着身份的独立性和适应性张力的调和问题, 即企业的身份一方面必须取得利益相关者的认同, 另一方面, 企业必须保持其身份的核心方面的一致, 这对矛盾的需要给企业经营者带来了挑战。通过对实践观察和理论的研究, 我们提出利他的关系价值作为调和企业多元身份独立性和适应性的机制。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Abstract The troubling potential for opportunistic behaviour in strategic alliances is acknowledged in both research and practice, and yet the antecedents of such opportunism remain largely unexplored in the literature. In this article we suggest that the inherent temporalities of alliances play significant roles in partner opportunism. We propose a model of potential partner opportunism that assigns antecedent and contingent roles to the temporal horizons of alliances and the temporal orientations of the member firms. We introduce the notion of alliance horizons and suggest that they are constituted by the temporal orientations of the member firms and a number of common alliance formation factors. We also discuss how these alliance horizons in conjunction with the temporal orientations of member firms result in different levels of potential opportunism. Lastly, we develop a number of propositions to facilitate empirical research on the temporal contingencies of partner opportunism and indicate directions for further studies.

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react-text: 490 The concept of corporate social responsibility was proposed, and the performance level and performance strength of corporate social responsibility for air service provider were redefined. The game case between the core enterprise of supply chain and air service provider was divided into four types, and the selection game model of air service provider based on corporate social responsibility... /react-text react-text: 491 /react-text [Show full abstract]

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ABSTRACT In a prior review involving a meta-analysis (Underwood & Moore, 1982), no relation between affective empathy and prosocial behavior was found. In this article, the literature relevant to this issue is reexamined. The studies were organized according to the method used to assess empathy. When appropriate, meta-analyses were computed. In contrast to the earlier review, low to moderate positive relations generally were found between empathy and both prosocial behavior and cooperative/socially competent behavior. The method of assessing empathy did influence the strength of the relations; picture/story measures of empathy were not associated with prosocial behavior, whereas nearly all other measures were. Several possible explanations for the pattern of findings are discussed, as are the implications of the findings.

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Many services, particularly those related to health care, can be considered high-risk in that despite service providers’ best efforts, consumers may not attain the outcomes they hope to achieve. Recent research highlights how cultural models regarding service providers influence the ways consumers experience and respond to failure. What bears investigating is how these cultural models and... [Show full abstract]

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Abstract This paper investigates how the history of interaction between organizations and between organizational boundary spanners contributes to the formation of trust between firms. Our findings, using data on the supplier–buyer relationships of two major US auto manufacturers, suggest that history affects trust formation in a complex non-linear fashion, involving a period of ambivalence early in a relationship. We show that certain kinds of exchange partners can systematically reap differential returns from a common history of interaction. Organizational similarity significantly enhances the ability of exchange partners to translate the benefits of the joint history of interaction into a stock of trust. Copyright 08 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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This paper examines two potential determinants of identity salience utilizing a structural symbolic interactionist (or identity theory) approach. Data from 378 college undergraduates are examined concerning identity salience, commitment (to role) and role evaluation for the roles of student, friend, son/daughter, worker, athlete, religious person and dating person. Two hypotheses are tested and supported: identity salience is positively affected by (1) the degree of commitment ot its respective role (Stryker, 1968; 1980) and (2) the degree to which its respective role is positively evaluated with regard to one's performance (proposed here). The implications of the results and the utility of a structural version of symbolic interactionism are discussed.

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Social Psychology Quarterly, 48( 2) 118-129.

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Based on a structural model of self-conception, this paper proposes a theory of personal consistency. This theory emphasizes certain parameters from distributions of identities in a meaning space (defined by personal attributes) and for an identity-salience dimension (reflecting the importance of an identity for self-definition). It is proposed that the clustering of identities on the salience dimension (when identities in the cluster are relatively salient) and the relative lack of clustering of identities in meaning space have beneficial outcomes for individuals (particularly in terms of perceived power, activity and well-being) by increasing potential and opportunity for complex responses to social stimuli, and thus the total reward value of interaction. Some initial empirical evidence is offered in support of the theory, and implications of the findings are discussed.

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Abstract The social identity approach (comprising social identity theory and self-categorization theory) is a highly influential theory of group processes and intergroup relations, having redefined how we think about numerous group-mediated phenomena. Since its emergence in the early 1970s, the social identity approach has been elaborated, re-interpreted, and occasionally misinterpreted. The goal of this paper is to provide a critical, historical review of how thinking and research within the social identity approach has evolved. The core principles of the theories are reviewed and discussed, and their effect on the field assessed. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed, with an eye to future developments.

Jo Hatch, M., & Schultz, M . ( 1997).

Relations between organizational culture, identity and image

European Journal of Marketing, 31( 5-6), 356-365.

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ABSTRACT Addresses the relationship between organizational culture, identity and image. Argues that contemporary organizations need to define their corporate identity as a bridge between the external position of the organization in its marketplace and other relevant environments, and internal meanings formed within the organizational culture. Offers an analytical framework using the concepts of organizational culture, identity and image and suggests implications, including the need for symbolic management in and of the organization and the need to combine knowledge from the disciplines of marketing and organization studies.

Kang J., Alejandro T. B., & Groza M. D . ( 2015).

Customer-company identification and the effectiveness of loyalty programs

Journal of Business Research, 68( 2), 464-471.

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Customer loyalty programs constitute an important customer relationship management tool, adopted by multiple industries. This study investigates how customers perceive benefits from a loyalty program that enhance their loyalty to that program directly, as well as to the company indirectly through program loyalty. Our findings show that program loyalty and customer–company identification enhance customer loyalty toward the company. The development of customer–company identification can transform program loyalty into company loyalty, and reduce the company's latent financial risk.

Karaosmanoglu E., Banu Elmadag Bas A., & Zhang J . ( 2011).

The role of other customer effect in corporate marketing: Its impact on corporate image and consumer- company identification

European Journal of Marketing, 45( 9-10), 1416-1445.

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Abstract Purpose – By drawing on theories of social identity, attraction, social comparison and consumer identification, this research seeks to examine how consumers' perceptions of other customers of an organisation (the other customer effect) may have an influence on corporate image and consumer-company identification. This study aims to test a model integrating these constructs in two contexts, i.e. products and services. It also seeks to investigate the attitudinal and behavioural consequences of a favourable corporate image in order to provide more insights to the argument that a corporate marketing approach helps to enhance marketing performance. Design/methodology/approach – A survey of a convenience sample of 383 adult consumers is conducted. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is employed in order to test the proposed model. An alternative model is examined both in products and in services contexts. Findings – The results indicate that perceptions about other customers influence customers' affective and behavioural reactions towards a company for both products and services. This finding suggests that corporate-level marketing activities aiming to increase interaction among consumers lead to favourable corporate image and higher consumer-company identification and hence desirable marketing outcomes. Furthermore, results show that for services the other customer effect is more prominent than for product offerings. Originality/value – This study extends the concept of other customer effect to the context of corporate image and consumer-company identification studies. It provides evidence that shifting towards corporate-level marketing gives organisations another avenue for gaining a distinct position in the minds of consumers. Furthermore, by addressing both service and product contexts, it shows that other customer effect may exist beyond services studies.

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The dynamics of learning alliances: Competition, cooperation, and relative scope

Strategic management journal, 19( 3), 193-210.

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Journal of Marketing Research, 53( 4), 497-514.

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AMS Review, 2( 2-4), 72-87.

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Journal of International Business Studies, 43( 3), 306-331.

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Exploring the dynamics of antecedents to consumer-brand identification with a new brand

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41( 2), 234-252.

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This study examines the dynamics of consumer–brand identification (CBI) and its antecedents in the context of the launch of a new brand. Three focal drivers of CBI with a new brand are examined, namely: perceived quality (the instrumental driver), self–brand congruity (the symbolic driver), and consumer innate innovativeness (a trait-based driver). Using longitudinal survey data, the authors find that on average, CBI growth trajectories initially rise after the introduction but eventually decline, following an inverted-U shape. More importantly, the longitudinal effects of the antecedents suggest that CBI can take different paths. Consumer innovativeness creates a fleeting identification with the brand that dissipates over time. On the other hand, company-controlled drivers of CBI—such as brand positioning—can contribute to the build-up of deep-structure CBI that grows stronger over time. Based on these findings, the authors offer normative guidelines to managers on consumer–brand relationship investment.

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A thematic exploration of digital, social media, and mobile marketing: Research evolution from 2000 to 2015 and an agenda for future inquiry

Journal of Marketing, 80( 6), 146-172.

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The competitive advantage of interconnected firms: An extension of the resource-based view

Academy of Management Review, 31( 3), 638-658.

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I extend the resource-based view to incorporate the network resources of interconnected firms. My model distinguishes shared resources from nonshared resources; identifies new types of rent; and illustrates how firm-, relation-, and partner-specific factors determine the contribution of network resources to the rents extracted from alliance networks. After reassessing the heterogeneity, imperfect mobility, imitability, and substitutability conditions, I conclude that the nature of relationships may matter more than the nature of resources in networked environments.

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Motivational and emotional aspects of the self

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Abstract Recent theory and research are reviewed regarding self-related motives (self-enhancement, self-verification, and self-expansion) and self-conscious emotions (guilt, shame, pride, social anxiety, and embarrassment), with an emphasis on how these motivational and emotional aspects of the self might be related. Specifically, these motives and emotions appear to function to protect people's social well-being. The motives to self-enhance, self-verify, and self-expand are partly rooted in people's concerns with social approval and acceptance, and self-conscious emotions arise in response to events that have real or imagined implications for others' judgments of the individual. Thus, these motives and emotions do not operate to maintain certain states of the self, as some have suggested, but rather to facilitate people's social interactions and relationships.

Lee E. M., Park S. Y., Rapert M. I., & Newman C. L . ( 2012).

Does perceived consumer fit matter in corporate social responsibility issues?

Journal of Business Research, 65( 11), 1558-1564.

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an increasingly important construct in academia, as well as a pressing item on the practical corporate agenda. Many firms do not recognize CSR activities as investments in improving company values both internally and in the eyes of consumers. This study examines how the perceived fit between consumers' point of view (i.e., their values and lifestyles) and CSR activities influences consumer loyalty through such mediating variables as consumer perception of CSR activities and C–C (consumer–company) identification. The empirical findings inform the suggestion that perceived consumer fit influences consumer perception of CSR activities and, consequently, on C–C identification and consumer loyalty.

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Journal of Marketing, 80( 6), 69-96.

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In R. M. Kramer & T. M. Tyler (Eds.), Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research ( pp. 114-139). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Thesis--Columbia University. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 92-95).

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Abstract Despite Lewin’s identification of the importance of context in behavioral research over 70 years ago, leadership psychology tended to ignore the context. Only in the past 10 years has context been more routinely included in psychological leadership research. We provide examples of leadership research that has explored the context, introduce the special issue articles, and provide suggestions for future research on the context of leadership.

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This paper considers the relation between the exploration of new possibilities and the exploitation of old certainties in organizational learning. It examines some complications in allocating resources between the two, particularly those introduced by the distribution of costs and benefits across time and space, and the effects of ecological interaction. Two general situations involving the development and use of knowledge in organizations are modeled. The first is the case of mutual learning between members of an organization and an organizational code. The second is the case of learning and competitive advantage in competition for primacy. The paper develops an argument that adaptive processes, by refining exploitation more rapidly than exploration, are likely to become effective in the short run but self-destructive in the long run. The possibility that certain common organizational practices ameliorate that tendency is assessed.

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Corporate Reputation Review, 5( 1), 76-90.

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Both practitioners and academics alike have directed increasing attention to the field of corporate identity. Despite significant contributions in the last several years towards understanding and identifying this concept, a definitive construct of corporate identity and its measurements does not yet exist. Much anecdotal literature and many case studies surround this area of study, but to date no research study has empirically tested the domain of this construct. This paper examines the definitions, models, and specific elements of corporate identity through a review of literature. Based on this review, a holistic corporate identity model is developed. This paper also discusses the challenges in developing the corporate identity construct.

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Öberseder M., Schlegelmilch B. B., Murphy P. E., & Gruber V . ( 2014).

Consumers’ Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility: Scale Development and Validation

Journal of Business Ethics, 124( 1), 101-115.

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Researchers and companies are paying increasing attention to corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs and the reaction to them by consumers. Despite such corporate efforts and an expanding literature exploring consumers’ response to CSR, it remains unclear how consumers perceive CSR and which “Gestalt” consumers have in mind when considering CSR. Academics and managers lack a tool for measuring consumers’ perceptions of CSR (CPCSR). This research explores CPCSR and develops a measurement model. Based on qualitative data from interviews with managers and consumers, the authors develop a conceptualization of CPCSR. Subsequently, model testing and validating occurs on three large quantitative data sets. The conceptualization and the measurement scale can assist companies to assess CPCSR relative to their performance. They also enable managers in identifying shortcomings in CSR engagement and/or communication. Finally, the paper discusses implications for marketing practice and future research.

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Measuring CSR image: three studies to develop and to validate a reliable measurement tool

Journal of business ethics, 118( 2), 265-286.

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Although research on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) dimension of corporate image has notably increased in recent years, the definition and measurement of the concept for academic purposes still concern researchers. In this article, literature regarding the measurement of CSR image from a customer viewpoint is revised and areas of improvement are identified. A multistage method is implemented to develop and to validate a reliable scale based on stakeholder theory. Results demonstrate the reliability and validity of this new scale for measuring customer perceptions regarding the CSR performance of their service providers. With regard to this, CSR includes corporate responsibilities towards customers, shareholders, employees and society. The scale is consistent among diverse customer cohorts with different gender, age and level of education. Furthermore, results also confirm the applicability of this new scale to structural equation modelling.

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Academy of Management Review, 25( 1), 18-42.

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We examine the phenomenon of multiple organizational identities and suggest that they can be managed in organizations by changing the number of (identity plurality) or relationships among (identity synergy) the identities. Using "plurality" and "synergy" as response dimensions, we offer a classification scheme identifying four major types of managerial responses: compartmentalization, deletion, integration, and aggregation. We also suggest several key conditions that may affect the use and appropriateness of these identity management responses and develop a series of propositions for research.

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Value co-creation: Concept and measurement

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44( 3), 290-315.

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The surge in academic and practical interest in the topic of value co-creation (VCC) highlights an equivocal understanding of its conceptual boundaries and empirical constituents. Our search of the diverse scholarly literature on VCC identified 149 papers, from which we extract the two primary conceptual VCC dimensions of co-production and value-in-use. Though the combination of these two distinct dimensions is theoretically necessary to describe VCC, 79% of the studies in our dataset consider only one or the other. Such underlying theoretical ambiguity may explain conflicting results in earlier studies and motivates our effort to offer four contributions to the literature. First, we conduct a rigorous review, integrating existing work to expose the theoretical core of VCC. Second, we utilize the results from our review to isolate the two main theoretical dimensions of VCC and expose the three conceptual elements which underlie each dimension. Third, we apply our theoretical findings to derive empirical measurement constructs for each dimension. Fourth, we refine, analyze, and test the resulting measurement index in an investigation into consumer satisfaction.

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Academy of Management Journal, 49( 3), 433-458.

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In this paper, we present a longitudinal study of organizational responses to environmental changes that induce members to question aspects of their organization's identity. Our findings highlight the role of organizational culture as a source of cues supporting "sensemaking" action carried out by leaders as they reevaluate their conceptualization of their organization, and as a platform for "sensegiving" actions aimed at affecting internal perceptions. Building on evidence from our research, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding how the interplay of construed images and organizational culture shapes changes in institutional claims and shared understandings about the identity of an organization.

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A cultural quest: A study of organizational use of new cultural resources in strategy formation

Organization Science, 22( 2), 413-431.

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Our study was motivated by the growing influence in cultural sociology and organizational research of the view of culture as a “toolkit,” from which individuals draw resources flexibly to develop strategies of action that address different circumstances. To investigate if and how organizations can also use new and diverse cultural resources, we undertook a historical case study of the incorporation of new cultural resources in the cultural repertoire of the Italian manufacturer of household products Alessi. Through in-depth analysis of four rounds of incorporation of new cultural resources, we develop a robust theoretical model that relates the use of new cultural resources to the development of unconventional strategies and strategic versatility. We find that cultural repertoire enrichment and organizational identity redefinition are two core mechanisms that facilitate this process. The model contributes novel theoretical understanding regarding the use of cultural resources in strategy formation and change.

Romani, S., & Grappi, S . ( 2014).

How companies’ good deeds encourage consumers to adopt pro-social behavior

European Journal of Marketing, 48( 5-6), 943-963.

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Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the effects of company CSR initiatives on two consumers锟 pro-social behaviors closely related to the social cause promoted by the company, such as consumers donating money and volunteering time. In addition, the role of moral elevation as a mediating variable in such relationships is tested. Design/methodology/approach - After an exploratory study, we tested the role of moral elevation as a mediator that facilitates the effects of company CSR activities in social domains on two specific types of pro-social behavior displayed by consumers: donating money and volunteering time for the same cause sponsored by the company. We conducted two quantitative studies to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we considered the two pro-social behaviors as intentions; in Study 2, we analyzed them as actual behaviors. In both studies, we conducted controlled experiments administered in the field. By using experimental and control conditions, we were able to manipulate corporate responsible actions in social contexts and a mediational analysis was conducted. Findings - Our results show that moral elevation mediates the positive relationship between the (1) CSR activity and consumer intention to donate (actual consumer donating behavior) to social causes and the (2) CSR activity and volunteering intention (actual volunteering behavior). Originality/value - This paper contributes to furthering CSR theory by showing the positive effects of company CSR initiatives on two pro-social "secondary" outcomes and the mediating role played by moral elevation. Important implications for the role of CSR are derived for companies and society in general.

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Journal of Business Ethics, 114( 2), 193-206.

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A stakeholder approach to organizational identity

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We develop a model of organizational identity construction that reframes organizational identity within the broader context of manager-stakeholder relationships and more effectively integrates theory on organizational identity and organizational identification. We describe organizational identity as emerging from complex, dynamic, and reciprocal interactions among managers, organizational members, and other stakeholders. The model draws attention to organizational identity as negotiated cognitive images and to the embeddedness of organizational identity within different systems of organizational membership and meaning. Viewing organizational identity from the perspective of manager-stakeholder relationships provides a more parsimonious but more complete theory of organizational identity management.

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Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review

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The self-concept literature in consumer behavior can be characterized as fragmented, incoherent, and highly diffuse. This paper critically reviews self-concept theory and research in consumer behavior and provides recommendations for future research.

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Four studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that (1) consumer behavior is more strongly predicted by functional congruity than by self-congruity, and (2) functional congruity is influenced by self-congruity. The pattern of the results provides support for hypotheses.

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Journal of Marketing Research, 46( 1), 92-104.

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Brand engagement in self-concept (BESC) is a generalized view of brands in relation to the self, with consumers varying in their tendency to include important brands as part of their self-concepts. The authors develop an eight-item scale to measure BESC and demonstrate that it captures a consumer's general engagement with brands. This scale successfully predicts consumers' differential attention to, memory of, and preference for their favorite brands. Brand engagement in self-concept is also related to differential brand loyalty, with high-BESC consumers being less price and time sensitive regarding their favorite brands than low-BESC consumers. The authors discuss the usefulness of this construct for marketing research.

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