心理科学进展, 2018, 26(6): 1096-1110. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01096

研究前沿

员工的睡眠质量:组织行为学的视角 *

林梦迪1, 叶茂林,1, 彭坚2, 尹奎3, 王震4

1 暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632

2 广州大学工商管理学院, 广州 510006

3 北京科技大学东凌经济管理学院, 北京 100083

4 中央财经大学商学院, 北京 100081

The employees’ sleep quality: A perspective of organizational behavior

LIN Mengdi1, YE Maolin,1, PENG Jian2, YIN Kui3, WANG Zhen4

1 School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

2 School of Business Administration, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China

3 Donlinks School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

4 Business School, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, China

通讯作者: 叶茂林, E-mail: maolinye@163.com

收稿日期: 2017-02-20   网络出版日期: 2018-06-10

基金资助: * 广州大学人才引进科研启动项目.  2700050336
国家自然科学基金项目.  71772193
中国博士后科学基金资助项目.  2017M620017
中国博士后科学基金资助项目.  2017M622926
广东省自然科学基金重大培育项目(2017A030308013)资助.  

Received: 2017-02-20   Online: 2018-06-10

摘要

睡眠作为人类恢复和储存资源的重要生理过程, 近年来得到组织行为领域的广泛关注, 并逐渐成为一个新兴研究热点。睡眠质量是一个复杂的概念, 既包含与睡眠相关的定量成分, 也包含个体对睡眠状况的主观评价。目前, 研究发现, 个体特征(年龄、个人家庭和情感特质)和工作特征(工作要求、控制和支持)可有效预测员工的睡眠质量, 而睡眠质量又会影响员工的工作安全、身心健康、情感态度、工作绩效和道德行为。自我损耗理论是解释睡眠影响工作态度、行为的核心理论机制。未来研究可以从以下几方面做推进:从人与环境交互挖掘员工睡眠的影响因素, 从恢复体验视角探索睡眠影响工作的边界条件, 以及对比睡眠质量和数量的差异化影响效果。

关键词: 睡眠质量 ; 组织行为 ; 员工心理卫生 ; 自我损耗

Abstract

Sleep, as an important physiological process for human to recover and store physical strength and energy, has attracted extensive attention in the field of organizational behavior in recent years and become a popular research topic. Sleep quality is a complex concept that includes both quantitative components related to sleep and individual subjective evaluations of sleep. To date, researchers have found that individual characteristics (age, family and affective traits) and job characteristics (job demands, control and support) can effectively predict sleep quality, which in turn affects work safety, physical and mental health, attitude, job performance and ethical behavior. Ego depletion theory is the core theoretical mechanism to explain how sleep affects work attitude and behavior. Future studies could focus on the following aspects: from the interaction perspective between human and environments to explore the influencing factors of employee’ sleep, from the perspective of recovery experience to explore the boundary conditions of how sleep affects the work, and compare the differential effects of sleep quality and quantity.

Keywords: sleep quality ; organizational behavior ; mental health of employee ; ego depletion

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本文引用格式

林梦迪, 叶茂林, 彭坚, 尹奎, 王震. (2018). 员工的睡眠质量:组织行为学的视角 * . 心理科学进展, 26(6), 1096-1110

LIN Mengdi, YE Maolin, PENG Jian, YIN Kui, WANG Zhen. (2018). The employees’ sleep quality: A perspective of organizational behavior. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(6), 1096-1110

1 引言

“入夜则寐, 入昼则寤”是人体为适应自然界昼夜节律而产生的一种生理上的自我调节, 它有助于人体积蓄能量、适应日间活动。然而, 随着行业竞争不断加剧、工作环境日益复杂, 员工的睡眠——这一正常的生理稳态过程——遭到了严重破坏, 并逐渐成为工作场所员工的健康隐患之一。《2016中国互联网员工睡眠调查报告》显示, 约81.4%的互联网员工存在睡眠质量较低的问题。低睡眠质量不仅损害员工的心理和生理健康(Irwin, 2015), 还会给员工的工作绩效(Lim & Dinges, 2010)、工作安全(Williamson et al., 2011)和工作态度(Barnes, Lucianetti, Bhave, & Christian, 2015)等带来不良影响, 进而影响员工的日常生活和组织的有序运转。

近年来, 国外学者就员工睡眠质量问题展开了系列研究, 并取得了一定成果。这些研究对睡眠质量的概念进行了界定(Barnes, Jiang, & Lepak, 2016), 并探究了员工睡眠质量的影响因素与影响效果(Barnes, 2012; Kalimo, Tenkanen, Härmä, Poppius, & Heinsalmi, 2000; Kühnel, Bledow, & Feuerhahn, 2016)。虽然这些研究有助于学界了解员工睡眠问题的本质、来源与后效, 但相关成果碎片化地分散于诸多研究之中。到底哪些因素会影响员工睡眠质量, 而睡眠质量又如何影响个体的工作态度和行为?这其中的影响机制又可以用什么理论来解释?目前这些问题还未得到系统梳理。此外, 国内虽有部分学者从压力源角度回顾了睡眠质量研究(严由伟, 刘明艳, 唐向东, 林荣茂, 2010a, 2010b), 但针对组织管理领域的员工睡眠质量研究综述还比较缺乏。鉴于此, 本研究拟从概念、测量、前因与后效等方面对员工睡眠质量研究进行综述, 以期全面展现员工睡眠质量的研究进展, 为后续研究提供理论启发。需要说明的是:由于睡眠数量(Sleep Quantity)、睡眠剥夺(Sleep Deprivation)、睡眠限制(Sleep Restrict)和工作场所困倦(Workplace Sleepiness)等概念与睡眠质量有较多相通之处, 或者说这些概念在一定程度上反映了睡眠质量情况。因此, 本文也将这些相关概念的研究纳入了梳理范围之中。

2 睡眠质量的概念与测量

睡眠质量(Sleep Quality)是一个复杂的概念, 既包含与睡眠相关的定量成分, 如睡眠时间和觉醒次数, 也包含个体的主观评价, 如入睡困难、休息程度。例如, Barnes, Jiang和Lepak (2016)认为, 睡眠质量是指入睡、保持睡眠的困难程度以及夜间觉醒次数。目前, 研究者大都未明确对睡眠质量进行界定, 而是通过对睡眠质量的测量来表达其含义。例如, Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, Berman和Kupfer (1989)将睡眠质量划分为主观睡眠质量(Subjective Sleep Quality)、入睡时间(Sleep Latency)、睡眠时间(Sleep Duration)、睡眠效率(Sleep Efficiency)、睡眠障碍(Sleep Disturbance)、催眠药物(Use of Sleep Medication)和日间功能障碍(Daytime Dysfunction) 7个维度, 并据此编制成匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), 用以测量睡眠障碍或精神病患者的睡眠质量。目前, 该量表的应用范围从睡眠障碍患者拓展至普通职业人群, 并被广泛用于测量员工睡眠质量(Fang, Kunaviktikul, Olson, Chontawan, & Kaewthummanukul, 2008; Masoudnia, 2015; Querstret & Cropley, 2012; Sonnentag, Binnewies, & Mojza, 2008)。

2.1 测量方式

关于睡眠质量的测量, 目前存在两种主要的方式——主观测量和客观测量。主观测量主要是基于量表自评, 该方式因其便捷性, 得到较多研究者的使用。自评量表中, PSQI适用对象广泛, 评定内容全面, 是目前使用最广、权威性最高的测量工具, 在睡眠相关文献中的引用次数达万数以上。除PSQI外, 还存在一些其它形式的测量工具, 具体梳理见表1。其中, Jenkins, Stanton, Niemcryk和Rose (1988)的睡眠问题量表(Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale; JSPS)采用4个提问来评估员工的睡眠质量, 简便易行, 也是一种使用较广的睡眠质量测量工具。

表1   睡眠质量的结构和测量

研究者 (年份) 量表名称 条目 样题 被引
李建明等(2000) SRSS 10 您在睡眠后是否觉得已充分休息过 222
Buysse等(1989) PSQI 19 近1个月, 总的来说, 您认为自己的睡眠质量怎样 10646
Flo等(2012) Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire (BSWSQ) 7 关灯后, 你入睡时间超过30分钟的频率多高 14
Jenkins等(1988) Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale (JSPS) 4 我感觉自己入睡困难 537
Johns (1991) Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) 8 在公共场所坐着不动时打瞌睡的频度 9137
Kecklund等(1992) Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) 10 我感觉夜间觉醒后入睡困难 135
Meijman等(1988) Groningen Sleep Quality Scale (GSQS) 15 昨晚我的入睡时间超过半小时 43
Monk等(1994) Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PSD) 13 最初入睡后多久觉醒 306
Partinen等(1995) Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSC) 27 在你入睡前需要在床上静躺多长时间 349

资料来源:根据资料整理所得, 被引次数截止于2017年2月18日。

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在中国, 有学者基于沿袭的模式, 直接翻译西方的量表, 并用以探究中国人的睡眠议题, 如刘贤臣和唐茂芹(1996)直接将PSQI量表译成中文, 包含19个自评和5个他评条目, 其分半信度为0.87, 2周后再测信度为0.81; 也有学者从临床心理学视角编制了适用于筛选睡眠问题的睡眠量表, 如李建明、尹素凤、段建勋和张庆波(2000)的睡眠状况自评量表, 但量表能否很好地应用于工作人群和日常睡眠情境, 还缺乏足够的证据。纵观现状, 目前关于睡眠质量的测量工具较为丰富, 但这些测量工具大多是西方情境下的研究结果, 反映的主要是西方人在睡眠规律上表现出的特征, 且较适用于西方被试的作答反应方式。中国人在种族、价值取向、文化习俗乃至作答反应方式等方面都和西方存在一定差异, 而这种差异使得我们应当慎重地采用西方的测量工具来开展本土员工睡眠研究。更进一步说, 在中国本土情境下基于扎根理论开发一套适用于工作人群和日常情境的本土睡眠质量量表, 是今后中国学者应当致力于探索的一个重要方向。

鉴于量表自评很可能会受施测过程或被试本身的应试动机、反应倾向等因素的影响(戴海琦, 2015), 在测量结果方面会存在一些误差, 可能会影响测量结果的准确性。于是, 一些研究者开始采用一些客观方式对睡眠质量进行测量, 如多导睡眠仪(Polysomnography, PSG; Petersen, Kecklund, D'Onofrio, Nilsson, & Åkerstedt, 2013)、肢体活动记录仪(Antigraphy; Wagner, Barnes, Lim, & Ferris, 2012)、“睡眠帽” (Nightcap; van Rijn et al., 2015)和脑电(Electroencephalogram, EEG; Barnes, Ghumman, & Scott, 2013 )。具体而言, PSG首先记录整晚睡眠的多路生理信号, 然后分析这些信号, 获得被试整晚睡眠结构和睡眠呼吸事件, 得到定量指标, 最后利用这些定量指标判定睡眠情况。肢体活动记录仪的外形类似手表, 通常佩戴于手腕, 其工作原理建立于睡眠—觉醒周期之上, 通过记录运动状态和运动量来推算睡眠时间。“睡眠帽”通过眼睑和身体运动感应来区别觉醒、非快速眼动和快速眼动期, 具有对临床上睡眠质量的变化敏感和小巧、轻便的特点。而脑电通过与头皮相连的电极收集大脑的电活动, 这些电活动以波的形式呈现于电脑, 以此区分个体的睡眠、觉醒以及不同睡眠阶段。

总体来讲, 主观测量与客观测量各具优势。基于量表的主观测量在研究过程中具有较高的便利性, 既容易获得被试的配合参与, 又便于研究者进行大规模施测。其缺点是难以控制测量误差、保证数据结果的真实性。客观测量在精准度上优于主观测量, 能够较综合地反映个体的睡眠质量, 但受限于仪器价格、施测程度和实施难度等因素, 在推广和普及程度上尚不及主观测量。此外, 部分客观测量方式可能会对被试产生一定的影响, 如配带睡眠检测帽可能会使被试处于不自然的状态, 诱发被试的不适感受。

2.2 测量时间

梳理以往研究发现, 研究者使用主观测量方式对睡眠质量测量时在测量时间选择上存在两种主要做法:

第一种是对个体过去一段时间的整体睡眠质量进行评估, 这是测量睡眠质量的一种典型做法。例如, PSQI是对被试过去一个月内睡眠质量情况的整体评估(Buysse et al., 1989)。类似的, Jackowska, Dockray, Endrighi, Hendrickx和Steptoe (2012)在利用JSPS测量员工睡眠时, 同样要求员工估计过去一个月中他们体验到的各种睡眠问题出现的频率。采用这种方式测量睡眠操作简便, 研究者只需测量一次便可获得被试过去一段时间内的睡眠质量, 具有较高的便捷性, 也更容易获得被试的配合。但是, 睡眠作为一种需要每天进行, 且影响因素复杂的生理稳态过程, 对个体和环境特征的变化较为敏感, 极易在短时间内产生较大波动, 即个体过去一段时间内的睡眠质量可能并非一直保持于相对平稳的状态。而由于近因效应或首因效应的影响, 被试在对自身睡眠质量进行评估时可能会以偏概全, 影响测量的准确性。

鉴于此, 一些研究者认为可以在动态情境中对睡眠质量进行测量和研究, 即以一个工作日为单位, 对员工每日睡眠质量进行研究。这种情况下, 睡眠日志是研究者的首要选择。睡眠日志主要对个体一周或几周内的睡眠和觉醒时间等内容进行详细记录, 是医学界和心理学界常用的记录睡眠数据的主观评定方法, 目前也被学者用于员工睡眠质量测量(Barnes et al., 2013, 2015)。Reis和Wheeler (1991)认为, 两周时间可作为个人生活的一个样本, 因此, 采用这种方法测量睡眠质量时, 研究者通常于两个工作周内, 在每个工作日测量员工睡眠质量, 并将其与其它变量进行相关分析。如, Barnes等(2015)采用匹兹堡睡眠日志(Monk et al., 1994; Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, PSD)在两个工作周内研究了领导每日睡眠与辱虐管理、下属工作投入的关系。在动态环境中测量睡眠质量, 考虑到了个体每日睡眠的变化, 使研究结果更加真实可信。但是, 由于这种方法需要对所有变量每日测量, 对人力、物力要求较高, 在方法推广上可能具有一定难度。

3 睡眠质量的影响效果

自睡眠研究引入组织行为学领域以来, 不少研究探索了员工睡眠质量对工作会造成何种影响, 相关变量主要集中在工作绩效、安全绩效、心理健康、工作态度和职场行为等5个方面。

3.1 绩效结果

在组织行为学领域, 有关工作绩效的理论模型层出不穷。目前, 一般认为工作绩效包含任务绩效(Task Performance)、关系绩效(Contextual Performance)、创新绩效(Innovative Performance)和适应性绩效(Adaptive Performance)。

任务绩效是指任职者通过直接的生产活动、提供材料和服务等方式对组织所做的贡献, 主要受任职者经验、能力以及与工作相关知识等因素影响(Borman & Motowildo, 1993)。睡眠不足会影响认知功能, 如大脑的信息加工功能(李晨, 刘康, 陈涛, 2017), 而这些认知功能是基本工作能力的组成部分(Fleishman, Costanza, & Marshall-Mies, 1999)。因此, 睡眠质量会对任务绩效产生重要影响(Mullins, Cortina, Drake, & Dalal, 2014)。宋国萍、张侃、苗丹民和皇甫恩(2008)研究了不同时长的睡眠剥夺对大脑执行功能的影响, 结果发现睡眠剥夺后大脑执行功能会下降, 且执行功能下降程度与剥夺时间有一定关系, 45小时后下降显著。元分析(Lim & Dinges, 2010)也显示, 为期一天的短期睡眠剥夺会显著降低个体在简单注意、复杂注意、工作记忆、加工速度、短期记忆和推理任务中的速度和准确性。Philibert (2005)对959名住院医生和1028名非住院医生的元分析认为, 失眠会使医生的临床绩效显著降低, 增加其犯错风险, 且对非住院医生的影响高于住院医生。

与任务绩效不同, 关系绩效不在工作说明书之内。它不是直接的生产和服务活动, 而是构成组织的社会、心理背景的行为, 包括自律行为、奉献行为、组织公民行为、助人行为、亲组织行为等与特定作业无关的绩效行为(Borman & Motowildo, 1993)。组织公民行为是学者们在对关系绩效进行描述时大量借助的概念, 是一种经常测量的关系绩效范例。Barnes等(2013)采用两个现场研究调查了睡眠对组织公民行为的影响。研究1通过对87名来自不同组织的员工调查发现, 在组织层面员工睡眠可正向预测组织公民行为, 但在个体层面这一结果并不显著。研究2被试为85名工作的大学生, 结果显示无论是在组织层面还是个体层面, 个体的睡眠问题都能正向预测组织公民行为, 且工作满意度是上述关系的解释机制。

员工创新绩效是个人对工作方式、流程等产生新颖的、同时又切实可行的想法的工作成效总和(Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, & Herron, 1996; De Stobbeleir, Ashford, & Buyens, 2011)。睡眠质量对创新绩效的影响主要表现在与创新绩效相关的认知功能上。Horne (1998)发现, 连续32小时的睡眠剥夺会对个体的发散思维, 如思维流畅性、独创性、精细性和灵活性等产生不利影响。这种影响的产生是由于睡眠剥夺使得个体在认知上更易坚持使用之前的成功策略去尝试解决新的困难问题, 即所谓的策略转换困难。Vartanian等(2014)通过一晚睡眠剥夺实验验证了上述结果, 同时发现短暂睡眠剥夺会通过暂时损害大脑额叶功能对个体的思维流畅性产生不利影响, 这在神经解剖方面为低质量睡眠影响发散思维的作用机制提供了重要解释。

与创新绩效类似, 适应性绩效(Adaptive Performance)代表了另外一种以区别于任务绩效和关系绩效的方式, 来预示长期组织效率的因素。虽然目前尚未有研究证明睡眠质量与适应绩效间存在直接相关, 但大量研究表明自我效能(Self-efficacy)与适应性绩效积极相关, 并对适应性绩效具有直接的促进作用(吴新辉, 袁登华, 2010), 而与睡眠正常的个体相比, 低质量睡眠者的自我效能感会显著低于前者(Schlarb, Kulessa, & Gulewitsch, 2012)。据此有理由推测, 睡眠质量或许能通过自我效能感等因素对员工适应性绩效产生间接影响。

基于以上梳理, 不难发现, 睡眠质量主要通过影响员工的认知功能进而作用于任务绩效, 而睡眠质量对关系绩效的影响效果不稳定, 且可能的潜在机制是工作满意度等情绪机制。这说明睡眠质量可能对任务绩效和关系绩效存在不同强度的影响效果以及不同的作用机制。遗憾的是, 目前研究还缺乏深入地整合、对比睡眠质量对任务绩效和关系绩效的影响。此外, 随着市场外部环境的日益变化, 变革与创新成为当下组织适应外部环境, 赢得竞争优势的重要路径。在此背景下, 我们不仅要关注这些有利于维持组织常规运转的任务绩效和关系绩效因素, 更要注重考察睡眠质量对创新绩效(Innovation Performance)和适应绩效(Adaptive Performance)的影响, 这不仅能够拓宽睡眠质量与绩效结果的研究领域, 还能增强睡眠与绩效关系研究结论的说服力。

3.2 安全结果

睡眠质量关系到个体的认知资源和能量储备, 因而对员工的安全结果存在重要影响, 尤其是低质量的睡眠容易导致职业伤害和事故的出现。Dearmond和Chen (2009)以长期在护理机构工作的护士为被试, 探讨了睡眠不足导致的困倦如何影响职业安全。结果发现, 工作场所困倦与职业伤害的疼痛频率和疼痛程度(由疼痛时间和强度表示)显著正相关。疲劳, 作为一种受到睡眠平衡因素、生物因素和任务性质共同影响的心理状态, 被Williamson等(2011)证实能够对安全结果产生负面影响。虽然生物因素对安全结果存在一定影响, 但这些影响反映的是时间累积和睡眠相关因素共同作用的结果, 这也为员工睡眠问题导致事故发生提供了有利证据。

目前, 有关睡眠质量与安全结果的探讨主要在个体层面开展。然而, 以往不少研究发现组织层面的许多因素也会影响个体的安全结果。正如Reason (1997)所言, 在大多数组织中, 员工仅仅是组织缺陷的接受者, 有时难以靠自身从根本上解决安全隐患问题。因此, 探讨睡眠质量与组织因素如何共同的影响安全结果, 能够更全面地揭示工作安全的发生机制。具体而言, 倘若员工知觉到组织对安全培训和安全管理的重视程度较高, 即在高水平的组织安全气氛(Safety Climate)下, 员工的睡眠质量与安全结果的关系可能会弱化。此外, 领导者的安全意识或行为、安全导向的人力资源管理系统等因素也是值得进一步考虑的情境因素, 这些因素可能与睡眠质量交互地影响员工安全结果。

3.3 健康结果

研究表明, 睡眠对个体的心理和生理健康, 如个体的抑郁、癌症、脑梗和心血管健康等有重要影响(Irwin, 2015; 赵晶, 钱进军, 巩企霞, 2013)。睡眠质量对心理健康的影响是睡眠质量研究中的重要议题。睡眠质量能够有效预测个体未来的抑郁水平。O’Leary, Bylsma和Rottenberg (2017)发现, 对具有抑郁症状的个体来说, 一段时间的低质量睡眠会显著提高个体的抑郁水平, 而个体的情绪调节能力是上述关系的解释机制。睡眠对个体的自杀意念和行为也存在重要影响。Pigeon, Pinquart和Conner (2012)元分析发现, 睡眠障碍、失眠和噩梦会显著增加个体的自杀意念、自杀企图和自杀行为, 而抑郁在上述关系中调节作用并不显著。这说明无论在抑郁个体还是非抑郁个体中, 睡眠都是自杀意念和自杀行为的重要影响因素。

除心理健康外, 睡眠质量还能有效影响个体的生理健康。Barton, Spelten, Totterdell, Smith和Folkard (1995)在研究护士夜班(永久夜班、轮班)对健康的影响时发现, 睡眠时间和睡眠质量在护士持续夜班与健康之间起完全中介作用。与循环轮班的护士相比, 连续夜班的员工睡眠时间更长, 这会显著提高睡眠质量, 进而提高健康程度。具体而言, 睡眠时间与慢性疲劳、消化症状和心血管症状显著负相关; 良好的睡眠质量可有效减少慢性疲劳、消化道症状和心血管症状, 增加员工健康。Spaeth, Dinges和Goel (2013)在实验室条件下检验了睡眠和肥胖的关系, 研究发现, 长时间处于睡眠限制(Sleep Restrict)的个体更有可能在夜间饮食, 摄入额外热量, 从而导致体重上升, 增加肥胖风险。

Litwiller, Snyder, Taylor和Steele (2017)认为, 睡眠缺乏导致的生理后果也许能够解释为何睡眠不足或低质量睡眠会引发一系列健康问题。例如, 睡眠缺乏会增加皮质醇的分泌, 而皮质醇已被证实在抑郁症和躁狂形成过程中具有重要作用(Holsboer, 2001; 杨佳琳等, 2015), 这也许能为低质量睡眠导致抑郁提供重要依据。此外, 睡眠不足会导致心血管炎症, 而这些炎症可以解释睡眠不足和心脏病之间的确定联系(Cappuccio, Cooper, D'Elia, Strazzullo, & Miller, 2011)。与Litwiller等(2017)不同的是, Gasperi, Herbert, Schur, Buchwald和Afari (2017)认为睡眠质量与疼痛、抑郁的相关性是由于它们可以由相同的遗传因素解释, 通过对400对双生子的研究结果证明:睡眠质量和疼痛存在遗传相关, 而睡眠质量与疼痛、抑郁间存在潜在的遗传因果联系。

目前, 睡眠质量与健康结果的研究主要源自临床心理学领域, 还缺乏基于组织管理情境的探讨。随着工作节奏不断加快, 越来越多的员工患上抑郁、肥胖和癌症等病症, 甚至有些在工作中猝死, 组织迫切需要采取措施来促进员工的心理和生理健康。这种情况下, 打造健康型组织(Healthy Organization)变得尤为重要。有效管理员工健康, 这不仅需要相关的组织文化、组织制度和工作设计, 还需要重视健康的领导者, 即健康促进型领导(Health-Promoting Leadership), 来激发和鼓励员工积极配合、参与组织中的健康管理, 提升员工的健康意识和行为。鉴于此, 立足于组织管理情境, 探索健康型组织、健康促进型领导如何影响员工的睡眠质量及其产生的健康结果, 将会是一个值得考虑的研究方向。

3.4 情感态度结果

一方面, 员工自身的睡眠质量会对其情感、态度产生重要影响。研究表明, 高质量睡眠和充足的睡眠时间有益于员工晨间积极情绪的激活, 能够显著抑制消极情绪(Sonnentag et al., 2008)。Hamilton等(2007)研究失眠与幸福感的关系时发现, 失眠和幸福感显著相关, 具有失眠症状的个体其心理和主观幸福感都会较低, 且睡眠对主观幸福感的影响要强于对心理幸福感的影响。Scott和Judge (2006)研究发现, 失眠与个体敌意显著正相关, 与个体愉悦、工作满意度显著负相关, 且情绪因素为二者关系提供了重要解释。Lai等(2008)研究发现, 对台湾特护病房的护士来说, 睡眠质量是影响她们离职意图最重要的因素之一。对此, 周晓娜、赵维燕、李妮娜和吉峰(2013)认为, 这可能是由于低质量睡眠会提升医护人员的职业倦怠, 从而使离职意图增加。另一方面, 领导的睡眠质量会影响下属的情绪与工作态度。例如Barnes等(2015)检验了领导每日睡眠质量对团队工作投入的影响, 结果表明, 领导睡眠质量与员工工作投入显著正相关, 领导自我损耗和辱虐管理在上述关系中起完全中介作用, 自我损耗在睡眠质量与辱虐管理间起部分中介作用。关于低质量睡眠为何会对情感态度产生不利影响, 有研究认为, 这是由于低质量睡眠降低了个体的情绪调节能力, 尤其是个体的认知重评(Cognitive Reappraisal)能力(Mauss, Troy, & LeBourgeois, 2013)。Ghumman和Barnes (2013)从自我调节资源角度出发, 发现睡眠质量低时, 个体自我调节资源受损, 会降低对情绪的控制能力, 从而表现出更高的刻板印象倾向, 也更容易产生偏见。

以往关于睡眠质量的研究, 尤其在与情感态度关系的研究中, 多数研究并未控制即时情绪对研究结果的影响。情绪具有即时性, 通过主观方式在晨间测得的睡眠质量由于受到晨间情绪的影响可能存在偏差。因此, 研究中的情绪因素如果能够得到控制, 可能会使结果更具说服力。此外, 除工作幸福感、工作倦怠和离职意向外, 其它对组织产出具有重要作用的态度结果, 如情感承诺(Organizational Commitment)和工作旺盛感(Thriving at Work)也值得后续学者们重点关注。

3.5 行为结果

Christian和Ellis (2011)从自我调节资源的角度出发, 在护士和大学生两个样本中检验了睡眠剥夺对工作场所偏差行为(Workplace Deviance)的影响。两个研究结果都表明, 睡眠剥夺会显著增加个体的工作场所偏差行为。这说明睡眠质量问题是工作场所偏差行为的一个重要诱因。Kühnel等(2016)研究发现, 员工睡眠质量、睡眠时间与拖延行为间存在显著负相关, 睡眠是恢复自我调节资源的重要途径, 如果员工晚上睡眠质量低, 睡眠时间短, 白天工作时则更可能出现拖延行为。此外, Wagner等(2012)在严格控制的实验室环境中探讨了失眠和低质量睡眠对工作中神游行为的影响, 结果发现, 个体前一晚的睡眠质量可解释大部分神游行为的变异。具体而言, 睡眠时间与神游时间显著负相关, 而睡眠中断与神游时间显著正相关。与之相似, Welsh, Ellis, Christian和Mai (2014)通过两个实验研究检验了员工睡眠剥夺对欺骗行为的影响。结果表明, 员工睡眠剥夺能够正向预测损耗, 进而增加欺骗行为的发生。睡眠质量不仅会影响员工在工作场所中的行为表现, 还会影响职场阻抑(Workplace Undermining)向家庭阻抑(Home Undermining)的传递过程, 即当员工睡眠质量低时, 员工在工作中遭受的社会阻抑更可能溢出到家庭生活中(Barber, Taylor, Burton, & Bailey, 2017)。

除对下属行为的影响外, 睡眠还对领导行为或下属对领导行为的感知有重要影响。Barnes, Guarana, Nauman和Kong (2016)通过两个研究探究了睡眠剥夺(领导/下属)对魅力型领导的影响。研究1通过操纵领导睡眠发现, 睡眠剥夺与下属体验到的魅力型领导显著负相关, 其中, 领导深层扮演起中介作用。研究2通过操纵下属睡眠剥夺同样发现, 睡眠剥夺会使下属对魅力型领导的感知更低, 下属体验到的积极情绪中介上述关系。此外, Olsen, Pallesen, Torsheim和Espevik (2016)的研究发现, 在由休息状态转到睡眠剥夺状态时, 变革型领导和交易型领导得分会降低, 而被动—回避型领导得分会升高。两个研究都表明, 在评估领导力时, 睡眠质量是重要的潜在影响因素。

上述这些研究采用实验法, 通过剥夺被试睡眠来探究其行为后果。然而, 这种做法容易受到两方面的质疑。首先, 多数研究在睡眠剥夺实验中无法克服睡眠剥夺组和控制组的情绪差异, 睡眠剥夺组的被试更可能因为睡眠剥夺变得厌烦和易怒, 这些消极情绪可能会对实验结果造成一定影响。此外, 采用实验法模拟工作情境虽然具有较好地内部效度和检验因果性, 但外部效度较低, 因此, 这些研究结论能否很好地推广到组织情境中还有待商榷。

4 睡眠质量影响效果的解释机制——自我损耗理论

4.1 自我损耗理论

在睡眠与工作的研究中, 自我损耗理论(Ego Depletion Theory)是解释睡眠质量对工作影响的重要理论机制。该理论认为, 个体的思想、行为和情绪都是被一种有限的可消耗资源所管理, 这种资源的容量是相对稳定的, 但同时又具有可利用性, 所以这些资源在个体进行自我调节时会被损耗(Baumeister, Muraven, & Tice, 2000)。当资源消耗到一定量时, 个体心理上对自我的控制能力会减弱。此时, 个体处于自我损耗(Ego Depletion)状态, 这种状态会降低个体在之后的任务或目标中的表现(Welsh et al., 2014)。例如, 处于自我损耗状态的个体由于自控能力降低, 更易出现不道德行为(Gino, Schweitzer, Mead, & Ariely, 2011)和辱虐管理行为(Lin, Ma, & Johnson, 2016)

4.2 睡眠影响工作的自我损耗机制

不论是对学生群体还是工作人群来说, 睡眠都是恢复自我调节所需心理资源的重要方式(Barnes et al., 2015)。低质量的睡眠会影响大脑前额皮质的葡萄糖代谢, 而葡萄糖是大脑执行自我调节功能的重要原料(Masicampo & Baumeister, 2008)。因此, 当个体的睡眠质量欠佳时, 由于自我调节所需的能源不足, 个体会出现自我损耗状态, 并导致其对自身行为和情绪的控制能力降低(Christian & Ellis, 2011)。职场中的员工, 面对来自工作与家庭的双重压力, 往往容易出现睡眠质量问题。低质量的睡眠会影响自我调节资源的恢复, 使个体出现自我损耗, 进而导致员工在情绪、认知和行为上的自我控制能力减弱, 从而影响正常工作。

基于自我损耗理论, 以往研究检验了一系列自我调节资源变量在员工睡眠质量和工作态度、行为之间的中介作用。例如, Barnes等(2015)探讨了领导每日睡眠质量对辱虐管理行为的影响。该研究认为领导在工作情境下难免会产生一种展现辱虐行为的冲动, 面对这种冲动, 他们通常会努力控制, 而这个控制过程需要消耗大量的自我调节资源。由于领导睡眠影响了自我调节资源的容量, 可能会影响领导对辱虐管理行为的控制, 即领导睡眠质量通过影响自我损耗进而影响其辱虐管理行为。Christian和Ellis (2011)认为, 自我调节资源损耗会影响员工对自身行为和情绪的控制。据此, 该研究检验并证实了员工自控(Self-control)和状态敌意(State Hostility)在睡眠和工作场所偏差行为之间的中介作用。与此类似, Welsh等(2014)通过实验研究发现, 员工睡眠剥夺会通过自我损耗激发欺骗行为, 由此可见, 睡眠不佳会降低个体的自我调节资源, 从而增加不道德行为发生的可能性。此外, Kühnel等(2016)认为, 员工夜间睡眠质量低、睡眠时间短会阻碍自我调节资源的恢复, 导致其在工作中出现更多的拖延行为; 相反, 睡眠好的员工更少地出现拖延行为。

总体来讲, 大多数学者基于临床和基础医学相关研究对自我损耗的影响机制做出了解释, 认为大脑前额皮质的葡萄糖代谢降低是自我损耗的生理基础。但现有研究主要通过员工自我报告测量心理损耗水平, 缺乏对自我损耗的生理指标, 即员工前额皮质葡萄糖的测量。自我损耗的生理路径和心理路径究竟是两个并行的解释路径, 还是生理损耗诱发心理损耗?目前研究还缺乏对此议题的清晰阐述。

4.3 损耗过程的边界条件

虽然低质量睡眠会降低大脑的自我调节功能, 但Welsh等(2014)认为咖啡因能够通过激活与自我调节能力相关的生理机制, 减缓睡眠剥夺对自我调节功能的不利影响。咖啡因是现代社会广泛使用的精神药物。由于具有帮助个体保持清醒的作用, 大约90%的美国人每天都要摄入一定量的咖啡因(Hruby, 2012)。对睡眠欠佳的个体而言, 咖啡因能够增强其在反应时任务、分类搜索任务、选择反应时任务和重复数字警戒任务上的表现(Smith, 2002)。Welsh等(2014)拓展了上述研究, 探究了睡眠欠佳的个体摄入咖啡因后, 在更为复杂的道德决策情境中有何不一样的表现。结果表明, 咖啡因能够弱化睡眠剥夺对自我损耗的不利影响, 且能够通过缓冲睡眠剥夺通过自我损耗影响欺骗行为的整个过程。

既然睡眠和自我损耗的关系会受到其它因素的影响, 那么是否自我损耗的个体必然会导致对行为和情绪的控制失败呢?McCrae和Löckenhoff (2010)认为, 尽责性(Conscientiousness)在个体自我调节过程中具有重要作用。尽责性是一个涵义丰富的人格特质, 包含自律、审慎、胜任力、条理性、责任心和追求成就等方面。具有不同尽责性的个体, 在自我调节资源的容量上存在差异, 而这直接关系到个体的自我调节能力(Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004)。因此, 尽责性会通过影响个体的自我调节能力作用于睡眠、自我损耗与工作行为间的关系。Wagner等(2012)发现, 当睡眠和神游行为之间的自我调节资源受损时, 与低尽责性个体相比, 高尽责性的个体由于具有更多的自我调节资源, 当睡眠质量低时, 会更少出现神游行为。除个体差异会影响睡眠、自我损耗和与工作行为的关系外, Welsh等(2014)认为, 社会影响(Social Influence)也对这一过程有重要作用。社会影响是群体内的一个或多个成员指导、协调和影响群体内其他成员的过程。个体在抵制社会影响时, 往往会消耗自我调节资源, 因此, 当自我调节资源低时, 个体较难抵抗来自周围的影响, 更易遵从他人的要求(Burkley, 2008)。据此, Welsh等(2014)研究发现睡眠质量低会导致个体损耗, 进而引发不道德行为, 而自我损耗对不道德行为的影响受到社会影响的调节, 即当社会影响存在(同事或上司出现不道德行为)时, 自我损耗会加剧不道德行为; 反之, 自我损耗对不道德行为的影响则会显著减弱。

5 睡眠质量的影响因素

在组织中, 睡眠质量低不仅是困扰员工的一项健康隐患, 还会对组织盈利和发展造成不良影响。鉴于睡眠质量对员工乃至整个组织的重要作用, 有必要了解哪些因素会影响员工睡眠质量, 以期为解决员工睡眠问题提供理论与实践启发。通过对相关文献梳理, 本文认为可从个体特征和工作特征两个角度对这一问题进行探讨。

5.1 个人特征

5.1.1 年龄

年龄作为一个连续变量, 表示的是个体自出生后所经过的时间(Barnes-Farrell, 2005)。随着年龄的增长, 个体的睡眠数量和睡眠质量会发生质的变化(Scullin & Bliwise, 2015)。通常, 与年轻人相比, 年龄较大的个体花费在床上的时间更长, 但入睡时间却更短, 他们也更容易从睡眠中觉醒(Prinz, 2004)。Granö, Vahtera, Virtanen, Keltikangas- Järvinen和Kivimäki (2008)的研究发现, 对职业人群来说, 随着年龄的增长, 员工的睡眠时间会显著下降, 而睡眠紊乱状况却不断增加。Parkes (2002)对轮班工人的研究证实了上述结果, 发现随着年龄的增长, 工人的睡眠时间几乎直线下降, 在45岁后趋于稳定。Chan (2009)对中国样本的研究得到了相同的结果, 即对轮班工人来说, 年龄能够正向预测工人睡眠不足的情况。对此, Moorcroft (2005)认为, 随着年龄的增长, 个体的睡眠调节过程会发生变化, 特别是嗜睡峰值期在成年早期会发生转移, 在非快速眼动期和整个睡眠上的时间随着年龄的增长都会相应减少。

5.1.2 个人家庭

家庭是影响睡眠质量的一个非常重要的因素。Granö等(2008)对员工睡眠障碍和睡眠时间的研究发现, 员工的婚姻状况与其睡眠障碍呈正相关, 但与睡眠时间无关。类似的, Jones (2010)的研究结果表明, 个体的婚姻满意度能负向预测睡眠障碍。除婚姻状况外, 家庭中孩子个数也是家庭责任的重要组成部分。Lee (1992)采用自我报告的方式对企业女员工的睡眠障碍进行了研究, 结果表明:对轮班女员工来说, 由于作为母亲必须承担的看护职责, 有孩子的员工夜间表现出更频繁的睡眠觉醒。类似的, Barton等(1995)研究了家庭承诺(家庭中的孩子个数和个体感受到的家庭—工作冲突程度)对轮班工作女员工的睡眠和机敏性的影响, 发现对大多数轮班女员工来说, 家庭承诺会使他们的睡眠时间显著减少。

5.1.3 情感特质

在工作场所中, 人格也会对个体的睡眠产生重要影响。虽然以往研究检验过多种人格对睡眠的影响, 但消极情感特质(Negative Affection, NA)是其中最受关注的变量。消极情感特质广义上来说是一种主观的痛苦感和不愉快的参与感, 它包含一系列厌恶情绪状态, 如愤怒、轻蔑、厌恶、内疚、恐惧和紧张等(Watson & Clark, 1984), 通常能预测很多身心健康问题(Watson & Pennebaker, 1989)。对轮班工人来说, 消极情感特质能够显著降低他们的睡眠质量(Parkes, 2002)。对此, Hennig, Kieferdorf, Moritz, Huwe和Netter (1998)认为, 这可能是由于高NA的个体对轮班工作的生理性调节能力更低。类似的, Fortunato和Harsh (2006)发现, NA能调节工作相关压力和睡眠质量的关系, 高水平NA的个体往往睡眠质量较差。这可能是因为高NA的个体在应对环境压力时会表现出更多生理反应(Zellars, Meurs, Perrewé, Kacmar, & Rossi, 2009), 这种高度觉醒可能会扰乱正常的生理节律和稳态过程, 进而影响个体的睡眠质量。

5.2 工作特征

鉴于组织环境和工作特征会对员工睡眠产生重要影响, 本文将按照工作要求—控制—支持模型(Job Demands-Control-Support Model, JDCS; Johnson & Hall, 1988)对影响员工睡眠的工作情境变量进行分类梳理。

5.2.1 工作要求

在JDCS模型中, 工作要求是工作环境中的压力来源(李永娟, 蒋丽, 胥遥山, 王璐璐, 2011), 它不仅包含与任务有关的心理压力, 如工作负荷、时间压力和任务复杂性等, 还包含与任务相关的物理要求, 如体力劳动环境和环境安全约束。

高工作要求对员工睡眠质量具有破坏作用(严由伟等, 2010b)。Kalimo等(2000)研究发现, 员工的工作时间和工作压力与失眠、睡眠剥夺和日间疲劳显著正相关, 且与轮班员工相比, 压力源与睡眠紊乱的关系在白班员工中更为密切。Takahashi等(2008)在536名轮班看护(包含两班制、三班制和其它轮班方式)和222名非轮班看护中检验了轮班对养老院看护人员睡眠的影响, 结果发现, 两班制员工拥有最高水平的入睡困难和失眠症状, 最低水平的睡眠质量。这可能是由于两班制看护夜晚轮班时间较长, 出现睡眠问题的风险更大。

5.2.2 工作控制

与工作要求类似, 工作控制也经常用于预测员工睡眠质量。工作控制是指员工针对工作的决策自由和技能使用自由(Dawson, O'Brien, & Beehr, 2016)。处在压力工作情境中的个体往往会体验到较低程度的心理幸福感并导致各种健康问题(De Lange et al., 2009), 而拥有较高工作控制能力的员工可以通过改变工作环境和工作程序来降低紧张(Spector, 2002), 可能会降低工作对睡眠的不利影响。Fang等(2008)对中国护士疲劳影响因素的研究表明, 工作控制与护士的睡眠质量显著负相关, 具有高水平工作控制能力的护士能更好地控制自身活动和工作步调, 从而节省资源。De Lange等(2009)经过为期一年的纵向研究得出:高压工作环境(高工作要求—低工作控制)会使员工睡眠相关问题增多, 而在低压工作环境(低工作要求—高工作控制)中工作, 员工睡眠质量会显著提高。这可能是因为较高水平的工作控制能帮助员工降低工作要求对员工睡眠时间或睡眠调节过程的干扰。

5.2.3 工作支持

在JDCS模型中, 工作支持反映的是由同事、上级或组织提供的社会支持(Dawson et al., 2016), 是一种有关员工与同事、领导交互作用程度的评估(Johnson & Hall, 1988)。研究表明, 工作支持是JDCS模型中另一个可能会提高员工睡眠质量的成分。Gadinger等(2009)研究发现, 社会支持对员工睡眠具有促进效应, 且工作要求、工作控制和社会支持间存在三重交互作用, 证明了高工作控制和高社会支持对工作要求引起的紧张具有缓冲作用。Jansson和Linton (2006)研究发现:对于基线水平为失眠的被试来说, 高工作支持会降低其一年后仍然报告失眠的可能性。通常认为, 工作支持对睡眠的积极影响是由于它能帮助员工缓冲工作压力(Nordin, Knutsson, Sundbom, & Stegmayr, 2005), 对于那些可能扰乱睡眠调节过程的因素, 如果员工处在一个受到支持的工作环境中, 那么回家后员工就需要较少的时间来平复这些因素(Rau, Georgiades, Fredrikson, Lemne, & De Faire, 2001)。

需要注意的是, JDCS模型是在西方工业社会背景下提出, 目前基于JDCS模型的员工睡眠质量研究也多以西方组织文化为背景, 该模型在我国组织文化背景下的适应性如何还需进一步检验。其次, JDCS的缓冲假设认为, 工作控制和社会支持能够调节工作要求对员工的消极影响。据此, 基于JDCS模型的睡眠质量研究不仅要关注某种工作特征对员工睡眠质量的影响, 还需要关注多种工作特征组合对员工睡眠质量的综合作用。最后, 个体并非环境刺激的简单反映者, 个体的人格特征、过往经验和价值观等均有可能影响其对工作特征做出的反应, 即个体特征和工作特征可能交互影响睡眠质量, 未来研究可尝试对此进行验证。

6 当前研究整合与未来研究展望

6.1 研究整合

基于以上梳理, 可以发现学界目前针对员工睡眠质量问题已进行了较为深入的考察。在影响因素方面, 当前研究主要包含了个人特征和工作特征两方面。在影响效果方面, 当前研究涉及的结果变量可归为5类, 即绩效结果、安全结果、健康结果、情感态度结果和行为结果。在解释机制方面, 当前研究大多按照资源损耗理论解释睡眠对工作行为的影响, 并在此基础上考查了自我损耗理论相关变量的中介作用。最后, 在边界条件方面, 目前只有部分研究考虑了这一过程的调节变量。为了更加直观地呈现出当前研究现状, 本文将现有文献中针对员工睡眠质量的影响因素、影响效果、作用机制和边界条件等的研究结果整合为一个模型(如图1)。

图1

图1   员工睡眠质量相关研究整合

注:虚线路径代表本研究提出的展望观点, 实线路径代表现有研究证据。调节变量中正体变量为已证实调节变量, 斜体变量为本文提出的可能的调节变量。


6.2 研究展望

6.2.1 从人与环境交互挖掘员工睡眠的影响因素

从对睡眠和工作相关研究的梳理来看, 以往研究分别从个体特征和工作特征两方面对睡眠质量的影响因素进行了探讨。但心理学家一般认为, 行为结果是由个体差异和情境因素共同作用产生的(Chatman, 1989)。据此, 本文认为未来研究可从情境强度理论(Situational Strength Theory)探索个人特征和工作特征对员工睡眠质量的交互影响。情境强度是指情境的各种特征具有限制行为表达和降低个体行为差异的能力(Mullins & Cummings, 1999)。该理论认为, 高强度的情境向个体传达了清晰的角色要求和行为规范, 能够较强地塑造个体的表现, 甚至超过个体差异的影响。因此, 在高情境强度下, 不同特征的个体可能会展现出同质化的行为。相反, 低强度的情境对个体的影响较弱, 此时个体行为更易受到自身行为倾向的影响, 即个体差异主导行为差异。基于此, 当员工处于低情境强度时, 个体特征应是影响员工睡眠质量的重要因素; 而当员工处于高情境强度, 如较高的任务复杂性或时间压力时, 个体特征差异较大的员工可能会基于情境做出相对一致的反应, 即弱化个体因素对睡眠质量的影响。因此, 未来研究可基于情境强度理论探讨个体特征和工作特征对睡眠质量的交互影响。

6.2.2 从恢复体验视角探索睡眠影响工作的边界条件

现有研究对睡眠影响工作结果的调节变量探讨较少, 尤其是缺乏揭示睡眠与自我损耗之间边界条件的研究。自我损耗理论认为, 睡眠对工作的影响是通过影响个体的自我调节资源实现的。当个体睡眠质量低时, 由于自我调节资源恢复受损, 会降低个体在态度和行为上的控制能力。此时, 若个体能以其它方式获得能量补充, 如进行恢复体验(Recovery Experiences)、微—休息活动(Micro-Break Activities)和获取关系能量(Relational Energy)等, 可能会缓解低质量睡眠对资源恢复的不利影响。恢复体验理论认为, 员工从事与工作无关的恢复活动, 如看书、散步、娱乐、离开工作场所和休息等能够激起有助于恢复的心理体验, 恢复应对工作时消耗的身心资源, 从而重新达到良好的工作状态(Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007)。当员工睡眠质量低造成资源恢复受损时, 可在工作一段时间后适当进行具有恢复体验的活动, 这可能会降低员工的损耗程度。类似的, Kim, Park和Niu (2017)发现, 工作中的微—休息活动, 如放松(Relaxation)和社交(Social)可帮助员工重新储备可用的工作资源。当员工睡眠质量较差影响自我调节资源的补充时, 员工在工作中进行微—休息活动则可能缓和低质量睡眠对工作的不利影响。除休息活动外, Owens, Baker, Sumpter和Cameron (2016)认为, 个体的心理资源还可通过与他人互动(如获取关系能量)得到补充。关系能量是指员工在人际交往中获得的心理资源, 这种资源可以增强员工的工作能力, 员工可从积极情绪、认知刺激和行为榜样三方面获得这种能量, 如与热爱工作、积极友善的上司工作会使员工付诸更多努力在工作中, 通过更好地完成工作来维持这种积极的工作氛围(Owens et al., 2016)。这种从他人身上获得能量补充的形式可能也会调节睡眠对损耗的影响。据此, 未来研究可从上述三方面探讨睡眠、自我损耗与工作行为之间的边界条件。

6.2.3 对比睡眠质量和数量的差异化影响效果

未来研究还需比较睡眠质量和睡眠数量的作用效果及作用机制。组织中的睡眠研究通常用睡眠质量和睡眠数量来表示睡眠(e.g., Barnes, 2012; Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011)。关于睡眠质量的概念虽至今尚无定论, 但普遍认为其包含入睡时间、睡眠保持时间、夜间觉醒次数和清醒时的感觉, 而睡眠数量是指个体保持睡眠状态的时间(Barnes, 2012)。目前睡眠相关研究中关于睡眠质量和睡眠数量在健康和情绪等结果变量上的作用效果仍然存在分歧。一些研究发现, 睡眠质量和睡眠数量都与晨间积极情绪激活和平静显著正相关, 与慢性疲劳、消化症状和心血管症状显著负相关(Sonnentag et al., 2008; Barton et al., 1995), 但是, 仍有一些研究认为二者在诸如健康、幸福感和认知等结果上的影响是平行的 (Barnes, 2012), 如Barnes等(2015)发现领导每日睡眠质量与其每日自我损耗显著正相关, 但睡眠数量与自我损耗相关却不显著。基于二者在相关结果变量上作用效果的不一致, 未来研究可就睡眠质量和数量在绩效、安全、健康、情感态度和行为等结果上的影响效果进行对比, 深化对睡眠影响效果的理解。此外, 通过梳理文献发现, 组织中睡眠的作用效果是通过影响自我调节资源实现的, Christian和Ellis (2011)认为自我调节资源损耗会通过影响员工行为和情绪两种机制起作用。睡眠质量和睡眠数量在上述两种作用机制上是否存在差异?目前实证支持较少, 因此未来研究还可对二者在员工态度和表现上的作用机制进行比较。

参考文献

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中国健康心理学杂志, 25( 2), 195-199.

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目的:研究急性睡眠剥夺(SD)不同时程对脑认知功能的影响。方法:76例军医大学男性健康志愿者学员,接受48小时持续睡眠剥夺,全程进行脑电监测,每12小时进行事件相关电位、记忆分离加工检测。结果:1记忆测试:睡眠剥夺后外显记忆成绩(F=65.5732,P=0.0001)、内隐记忆成绩(F=44.3333,P=0.0001)均较基线出现显著性差异;2事件相关电位(ERP):睡眠剥夺后ERP潜伏期(F=61.0453~244.0524,P=0.0001)及波幅(F=10.5511~23.9379,P=0.0001)较基线出现显著性差异;3脑电非线性动力学分析:睡眠剥夺后关联维度(F=133.9194,P=0.0001)、近似熵(F=11.4091,P=0.0001)均较基线出现显著性差异。结论:急性睡眠剥夺将会阻碍脑认知信息加工过程,促使外显及内隐记忆消退,使得脑神经元信息网络呈现更复杂的混沌模式,上述效应随SD时程不同而程度各异。

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中国健康心理学杂志, 8( 3), 351-354.

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目的 维护和促进人们的心理健康 ,制定一个标准化睡眠状况评定工具和适合中国人的常模。方法 采用 self- rating scale sleep of(SRSS)对不同年龄、不同性别、不同职业的人群进行标准化评定。结果  1 32 73名正常人的总分值为 2 2 .1 4± 5.48,男女总分均值分别为2 2 .0 0± 5.47和 2 2 .2 7± 5.51 ,并计算出 1 0个因子和不同年龄均值的标准差。结论 总分和因子分均值可作为中国人睡眠状况的常模比较与参考

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工作压力对安全绩效的影响虽然已经引起学者们的关注,但迄今为止相关的实证研究却比较少见。 本项目将以工作要求-控制-社会支持模型为理论基础,探索工作压力和社会支持对安全绩效的影响。具体将探讨不同压力源(挑战型压力源和沮丧型的压力源)、 安全控制、社会支持(主管支持和同事支持)和群体示范性规范对安全绩效的影响,以及上述变量之间可能存在的交互作用。研究拟结合访谈、问卷和实验室模拟等 方法对上述变量间进行相关和因果关系的探讨。研究结果一方面可拓展安全绩效研究的理论;另一方面为安全管理实践提供理论依据,对组织环境下个体与组织安全 绩效的改善有积极的现实意义。

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压力反应、压力应对与睡眠质量关系述评

心理科学进展, 18( 11), 1734-1746.

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压力反应是个体应对应激源作用时所产生的非特异性表现,而压力应对是个体社会生活中一种综合的压力适应过程。压力反应及其应对是压力与睡眠质量之间的重要变量。生理、认知、情绪和行为等方面的压力反应与睡眠质量有直接的交互作用,而认知调节、情绪调节、应对方式、社会支持和人格倾向等压力应对因素则能够改变压力与睡眠之间相互作用的强度、持续时间以及最终结果。

严由伟, 刘明艳, 唐向东, 林荣茂 . ( 2010 b).

压力源及其与睡眠质量的现象学关系研究述评

心理科学进展, 18( 10), 1537-1547.

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压力源是引起压力反应的刺激或变化,压力作用是睡眠质量下降的重要原因之一。就睡眠质量的影响而言,近年来的研究报告主要集中于家庭、学习、工作、社会文化和疾病等5大传统压力维度。这些压力源与睡眠质量之间存在着复杂的双向的直接或间接的交互作用关系,并因作用时间、作用强度的不同而发生不同的变化,还因中介调节因素的相互作用而体现出复杂的个体差异。

杨佳琳, 宋红涛, 张理义, 白婧, 李牧, 陈韵岱, …范利 . ( 2015).

睡眠剥夺对健康青年人心理健康和血清皮质醇影响及相关性研究

中华保健医学杂志, 17( 6), 456-459.

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目的研究睡眠剥夺对健康青年人心理健康状况和血清皮质醇含量的影响,并进一步探索血清皮质醇含量与心理健康状况的关系。方法随机整群抽取某部队陆军160名进行24 h完全睡眠剥夺作为睡眠剥夺组和60名给予正常睡眠(睡眠≥7 h)作为对照组,试验从当天下午2∶00至次日下午2∶00,试验结束后立即运用《军人心理疾病预测量表》陆军常模同时评定睡眠剥夺组和对照组的心理健康状况,睡眠剥夺组分别于试验次日晨7∶00和正常睡眠洗脱(睡眠≥7 h)5 d后次日晨7∶00抽取静脉血测定皮质醇含量,对所得数据进行统计学分析。结果(1)睡眠剥夺组心理疾病预测总分及精神病性、抑郁、躁狂、神经症、人格偏移因子分明显高于对照组(P0.05);(2)睡眠剥夺组心理疾病预测总分及躁狂、人格偏移因子分明显高于陆军常模(P≤0.01);(3)睡眠剥夺组睡眠剥夺中的血清皮质醇含量高于正常睡眠洗脱后(t=2.05,P=0.04);(4)睡眠剥夺组躁狂因子得分与剥夺时血清皮质醇升高量呈正相关(r=0.37,P=0.00);(5)睡眠剥夺时血清皮质醇的ROC曲线下面积为0.95,以血清皮质醇含量500.56 nmol/L为临界值时诊断躁狂状态的相关性最高。结论睡眠剥夺可显著降低青年军人心理健康水平和引起血清皮质醇升高,睡眠剥夺时血清皮质醇升高在导致躁狂症状的过程中起正向调节作用,睡眠剥夺时血清皮质醇含量达500.56 nmol/L与预测躁狂状态有较好的相关性。

赵晶, 钱进军, 巩企霞 . ( 2013).

睡眠质量与青年脑梗死相关性的研究

中国医药指南, 11( 4), 48-50.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的68探讨青年脑梗死的危险因素及睡眠质量对青年脑梗死发病的影响.方法68选取青年脑梗死患者81例及同期体检正常的青年75例,(年龄均为18~45岁).比较两组的一般临床资料,分析青年脑梗死的危险因素.采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表进行睡眠质量评价.观察睡眠质量与青年脑梗死发病的关系.结果68青年脑梗死组PSQI总分(8.49±4.42)明显高于对照组(5.75±3.96),(P1);睡眠时间6~7h是青年脑梗死的保护因素(OR<1).结论68睡眠质量与青年脑梗死密切相关,日间功能障碍是青年脑梗死的一个危险因素,睡眠时间6~7h是青年脑梗死的一个保护因素.高血压,高同型半胱氨酸血症,吸烟也是青年脑梗死的危险因素.

周晓娜, 赵维燕, 李妮娜, 吉峰 . ( 2013).

医护人员睡眠质量与职业倦怠和应对方式

中国健康心理学杂志, 21( 3), 353-355.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

目的了解医护人员睡眠质量的状况,探讨应对方式和职业倦怠与睡眠质量的关系。方法采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)、职业倦怠问卷(MBI-GS)、简易应对方式问卷(SCSQ)对155名医院医护人员进行问卷调查。结果①医护人员睡眠质量总分与国内常模比较无显著性差异;医生与护士睡眠质量比较也未见显著性差异;②医生和护士的职业倦怠总分存在差异(t=2.49,P0.01),医生总体职业倦怠水平高于护士。医生的情绪衰竭和去个性化两个因子均高于护士,差异有统计学意义(t=3.36,P0.01;t=2.01,P0.05);③医生积极应对因子低于护士,消极应对因子高于护士,差异有显著性(t=3.30,P0.01;t=2.45,P0.05);④医护人员的睡眠质量总分与职业倦怠总分存在显著的正相关(r=0.343,P0.01);主观睡眠质量因子、睡眠时间因子、睡眠障碍因子和日间功能障碍因子与情绪衰竭因子存在显著正相关(r=0.260,0.218,0.568;P0.01)。而睡眠质量总分及各因子分与积极应对因子和消极应对因子相关性不显著。结论医护人员睡眠质量的总体状况较好,医生的职业倦怠比护士更严重。与护士相比,医生更多的采取消极应对方式。并且医护人员的睡眠质量与职业倦怠存在一定程度的正相关,与应对方式相关性不明显。

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A self-regulatory perspective of work-to-home undermining spillover/crossover: Examining the roles of sleep and exercise

Journal of Applied Psychology, 102( 5), 753-763.

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Research demonstrating that employees who are undermined at work engage in similar behavior at home suggests this connection reflects displaced aggression. In contrast, the present study draws on self-regulation theory to examine the work-home undermining spillover/crossover process. We propose that poor sleep quality transmits the influence of workplace undermining to home undermining per self-regulatory impairment, and exercise moderates this indirect effect per self-regulatory improvement. Using matched data from 118 employees and a member of their household to test our model, results demonstrated that undermining experienced from supervisors increased subjective (i.e., self-reported) but not objective (i.e., actigraph-recorded) sleep difficulties, which, in turn, increased the frequency with which individuals engaged in undermining at home (as reported by cohabitants). Additionally, indirect effects occurred for employees with low but not high levels of physical exercise (as measured by self-reports, step counts, and energy expenditure). Our findings suggest sleep and exercise may serve as valuable intervention points to prevent the spread of harmful behavior across contexts. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record(c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

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Working in our sleep: Sleep and self- regulation in organizations

Organizational Psychology Review, 2( 3), 234-257.

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Sleep and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of job satisfaction

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18( 1), 16-26.

URL     PMID:23148600      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract We examine sleep as an important factor beyond the work domain that is relevant to organizational citizenship behavior. In a field study of 87 employees from a variety of organizations, an objective measure of sleep quantity predicted organizational citizenship behavior directed toward organizations but not organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals. Additionally, job satisfaction mediated this relationship. In a second field study of 85 working college students, we found that natural variation in daily sleep over the course of a work week predicted daily variance in organizational citizenship behavior directed toward both individuals and organizations, and that job satisfaction mediated these relationships. Based on these findings, we discuss theoretical and practical implications of sleep-deprived employees.

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Too tired to inspire or be inspired: Sleep deprivation and charismatic leadership

Journal of Applied Psychology, 101( 8), 1191-1199.

URL     PMID:27159583      [本文引用: 3]

Abstract We draw from theory on sleep and affect regulation to extend the emotional labor model of leadership. We examine both leader and follower sleep as important antecedents of attributions of charismatic leadership. In Study 1, we manipulate the sleep of leaders, and find that leader emotional labor in the form of deep acting (but not surface acting or authentically experienced positive affect) mediates the harmful effect of leader sleep deprivation on follower ratings of charismatic leadership. In Study 2, we manipulate the sleep of followers, and find that follower experienced positive affect mediates the harmful effect of follower sleep deprivation on follower ratings of charismatic leadership of the leader. Thus, both leader and follower sleep deprivation harm attributions of charismatic leadership, with the regulation and experience of affect as causal mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

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Journal of Applied Psychology, 101( 2), 209-221.

URL     PMID:26191944      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT The strategic human capital literature indicates the importance of human capital to work unit performance. However, we argue that human capital only aids performance when it is translated into actions beneficial to the unit. We examine a set of common human capital leveraging characteristics (including the use of extended shifts, night shifts, shift flexibility, norms for work as a priority over sleep, and norms for constant connectivity) as factors that enhance the effect of human capital on human capital utilization. We also draw from the 2-process model of sleep regulation to examine how these characteristics undermine employee sleep, and thus weaken the link between human capital and work unit performance efficiency. Overall, we propose that human capital leveraging strategies initially enhance the effect of human capital on work unit performance, but over time weaken the effect of human capital on work unit performance efficiency. Thus, strategies intended to enhance the beneficial effect of human capital on work unit performance can end up doing the opposite. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

Barnes C. M., Lucianetti L., Bhave D. P., & Christian M. S . ( 2015).

“You wouldn’t like me when I’m sleepy”: Leaders’ sleep, daily abusive supervision, and work unit engagement

Academy of Management Journal, 58( 5), 1419-1437.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

We examine the daily sleep of leaders as an antecedent to daily abusive supervisory behavior and work unit engagement. Drawing from ego depletion theory, our theoretical extension includes a serial mediation model of nightly sleep quantity and quality as predictors of abusive supervision. We argue that poor nightly sleep influences leaders to enact daily abusive behaviors via ego depletion, and these abusive behaviors ultimately result in decreased daily subordinate unit work engagement. We test this model through an experience sampling study spread over 10 workdays with data from both supervisors and their subordinates. Our study supports the role of the indirect effects of sleep quality (but not of sleep quantity) via leader ego depletion and daily abusive supervisor behavior on daily subordinate unit work engagement.

Barnes C. M., Schaubroeck J., Huth M., & Ghumman S . ( 2011).

Lack of sleep and unethical conduct

Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 115( 2), 169-180.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We draw from the Ego Depletion model and research on sleep physiology to predict a relationship between lack of sleep and individuals unethical behavior. Laboratory studies showed that sleep quantity is positively related to self-control resources and negative associated with unethical behavior. In a cross-sectional field study examining unethical behavior in a variety of work settings, low levels of sleep, and low perceived quality of sleep, were both positively related to unethical behavior as rated by the supervisor, and cognitive fatigue mediated the influence of sleep quantity. In an experience sampling field study, we found similar effects within-individuals. We discuss the role of lost sleep in better understanding unethical behavior in organizations.

Barnes-Farrell, J. L . ( 2005).

Older workers

In J. Barling, E. K. Kelloway, & M. R. Frone (Eds.), Handbook of work stress (pp. 431-454). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

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Barton J., Spelten E., Totterdell P., Smith L., & Folkard S . ( 1995).

Is there an optimum number of night shifts? Relationship between sleep, health and well-being

Work & Stress, 9( 2-3), 109-123.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Baumeister R. F., Muraven M., & Tice D. M . ( 2000).

Ego depletion: A resource model of volition, self-regulation, and controlled processing

Social Cognition, 18( 2), 130-150.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Making choices, responding actively instead of passively, restraining impulses, and other acts of self-control and volition all draw on a common resource that is limited and renewable, akin to strength or energy. After an act of choice or self-control, the self's resources have been expended, producing the condition of ego depletion. In this state, the self is less able to function effectively, such as by regulating itself or exerting volition. Effects of ego depletion appear to reflect an effort to conserve remaining resources rather than full exhaustion, although in principle full exhaustion is possible. This versatile but limited resource is crucial to the self's optimal functioning, and the pervasive need to conserve it may result in the commonly heavy reliance on habit, routine, and automatic processes.

Borman, W. C., & Molowidlo, S. J . ( 1993).

Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance

In N. Schmitt & W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations. New York : Wiley.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. M. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. Chapter in N. Schmitt and W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71-98). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Burkley, E. (2008).

The role of self-control in resistance to persuasion

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34( 3), 419-431.

URL     PMID:18272808      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Four studies investigated a self-control theory of resistance to persuasion. This theory asserts that resistance to persuasion requires and consumes self-control resources. Study 1 showed that resistance to a persuasive message reduced the ability to engage in a subsequent self-control task. Studies 2 and 3 showed that self-control depletion leads to increased persuasion. Study 4 showed that self-control depletion increased persuasion, particularly under effortful resistance (i.e., strong arguments). Together, these findings suggest that self-control plays a vital role in the process of resistance to persuasion. People must have self-control resources to fend off persuasive appeals; without them, they become susceptible to influence.

Buysse D. J., Reynolds C. F., Monk T. H., Berman S. R., & Kupfer D. J . ( 1989).

The pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

Psychiatry Research, 28( 2), 193-213.

URL     PMID:2748771      [本文引用: 3]

Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.

Cappuccio F. P., Cooper D., D'Elia L., Strazzullo P., & Miller M. A . ( 2011).

Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

European Heart Journal, 32( 12), 1484-1492.

URL     PMID:21300732      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Aims To assess the relationship between duration of sleep and morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and total cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results We performed a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1966-2009), EMBASE (from 1980), the Cochrane Library, and manual searches without language restrictions. Studies were included if they were prospective, follow-up >3 years, had duration of sleep at baseline, and incident cases of CHD, stroke, or CVD. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled using a random-effect model. Overall, 15 studies (24 cohort samples) included 474 684 male and female participants (follow-up 6.9-25 years), and 16 067 events (4169 for CHD, 3478 for stroke, and 8420 for total CVD). Sleep duration was assessed by questionnaire and incident cases through certification and event registers. Short duration of sleep was associated with a greater risk of developing or dying of CHD (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.80, P < 0.0001), stroke (1.15, 1.00-1.31, P = 0.047), but not total CVD (1.03, 0.93-1.15, P = 0.52) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.95, P = 0.30, and P = 0.46, respectively). Long duration of sleep was also associated with a greater risk of CHD (1.38, 1.15-1.66, P = 0.0005), stroke (1.65, 1.45-1.87, P < 0.0001), and total CVD (1.41, 1.19-1.68, P < 0.0001) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.92, P = 0.96, and P = 0.79, respectively). Conclusion Both short and long duration of sleep are predictors, or markers, of cardiovascular outcomes.

Chan, M. F . ( 2009).

Factors associated with perceived sleep quality of nurses working on rotating shifts

Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18( 2), 285-293.

URL     PMID:19120755      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract AIMS: To explore nurses' perceived sleep quality and examine factors that contribute to insufficient sleep quality. BACKGROUND: Shift work is an important source of disturbances in the health and well-being of nurses. However, nursing services must be available on a 24-hour basis, making shift work a necessity. Sleep disorders tend to occur among nurses typically working on a rotating schedule. Although many studies related to nurses' sleep quality have been carried out in the West, few have investigated factors linked to nurses' sleep quality in Hong Kong. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHOD: The study was conducted during the period November 2005-June 2006 in two local hospitals in Hong Kong. Nurses (n = 163) completed a self-reported questionnaire. Demographic data and information on health status, strain and symptom levels and perceived sleep quality were collected. RESULTS: More than 70% of the nurses reported having insufficient sleep and strain and symptom levels were higher in this group. Older age, perceived poor sleep status, gastrointestinal symptoms and higher strain and symptom levels were risk factors that contributed to insufficient sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of internal stressors and modification of shift work schedules are important areas of future research; these should aim at finding the best compromise between productivity and employees' sleep quality, health and performance. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Healthcare workers' job task analysis, the evaluation of internal stressors and the modification of shift work schedules are important areas of future research and should result in the best compromise between productivity and employees' sleep quality, health and performance.

Chatman, J. A . ( 1989).

Improving interactional organizational research: A model of person-organization fit

Academy of Management Review, 14( 3), 333-349.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In order for researchers to understand and predict behavior, they must consider both person and situation factors and how these factors interact. Even though organization researchers have developed interactional models, many have overemphasized either person or situation components, and most have failed to consider the effects that persons have on situations. This paper presents criteria for improving interactional models and a model of person-organization fit, which satisfies these criteria. Using a Q-sort methodology, individual value profiles are compared to organizational value profiles to determine fit and to predict changes in values, norms, and behaviors.

Christian, M. S., & Ellis, A. P. J . ( 2011).

Examining the effects of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance: A self-regulatory perspective

Academy of Management Journal, 54( 5), 913-934.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

ABSTRACT The causes of workplace deviance are of increasing interest to organizations. We integrate psychological and neurocognitive perspectives to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance. Utilizing self-regulatory resource theories, we argue that sleep deprivation decreases individuals' self-control while increasing hostility, resulting in increased workplace deviance. We test our hypotheses using two samples: one comprised of nurses from a large medical center and another comprised of undergraduate students participating in a lab study. Results from both samples largely converge in supporting our hypotheses.

Dawson K. M., O'Brien K. E., & Beehr T. A . ( 2016).

The role of hindrance stressors in the job demand-control- support model of occupational stress: A proposed theory revision

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( 3), 397-415.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT Previous research on the job demand–control–support (JDCS) model of occupational stress has generally been inconsistent at best regarding a key issue: the interaction of demands, control, and support in predicting employee health and well-being. However, the model continues to be tested in a variety of studies and academic journals owing to its intuitive appeal. By incorporating conservation of resources theory with knowledge from the challenge–hindrance stressor framework, we proposed that hindrance stressors, not the challenge stressors commonly assessed when testing JDCS theory, will provide validation for the model. A two-wave panel study of 228 employees in a variety of occupations provided support for three-way interactions between hindrance demands, control, and support predicting job-related anxiety and physical symptoms. Three-way interactions using a challenge demand (forms of workload) were not significant, consistent with our propositions. In summary, this study supports the buffering effect of control and support on the relationship between job demands and strain only when job demands reflect hindrance stressors, thereby proposing to alter the JDCS model by specifying that it applies primarily to hindrance stressors in a job hindrance–control–support model. Copyright 08 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dearmond, S., & Chen, P. Y . ( 2009).

Occupational safety: The role of workplace sleepiness

Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41( 5), 976-984.

URL     PMID:19664435      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Workplace sleepiness refers to how sleepy a person feels at work, and it is thought to be associated with negative occupational safety outcomes such as injuries because sleepiness can lead to behavioral decrements at work. This study explored safety behavior as a mediator of the relationship between workplace sleepiness and occupational safety outcomes (e.g., occupational injuries). A survey was conducted on certified nursing assistants working in long term care facilities. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale was used to measure workplace sleepiness. Occupational injuries were assessed in multiple ways: injury frequency, injury severity, pain frequency, pain severity-duration, and pain severity-intensity. This study provided support for a negative relationship between workplace sleepiness and safety behavior and limited support for a positive relationship between workplace sleepiness and occupational injuries. Workplace sleepiness was significantly related to pain frequency and pain severity (as indexed by both duration and intensity); however, it was not significantly related to injury frequency or severity. The results of the study also suggest very limited support for safety behavior as a mediator of this relationship. The findings suggest that the relationship between workplace sleepiness and occupational injuries might be more complex than originally assumed.

De Lange A. H., Kompier M. A. J., Taris T. W., Geurts S. A. E., Beckers D. G. J., Houtman I. L. D., & Bongers P. M . ( 2009).

A hard day’s night: A longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

Journal of Sleep Research, 18( 3), 374-383.

URL     PMID:19493298      [本文引用: 2]

Summary Top of page Summary Introduction Method Results Discussion Acknowledgements References This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand ontrol history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand ontrol model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems.

De Stobbeleir K. E., Ashford S. J., & Buyens D . ( 2011).

Self-regulation of creativity at work: The role of feedback-seeking behavior in creative performance

Academy of Management Journal, 54( 4), 811-831.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Using 456 supervisor-employee dyads from four organizations, this study examined how employees use one proactive behavior, feedback seeking, as a strategy to enhance their creative performance. As hypothesized, employees' cognitive style and perceived organizational support for creativity affected two patterns of feedback seeking: the propensity to inquire for feedback and the propensity to monitor the environment for indirect feedback. Feedback inquiry related to supervisor ratings of employee creative performance. These results highlight the importance of employees' self-regulatory behaviors in the creative process and show that feedback seeking is not only a strategy that facilitates individual adaptation, but also a resource for achieving creative outcomes.

Fang J. B., Kunaviktikul W., Olson K., Chontawan R., & Kaewthummanukul T . ( 2008).

Factors influencing fatigue in Chinese nurses

Nursing & Health Sciences, 10( 4), 291-299.

URL     PMID:19128305      [本文引用: 2]

Factors predicting fatigue in Chinese nurses were examined in a descriptive, correlational study. The participants were 581 nurses working in general hospitals in Chengdu City, China. The study instruments included the Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery Scale, the Job Content Questionnaire, the Exposure to Hazards in Hospital Work Environments Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Job Dissatisfaction Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, F statistics, and multiple regression. The findings revealed that 61.7% of the variance in chronic fatigue and 54.9% of the variance in acute fatigue were explained by the independent variables. Intershift recovery was the most important variable in the explanation of acute fatigue, while acute fatigue was the most important variable in the explanation of chronic fatigue. Different intervention strategies should be implemented regarding the different influencing factors of acute and chronic fatigue.

Fleishman E. A., Costanza D. P., & Marshall-Mies J . ( 1999).

Abilities

Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 86( 2), 175-195.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Flo E., Bjorvatn B., Folkard S., Moen B. E., Grønli J., Nordhus I. H., & Pallesen S . ( 2012).

A reliability and validity study of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire in nurses working three-shift rotations

Chronobiology International, 29( 7), 937-946.

URL     PMID:22823877      [本文引用: 1]

The "Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire" (BSWSQ) was developed to systematically assess discrete sleep problems related to different work shifts (day, evening, night shifts) and rest days. In this study, we assessed the psychometric properties of the BSWSQ using a sample of 760 nurses, all working in a three-shift rotation schedule: day, evening, and night shifts. BSWSQ measures insomnia symptoms using seven questions: >30-min sleep onset latency, >30-min wake after sleep onset, >30-min premature awakenings, nonrestorative sleep, being tired/sleepy at work, during free time on work days, and when not working/on vacation. Symptoms are assessed separately for each work shift and rest days, as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," "often," "always," or "not applicable." We investigated the BSWSQ model fit, reliability (test-retest of a subsample, n = 234), and convergent and discriminant validity between the BSWSQ and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. We also investigated differences in mean scores between the different insomnia symptoms with respect to different work shifts and rest days. BSWSQ demonstrated an adequate model fit using structural equation modeling: root mean square error of approximation =65.071 (90% confidence interval [CI]65=65.066-.076), comparative fit index =65.91, and chi-square/degrees of freedom = 4.41. The BSWSQ demonstrated good reliability (test-retest coefficients p <65 .001). We found good convergent and discriminant validity between BSWSQ and the other scales (all coefficients p < 65.001). There were significant differences between the overall/composite scores of the various work shifts. Night shift showed the highest score compared to day and evening shifts as well as to rest days (all post hoc comparisons p < 65.001). Mean scores of different symptoms also varied significantly within the individual work shifts. We conclude that the BSWSQ meets the necessary psychometric standards, enabling systematic study of discrete insomnia symptoms in different work shifts.

Fortunato, V. J., & Harsh, J. (2006).

Stress and sleep quality: The moderating role of negative affectivity

Personality and Individual Differences, 41( 5), 825-836.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study was designed to examine the influence of two personality variables (negative affectivity [NA] and positive affectivity [PA]) and three work-related stressors (interpersonal conflict, workload, and perceived ambiguity) on a multi-dimensional measure of sleep quality (going to bed, falling asleep, maintaining sleep, reinitiating sleep, and waking up). Three hundred and forty-seven female and 120 male undergraduates participated in the study. Our results indicated that (a) individuals high in NA tended to report lower quality sleep than individuals low in NA; (b) individuals high in PA tended to report higher levels of sleep quality than individuals low in PA; (c) sleep quality tended to relate negatively with interpersonal conflict, work demands, and job ambiguity; and (d) NA moderated the relationships between interpersonal conflict and sleep quality and between perceived ambiguity and sleep quality. Our findings are the first to show that personality and work-related stress influences different aspects of sleep quality. In addition, our findings are partially supportive of the hyper-responsivity role of negative affectivity which suggests that NA operates to amplify individuals perceptions of and reactions to negative environmental events. However, our results suggest that the hyper-responsivity model might be more complex than previously indicated.

Gadinger M. C., Fischer J. E., Schneider S., Fischer G. C., Frank G., & Kromm W . ( 2009).

Female executives are particularly prone to the sleep-disturbing effect of isolated high-strain jobs: A cross-sectional study in German- speaking executives

Journal of Sleep Research, 18( 2), 229-237.

URL     PMID:19645966      [本文引用: 1]

This study assessed the main, curvilinear, interactive and gender-dependent effects of job demands, job control and social support in the prediction of sleep quality. Participants were 348 male and 76 female executives and managers from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A multiple regression controlling for age, occupational hierarchy and various health behaviors was computed. On the level of the main effects of the Job090009Demand090009Control090009Support (JDCS) model, the results indicate a sleep-promoting effect of social support. A significant three-way interaction of job demands, job control and social support was observed. This interaction confirms the buffering effect of high job control and high social support on high job demands. Further, this three-way interaction of the JDCS dimensions is moderated by gender as indicated by a significant four-way interaction. The directions of the significant interactions suggest that female executives are especially prone to react with impaired sleep quality when exposed to isolated high-strain jobs. The study seems to imply that the JDCS model is a suitable framework for the prediction of sleep quality among executives and managers. The results suggest that the JDCS model might contribute to a better understanding of the higher prevalence of poor sleep amongst female executives. Further, the results imply that high job control and high social support might help executives to maintain good sleep quality despite experiencing high job demands.

Gasperi M., Herbert M., Schur E., Buchwald D., & Afari N . ( 2017).

Genetic and environmental influences on sleep, pain, and depression symptoms in a community sample of twins

Psychosomatic Medicine, 79( 6), 646-654.

URL     PMID:28157727      [本文引用: 1]

We used quantitative genetic methods to evaluate whether sleep quality, pain, and depression symptoms share a common genetic diathesis, to estimate the genetic and environmental sources of covariance among these symptoms, and to test for possible causal relationships.A community sample of 400 twins from the University of Washington Twin Registry completed standardized self-report questionnaires. We used biometric modeling to assess genetic and environmental contribution to the association between sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), pain measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and depression symptoms measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-dep). Trivariate Cholesky structural equation models were used to decompose correlations among the phenotypes.Heritability was estimated at 37% (95% CI: 20, 51%) for sleep quality, 25% (9, 41%) for pain, and 39% (22, 53%) for depression. Non-shared environmental influences accounted for the remaining variance. The genetic correlation between sleep quality and pain was rg = 0.69 (95%CI: 0.33, 0.97), rg = 0.56 (0.55, 0.98) between pain and depression, and rg = 0.61 (0.44, 0.88) between depression and sleep quality. Non-shared environmental overlap was present between pain and sleep quality and depression and sleep quality.The link between sleep quality, pain, and depression was primarily explained by shared genetic influences. The genetic factors influencing sleep quality and pain were highly correlated even when accounting for depression. Findings support the hypothesis of a genetic link between sleep quality and pain and potential causality for the association of sleep quality with pain and depression.

Ghumman, S., & Barnes, C. M . ( 2013).

Sleep and prejudice: A resource recovery approach

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43( S2), E166-E178.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Does sleepiness make one more likely to engage in stereotyping? Are people more likely to be prejudiced because of a poor night of sleep? Borrowing from ego depletion theory and research on self-control and prejudice, the present work investigates these questions. We suggest that sleep is a diminishable resource that fuels self-control and is, therefore, necessary for inhibiting prejudice. A series of 3 studies show that sleep did influence prejudice. Furthermore, we found that the relationship between sleep and prejudice was marginally moderated by negative implicit associations, such that this relationship primarily held true for individuals who have high negative implicit associations. These results highlight the critical role that sleep plays in suppressing prejudice.

Gino F., Schweitzer M. E., Mead N. L., & Ariely D . ( 2011).

Unable to resist temptation: How self-control depletion promotes unethical behavior

Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 115( 2), 191-203.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Across four experimental studies, individuals who were depleted of their self-regulatory resources by an initial act of self-control were more likely to “impulsively cheat” than individuals whose self-regulatory resources were intact. Our results demonstrate that individuals depleted of self-control resources were more likely to behave dishonestly (Study 1). Depletion reduced people’s moral awareness when they faced the opportunity to cheat, which, in turn, was responsible for heightened cheating (Study 2). Individuals high in moral identity, however, did not show elevated levels of cheating when they were depleted (Study 3), supporting our hypothesis that self-control depletion increases cheating when it robs people of the executive resources necessary to identify an act as immoral or unethical. Our results also show that resisting unethical behavior both requires and depletes self-control resources (Study 4). Taken together, our findings help to explain how otherwise ethical individuals predictably engage in unethical behavior.

Granö N., Vahtera J., Virtanen M., Keltikangas-Järvinen L., & Kivimäki M . ( 2008).

Association of hostility with sleep duration and sleep disturbances in an employee population

International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15( 2), 73-80.

URL     PMID:18569125      [本文引用: 2]

Background: Sleep disturbances are common among the general population, and hostile persons have been proposed to be at greater risk of several serious health problems and diseases. Purpose: This study examined the relationships between hostility, sleep disturbances, and sleep duration in a large non-clinical sample of 5,433 employees working in 12 Finnish hospitals. Method: Data were collected by questionnaire surveys in 1998 and 2000. Results: Higher hostility was cross-sectionally associated with increased sleep disturbances but not with sleep duration after adjustment for gender, age, marital status, education, shift work, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, psychiatric morbidity, and somatic disease. A stratified analysis distinguishing individuals with stable hostility across the two measurements and those with transient hostility (>0.5 SD difference between measurements) replicated the association with increased sleep disturbance in both groups, but among those with transient hostility, there additionally was a cross-sectional association between higher hostility and shorter sleep duration. Conclusion: Our evidence suggests that hostility is an independent risk factor for sleep disturbances and that transient hostility may also predispose shorter sleep duration. However, the effect sizes for all these associations were small, suggesting limited clinical significance for our findings.

Hamilton N. A., Gallagher M. W., Preacher K. J., Stevens N., Nelson C. A., Karlson C., & McCurdy D . ( 2007).

Insomnia and well-being

Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 75( 6), 939-946.

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Hennig J., Kieferdorf P., Moritz C., Huwe S., & Netter P . ( 1998).

Changes in cortisol secretion during shiftwork: Implications for tolerance to shiftwork?

Ergonomics, 41( 5), 610-621.

URL     PMID:9613222      [本文引用: 1]

The present study was conducted to determine the size of changes and the time point of those changes in biological rhythms during night-shift and whether they are associated with tolerance to shiftwork. The adrenal hormone cortisol has frequently been investigated in the field of shiftwork since it follows a pronounced circadian variation and has been demonstrated to be affected by night-work. However, studies are restricted with respect to sample size, number of measurements or duration of sampling periods. Therefore, a sample of 24 night-shift workers was investigated in a cardiac emergency unit for seven nights. Saliva samples were collected frequently for determination of cortisol. A total of 28 cortisol measurements in each subject were made in order to decide whether the circadian rhythm changed, and if so at which time point. A clear reversal of circadian function could be observed for the total group (mean cortisol concentrations) after the fifth night. However, inspection of individual patterns revealed that six out of 24 subjects did not change in circadian function. These subjects exhibited lower durations of and less consistency in recovery sleep across the following days after night-work. With respect to personality dimensions a pattern associated with neuroticism can be observed in subjects without appropriate changes in cortisol rhythm. However, owing to the small sample size of non-adapters these results are preliminary and should be replicated with larger samples. The overall relationship between neuroticism and low adaptability has been discussed.

Holsboer, F. (2001).

Stress, hypercortisolism and corticosteroid receptors in depression: Implicatons for therapy

Journal of Affective Disorders, 62( 1-2), 77-91.

URL     PMID:11172875      [本文引用: 1]

Clinical and preclinical studies have gathered substantial evidence that alterations of the stress hormone system play a major, causal role in the development of depression. In this review article, a summary of studies sustaining that view is given and data are presented which demonstrate that depression is associated with an impairment of corticosteroid receptor function that gives rise to an excessive release of neurohormones to which a number of signs and symptoms characteristic of depression can be attributed. The studies referred to in the following unanimously support the concept of an antidepressant mechanism of action that exerts its effects beyond the cell membrane receptors of biogenic amines and particularly includes the improvement of corticosteroid receptor function. When activated by ligands, corticosteroid receptors act as transcription factors in correspondence with numerous other transcription factors already known to be activated by antidepressants. Furthermore, the potential of drugs that interfere more directly with stress hormone regulation, such as corticosteroid receptor antagonists and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonists, is discussed.

Horne, J. A . ( 1988).

Sleep loss and "divergent" thinking ability

Sleep, 11( 6), 528-536.

URL     PMID:3238256      [本文引用: 1]

Although much is known about the impact of sleep loss on many aspects of psychological performance, the effects on divergent ("creative") thinking has received little attention. Twelve subjects went 32 h without sleep, and 12 others acted as normally sleeping controls. All subjects were assessed on the figural and verbal versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. As compared with the control condition, sleep loss impaired performance on all test scales (e.g., "flexibility," the ability to change strategy, and "originality," generation of unusual ideas) for both versions, even on an initial 5-min test component. In an attempt at further understanding of whether these findings might be explained solely by a loss of motivation, two additional short and stimulating tests were also used--a word fluency task incorporating high incentive to do well and a challenging nonverbal planning test. Performance at these tasks was still significantly impaired by sleep loss. Increased perseveration was clearly apparent. Apparently, 1 night of sleep loss can affect divergent thinking. This contrasts with the outcome for convergent thinking tasks, which are more resilient to short-term sleep loss.

Hruby, P. (2012.

American caffeine addiction races full speed ahead. WashingtonTimes.com

Retrieved January 15, 2017 from

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Irwin, M. R . ( 2015).

Why sleep is important for health: A psychoneuroimmunology perspective

Annual Review of Psychology, 66( 1), 143-172.

URL     PMID:4961463      [本文引用: 2]

Sleep has a critical role in promoting health. Research over the past decade has documented that sleep disturbance has a powerful influence on the risk of infectious disease, the occurrence and progression of several major medical illnesses including cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the incidence of depression. Increasingly, the field has focused on identifying the biological mechanisms underlying these effects. This review highlights the impact of sleep on adaptive and innate immunity, with consideration of the dynamics of sleep disturbance, sleep restriction, and insomnia on (a) antiviral immune responses with consequences for vaccine responses and infectious disease risk and (b) proinflammatory immune responses with implications for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depression. This review also discusses the neuroendocrine and autonomic neural underpinnings linking sleep disturbance and immunity and the reciprocal links between sleep and inflammatory biology. Finally, interventions are discussed as effective strategies to improve sleep, and potential opportunities are identified to promote sleep health for therapeutic control of chronic infectious, inflammatory, and neuropsychiatric diseases.

Jackowska M., Dockray S., Endrighi R., Hendrickx H., & Steptoe A . ( 2012).

Sleep problems and heart rate variability over the working day

Journal of Sleep Research, 21( 4), 434-440.

URL     PMID:22309485      [本文引用: 1]

Summary Top of page Summary Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements Conflicts of interest References The purpose of this study was to discover whether greater sleep problems are associated with reduced heart rate variability during working hours and at night, and to determine whether this association is in part mediated by experienced affective states. This study involved 199 working women with a mean age of 33.8years. Sleep problems were assessed with the Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale, and the Day Reconstruction Method was used to measure positive affect and stress on the evening before and during the working day. Heart rate variability was indexed by the mean square root of the successive standard difference in heart period. Disturbed sleep was inversely related to heart rate variability during the working day ( P =0.022), independently of demographic and behavioural confounders. Additional adjustment for positive affect and stress did not lead to further reductions in the association between sleep problems and reduced heart rate variability over the work day. Sleep problems were not predictive of reduced night-time heart rate variability. This report extends the findings from experimental studies and clinical samples, and suggests that disturbed sleep might impair heart rate variability in real life settings, in particular during working hours. Reduced heart rate variability might be a potential pathway linking sleep problems with cardiovascular disease. Based on the current data there was little evidence that the inverse associations between sleep problems and heart rate variability were mediated by experienced affective states.

Jansson, M., & Linton, S. J . ( 2006).

Psychosocial work stressors in the development and maintenance of insomnia: A prospective study

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11( 3), 241-248.

URL     PMID:16834472     

Abstract This study is aimed at examining whether psychosocial work stressors are related to the development and maintenance of insomnia. A prospective design was used with a baseline and a 1-year follow-up questionnaire (N = 1,530). The results showed that among individuals with no insomnia at baseline, high work demands increased the risk of developing insomnia 1 year later. Among participants with insomnia at baseline, high leader support decreased the risk of still reporting insomnia at follow-up. Finally, low influence over decisions and high work demands were related to the maintenance of insomnia. The results indicate that perceived work stressors are related to the development and maintenance of insomnia. This might have implications for how insomnia is conceptualized as it places work stressors in the model and for how interventions at different stages of insomnia are implemented.

Jenkins C. D., Stanton B. A., Niemcryk S. J., & Rose R. M . ( 1988).

A scale for the estimation of sleep problems in clinical research

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 41( 4), 313-321.

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Johns, M. W . ( 1991).

A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth sleepiness scale

Sleep, 14( 6), 540-545.

URL     PMID:1798888      [本文引用: 1]

(1)Sleep Disorders Unit, Epworth Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Johnson, J. V., & Hall, E. M . ( 1988).

Job strain, work place social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross- sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population

American Journal of Public Health, 78( 10), 1336-1342.

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Jones, B. L . ( 2010).

Sleep, body mass index, and work-family conflict: A gender comparison of U. S. workers(Unpublished doctorial dissertation)

Brigham Young University.

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Kalimo R., Tenkanen L., Härmä M., Poppius E., & Heinsalmi P . ( 2000).

Job stress and sleep disorders: Findings from the Helsinki heart study

Stress & Health, 16( 2), 65-75.

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Kecklund, G., & Åkerstedt, T. (1992).

The psychometric properties of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire

Journal of Sleep Research, 1( S1), 113.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

react-text: 524 It may eventually be possible to identify completely the temporal sequences of electrical microstates that underlie consciousness. From these “codons of consciousness” a DNA-like mathematical model of normal sequencing of the “atoms of thought” could be constructed and matched to subjective experience and behaviour. This would allow the prediction of thought and behaviour from the building... /react-text react-text: 525 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Kim S., Park Y., & Niu Q. K . ( 2017).

Micro-break activities at work to recover from daily work demands

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38( 1), 28-44.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Summary Recovery literature has focused predominantly on recovery processes outside the workplace during nonwork times. Considering a lack of research on momentary recovery at work, we examined four categories of micro-break activities—relaxation, nutrition-intake, social, and cognitive activities—as possible recovery mechanisms in the workplace. Using effort recovery and conservation of resources theories, we hypothesized that micro-break activities attenuate the common stressor–strain relationship between work demands and negative affect. For 10 consecutive workdays, 86 South Korean office workers (842 data points) reported their specific daily work demands right after their lunch hour (Time 1) and then reported their engagement in micro-break activities during the afternoon and negative affective state at the end of the workday (Time 2). As expected, relaxation and social activities reduced the effects of work demands on end-of-workday negative affect. Nutrition intake of beverages and snacks did not have a significant moderating effect. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed that only caffeinated beverages reduced work demands effects on negative affect. Unexpectedly, cognitive activities aggravated the effects of work demands on negative affect. The findings indicate not only the importance of taking micro-breaks but also which types of break activities are beneficial for recovery. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Copyright 08 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kühnel J., Bledow R., & Feuerhahn N . ( 2016).

When do you procrastinate? Sleep quality and social sleep lag jointly predict self-regulatory failure at work

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( 7), 983-1002.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Summary This study investigates antecedents of procrastination, the tendency to delay the initiation or completion of work activities. We examine this phenomenon from a self-regulation perspective and argue that depleted self-regulatory resources are an important pathway to explain why and when employees procrastinate. The restoration of self-regulatory resources during episodes of non-work is a prerequisite for the ability to initiate action at work. As sleep offers the opportunity to replenish self-regulatory resources, employees should procrastinate more after nights with low-quality sleep and shorter sleep duration. We further propose that people's social sleep lag amplifies this relationship. Social sleep lag arises if individuals' preference for sleep and wake times, known as their chronotype, is misaligned with their work schedule. Over five consecutive workdays, 154 participants completed a diary study comprising online questionnaires. Multilevel analyses showed that employees procrastinated less on days when they had slept better. The more employees suffered from social sleep lag, the more they procrastinated when sleep quality was low. Day-specific sleep duration, by contrast, was not related to procrastination. We discuss the role of sleep for procrastination in the short run and relate our findings to research highlighting the role of sleep for well-being in the long run. Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lai H. L., Lin Y. P., Chang H. K., Wang S. C., Liu Y. L., Lee H. C., .. Chang F. M . ( 2008).

Intensive care unit staff nurses: Predicting factors for career decisions

Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17( 14), 1886-1896.

URL     PMID:18592616      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to understand the factors related to intention to leave their job among intensive care unit (ICU) nurses in eastern Taiwan and to make between-group comparisons between an intention to leave and an intention to stay as well as to predict the influencing factors that affect ICU staff nurses' intention to leave. BACKGROUND: Nurses' intention to leave their job may have an important impact on the actual turnover of nurses. The issue has always been of concern to nursing executives. Only limited empirical studies in the area have been investigated in an Asian culture context and particularly the eastern Taiwan region. METHODS: A cross-sectional predictive study was performed during 2005 with 130 nurses recruited from two ICUs at a medical centre. A researcher-designed questionnaire based on the Cooper's model with structured interviews was used to determine each nurse's characteristics and their intention to leave their job. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the various factors associated with this. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 100%; 63 (48.9%) revealed that they intended to leave their jobs. The findings were that their self-rated health status, the number of diseases, the level of happiness, the presence of depression, job satisfaction, sleep quality, type of license and their unit were significantly associated with an intention to leave (p = 0.05-0.001). Depression and sleep quality proved to be the most significant predictors of ICU staff nurses' intention to leave their job. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there is a need to take steps to improve nurses' health-related quality of life and to develop effective strategies to improve nurse retention. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: A succinct validated instrument would help identify the important factors that predict ICU nurses' intention to leave their job, which may result in job disengagement. Predictors found in this study may be used as outcome variables for developing such an effective method of improving nurse retention in ICUs.

Lee, K. A . ( 1992).

Self-reported sleep disturbances in employed women

Sleep, 15( 6), 493-498.

URL     PMID:1475563      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract To explore the incidence and types of sleep disturbances in employed women, 760 registered nurses completed a health survey that included questions about their sleep patterns and sleep quality. Comparisons are made between those nurses working permanent day, permanent evening, permanent night, and rotating shifts. As expected, there were higher incidences of sleep disturbances and excessive sleepiness for women working night and rotating shifts, but age and family factors, rather than caffeine and alcohol intake, contributed to the differences in types of sleep disturbances these women experienced.

Lim, J., & Dinges, D. F . ( 2010).

A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive variables

Psychological Bulletin, 136( 3), 375-389.

URL     PMID:20438143      [本文引用: 2]

A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (<48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of effect sizes in these domains is not known. To address this question, we conducted a meta-analysis to discover the effects of short-term SD on both speed and accuracy measures in 6 cognitive categories: simple attention, complex attention, working memory, processing speed, short-term memory, and reasoning. Seventy articles containing 147 cognitive tests were found that met inclusion criteria for this study. Effect sizes ranged from small and nonsignificant (reasoning accuracy: g = -0.125, 95% CI [-0.27, 0.02]) to large (lapses in simple attention: g = -0.776, 95% CI [-0.96, -0.60], p < .001). Across cognitive domains, significant differences were observed for both speed and accuracy; however, there were no differences between speed and accuracy measures within each cognitive domain. Of several moderators tested, only time awake was a significant predictor of between-studies variability, and only for accuracy measures, suggesting that heterogeneity in test characteristics may account for a significant amount of the remaining between-studies variance. The theoretical implications of these findings for the study of SD and cognition are discussed.

Lin S. H., Ma J. J., & Johnson R. E . ( 2016).

When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical leader behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing

Journal of Applied Psychology, 101( 6), 815-830.

URL     PMID:26867103      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The literature to date has predominantly focused on the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients (e.g., employees and teams). Adopting an actor-centric perspective, in this study we examined whether exhibiting ethical leader behaviors may come at some cost to leaders. Drawing from ego depletion and moral licensing theories, we explored the potential challenges of ethical leader behavior for actors. Across 2 studies which employed multiwave designs that tracked behaviors over consecutive days, we found that leaders' displays of ethical behavior were positively associated with increases in abusive behavior the following day. This association was mediated by increases in depletion and moral credits owing to their earlier displays of ethical behavior. These results suggest that attention is needed to balance the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients against the challenges that such behaviors pose for actors, which include feelings of mental fatigue and psychological license and ultimately abusive interpersonal behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

Litwiller B., Snyder L. A., Taylor W. D., & Steele L. M . ( 2017).

The relationship between sleep and work: A meta-analysis

Journal of Applied Psychology, 102( 4), 682-699.

URL     PMID:27893255      [本文引用: 2]

Sleep has tremendous importance to organizations as a predictor of employee performance, safety, health, and attitudes. Moreover, sleep is a malleable behavior that may be improved by individual and organizational changes. Despite sleep consequential and modifiable nature, little consensus exists regarding its conceptualization or role in causal models of organizational antecedents and consequences. To fill this gap in theoretical knowledge, this study calculated meta-analytic correlations and tested a meta-analytic path model with data obtained from 99 primary studies of sleep among workers in organizations. Meta-analytic correlation identified sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep quantity as associated with a number of forms of job demands, job control, and job support. Each sleep variable was also associated with a number of individual characteristics, health outcomes, and attitudinal outcomes. Small to moderate relationships were found between the three sleep variables themselves. As a result, a meta-analytic path model was tested that identified all three sleep variables as mediators of the effects of job demands, job control, and job support on important outcomes, like depression, physical strain, job satisfaction, and work-family conflict. The implications of these findings for intervening in organizations and advancing future sleep research are discussed.

Masicampo, E. J., & Baumeister, R. F . ( 2008).

Toward a physiology of dual-process reasoning and judgment: Lemonade, willpower, and expensive rule-based analysis

Psychological Science, 19( 3), 255-260.

URL     PMID:18315798      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This experiment used the attraction effect to test the hypothesis that ingestion of sugar can reduce reliance on intuitive, heuristic-based decision making. In the attraction effect, a difficult choice between two options is swayed by the presence of a seemingly irrelevant "decoy" option. We replicated this effect and the finding that the effect increases when people have depleted their mental resources performing a previous self-control task. Our hypothesis was based on the assumption that effortful processes require and consume relatively large amounts of glucose (brain fuel), and that this use of glucose is why people use heuristic strategies after exerting self-control. Before performing any tasks, some participants drank lemonade sweetened with sugar, which restores blood glucose, whereas others drank lemonade containing a sugar substitute. Only lemonade with sugar reduced the attraction effect. These results show one way in which the body (blood glucose) interacts with the mind (self-control and reliance on heuristics).

Masoudnia, E. (2015).

Impact of weak social ties and networks on poor sleep quality: A case study of Iranian employees

Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 18, 42-48.

URL     PMID:26494526      [本文引用: 2]

The poor sleep quality is one of the major risk factors of somatic, psychiatric and social disorders and conditions as well as the major predictors of quality of employees’ performance. The previous studies in Iran had neglected the impacts of social factors including social networks and ties on adults sleep quality. Thus, the aim of the current research was to determine the relationship between social networks and adult employees’ sleep quality. This study was conducted with a correlational and descriptive design. Data were collected from 360 participants (183 males and 177 females) who were employed in Yazd public organizations in June and July of 2014. These samples were selected based on random sampling method. In addition, the measuring tools were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Social Relations Inventory (SRI). Based on the results, the prevalence rate of sleep disorder among Iranian adult employees was 63.1% (total PSQI02>025). And, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, there was significant difference between individuals with strong and poor social network and ties in terms of overall sleep quality ( p 02<02.01), subjective sleep quality ( p 02<02.01), habitual sleep efficiency ( p 02<02.05), and daytime dysfunction ( p 02<02.01). The results also revealed that the employees with strong social network and ties had better overall sleep quality, had the most habitual sleep efficiency, and less daytime dysfunction than employees with poor social network and ties. It can be implied that the weak social network and ties serve as a risk factor for sleep disorders or poor sleep quality for adult employees. Therefore, the social and behavioral interventions seem essential to improve the adult's quality sleep.

Mauss I. B., Troy A. S., & LeBourgeois M. K . ( 2013).

Poorer sleep quality is associated with lower emotion-regulation ability in a laboratory paradigm

Cognition & Emotion, 27( 3), 567-576.

URL     PMID:3931554      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Theoretical models suggest a positive relationship between sleep quality and individuals' ability to regulate emotion. However, few studies have empirically tested this hypothesised link using standardised laboratory measures of emotion-regulation ability. The present research examined the relationship between sleep quality and the ability to implement a type of emotion regulation that has particularly important implications for psychological health: cognitive reappraisal (cognitively reframing an emotional event so as to dampen its impact). To do so, 156 participants (86 male) reported on their past week's sleep quality. Their ability to implement cognitive reappraisal (CRA) was then measured with a standardised laboratory challenge. Participants with poorer self-reported sleep quality exhibited lower CRA, even after controlling for fourteen potential key confounds (e.g., age, negative affect, mood disorder symptoms, stress). This finding is consistent with the idea that poorer sleep quality impairs individuals' ability to engage in the crucial task of regulating negative emotions.

McCrae, R. R., & Löckenhoff, C. E.( 2010). Self-regulation and the five-factor model of personality traits. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of personality and self-regulation. Malden, MA: Lack-well Publishing.

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Meijman T. F. , De Vries-Griever, A. H. G., De Vries, G., & Kampman, R.( 1988) . The evaluation of the Groningen sleep quality scale. Groningen: University of Groningen Press.

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The Pittsburgh sleep diary

Journal of Sleep Research, 3( 2), 111-120.

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Moorcroft, W. H . ( 2005).

Understanding sleep and dreaming. US: Springer.

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Mullins H. M., Cortina J. M., Drake C. L., & Dalal R. S . ( 2014).

Sleepiness at work: A review and framework of how the physiology of sleepiness impacts the workplace

Journal of Applied Psychology, 99( 6), 1096-1112.

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Sleepiness, the biological drive to sleep, is an important construct for the organizational sciences. This physiological phenomenon has received very little attention in the organizational science literature in spite of the fact that it influences a wide variety of workplace behaviors. In this article, we develop a framework through which sleepiness can be fruitfully studied. We describe (a) what sleepiness is and how it can be differentiated conceptually from related concepts such as fatigue, (b) the physiological basis of sleepiness, (c) cognitive and affective mechanisms that transmit the effects of sleepiness, and (d) the behavioral manifestations of sleepiness in the workplace. We also describe (e) job demand characteristics that are antecedents of sleepiness and (f) individual differences that moderate the aforementioned relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Mullins, J. W., & Cummings, L. L . ( 1999).

Situational strength-a framework for understanding the role of individuals in initiating proactive strategic change

Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12( 6), 462-479.

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This article brings together research perspectives on strategic change and organizational behavior to construct a series of theoretical propositions regarding the likelihood that a firm will undertake a change in strategy. Drawing on the concept of "situational strength", it is argued that the personality traits of strategic decision makers interact with environmental conditions faced by the firm to influence the likelihood of a firm's change in strategy. In weak situations, individual differences are likely to exert significantly more influence on the firm's likelihood of undertaking a strategic change than in strong situations.

Nordin M., Knutsson A., Sundbom E., & Stegmayr B . ( 2005).

Psychosocial factors, gender, and sleep

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10( 1), 54-63.

URL     PMID:15656721      [本文引用: 1]

Low social support may contribute to poor sleep, more so than adverse aspects of demand and control and more so for women than men. This study on 1,179 working individuals, 623 women and 556 men, from the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) study investigated the association between sleep and psychosocial factors. Chi-square analyses investigated the associations among sleep and demand, control, social networks, and emotional support. A logit log-linear model analyzed interactions. More women reported poorer sleep when perceiving adverse psychosocial factors. Interactive effects were found between adverse scores on demand, control, and emotional support. A multivariate partial least square analysis showed that poorer health, pain, and adverse aspects of emotional support and social networks contributed significantly to the pattern of poor sleep.

O’Leary K., Bylsma L. M., & Rottenberg J . ( 2017).

Why might poor sleep quality lead to depression? A role for emotion regulation

Cognition and Emotion, 31( 8), 1698-1706.

URL     PMID:27807996      [本文引用: 1]

(2016). Why might poor sleep quality lead to depression? A role for emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion. Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2016.1247035

Olsen O. K., Pallesen S., Torsheim T., & Espevik R . ( 2016).

The effect of sleep deprivation on leadership behaviour in military officers: An experimental study

Journal of Sleep Research, 25( 6), 683-689.

URL     PMID:27231096      [本文引用: 1]

Summary While several studies show that leaders frequently lack sleep, little is known about how this influences leadership behaviour. The present study encompasses an experiment that investigated how three main types of leadership behaviour: transformational (four sub-facets); transactional (two sub-facets); and passive-avoidant (two sub-facets) leadership differed across a rested and a long-term, partially sleep-deprived condition. A total of 16 military naval officers participated. In both conditions, the leaders managed a team of three subordinates in a navy navigation simulator, instructed to complete a specific mission (A or B). Both sleep state (rested or sleep deprived) and mission were counterbalanced. Leadership behaviour was video recorded and subsequently rated on the three leadership behaviours. Overall, the scores on transformational leadership (and on two of four sub-facets) and transactional leadership (on both sub-facets) decreased from the rested to sleep-deprived condition, whereas scores on passive-avoidant leadership overall (and on both sub-facets) increased from the rested to sleep-deprived condition. This study underscores the importance of including sleep as a potentially important determinant when assessing leadership effectiveness.

Owens B. P., Baker W. E., Sumpter D. M., & Cameron K. S . ( 2016).

Relational energy at work: Implications for job engagement and job performance

Journal of Applied Psychology, 101( 1), 35-49.

URL     PMID:26098165      [本文引用: 2]

Energy is emerging as a topic of importance to organizations, yet we have little understanding of how energy can be useful at an interpersonal level toward achieving workplace goals. We present the results of 4 studies aimed at developing, validating, and testing the relational energy construct. In Study 1, we report qualitative insights from 64 individuals about the experience and functioning of relational energy in the workplace. Study 2 draws from 3 employee samples to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a measure of relational energy, differentiating relational energy from related constructs. To test the predictive validity of the new relational energy scale, Study 3 comprises data from employees rating the level of relational energy they experienced during interactions with their leaders in a health services context. Results showed that relational energy employees experienced with their leaders at Time 1 predicted job engagement at Time 2 (1 month later), while controlling for the competing construct of perceived social support. Study 4 shows further differentiation of relational energy from leader ember exchange (LMX), replicates the positive relationship between relational energy (Time 1) and job engagement (Time 2), and shows that relational energy is positively associated with employee job performance (Time 3) through the mechanism of job engagement. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings and highlight areas for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Parkes, K. R . ( 2002).

Age, smoking, and negative affectivity as predictors of sleep patterns among shiftworkers in two environments

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7( 2), 156-173.

URL     PMID:12003367      [本文引用: 2]

Although adaptation to shiftwork has been widely studied, little is known about how individual and environmental factors combine to influence sleep among shiftworkers. This study examined age, smoking, and negative affectivity (NA) as predictors of sleep duration and quality for 3 work phases (day shifts, DS; night shifts, NS; and leave periods, LP). Data were collected from personnel working 12-hr shifts, onshore (n = 330) or offshore (n = 456). Individual factors predicted patterns of sleep measures across the DS, NS, and LP phases onshore, but not offshore; onshore, work phase interacted with smoking and with age to predict sleep duration and with NA to predict sleep quality. The role of the offshore environment in shiftwork adaptation is discussed.

Partinen, M., & Gislason, T. (1995).

Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire (BNSQ): A quantitated measure of subjective sleep complaints

Journal of Sleep Research, 4( S1), 150-155.

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Petersen H., Kecklund G., D'Onofrio P., Nilsson J., & Åkerstedt T . ( 2013).

Stress vulnerability and the effects of moderate daily stress on sleep polysomnography and subjective sleepiness

Journal of Sleep Research, 22( 1), 50-57.

URL     PMID:22835074      [本文引用: 1]

The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how sleep physiology is affected by naturally occurring high work stress and identify individual differences in the response of sleep to stress. Probable upcoming stress levels were estimated through weekly web questionnaire ratings. Based on the modified FIRST-scale (Ford insomnia response to stress) participants were grouped into high (n = 9) or low (n = 19) sensitivity to stress related sleep disturbances (Drake et al., 2004). Sleep was recorded in 28 teachers with polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphs during one high stress and one low stress condition in the participants home. EEG showed a decrease in sleep efficiency during the high stress condition. Significant interactions between group and condition were seen for REM sleep, arousals and stage transitions. The sensitive group had an increase in arousals and stage transitions during the high stress condition and a decrease in REM, whereas the opposite was seen in the resilient group. Diary ratings during the high stress condition showed higher bedtime stress and lower ratings on the awakening index (insufficient sleep and difficulties awakening). Ratings also showed lower cognitive function and preoccupation with work thoughts in the evening. KSS ratings of sleepiness increased during stress for the sensitive group. Saliva samples of cortisol showed no effect of stress. It was concluded that moderate daily stress is associated with a moderate negative effect on sleep sleep efficiency and fragmentation. A slightly stronger effect was seen in the sensitive group.

Philibert, I. (2005).

Sleep loss and performance in residents and nonphysicians: A meta-analytic examination

Sleep, 28( 11), 1392-1402.

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Pigeon W. R., Pinquart M., & Conner K . ( 2012).

Meta-analysis of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviors

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73( 9), e1160-e1167.

URL     PMID:23059158      [本文引用: 1]

F1000Prime Recommended Article: Meta-analysis of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

Prinz, P. N . ( 2004).

Age impairments in sleep, metabolic and immune functions

Experimental Gerontology, 39( 11-12), 1739-1743.

URL     PMID:15582290      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Age-related sleep impairments are chronic and common, occurring even in the absence of diagnosable disorders. Additional loss of sleep occurs with clinical sleep disorders, many of which can be ameliorated. This literature, reviewed below, raises the question of the possible biological consequences of age-related, chronic sleep loss, an area that is poorly understood at present. Some of the more age-relevant theories about sleep loss will be explored in a review of current research on sleep deprivation arising from normal aging, experimental induction and pathology. The biological consequences of sleep deprivation in young adults include metabolic, systemic inflammatory and immune changes that are similar to those of aging and age-related disorders. The possibility that chronic sleep impairment contributes to age changes in metabolism, systemic inflammation and immunocompetence is explored.

Querstret, D., & Cropley, M. (2012).

Exploring the relationship between work-related rumination, sleep quality, and work-related fatigue

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17( 3), 341-353.

URL     PMID:22746369      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This study examined the association among three conceptualizations of work-related rumination (affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, and detachment) with sleep quality and work-related fatigue. It was hypothesized that affective rumination and poor sleep quality would be associated with increased fatigue and that problem-solving pondering and detachment would be associated with decreased fatigue. The mediating effect of sleep quality on the relationship between work-related rumination and fatigue was also tested. An online questionnaire was completed by a heterogeneous sample of 719 adult workers in diverse occupations. The following variables were entered as predictors in a regression model: affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, detachment, and sleep quality. The dependent variables were chronic work-related fatigue (CF) and acute work-related fatigue (AF). Affective rumination was the strongest predictor of increased CF and AF. Problem-solving pondering was a significant predictor of decreased CF and AF. Poor sleep quality was predictive of increased CF and AF. Detachment was significantly negatively predictive for AF. Sleep quality partially mediated the relationship between affective rumination and fatigue and between problem-solving pondering and fatigue. Work-related affective rumination appears more detrimental to an individual's ability to recover from work than problem-solving pondering. In the context of identifying mechanisms by which demands at work are translated into ill-health, this appears to be a key finding and suggests that it is the type of work-related rumination, not rumination per se, that is important.

Rau R., Georgiades A., Fredrikson M., Lemne C., & De Faire U . ( 2001).

Psychosocial work characteristics and perceived control in relation to cardiovascular rewind at night

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6( 3), 171-181.

URL     PMID:11482630      [本文引用: 1]

This study examined the effects of psychosocial work characteristics on cardiovascular rewind at night. Ambulatory 24-hr recordings of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) of 75 borderline hypertensive and 74 normotensive men were related to diary ratings of perceived control (PC) and to scores of psychological demand (P), control (C), and social support (S) at work determined by an occupational classification system. Multiplicative interaction terms for job strain (P x C), isostrain (P x C x S), and Job Strain x Perceived Control (P x C x PC) were calculated. The P x C x PC interaction predicted diastolic BP at night but not at work. A delayed latency to attain the lowest systolic BP during the night was found for jobs with high job strain and isostrain. Low perceived control and social support were associated with higher HR at work and at night. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the interaction between P x C x PC and the body mass index was independently associated with .

Reason, J. (1997).

Managing the risks of organizational accidents

Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate.

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Reis, H. T., & Wheeler, L. (1991).

Studying social interaction with the Rochester interaction record

Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 269-318.

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Schlarb A. A., Kulessa D., & Gulewitsch M. D . ( 2012).

Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, and associations of self-efficacy among German university students

Nature and Science of Sleep, 4, 1-7.

URL     PMID:23616724      [本文引用: 1]

Angelika A Schlarb1,2, Dominika Kulessa1,*, Marco D Gulewitsch1,*1Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tamp;uuml;bingen, 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies on university students have shown prevalence rates between 4.7% and 36.2% for sleep difficulties, and 13.1% and 28.1% for insomnia. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health.Objective: The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations with self-efficacy among German university students.Methods: A total of 2196 university students (70.9% women; mean age 24.16 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, and self-efficacy were assessed using a questionnaire.Results and conclusion: Analyses revealed that more than 16% of surveyed students needed more than 30 minutes to fall asleep. About 7.7% of the students suffered from insomnia. Short sleep was significantly associated with a considerably increased rate of insomnia (20%). Insomniacs showed lower self-efficacy than students without sleep problems.Keywords: university students, sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, self-efficacy

Scott, B. A., & Judge, T. A . ( 2006).

Insomnia, emotions, and job satisfaction: A multilevel study

Journal of Management, 32( 5), 622-645.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The authors used experience-sampling methodology to investigate the dynamic relationships among insomnia, emotions, and job satisfaction. Over a period of 3 weeks, 45 employees completed surveys each workday, producing a total of 550 observations. Results revealed that, within individuals, insomnia was associated with increased feelings of hostility and fatigue and decreased feelings of joviality and attentiveness. Insomnia was also negatively related to job satisfaction, and this relationship was mediated by the emotions. Finally, gender moderated the within-individual relationships between insomnia and three of the four emotions such that women were more affected by a poor night of sleep than were men.

Scullin, M. K., & Bliwise, D. L . ( 2015).

Sleep, cognition, and normal aging: Integrating a half century of multidisciplinary research

Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10( 1), 97-137.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Smith, A. (2002).

Effects of caffeine on human behavior

Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40( 9), 1243-1255.

URL     PMID:12204388      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The literature suggests that the following effects on behavior of adult humans may occur when individuals consume moderate amounts of caffeine. (1) Caffeine increases alertness and reduces fatigue. This may be especially important in low arousal situations (e.g. working at night). (2) Caffeine improves performance on vigilance tasks and simple tasks that require sustained response. Again, these effects are often clearest when alertness is reduced, although there is evidence that benefits may still occur when the person is unimpaired. (3) Effects on more complex tasks are difficult to assess and probably involve interactions between the caffeine and other variables which increase alertness (e.g. personality and time of day). (4) In contrast to the effects of caffeine consumption, withdrawal of caffeine has few effects on performance. There is often an increase in negative mood following withdrawal of caffeine, but such effects may largely reflect the expectancies of the volunteers and the failure to conduct "blind" studies. (5) Regular caffeine usage appears to be beneficial, with higher users having better mental functioning. (6) Most people are very good at controlling their caffeine consumption to maximise the above positive effects. For example, the pattern of consumption over the day shows that caffeine is often consumed to increase alertness. Indeed, many people do not consume much caffeine later in the day since it is important not to be alert when one goes to sleep. In contrast to effects found from normal caffeine intake, there are reports that have demonstrated negative effects when very large amounts are given or sensitive groups (e.g. patients with anxiety disorders) were studied. In this context caffeine has been shown to increase anxiety and impair sleep. There is also some evidence that fine motor control may be impaired as a function of the increase in anxiety. Overall, the global picture that emerges depends on whether one focuses on effects that are likely to be present when caffeine is consumed in moderation by the majority of the population or on the effects found in extreme conditions. The evidence clearly shows that levels of caffeine consumed by most people have largely positive effects on behavior. Excessive consumption can lead to problems, especially in sensitive individuals.

Sonnentag S., Binnewies C., & Mojza E. J . ( 2008).

"Did you have a nice evening?" A day-level study on recovery experiences, sleep, and affect

Journal of Applied Psychology, 93( 3), 674-684.

URL     PMID:18457495      [本文引用: 3]

In this study, the authors used a within-person design to examine the relation between recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery experiences) during leisure time, sleep, and affect in the next morning. Daily survey data gathered over the course of 1 work week from 166 public administration employees analyzed with a hierarchical linear modeling approach showed that low psychological detachment from work during the evening predicted negative activation and fatigue, whereas mastery experiences during the evening predicted positive activation and relaxation predicted serenity. Sleep quality showed relations with all affective states variables. This study adds to research on job-stress recovery and affect regulation by showing which specific experiences from the nonwork domain may improve affect before the start of the next working day.

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007).

The Recovery Experience Questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12( 3), 204-221.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Spaeth A. M., Dinges D. F., & Goel N . ( 2013).

Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults

Sleep, 36( 7), 981-990.

URL     PMID:23814334      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Examine sleep restriction's effects on weight gain, daily caloric intake, and meal timing. Repeated-measures experiments assessing body weight at admittance and discharge in all subjects (N = 225) and caloric intake and meal timing across days following 2 baseline nights, 5 sleep restriction nights and 2 recovery nights or across days following control condition nights in a subset of subjects (n = 37). Controlled laboratory environment. Two hundred twenty-five healthy adults aged 22-50 y (n = 198 sleep-restricted subjects; n = 31 with caloric intake data; n = 27 control subjects; n = 6 with caloric intake data). Approximately 8-to-1 randomization to an experimental condition (including five consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed [TIB]/night, 04:00-08:00) or to a control condition (all nights 10 h TIB/night, 22:00-08:00). Sleep-restricted subjects gained more weight (0.97 ± 1.4 kg) than control subjects (0.11 ± 1.9 kg; d = 0.51, P = 0.007). Among sleep-restricted subjects, African Americans gained more weight than Caucasians (d = 0.37, P = 0.003) and males gained more weight than females (d = 0.38, P = 0.004). Sleep-restricted subjects consumed extra calories (130.0 ± 43.0% of daily caloric requirement) during days with a delayed bedtime (04:00) compared with control subjects who did not consume extra calories (100.6 ± 11.4%; d = 0.94, P = 0.003) during corresponding days. In sleep-restricted subjects, increased daily caloric intake was due to more meals and the consumption of 552.9 ± 265.8 additional calories between 22:00-03:59. The percentage of calories derived from fat was greater during late-night hours (22:00-03:59, 33.0 ± 0.08%) compared to daytime (08:00-14:59, 28.2 ± 0.05%) and evening hours (15:00-21:59, 29.4 ± 0.06%; Ps < 0.05). In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, sleep restriction promoted weight gain. Chronically sleep-restricted adults with late bedtimes may be more susceptible to weight gain due to greater daily caloric intake and the consumption of calories during late-night hours. Spaeth AM; Dinges DF; Goel N. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults. SLEEP 2013;36(7):981-990.

Spector, P. E . ( 2002).

Employee control and occupational stress

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11( 4), 133-136.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Occupational stress has been recognized as a major health issue for modern work organizations. Conditions of the workplace have been shown to lead to negative emotional reactions (e.g., anxiety), physical health problems in both the short term (e.g., headache or stomach distress) and the long term (cardiovascular disease), and counterproductive behavior at work. Perceptions of control play an important role in this process, being associated with all of these variables. Evidence is growing that enhanced control at work can be an important element in employees'health and well090009being. These relationships can be understood in the context of the control090009stress model.

Takahashi M., Iwakiri K., Sotoyama M., Higuchi S., Kiguchi M., Hirata M., .. Nishiyama K . ( 2008).

Work schedule differences in sleep problems of nursing home caregivers

Applied Ergonomics, 39( 5), 597-604.

URL     PMID:18281013      [本文引用: 1]

Nursing home caregivers ( n =775; 604 women; mean age 33.6 years) were studied to examine how work schedules affect their sleep. The shift group ( n =536) worked under a rotating two-shift system ( n =365), a rotating three-shift system ( n =66), or other types of shifts ( n =78). The non-shift group included 222 caregivers. Participants completed a questionnaire about working conditions, sleep problems, health, lifestyle, and demographic factors. The two-shift caregivers reported the highest levels of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS, 37.6%), insomnia symptoms (43.0%), and poor quality of sleep (24.9%) among the groups. Adjusted odds ratios for these problems were significantly greater for the two-shift caregivers than for non-shift counterparts: DIS (odds ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.57–5.20), insomnia symptoms (2.33, 1.36–4.02), and poor sleep quality (2.15, 1.09–4.22). Our data suggest that working under a rotating two-shift system, which has a longer night shift, is associated with an elevated risk of sleep problems for nursing home caregivers.

Tangney J. P., Baumeister R. F., & Boone A. L . ( 2004).

High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success

Journal of Personality, 72( 2), 271-324.

URL     PMID:15016066      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.

van Rijn E., Eichenlaub J. B., Lewis P. A., Walker M. P., Gaskell M. G., Malinowski J. E., & Blagrove M . ( 2015).

The dream-lag effect: Selective processing of personally significant events during rapid eye movement sleep, but not during slow wave sleep

Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 122, 98-109.

URL     PMID:25683202     

Incorporation of details from waking life events into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the night after, and then 5鈥7 nights after events (termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects). In experiment 1, 44 participants kept a daily log for 10days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs), and major concerns (MCs). Dream reports were collected from REM and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) in the laboratory, or from REM sleep at home. The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation of PSEs into REM dreams collected at home, but not for MDAs or MCs. No dream-lag effect was found for SWS dreams, or for REM dreams collected in the lab after SWS awakenings earlier in the night. In experiment 2, the 44 participants recorded reports of their spontaneously recalled home dreams over the 10 nights following the instrumental awakenings night, which thus acted as a controlled stimulus with two salience levels, high (sleep lab) and low (home awakenings). The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation into home dreams of references to the experience of being in the sleep laboratory, but only for participants who had reported concerns beforehand about being in the sleep laboratory. The delayed incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, an alternative emotion processing or emotional impact of events account, distinct from memory consolidation, is supported by the finding that SWS dreams do not evidence the dream-lag effect.

Vartanian O., Bouak F., Caldwell J. L., Cheung B., Cupchik G., Jobidon M. E., .. Smith I . ( 2014).

The effects of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency and prefrontal cortex function during divergent thinking

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 214.

URL     PMID:4001002      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The dorsal and ventral aspects of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are the two regions most consistently recruited in divergent thinking tasks. Given that frontal tasks have been shown to be vulnerable to sleep loss, we explored the impact of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency (i.e., number of generated responses) and PFC function during divergent thinking. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning twice while engaged in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT) - once following a single night of sleep deprivation and once following a night of normal sleep. They also wore wrist activity monitors, which enabled us to quantify daily sleep and model cognitive effectiveness. The intervention was effective, producing greater levels of fatigue and sleepiness. Modeled cognitive effectiveness and fluency were impaired following sleep deprivation, and sleep deprivation was associated with greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during AUT. The results suggest that an intervention known to temporarily compromise frontal function can impair fluency, and that this effect is instantiated in the form of an increased hemodynamic response in the left IFG.

Wagner D. T., Barnes C. M., Lim V. K. G., & Ferris D. L . ( 2012).

Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment

Journal of Applied Psychology, 97( 5), 1068-1076.

URL     PMID:22369272      [本文引用: 2]

The Internet is a powerful tool that has changed the way people work. However, the ubiquity of the Internet has led to a new workplace threat to productivity-cyberloafing. Building on the ego depletion model of self-regulation, we examine how lost and low-quality sleep influence employee cyberloafing behaviors and how individual differences in conscientiousness moderate these effects. We also demonstrate that the shift to Daylight Saving Time (DST) results in a dramatic increase in cyberloafing behavior at the national level. We first tested the DST-cyberloafing relation through a national quasi-experiment, then directly tested the relation between sleep and cyberloafing in a closely controlled laboratory setting. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory, practice, and future research.

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A . ( 1984).

Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states

Psychological Bulletin, 96( 3), 465-490.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Watson, D., & Pennebaker, J. W . ( 1989).

Health complaints, stress, and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity

Psychological Review, 96( 2), 234-254.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Welsh D. T., Ellis A. P. J., Christian M. S., & Mai K. M . ( 2014).

Building a self-regulatory model of sleep deprivation and deception: The role of caffeine and social influence

Journal of Applied Psychology, 99( 6), 1268-1277.

URL     PMID:24611526      [本文引用: 7]

Abstract Employees are getting less sleep, which has been shown to deplete self-regulatory resources and increase unethical behavior (Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011; Christian & Ellis, 2011). In this study, we extend the original mediated model by examining the role of 2 moderators in the relationship between sleep deprivation, depletion, and deceptive behavior. First, we derive psychological arguments from the psychopharmacology literature to hypothesize that caffeine moderates the relationship between sleep deprivation and depletion by replenishing self-regulatory resources. Second, we draw from recent research in social psychology to hypothesize that social influence moderates the relationship between depletion and deceptive behavior, such that depleted individuals are less able to resist the negative influence of others. Results of a laboratory study provide support for our expanded model combining mediation and moderation, adding to our understanding of the role of sleep deprivation in the incidence of workplace deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Williamson A., Lombardi D. A., Folkard S., Stutts J., Courtney T. K., & Connor J. L . ( 2011).

The link between fatigue and safety

Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43( 2), 498-515.

URL     PMID:21130213      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract The objective of this review was to examine the evidence for the link between fatigue and safety, especially in transport and occupational settings. For the purposes of this review fatigue was defined as 'a biological drive for recuperative rest'. The review examined the relationship between three major causes of fatigue - sleep homeostasis factors, circadian influences and nature of task effects - and safety outcomes, first looking at accidents and injury and then at adverse effects on performance. The review demonstrated clear evidence for sleep homeostatic effects producing impaired performance and accidents. Nature of task effects, especially tasks requiring sustained attention and monotony, also produced significant performance decrements, but the effects on accidents and/or injury were unresolved because of a lack of studies. The evidence did not support a direct link between circadian-related fatigue influences and performance or safety outcomes and further research is needed to clarify the link. Undoubtedly, circadian variation plays some role in safety outcomes, but the evidence suggests that these effects reflect a combination of time of day and sleep-related factors. Similarly, although some measures of performance show a direct circadian component, others would appear to only do so in combination with sleep-related factors. The review highlighted gaps in the literature and opportunities for further research. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zellars K. L., Meurs J. A., Perrewé P. L., Kacmar C. J., & Rossi A. M . ( 2009).

Reacting to and recovering from a stressful situation: The negative affectivity-physiological arousal relationship

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14( 1), 11-22.

URL     PMID:19210043      [本文引用: 1]

Although it is one of the most widely researched personality correlates of psychological reactions, the relationship between negative affectivity (NA) and physiological arousal has received little attention. This study examined the associations between NA and physiological outcomes of heart rate, skin temperature, and muscle tension. The authors hypothesized that when individuals are in a stressful situation, persons high in NA experience more heightened physiological arousal than those low in NA. After personality and demographic data were collected, 230 individuals participated in a stressful intervention. Individuals high in NA experienced a significantly greater rate of increase in electromyogram during the stress intervention and a lesser rate of decrease in electromyogram after the stressful event than those low in NA. In regard to skin temperature, those high in NA did not recover from the stress intervention as well as those low in NA. Negative affectivity was not related to heart rate.

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