心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2101-2112 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02101

研究构想

新员工资质过剩动态变化及作用机制:组织社会化视角

褚福磊,1, 王蕊2, 高中华1

1. 首都经济贸易大学工商管理学院, 北京 100070

2. 唐山师范学院经济管理系, 唐山 063020

The dynamic evolution and influence mechanism of newcomers’ overqualification: Organizational socialization perspective

CHU Fulei,1, WANG Rui2, GAO Zhonghua1

1. College of Business Administration, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing 100070, China

2. Department of Economic Management, Tangshan Normal University, Tangshan 063020, China

通讯作者: 褚福磊, E-mail: chufulei@cueb.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-01-12   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *国家自然科学基金项目.  71702115
国家自然科学基金项目.  71572119
北京市优秀人才青年拔尖团队项目.  2017000026833TD01
北京市委组织部优秀人才项目资助.  2017000020124G138

Received: 2018-01-12   Online: 2018-12-15

摘要

新员工资质过剩, 即所谓的“怀才不遇”、“大材小用”现象越来越普遍。新员工资质过剩容易产生低满意度、反生产工作行为和退缩行为。然而, 资质过剩是一把“双刃剑”, 采用何种视角并怎样利用资质过剩新员工的冗余资质为组织服务, 成为管理的关键。因此, 本研究在组织社会化视角下探讨新员工资质过剩的动态变化及其对积极组织行为的作用机制。首先, 通过质性方法对本土资质过剩进行内涵界定, 依照严谨的心理测量方法进行量表开发与信效度检验; 其次, 构建资质过剩动态变化模型, 利用多项式回归和响应面分析组织社会化过程中新员工资质过剩感如何随着其对领导和同事资质过剩的感知而不断变化; 再次, 建立作用机制模型, 系统地剖析在新员工与领导和同事的互动过程中, 新员工资质过剩如何对组织公民行为和主动性行为产生影响。

关键词: 资质过剩 ; 新员工 ; 组织社会化 ; 领导-成员交换 ; 团队-成员交换

Abstract

Overqualification of newcomers’, so-called “unrecognized talents” or “a great talent gone to waste”, has became more and more common. Newcomers’ overqualification is prone to produce low satisfaction, counterproductive work and withdrawal behaviors. However, overqualification is a “double-edged sword”, with a question on perspective on how to use newcomers’ redundant qualification to serve the organization, has became the key issue to the management. Therefore, this study will explore the dynamic evolution and influence mechanism of newcomers’ overqualification under organizational socialization perspective. First of all, we will define the local overqualification through qualitative method, and develop the scale and test reliability according to the normative methods. Secondly, this study will construct the dynamic evolutionary model of overqualification, and we will use polynomial regression with response surface analysis to analyze how newcomers’ overqualification can change dynamically with the perception of leader’s and colleagues’ overqualification during organizational socialization. Thirdly, this study will establish the mechanism model, analyze the effects of newcomers’ overqualification on organizational citizenship behavior and active behavior in the interaction process of newcomers with their leaders and colleagues.

Keywords: overqualification ; newcomers ; organizational socialization ; LMX ; TMX

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本文引用格式

褚福磊, 王蕊, 高中华. (2018). 新员工资质过剩动态变化及作用机制:组织社会化视角. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2101-2112

CHU Fulei, WANG Rui, GAO Zhonghua. (2018). The dynamic evolution and influence mechanism of newcomers’ overqualification: Organizational socialization perspective. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2101-2112

1 问题提出

如何让新员工更好地发挥价值是企业竞争力的主要来源。当前组织管理中经常遇到的一个现象是新员工的跳槽越来越频繁, 当新员工进入组织后发现真实角色与预期期望差距过大时, 往往产生角色冲突与角色适应的问题(李超平, 苏琴, 宋照礼, 2014; 王雁飞, 朱瑜, 2012), 影响新员工组织社会化的效果, 从而容易导致新员工产生工作焦虑感或不匹配感。在新员工认为资质过剩、不认同组织, 或是感到与组织不匹配时, 选择再次离开的机会便会增加(Guerrero & Hatala, 2015)。资质过剩(Overqualification)指个体拥有超过正常工作所需的知识、能力、技能、教育水平和经验等(Erdogan & Bauer, 2009)。现有研究将资质过剩分为主观资质过剩和客观资质过剩。主观资质过剩指个体感知到的自己拥有超过工作所要求的资质, 反映的是员工的主观感受; 客观资质过剩指工作维度与个人能力的不匹配, 亦指个人的能力超过工作本身的需求(Maynard, Joseph, & Maynard, 2006)。客观资质过剩也许更能真实的代表资质过剩, 但它不能解释拥有同样学历和相似职位的个体可能有着不同水平的资质过剩感知。研究表明, 主观资质过剩的个体对工作环境与其资质的不匹配更为敏感(Luksyte, Spitzmueller, & Maynard, 2011)。本研究关注员工感知到的资质过剩, 因此聚焦于主观资质过剩这一概念。当前资质过剩在全球范围内较为普遍, 并且呈现越来越严重的趋势(Lin, Law, & Zhou, 2017; 陈颖媛, 邹智敏, 潘俊豪, 2017; 谢文心, 杨纯, 周帆, 2015)。研究表明, 资质过剩员工在工作中由于缺乏成就感和挑战, 易产生厌倦情绪, 进而产生低组织承诺和低满意度, 反生产工作行为和离职行为, 甚至心理健康问题(刘金菊, 席燕平, 2016; Johnson & Johnson, 1997)。

然而, 最近的一些理论研究表明, 资质过剩可能因组织情境的不同而导致不同的影响效应, 有时会对工作结果产生积极的影响(Zhang, Law, & Lin, 2016)。现有资质过剩的研究, 多集中在资质过剩所导致的消极工作态度和行为, 较少有研究探讨资质过剩的潜在积极工作行为(Thompson, Shea, Sikora, PerrewÉ, & Ferris, 2013; Zhang et al., 2016), 特别是新员工的资质过剩问题。与老员工相比, 新员工带着期望进入组织, 其适应企业的过程不是静态的, 而是员工和企业之间互动以达到员工-组织匹配的动态过程(陈卫旗, 2009)。新员工资质过剩不仅会导致高离职率, 而且在一定程度上反应了组织在岗位设置、任职资格、面试标准等方面存在一系列问题(Martinez, Lengnick- Hall, & Kulkarni, 2014)。因此, 对新员工资质过剩的科学管理有助于提升组织的人力资源管理整体水平。然而, 当前鲜有针对新员工资质过剩的研究。

通过对已有研究的梳理和分析, 我们发现当前有关资质过剩的研究还存在以下不足:一是缺乏资质过剩真实性、动态性的分析。如资质过剩是工作中的一种自恋还是一种真实的感知, 这种感知是如何动态变化的, 受到哪些因素的影响(比如刚入职的、具有资质过剩的新员工发现领导和同事都具有资质过剩现象后其资质过剩感如何变化?), 现有理论视角在揭示该问题上存在一定的局限性。二是资质过剩对积极组织行为作用机制的研究较少。关于资质过剩导致消极组织行为的心理机制, 已有研究提出工作倦怠、心理契约等, 但很难用它们来解释资质过剩的潜在积极影响效应, 并且缺少系统性和纵向性研究(Sierra, 2011)。三是基于中国组织情境的研究较少。不同的文化背景下, 员工的资质过剩可能会有所不同(Wu, Luksyte, & Parker, 2015)。当前的研究主要集中在发达国家, 发展中国家的研究还很缺乏, 中国高权力距离与集体主义文化背景下员工资质过剩的内涵可能会呈现一定的差异, 如学者Lin等(2017)在他们的研究中指出权力距离和集体主义可能会影响员工的资质过剩感, 进而影响其工作重塑行为。此外, 新员工进入组织其资质过剩感不是静态的, 会因员工工作态度、价值观以及人-组织匹配程度的不同而发生变化。如研究发现员工在入职6个月后资质过剩感较为强烈, 并容易产生工作搜寻行为(Maynard & Parfyonova, 2013)。相似地, 组织社会化过程正是反映了员工认知和心理上的调整和适应过程(Louis, 1980), 如新员工与领导和同事的互动、反馈会影响新员工的身份感知和认同感知, 并进而影响新员工的工作态度和行为(Smith, Amiot, Callan, Terry, & Smith, 2012)。基于此, 本研究引入组织社会化理论, 揭示新员工资质过剩的动态变化和作用机制。

2 研究现状

2.1 资质过剩的相关研究

以往文献对资质过剩的研究主要集中在资质过剩的消极影响, 但最新的一些研究开始转向如何发挥资质过剩员工的积极作用从而达到组织和员工的双赢(Kulkarni, Lengnickhall, & Martinez, 2015)。如识别工作场所中影响员工资质过剩的因素、探究资质过剩和其影响结果(如组织公民行为、任务绩效)之间的调节因素, 从而采取相应措施来最大限度利用资质过剩员工的才能等。

根据文献, 资质过剩研究的理论脉络主要有以下五个:(1)人力资本理论视角。在该视角下, 资质过剩主要表现在员工对投资与回报的感知。即员工投资于其自身的教育、培训以及行业经验等, 并期望获得相匹配的经济收益(Kulkarni et al., 2015)。(2)人-职匹配理论视角。在该视角下, 资质过剩是指员工与环境的不匹配, 并且主要表现在教育水平、知识、经验、技能以及能力的不匹配(Erdogan & Bauer, 2009)。个人的能力(或需求)与工作的需求(或满足需求)不匹配, 可能导致员工的离职、工作再寻找行为(Maynard et al., 2006; Maynard & Parfyonova, 2013)。(3)公平理论视角。在该视角下, 资质过剩是员工对公平的一种判断, 即对其投入产出比的一种感知, 并且资质过剩员工感知到何种不公平取决于他们参考的对象(Walker & Smith, 2002; Feldman & Maynard, 2011)。如与资质恰当的员工相比, 其投入(知识、能力等)多而回报相当, 于是资质过剩员工认为损失了其受教育或培训等的实际成本, 进而产生不公平感知; 二是与资质较高或与自己经验水平、技能水平和教育水平相当的个体相比, 资质过剩员工感知到损失的是更好的岗位或表现机会, 损失的是一种机会成本(Liu & Wang, 2012)。(4)相对剥夺理论视角。这是学者们所普遍采用的理论视角, 在该视角下, 资质过剩被认为是一种相对剥夺感(Johnson & Johnson, 1997)。指当个体将其所处情境与某种标准或参照对象比较发现其处于劣势时, 则会产生受剥夺感。如Erdogan和Bauer (2009)研究认为资质过剩的个体拥有更高的受教育水平和更娴熟的技能, 他们会对工作类型和工作自主权产生更高的期望, 如果这一期望未实现则会产生一种剥夺感以及较低的工作满意度。(5)资源保存理论视角。在该视角下, 资质过剩员工认为其所拥有的学历、技能和能力等高于岗位要求是对他们资源的一种浪费。研究表明个体感到自己的资源失去或是受到了威胁, 则会感到倦怠, 从而导致消极的工作态度或工作行为(Luksyte et al., 2011)。

可以看出, 人-岗位匹配理论从工作内容的角度强调了工作要求与个体资质的一致性和匹配性, 而相对剥夺理论、公平理论和资源保存理论都认为资质过剩是一种“损失”的现象。相对剥夺理论认为个体损失了本应得到的东西; 公平理论认为个体损失的是公平表现的机会或其受教育、培训等的成本; 资源保存理论认为个体损失的是资源。然而, 如上所述, 新员工进入组织由“外部人”变为“内部人”的过程中, 其资质过剩感也会随之发生变化, 上述理论在揭示该问题上存在一定的局限性。基于此, 本研究尝试引入新的理论视角——组织社会化理论, 来分析新员工资质过剩的动态变化和作用机理。

2.2 组织社会化的相关研究

组织社会化是新员工从组织外部人变为组织内部人的过程, 是个体为了成为组织成员而需要获得态度、行为和知识的过程, 也是角色及社会认同发展的过程(严鸣, 涂红伟, 李骥, 2011)。由于研究者理解和研究组织社会化的视角不同, 组织社会化的概念存在较大差异, 包括角色转换与适应视角, 认同视角, 符号互动视角, 交易视角, 冲突视角和学习视角, 但都强调了组织社会化是一个动态变化的过程。

有关组织社会化影响因素方面, 学者们主要围绕两个方面进行了研究:一是组织因素, 即组织特征和组织提供的社会化策略; 二是个人因素, 即员工个人特征和个人采用的社会化策略(姜嬿, 张骁, 眭丽红, 2013)。近年来学者们研究了领导因素、团队因素、人际网络关系、反馈和信息收集、工作期望和心理因素等对组织社会化的影响(毛凯贤, 李超平, 2015); 此外, 学者们还对组织、个体及交互策略的影响作用进行了研究(王庆燕, 石金涛, 2006)。在组织社会化影响结果方面, 学者们将组织社会化的结果变量分为临近结果变量(更靠近调整过程的结果变量, 包括任务掌握、角色清晰和组织理解等)和远端结果变量(对员工适应更全面的评价指标, 包括工作满意度、工作绩效、离职意向、离职行为等) (Saks, & Ashforth, 2010)。最近的一些研究围绕组织社会化对员工工作投入、自我效能感匹配、高绩效工作系统等进行了分析(何辉, 黄月, 2016; 郭云贵, 张丽华, 2016; 胡冬梅, 陈维政, 2016), 得出了一些有益的结论。在研究范式方面:早期的研究强调组织在社会化过程中的主导作用, 即组织主导型社会化策略(Saks & Gruman, 2011)。但近年来的研究表明员工并非只是被动接受组织的安排, 因此员工在社会化过程中的主导作用逐步受到关注, 即员工主导型社会化策略(李燕萍, 徐嘉, 2013)以及整合员工和组织视角的组织社会化策略(Kim, Cable, & Kim, 2005)。研究表明, 个体能够与组织进行有效互动, 并通过主动行为来适应新环境和熟悉新工作, 即组织-员工交互型社会化策略成为推进社会化进程的重要方式(张燕红, 廖建桥, 2015)。

2.3 相关研究发展评述

国内外学者基于不同的理论视角探索了资质过剩对员工工作态度、行为以及心理健康的影响, 为资质过剩的后续研究奠定了良好的基础; 同时, 对新员工的组织社会化过程、影响因素以及影响结果也进行了较为深入的研究, 得出了一些有益的成果。总体来看:第一, 国外对资质过剩的研究已较为深入, 特别是近两年在国际顶级期刊出现多篇有关资质过剩的研究, 说明资质过剩现象得到了越来越多学者的重视。然而, 这一主题在本土研究较少, 资质过剩在我国已较为普遍, 并产生了一些实践问题(Lin et al., 2017); 同时, 国外现有研究在资质过剩的内涵方面还没有得到统一的结论, 其影响结果主要聚焦于资质过剩的消极影响方面, 积极影响并未获得充分研究, 得出的结论也不尽一致(Erdogan, Bauer, Peiro, & Truxillo, 2011), 因此有必要以本土企业员工为样本展开研究。第二, 以往的研究曾提出授权、组织支持、个性化契约等情境因素, 以此来降低员工的资质过剩感知甚至引导其利用冗余资质为组织服务(Erdogan & Bauer, 2009; Luksyte, & Spitzmueller, 2016), 但上述研究视角无法系统揭示新员工资质过剩的动态变化及新员工与组织的互动过程。第三, 当资质过剩新员工将自身的资质与岗位要求进行比较时, 往往会产生被剥夺感、不公平感和不匹配感, 从而导致消极的工作结果。然而, 现有文献忽略了资质过剩可能会影响新员工与领导、同事的互动关系, 传统的以工作为中心的研究视角并不能完全解释这种作用关系(Deng et al., 2016)。

基于此, 本研究从实践问题和理论文献中凝练出新员工资质过剩研究的契合视角——组织社会化, 系统揭示新员工资质过剩的动态变化与作用机制, 开发中国组织情境下资质过剩的测评量表, 并进行实证检验。以期在一定程度上丰富资质过剩理论, 拓展组织社会化理论的应用范围, 并为本土情境的资质过剩管理提供指导。

3 研究构想

本研究提出以下三个研究模块来揭示上述问题:第一, 本土情境下新员工的资质过剩有何特殊性?第二, 在组织社会化理论视角下, 新员工资质过剩的动态变化路径是什么?即新员工的资质过剩如何并怎样发生变化的?第三, 在组织社会化理论视角下, 新员工资质过剩的作用机制是什么, 受到哪些边界因素的影响?

3.1 研究模块一:本土情境下新员工资质过剩的内涵与结构

在本研究模块, 首先阐释本土情境下新员工资质过剩的内涵及其维度, 并采取严格的开发程序对资质过剩结构维度进行探索和验证; 其次依据相关理论选取与资质过剩具有较高相关性的变量, 检验资质过剩的构念效度。

资质过剩由不充分雇佣(underemployment)的概念发展而来, 并代表了不充分雇佣的一种类型(Feldman, 1996)。根据不同的学科视角, 不充分雇佣的定义存在较大差异(Rubb, 2003), 其中Feldman (1996)的定义较为综合且运用广泛。他指出不充分雇佣包含5个维度:一是教育过剩, 即个体的教育水平高于工作要求; 二是个体非自愿受雇于自己专业领域之外的工作; 三是个体拥有超过工作要求的工作技能和工作经验; 四是个体非自愿的处于兼职、临时或断断续续的雇佣状态。五是工资水平, 对于再就业的个体来说, 当其工资低于以前工资水平的20% 或更多时, 就处于不充分雇佣的状态。而后学者们在不充分雇佣定义的基础上, 选取其中一到两个方面, 来研究工作场所中的资质过剩(Overqualification)现象。

在之后的研究中, Feldman, Leana和Bolino (2002)指出, 先前的研究多缺乏理论基础, 建议利用经典理论来解释不充分雇佣和资质过剩的内涵和作用结果。在他的号召下, 研究者们开始使用相关理论界定不充分雇佣和工作场所资质过剩问题。其中关注主观资质过剩问题的代表理论主要有人力资本理论、人-职匹配理论和相对剥夺理论。根据人力资本理论, 不充分雇佣中的“教育过度”、“技能未充分利用”以及“工作领域与专业不符”等反映了人力资本未得到有效利用(Kulkarni et al., 2015)。从人-职匹配理论视角看, 资质过剩员工拥有高于工作需要的教育水平、技能和经验, 反映了一种低职位匹配程度(Erdogan & Bauer, 2009; Maynard et al., 2006)。如学者Johnson, Morrow和Johnson (2002)基于人-职匹配理论, 通过三个不同样本的研究, 得出资质过剩包含感知到的不匹配和感知到的没前途两个维度。而相对剥夺理论包含了公平和归因理论的成分, 依据该理论, 个体会以先前或未来的情况作为参照与现有工作进行对比, 当比较产生差距时就会感到资质过剩(Feldman et al., 2002; McKee-Ryan, & Harvey, 2011)。

鉴于当前资质过剩的研究主要以西方国家为研究背景(Verhaest & Omey, 2006), 虽然学者们开发了资质过剩的的量表, 然而现有研究忽略了从上述五个维度来对资质过剩进行测量(Allan, Tay, & Sterling, 2017)。据此, 本研究将从资质过剩概念的本质出发, 基于中国组织情境, 依据Feldman (1996)提出的五维度, 对资质过剩进行质性研究和探索性分析。此外, 研究表明作为一种主观感受, 相对剥夺理论能够更好的解释个体的资质过剩感知(Allan et al., 2017)。相对剥夺理论描述了个体如何比较实际工作与理想工作的差异, 这种比较会因个体的评价标准和期望不同而不同, 如果这一期望未实现则会产生一种剥夺感以及较低的工作满意度, 甚至离职倾向(Erdogan & Bauer, 2009)。而新员工工作期望与实际工作的差异对组织社会化的结果有重要影响(姚琦, 乐国安, 2011)。因此本研究选择两种工作态度, 即工作满意度和离职倾向作为资质过剩的结果变量, 从而借助与其他相关构念之间的关系获取外部证据, 检验新员工资质过剩的构念效度, 探究资质过剩的构念特征。

3.2 研究模块二:组织社会化视角下新员工资质过剩的动态变化

在本研究模块, 要解决如下研究问题:一是组织社会化视角下, 哪些关键要素影响新员工的资质过剩?二是新员工的资质过剩是如何在这些要素的影响下进行动态变化的?组织社会化是一个动态变化的过程, 包括社会化早期、社会化过程、社会化结果三个阶段。研究表明, 组织社会化过程中, 资质过剩新员工并不是孤立的, 而是处在一定的社会环境中, 资质过剩新员工需要与一定的参照对象进行对比, 工作场所中的其他个体往往成为其参照对象(Deng et al., 2016)。当新员工进入组织发现与领导或同事的资质过剩水平比较一致时, 新员工会认为资质过剩可能是组织的一种隐形“规范”, 因此可能会合理化其资质过剩(Hu et al., 2015)。相反, 如果新员工进入组织发现领导和同事的资质水平与岗位相比都较低, 则会给新员工带来一种“鹤立鸡群”的感觉, 此时资质过剩新员工可能会漠视组织中的工作, 疏离领导和同事。综上所述, 本研究将引入两个情境因素——领导资质过剩和同事资质过剩, 从而将新员工资质过剩的研究放在一个完整的组织环境中, 即新员工对资质过剩的感知可能受到领导、同事与新员工自身资质过剩之间差异的影响, 见图1

图1

图1   组织社会化视角下新员工资质过剩的动态变化

注:T1、T2、T3代表时间间隔, 参照以往研究, 分别在新员工入职的第3、第6、第9个月进行


3.2.1 同事资质过剩与新员工资质过剩

根据组织社会化的过程, 新员工进入组织后会与同事进行互动, 员工与同事之间的互动以及经验的交流会让其不断审视自己的工作内容和状态, 从而会影响员工的资质过剩感(Feldman et al., 2002)。因此, 当新员工进入组织后, 对与其教育背景、技能水平和经验等相似的同事资质过剩感知会影响其对自身资质过剩水平的判断。当新员工发现同事资质适当或者资质不足而自身资质过剩时, 则会感到与同事不匹配, 产生剥夺感, 增加资质过剩感; 相反, 当新员工发现其大多数同事也资质过剩, 如上文所述, 其可能会合理化自身的资质过剩, 并认为自己与同事较匹配, 随之降低资质过剩感。也就是说, 新员工自身资质过剩感与感知同事资质过剩之间的差异在很大程度上决定了新员工是否认为自己与同事匹配。本研究把资质过剩新员工感知的与同事的匹配称为同事-个体匹配, 指个体与其所在组织成员之间的兼容性(Kristof, 1996)。也就是说, 组织社会化过程中, 同事资质过剩水平与新员工资质过剩水平越一致, 同事-个体越匹配, 新员工稍后资质过剩感越低。因此, 本研究提出:

假设1:组织社会化过程中, 新员工资质过剩感和感知的同事资质过剩的一致性对同事-个体匹配有显著预测作用, 也就是说, 当员工资质过剩感与感知到的同事资质过剩水平都高或者都低时, 同事-个体的匹配性越高。

假设2:组织社会化过程中, 新员工资质过剩感和感知的同事资质过剩的一致性通过同事-个体匹配影响新员工的稍后资质过剩感。

3.2.2 领导资质过剩与新员工资质过剩

研究表明, 领导对于员工工作情境的塑造发挥着关键性的作用(Zhang & Chen, 2013)。资质过剩新员工进入组织发现领导资质过剩程度较低时, 可能会对自身的资质水平产生较高的优越感, 感到自己“大材小用”, 与领导不匹配(Sierra, 2011), 从而产生不公平感甚至被剥夺感, 最终表现出较低的凝聚力和协作行为。相反, 当新员工进入组织发现领导具有较高的资质过剩水平, 则可能会认为自己与领导是匹配的, 共同组成了一个精英群体, 并期望获得领导的支持(Alfes, Shantz, & Baalen, 2016)。本研究把资质过剩新员工对领导的这种感知称为领导-下属匹配。领导-下属的匹配, 有助于资质过剩新员工与领导更开放、更真诚的沟通, 并认为他们的潜能和价值能够得到领导的认可, 从而认为他们的工作更有意义, 资质过剩感程度越低(Tummers & Knies, 2013)。也就是说, 组织社会化过程中, 领导资质过剩水平与新员工资质过剩水平越一致, 领导-下属越匹配, 新员工稍后资质过剩感越低。因此, 本研究假设:

假设3:组织社会化过程中, 新员工资质过剩感和感知的领导资质过剩的一致性对领导-下属匹配有显著预测作用, 也就是说, 当员工资质过剩感与感知到的领导资质过剩水平都高或者都低时, 领导-下属的匹配性越高。

假设4:组织社会化过程中, 新员工资质过剩感和感知的领导资质过剩的一致性通过领导-下属匹配影响新员工的稍后资质过剩感。

3.3 研究模块三:组织社会化视角下新员工资质过剩的作用机制研究

本模块将要解决的研究问题主要包括两个方面:第一, 组织社会化视角下, 新员工资质过剩对积极组织行为有着怎样的作用?第二, 新员工资质过剩对积极组织行为作用的边界条件是什么?当前有关资质过剩潜在积极效应的研究集中在组织通过对资质过剩员工的外在引导促使其产生积极的组织行为, 缺少资质过剩员工对组织内在认同的研究。认同是个体在组织中形成自我概念的重要过程, 能够解释和预测工作场所中员工的许多态度和行为(高中华, 赵晨, 2014)。新员工为了尽快融入组织, 往往会积极主动地采取一些非组织要求的行为, 以获得领导与团队的认同。研究表明, 个体之所以对某一群体产生认同, 是因为该群体能够满足个体的社会情感需要, 如自尊、归属和地位等需要(socioemotional need) (Pratt, 1988)。而社会交换理论(Blau, 1964)脉络表明, 个体在组织中的社会交换关系是个体情绪、需要满足的一个重要来源, 包括领导-成员交换(LMX)和团队-成员交换(TMX)。人际关系的建立是组织社会化过程的一个主要影响因素(Korte, 2010; 张燕红, 李永周, 周勇, 邹琼, 2018), 有些学者甚至认为它可以部分解释组织社会化的机制(姚琦, 乐国安, 2008)。基于此, 本研究模块引入LMX和TMX, 并分别分析其在新员工资质过剩与领导认同和团队认同关系中的边界效应。LMX和TMX代表了两个相关的构念, 用以说明新员工与领导和团队成员之间发展关系的性质。

LMX是新员工人际关系的重要组成部分, 这在强调人情和关系的中国组织情境中表现得尤为突出。不少研究表明, 高质量的LMX 能显著预测积极的组织社会化结果(任孝鹏, 王辉, 2005)。高质量的LMX表现在领导为员工提供情感支持, 对员工表示关注, 增强资质过剩员工的信心, 认为领导将会为其提供有挑战性的任务和未来的职业发展机会等。尽管挑战性的任务或增长机会不会改变资质过剩新员工的职务状态(如匹配的薪水), 但却为他们职业的进一步发展奠定了基础(Alfes et al., 2016), 从而降低被剥夺感, 表现出对领导的认同。因此, 本研究提出:

假设5:LMX调节新员工资质过剩和领导认同的关系, 也就是说, 在高LMX水平下, 新员工资质过剩正向影响领导认同, 在低LMX水平下, 新员工资质过剩负向影响领导认同。

高质量的TMX促使资质过剩新员工和其他团队成员进行互惠合作。已有研究分析了团队在新员工组织社会化中的重要作用, 团队成员在新员工组织社会化过程中充当着组织代言人, 是新员工获取信息的主要来源(Klein & Heuser, 2008)。新员工通过与其他成员的互动来定位自己的角色, 其他成员提供的有关奖励、任务分配以及任务完成方式等方面的信息, 对新员工的行为产生引导作用。因此, 拥有高质量TMX的资质过剩新员工更有可能得到团队成员的支持, 获得有效的工作信息和反馈, 遇到问题和困难更容易得到团队成员的帮助(黄河, 吴培冠, 2012)。在这种情况下, 能够稳定或者降低新员工由于资质过剩所产生的负面情绪, 任务掌握和角色清晰度更高, 因此会增加对团队的归属感和认同感。基于此, 本研究提出:

假设6:TMX调节新员工资质过剩和组织认同的关系, 也就是说, 在高TMX水平下, 新员工资质过剩正向影响组织认同, 在低LMX水平下, 新员工资质过剩负向影响组织认同。

根据相对剥夺理论脉络, 当个体在工作场所中感知到客观环境无法满足期望即存在剥夺感时, 他们很可能形成负面的认知(如对任务重要性的感知)和情感(如领导认同或团队认同感知), 直接影响工作行为。然而, 最近的一项研究表明, 在工作中建立高质量人际关系有助于降低个体的不公平感和被剥夺感, 因为他们会认为其知识、技能和能力在工作中得到充分利用(Deng et al., 2016)。因此, 本研究选择主动性行为和组织公民行为(指向组织的组织公民行为和指向个体的组织公民行为)作为结果变量。主要原因一是尽管过去已经有学者对资质过剩与组织公民行为的关系进行了研究(Chen, 2009), 然而却发现了不一致的结论, 说明资质过剩与组织公民行为之间的关系存在情境权变因素; 二是有研究指出如果能够从领导与团队成员那里获得更多的发展性意见, 新员工帮助其他团队成员的主动性行为以及自己的工作绩效都会显著增加, 但缺少实证支持(Li, Harris, & Xie, 2011)。综合上述分析, 本研究认为当人际交往、互动在资质过剩新员工与其领导和团队成员之间有效、顺利地开展, 即形成高质量的LMX和TMX时, 新员工倾向于产生较高的领导认同和团队认同, 并使资质过剩对主动性行为和组织公民行为的影响凸显出来。因此, 本研究提出:

假设7:LMX正向调节新员工资质过剩通过领导认同对主动性行为和组织公民行为的间接作用, 也就是说, LMX越高, 这种间接作用越强。

假设8:TMX正向调节新员工资质过剩通过组织认同对主动性行为和组织公民行为的间接作用, 也就是说, TMX越高, 这种间接作用越强。

综上, 我们提出了本研究模块的研究框架, 如图2所示。

图2

图2   组织社会化视角下新员工资质过剩的作用机制框架

注:LMX、TMX分别代表领导-成员交换关系、团队-成员交换关系; OCB-O、OCB-I分别代表指向组织的组织公民行为、指向个体的组织公民行为。


综合以上分析, 本研究选取了领导资质过剩和同事资质过剩来理解新员工资质过剩动态变化, 并从组织社会化人际互动视角选取LMX、TMX、匹配和认同构念来系统分析新员工资质过剩的作用机制, 理论框架如图3所示。

图3

图3   基于组织社会化的新员工资质过剩动态变化与作用机理理论构建


本研究将采用深入访谈、问卷调查, 分别在新员工入职第3、6、9个月进行多时点的数据收集, 并根据获取的数据和假设需要, 综合采用多中介模型、调节路径分析、多项式回归与响应面分析等方法检验新员工资质过剩的动态变化和作用机制。如研究模块二涉及领导资质过剩与新员

工资质过剩匹配、同事资质过剩与新员工资质过剩匹配对结果变量的共同影响, 将采用二次多项式回归与响应面分析相结合的研究方法。多项式回归方法可以更全面地检验两个变量的相对差异对结果变量的影响; 而响应面分析可以将传统匹配分析中采用的2维空间拓展到3维空间, 有助于对差异性关系进行深入考察(Edwards, 2007)。其中, 多项式回归的方程为:

Z = b0 + b1X + b2Y + b3X2 + b4XY + b5Y2 + e

注:Z为因变量, X、Y为预测变量, b0为常数项, b1 ~ b5为各回归项系数, e为残差项

根据Shanock等人(2010)的建议, 计算回归方程的回归系数、响应面沿着一致性线(Y = X)和不一致性线(Y = -X)的横截线的斜率和曲率。本研究模块3中被调节的中介作用模型分析将采用Hayes (2012)的方法, 利用SPSS软件(含PROCESS macro)进行分析, 并且使用重新抽样自助法(re-sampling-based bootstrapping)进行统计量方差估计和区间估计。

4 理论构建

不少企业实践表明, 管理者针对资质过剩新员工存在两种相互矛盾的决策方法:一种是组织为了避免资质过剩可能带来的负面结果(如在较短的时间内离职), 在招聘过程中避免雇佣资质过剩的新员工, 即出现“因出色而被拒聘”的现象; 另一种是组织期望招到资质过剩的新员工, 并认为资质过剩的新员工存在较大的潜能, 会给组织带来创新、高绩效等利益。如此, 组织如何降低资质过剩新员工的消极影响甚至利用其冗余资质来为组织服务, 从资质过剩新员工的潜能中获益呢?学者们对该问题进行了尝试性的分析与回答。例如, 提高员工的组织支持感, 为其提供指导他人的机会、个性化契约(I-deals), 以及工作再设计等(Luksyte & Spitzmueller, 2016), 然而新员工适应企业的过程是员工和企业互动以达到员工-组织匹配的动态过程(陈卫旗, 2009)。学者们基于人力资本理论、人-职匹配理论、相对剥夺理论、资源保存理论以及公平理论对资质过剩的研究在一定程度上揭示了员工的心理反应以及行为表现, 但上述视角无法系统揭示新员工资质过剩的动态变化过程; 此外, 现有文献在资质过剩感影响个体组织态度和行为的研究中, 多围绕工作(岗位)为中心, 忽略了人际关系的情境作用(Deng et al., 2016)。为了弥补这一理论上的不足, 本研究引入组织社会化视角, 构建同事资质过剩和领导资质过剩构念来揭示新员工资质过剩的动态变化, 并基于组织社会化视角下新员工与同事和领导的互动过程探讨资质过剩的作用机制。

首先, 本研究采用质性研究方法揭示新员工资质过剩的内涵和维度, 开发本土组织情境中的测评工具, 并检验新员工资质过剩与理论上相关变量之间的关系; 其次, 研究基于组织社会化理论视角, 构建新员工资质过剩动态变化模型。如上文所述, 组织社会化是新员工从组织外部人变为组织内部人的过程, 也是新员工角色及社会认同建立和发展的过程(严鸣等, 2011)。在这一过程中, 新员工与所处情境之间的互动能够为其成功组织社会化提供必要的帮助与反馈(Reichers, 1987), 而领导和同事是新员工进入组织后面临的主要人际情境。根据社会交换理论, 一方面, 通过一系列的合作、互动后领导会与新员工建立亲近或疏远的关系, 进而影响新员工的工作态度与行为(李超平等, 2015; Kammeyer-Mueller, Wanberg, Rubenstein, & Zhaoli, 2013); 另一方面, 同事与新员工之间的互动在新员工组织社会化过程中也发挥着重要作用, 直接影响着新员工对于工作任务和目标、组织规范和制度、团队价值观以及自己角色等方面的了解, 并帮助他们建立和发展岗位所需的知识和能力(Korte, 2010)。已有研究指出同事资质过剩会影响员工的资质过剩感, 并进而影响其工作态度和行为(Hu et al., 2015)。因此, 在新员工与领导、同事两个内部人群体之间互动的过程中, 新员工对所处人际情境的逐步理解将会影响其资质过剩感。例如, 当池塘里有很多条“大鱼”的时候, 即与领导和同事的资质过剩水平比较一致时, 员工倾向于合理化其资质过剩(Hu et al., 2015), 认为自己与群体是匹配的, 进而认可自己的工作, 甚至产生积极的组织行为, 如指导他人等(Erdogan et al., 2011)。相反, 如果池塘里只有一条“大鱼”, 即新员工认为自己资质过剩而领导和同事资质水平较低, 此时资质过剩新员工会产生一种被剥夺的感觉, 降低对组织和领导的认同感, 不愿意投入到对组织有利的工作中。为了揭示该过程, 本研究选取领导资质过剩和同事资质过剩来表示新员工对人际情境的感知, 选择领导-下属匹配和同事-个体匹配来描述新员工与所处人际情境之间建立的关系, 系统分析新员工资质过剩感的动态变化。

再次, 在前面研究的基础上, 研究进一步探索组织社会化过程中资质过剩的作用机制。除了匹配的产生, 新员工在组织社会化过程中会与组织的内部人(领导和同事)构建积极的人际关系(Kammeyer-Muelleret al., 2013; 张燕红等, 2018), 包括领导-成员交换关系和团队-成员交换关系。同时, 新员工为了尽快融入组织, 往往会积极主动地采取一些非组织要求的行为(如组织公民行为和主动性行为), 以获得领导与团队的认同。社会交换理论和社会认同理论的理论脉络表明, 高质量的LMX和TMX是新员工情绪、需要满足的一个重要来源, 并影响其自我概念的形成(Ho, 1998)。因此, 本研究探索了除工作(岗位)以外的人际关系因素(LMX和TMX)在新员工资质过剩对积极组织行为和态度影响的边界因素。

此外, 研究不仅丰富资质过剩理论和拓展组织社会化理论的应用, 同时对新员工资质过剩现象的管理具有实践意义, 具体表现为:第一, 引入组织社会化理论构建新员工资质过剩的动态变化路径, 拓展了组织社会化理论的应用, 从而全面地揭示新员工资质过剩的演变过程。以往大多数文献都在从静态的角度关注员工资质过剩的影响要素, 包括人口统计学特征、个体特征、职业特征等内容。另外, 在前期的调研中我们发现, 有些具有资质过剩的新员工在起初是因为“眼高手低”、“自恋” (如最近媒体报道的实习生拒订盒饭现象)而产生了资质过剩的“假象”, 当其发现身边的领导或同事资质水平更高时这种资质过剩就会减弱甚至消失。第二, 从组织社会化视角对新员工资质过剩的动态变化分析结果能够帮助企业掌握具有资质过剩员工的态度和行为变化轨迹, 并据此在不同的阶段选择有效的管理模式。此外, 在中国的文化背景下, 新员工对组织中的人际关系较为敏感, 组织中的领导和同事应注重与资质过剩员工建立良好的关系, 与其进行积极的沟通, 加强员工之间的合作, 积极为其拓展工作边界。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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工作期望是影响新员工组织社会化的重要心理变量。以往相关研究主要集中在期望落差领域,但是期望落差假设的有效性至今仍存在分歧。本研究基于组织社会化理论,采用纵向问卷调查方法,研究了社会化早期(即新员工组织进入后三个月)新员工工作期望与近端适应结果(即角色清晰、任务掌握、组织理解和社会整合)的关系,重点探讨了领导—部属交换(LMX)对期望落差作用的调节效应,以期回答期望落差假设成立条件的问题。结果表明:①在同时考虑期望和经历的情况下,仅新员工实际工作经历与适应结果正相关,期望落差对适应的影响不显著。②LMX调节期望落差与适应的关系——当LMX关系质量低时,期望未实现对适应有破坏作用,与期望落差假设一致;而高质量的LMX会抵消期望未实现对适应的破坏作用。③不同维度LMX的调节作用模式存在差异——"贡献"维度调节工作责任期望落差与角色清晰的关系,"尊敬"和"情感"维度调节工作回报期望落差与组织理解的关系。

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领导掌控着组织的资源,其态度和行为对新员工能否顺利社会化起关键作用。基于真实型领导和员工反馈寻求社会化理论,探讨团队真实型领导、反馈导向对新员工反馈寻求行为和社会化结果的影响。纵向选取53个团队中304个入职9个月内的新员工为调查样本,运用多层回归和结构方程模型进行验证。研究结果表明,团队真实型领导和反馈导向正向影响新员工反馈寻求行为,团队真实型领导显著正向调节反馈导向与新员工反馈寻求行为之间的关系;在高团队真实型领导水平下,高反馈导向的新员工表现出更频繁的反馈寻求行为;团队真实型领导与反馈导向的交互作用通过新员工反馈寻求行为对角色清晰度、社会融入度和工作满意度3个社会化结果起间接积极作用,表明团队真实型领导可以促进新员工有更多的反馈寻求行为,进而帮助他们成功社会化。

张燕红, 李永周, 周勇, 邹琼 . ( 2018).

关系资源视角的新员工组织社会化过程机制

心理科学进展, 26( 4), 584-598.

[本文引用: 2]

Alfes K., Shantz A., & Baalen S. V . ( 2016).

Reducing perceptions of overqualification and its impact on job satisfaction: The dual roles of interpersonal relationships at work

Human Resource Management Journal, 26( 1), 84-101.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

A sizeable portion of the working population perceives that they are overqualified for their jobs. This is problematic given that research consistently shows that such beliefs translate into lower levels of job satisfaction. Hence it behoves human resource management scholars to identify factors that influence perceptions of overqualification, and also moderators that may reduce the negative effect of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction. In this study, we present a moderated path model that posits that the quality of the relationships that employees hold with their leader and with their team are not only antecedents of perceived overqualification, but they also are hypothesised to weaken the negative relationship between perceived overqualification and job satisfaction. Survey data that was gathered from two organisations in the Netherlands (n=183) supported the model. Implications for theory and practice in human resource management are discussed.

Allan B. A., Tay L., & Sterling H. M . ( 2017).

Construction and validation of the subjective underemployment scales (sus)

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 99, 93-106.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Underemployment refers to work that is inferior to certain standards, such as sufficient pay or adequate use of people's abilities. Current measurement of underemployment has a number of problems, including categorization of continuous variables, lack of conceptual clarity, and overreliance on objective and single-item scales. To address these issues, the goal of the current research was to develop and refine scales assessing the six major domains underemployment identified by Feldman (1996): pay, status, field, hours, involuntary temporary work, and poverty wage employment. In two studies with different samples of diverse, working adults, we provide evidence for the internal consistency, factor structure, and the validity of the Subjective Underemployment Scales (SUS). The SUS demonstrated convergent validity by relating to similar constructs, work-related outcomes, and job attitudes. In addition, we tested different factor structures and incremental validity for the six dimensions, along with overqualification, and we found evidence for the use of a total SUS score and subscale SUS scores. The current research represents improvements in underemployment measurement and continued conceptual clarification in this area. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

Blau, P.M. ( 1964).

Exchange and power in social life. New York:

Wiley.

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Chen, Y.J. ( 2009).

Associations of perceived underemployment with in-role and organisational citizenship behaviours: The beneficiary perspective

Global Business and Economics Review, 11( 3-4), 317-331.

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Deng H., Guan Y. J., Wu C. H., Erdogan B., Bauer T. N. , & Xiang, Y.(2016).

A relational model of perceived overqualification: The moderating role of interpersonal influence on social acceptance

Journal of Management, Social Science Electronic Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Theories of perceived overqualification have tended to focus on employees job-related responses to account for effects on performance. We offer an alternative perspective and theorize that perceived overqualification could influence work performance through a relational mechanism. We propose that relational skills, in the form of interpersonal influence of overqualified employees, determine their tendency to experience social acceptance and thus engage in positive work-related behaviors. We tested this relational model across two studies using time-lagged, multi-source data. In Study 1, the results indicated that for employees high on interpersonal influence, perceived overqualification was positively related to self-reported social acceptance, whereas for employees low on interpersonal influence, the relationship was negative. Social acceptance, in turn, was positively related to in-role job performance, interpersonal altruism, and team member proactivity evaluated by supervisors. In Study 2, we focused on peer-reported social acceptance and found that the indirect relationships between perceived overqualification and supervisor-reported behavioral outcomes via social acceptance were negative when interpersonal influence was low and nonsignificant when interpersonal influence was high. The implications of the general findings are discussed.

Edwards, J. R . ( 2007).

Polynomial regression and response surface methodology

In C. Ostroff & T. A. Judge (Eds.), Perspectives on organizational fit (pp. 361-372). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Erdogan, B., &Bauer, T.N . ( 2009).

Perceived overqualification and its outcomes: The moderating role of empowerment

Journal of Applied Psychology, 94( 2), 557-565.

URL     PMID:19271809      [本文引用: 6]

Abstract Research shows that perceived overqualification is related to lower job attitudes and greater withdrawal behaviors but to higher supervisor ratings of performance. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, the authors proposed and tested empowerment as a moderator of the relationship between perceived overqualification and job satisfaction, intentions to remain, voluntary turnover, and objective sales performance to examine if negative outcomes could be lessened while stimulating even higher performance. Hierarchical linear modeling results from a sample of 244 sales associates working in 25 stores of a Turkish retail chain show that empowerment ameliorated the negative effects of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction, intentions to remain, and voluntary turnover. Empowerment did not affect the positive relationship between perceived overqualification and objective sales performance. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

Erdogan B., Bauer T. N., PeirÓ J. M., & Truxillo D. M . ( 2011).

Overqualified employees: Making the best of a potentially bad situation for individuals and organizations

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4( 2), 215-232.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

One of the 090008truisms090009 of personnel selection is that overqualified applicants are likely to be a poor fit and thus experience low job satisfaction and performance and higher turnover. Recently, the issue of overqualification has come to the forefront because of the economic downturn, especially in some European Union countries where unemployment rates are extremely high. However, empirical research on overqualification in the industrial090009organizational/organizational behavior literature is limited. In this article, we argue that although there may be drawbacks to overqualification for both organizations and employees, overqualification may also provide a number of positive outcomes for workers and employers alike. We review the limited research on overqualification, noting the positive and negative consequences of overqualification and the conditions under which overqualified employees may be a boon to organizations. We conclude by recommending some possible research streams to better understand the overqualification phenomenon and by making recommendations for organizational practices.

Feldman, D.C. ( 1996).

The nature, antecedents and consequences of underemployment

Journal of Management, 22( 3), 385-407.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Despite the growth of underemployment in the United States, relatively little theoretical or empirical attention has been paid to this phenomenon. This article presents a multidimensional conceptualization of underemployment in terms of education, work duties, field of employment, wages, and permanence of the job. The article then presents testable propositions on both the hypothesized antecedents of underemployment (e.g., economic factors, job characteristics, career history, job search strategies, and demographics) and on the hypothesized consequences of underemployment (e.g., job attitudes, overall psychological well-being, career attitudes, job behaviors, and marital, family, and social relationships). Directions for future theory development, research methodology, and institutional assistance programs for the underemployed are discussed as well.

Feldman D. C., Leana C. R., & Bolino M. C . ( 2002).

Underemployment and relative deprivation among re-employed executives

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75( 4), 453-471.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Using a sample of 517 executives who lost their jobs as a result of downsizing, this study examined underemployment among managers in replacement jobs taken after their layoffs. Laid-off executives who were re-employed in jobs which paid less, were at lower levels of organizational hierarchies and which did not fully utilize their skills had consistently lower job attitudes. In addition, the results suggest that relative deprivation is an important mediator in explaining how underemployment leads to poorer psychological well-being in those replacement jobs. The article concludes with directions for future research on underemployment and relative deprivation in the aftermath of layoffs.

Feldman, D.C., &Maynard, D.C . ( 2011).

A labor economic perspective on overqualification

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4( 2), 233-235.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

No abstract is available for this article.

Guerrero, L., &Hatala, J.P . ( 2015).

Antecedents of perceived overqualification: A three-wave study

Career Development International, 20( 4), 409-423.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job search on perceived overqualification by applying the theory of planned behavior and including financial need and openness to experience as moderators. Design/methodology/approach – Three questionnaires were given at weeks 1, 8 and 12 to 436 practice firm participants. A total of 119 completed all three questionnaires. The authors used partial least squares to analyze the data. Findings – Job search self-efficacy was positively related to job search intentions and to outcome expectations. Job search intentions were positively related to job search intensity. Financial need acted as a moderator of the relationship between job search intensity and perceived overqualification such that for those with high-financial need higher levels of job search intensity resulted in higher perceived overqualification. Research limitations/implications – The authors found little support for the theory of planned behavior in the model. The authors found strong support for the role of job search self-efficacy and job search intentions. The use of a three-wave design resulted in a relatively low sample size and the use of the practice firm reduces the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications – The results suggest that increasing job search self-efficacy and job search intentions while managing the anticipations of job seekers is likely to yield better job search outcomes. Originality/value – This study investigates the role of job search on perceived overqualification. Findings suggest that malleable attitudes during job search such as job search self-efficacy, job search intentions, and anticipations are likely to impact perceived overqualification.

Hayes, A.F. ( 2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ho, D. Y.F. ( 1998).

Interpersonal relationships and relationship dominance: an analysis based on methodological relationism

Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1( 1), 1-16.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Abstract The author argues that a mature Asian social psychology is marked by the characteristic ways in which it generates knowledge about social behavior in general, rather than by the body of knowledge it obtains about Asians. Methodological relationalism, grounded in dialectics, is explicated as a conceptual framework for the analysis of human though and action; it is transformed by Asian views reflecting the omnipresence of self-other relations in all social life. A classification of interpersonal relationships, categorized according to the basis of their formation, is provided. Cultural contrasts are explored, with reference to: (a) the formation of relationships, (b) cultural roots of how interpersonal relationships are defined in myths and legends, and (c) the dominance of specific relationships in different cultures. Finally, Confucian heritage cultures are described in terms of the construct relationship dominance.

Hu J., Erdogan B., Bauer T. N., Jiang K., Liu S., & Li Y . ( 2015).

There are lots of big fish in this pond: the role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees

Journal of Applied Psychology, 100( 4), 1228-1238.

URL     PMID:25546266     

Research has uncovered mixed results regarding the influence of overqualification on employee performance outcomes, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions for such an influence. Using relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1976) as the primary theoretical basis, in the current research, we examine the moderating role of peer overqualification and provide insights to the questions regarding whether, when, and how overqualification relates to employee performance. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 6 months from 351 individuals and their supervisors in 72 groups. Results showed that when working with peers whose average overqualification level was high, as opposed to low, employees who felt overqualified for their jobs perceived greater task significance and person-group fit, and demonstrated higher levels of in-role and extra-role performance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications for overqualification at the individual level and within the larger group context.

Johnson, G.J., &Johnson, W.R . ( 1997).

Perceived overqualification, emotional support, and health

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27( 21), 1906-1918.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

In the present study, we examined the effects of perceived overqualification on health and the moderating effect of emotional support. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses found 2 indicators of perceived overqualification: "mismatch" and "no-grow." Perceived mismatch had a significant negative effect on health but perceived no-grow did not. The main effect revealed that the greater the perceived emotional support, the greater the health. The significant interaction of perceived emotional support and mismatch, and perceived emotional support and no-grow on health indicates that the negative effects of overqualification on health was greater for those perceiving low emotional support than for those perceiving high emotional support. The significance of social support in illuminating the relationship between perceived overqualification and health are discussed.

Johnson W. R., Morrow P. C., & Johnson G. J . ( 2002).

An evaluation of a perceived overqualification scale across work settings

The Journal of Psychology, 136( 4), 425-441.

URL     PMID:12230145     

The authors extended and evaluated the dimensionality of the L. J. Khan and P. C. Morrow (1991) subjective underemployment scale. They used data from 3 independent samples to assess the measurement properties of the scale. The results of confirmatory factor analyses supported 2 dimensions and indicated that the measurement model parameters partially generalized across samples. Correlational and additional confirmatory factor analytic results rendered empirical support for most of the postulated relationships of the 2 overqualification dimensions with the somatization, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment variables. The findings indicate that the scale of perceived overqualification needs to be further developed and validated in different samples. The implications of the findings for person-job fit are discussed.

Kammeyer-Mueller J., Wanberg C., Rubenstein A., & Song Z. L . ( 2013).

Support, undermining, and newcomer socialization: Fitting in during the first 90 days

Academy of Management Journal, 56( 4), 1104-1124.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

While much organizational socialization occurs through interpersonal interactions, evidence regarding how these processes unfold over time has not been forthcoming. Results from a 14-wave longitudinal study with a sample of 264 organizational newcomers show that support of newcomers from coworkers and supervisors declines within the first 90 days of employment. Early support and undermining had more significant relationships with work outcomes assessed after 90 days of employment than did increases or decreases in support and undermining over that time period, suggesting early support and undermining may lay a foundation for later work outcomes. Proactive behavior partially mediated the relationship between support and more distal work outcomes, including withdrawal behaviors. Supervisor undermining was uniquely associated with higher turnover (exit) hazard. Academy of Management Journal.

Kim T. Y., Cable D. M., & Kim S. P . ( 2005).

Socialization tactics, employee proactivity, and person-organization fit

Journal of Applied Psychology, 90( 2), 232-241.

URL     PMID:15769234      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This study examined the linkage between organizational socialization tactics and person-organization (P-O) fit and examined the moderating influence of employees' proactivity behaviors. Results from a sample of 279 employee-supervisor pairs from 7 organizations in South Korea revealed a positive relationship between institutionalized socialization tactics and P-O fit perceptions. However, the association between firms' socialization tactics and P-O fit was facilitated or negated by several proactive behaviors that employees used to gain control over their environment. For example, employees' positive framing harmonized with institutional tactics to create higher P-O fit, whereas employees who proactively developed strong relationships with their supervisors essentially replaced institutionalized socialization tactics.

Klein, H.J., &Heuser, A.E . ( 2008).

The learning of socialization content: a framework for researching orientating practices

Research in Personnel & Human Resources Management, 27( 08), 279-336.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This chapter briefly reviews findings from recent socialization research to provide an updated view of the socialization literature. To help advance the literature, this chapter then takes an instructional system approach, viewing socialization fundamentally as a process of learning about a new or changed role and the environment surrounding that role. As such, attention will first be given to further understanding exactly what needs to be learned during socialization. In doing so, an expanded socialization content typology is presented. In addition, two other components are added to this typology to reflect the fact that (a) each of those content dimensions needs to be learned relative to different organizational levels (e.g., job, work group, unit, organization) and (b) socialization occurs over several months and there are temporal considerations relating to the different socialization content dimensions. This chapter then examines how to best facilitate the learning of that expanded socialization content. The Gagn茅-Briggs theory of instruction is used in connecting socialization content with the means of learning that content. The socialization and orienting activities commonly used by organizations to help new employees in the adjustment process are also identified and then mapped onto the learning outcomes they could best help facilitate. Finally, the conceptual, measurement, and research needs suggested by these extensions to the socialization literature are identified.

Korte, R. ( 2010).

‘First, get to know them’: a relational view of organizational socialization

Human Resource Development International, 13( 1), 27-43.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

An important episode in workplace learning is the socialization of newly hired people into the organization. Typically, the literature conceptualizes the socialization of new employees as a learning process whereby the newcomer is responsible for learning to fit into the organization. This perspective seems to underestimate the social influences of co-workers and managers. Research and theorizing on social exchange and interpersonal relationships identify the quality of relationships between members of a group as a fundamental factor moderating the quality and outcomes of other interactions related to learning and work. This paper presents the findings of a recent study of organizational socialization experienced by new engineers recently hired into a large, global manufacturing company based in the US. Results of this qualitative case study explore and explain the socialization process from a relational perspective providing compelling evidence that relationship building is a primary driver of the socialization process in organizations.

Kristof, A.L. ( 1996).

Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications

Personnel Psychology, 49( 1), 1-49.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This article presents a comprehensive definition and conceptual model of person-organization fit that incorporates supplementary as well as complementary perspectives on fit. To increase the precision of the construct's definition, it is also distinguished from other forms of environmental compatibility, silch as person-group and person-vocation fit. Once defined, commensurate measurement as it relates to supplementary and complementary fit is discussed and recommendations are offered regarding the necessity of its use. A distinction is made between the direct measurement of perceived fit and the indirect measurement of actual person-organization fit, using both cross- and individual-level techniques, and the debate regarding differences scores is reviewed. These definitional and measurement issues frame a review of the existing literature, as well as provide the basis for specific research propositions and suggestions for managerial applications.

Kulkarni M., Lengnickhall M. L., & Martinez P. G . ( 2015).

Overqualification, mismatched qualification, and hiring decisions

Personnel Review, 44( 4), 529-549.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine how employers define overqualification and mismatched qualification and whether they are willing to hire applicants whose educational and work experience credentials do not match job requirements. Design/methodology/approach - This paper draws from qualitative interview data from 24 hiring managers across a wide range of US public sector and private industries. Data were analyzed and coded to identify themes related to managers' perceptions of overqualification, matched, and mismatched qualification, and how these were related to selection decisions. A typology is proposed for categorizing applicant qualification levels and their potential human resource outcomes such as hiring decisions.

Li N., Harris T. B., Boswell W. R., & Xie Z . ( 2011).

The role of organizational insiders' developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomers' performance: An interactionist perspective

Journal of Applied Psychology, 96( 6), 1317-1327.

URL     PMID:21688879      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151 newcomer-manager dyads showed that supervisor developmental feedback (SDF) positively related to newcomer helping behavior and that SDF and coworker developmental feedback interactively predicted newcomer task performance. We also found differential moderating effects of proactive personality: SDF more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was lower; conversely, coworker developmental feedback more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was higher. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

Lin B., Law K. S., & Zhou J . ( 2017).

Why is underemployment related to creativity and OCB? a task crafting explanation of the curvilinear moderated relations

Academy of Management Journal, 60( 1), 156-177.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Based on the job-crafting perspective, we theorized a serial curvilinear mediated moderation model that links underemployment to two outcomes that benefit the organization: creativity and organizational citizenship behavior. A three-waved time-lagged survey of teachers and a field study of technical workers provided convergent support for this model. In Study 1, using data from 327 teachers and their immediate supervisors, we found support for our hypotheses that perceived underemployment had an inverted U-shaped relationship with task crafting and that this relationship was moderated by organizational identification. When the teachers organizational identification was high, they engaged in more task crafting for the organization at intermediate levels of perceived underemployment. We also found that task crafting was positively related to creativity and organizational citizenship behavior. In Study 2, the simulation tasks for 297 technical workers provided convergent evidence for the idea that objective underemployment indirectly influences objective task crafting through perceived underemployment with the inverted U-shaped path from perceived underemployment to task crafting. We discussed the theoretical and practical implications of this research.

Liu, S.Q., &Wang, M . ( 2012).

Perceived overqualification: a review and recommendations for research and practice

Research in Occupational Stress & Well Being, 10( 1), 1-42.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT In this chapter, we aim to make the following contributions to the perceived overqualification literature. First, we provide an opportunity-based fairness conceptualization of perceived overqualification, and differentiate it from other justice constructs. Second, we present a multilevel model of perceived overqualification, which enumerates the antecedents and consequences, and explicates the mediators and moderators of the effect of perceived overqualification. Third, we emphasize the importance of considering methodological issues in future research on overqualification. Finally, we offer specific suggestions in studying applicant overqualification and recruiter perceptions.

Louis, M.R. ( 1980).

Surprise and sense making: what newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings

Administrative Science Quarterly, 25( 2), 226-251.

URL     PMID:10247029     

Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Implications for research and practice on organizational entry are drawn.

Luksyte, A., &Spitzmueller, C . ( 2016).

When are overqualified employees creative? it depends on contextual factors

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( 5), 635-653.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

ABSTRACT The research on perceived overqualification has mainly examined its negative consequences. Defined, employees who feel overqualified have surplus talent and thus can be excellent workers if managed properly; yet, empirical evidence in this domain is lacking. Building on person nvironment fit theory, this research explored whether, when, and how employees who feel overqualified can engage in creative performance. The results of a multi-source field study (N = 113 employees and 19 supervisors) supported theoretical predictions. Perceived overqualification was related positively to supervisor-rated creative performance when these workers felt supported and appreciated and successfully negotiated developmental idiosyncratic deals. Opportunities to mentor others had an impact on the relationship between perceived overqualification and supervisor-rated creativity, although the simple slopes were non-significant. This study is novel in that it unpacked actionable steps that organizations can utilize to motivate this large segment of workforce to use their surplus qualifications constructively by, for example, engaging in creative performance. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Luksyte A., Spitzmueller C., & Maynard D. C . ( 2011).

Why do overqualified incumbents deviate? examining multiple mediators

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16( 3), 279-293.

URL     PMID:21728436      [本文引用: 3]

In the modern marketplace, especially when unemployment is high, more and more Americans find themselves overqualified (i.e., possessing more competencies than the job requires). Using and extending person-environment fit theory and the stressor-emotion model of counterproductive work (CWBs), we examine whether overqualified employees are more likely to display CWBs than employees who feel their positions match their qualification levels. Further, we examine why overqualified employees may behave in counterproductive ways and compare the empirical viability of several theoretically derived competing mediators. Based on data from a sample of full-time employees (n = 215), we found that consistent with the theoretical frameworks, overqualified incumbents display nondesirable counterproductive work because they become cynical about the meaningfulness of their activities. We further show that although poor person-job fit or inadequate psychological contracts can motivate such misbehavior, cynicism dominates as a reason for why overqualified employees engage in counterproductive work .

Maynard D. C., Joseph T. A., & Maynard A. M . ( 2006).

Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27( 4), 509-536.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We surveyed three distinct samples of employees (Ns of 238, 102, and 981) in order to examine relations among various types of underemployment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. Each dimension of underemployment is explored as a case of poor person-job fit, and the fit literature is used to produce hypotheses about these relations. We also developed and validated the 9-item Scale of Perceived Overqualification (SPOQ) to tap employee perceptions of surplus education, experience, and KSAs (knowledge, skills, and abilities). In general, perceptions of underemployment were associated with poor job satisfaction, particularly for facets with a direct causal relationship with the specific dimension of underemployment, such as overqualification and satisfaction with work. Perceived over-qualification was also related to lower affective commitment, and higher intentions to turnover. For part-time work, negative attitudes were only found when employees expressed a preference for full-time work; a similar trend was not found for temporary workers, however. Implications for theory, research, and practice are delineated.

Maynard, D.C., &Parfyonova, N.M . ( 2013).

Perceived overqualification and withdrawal behaviours: examining the roles of job attitudes and work values

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86( 3), 435-455.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The current study examined a moderated mediation model of perceived overqualification and job search, with job attitudes as mediators and the competence and growth work value as a moderator. We also hypothesized a positive relationship between overqualification and actual voluntary turnover behaviour. College graduates from diverse occupations completed two surveys spaced 6 months apart (n = 368). Results suggested that perceived overqualification at Time 1 led to active job search behaviour at Time 2, both directly and through job satisfaction. The direct link was moderated by work values, such that the overqualification ob search relationship was stronger for employees who highly valued work which offered skill utilization and growth. Perceived overqualification was also predictive of voluntary turnover behaviour; those at the high end of the overqualification scale were over four times more likely to have left their position than those at the low end of the scale. Finally, those who left their original positions reported less overqualification in their new positions. The current findings extend the limited existing literature by establishing relationships between overqualification and withdrawal behaviours 6 months later, and also providing evidence that individual differences may influence reactions to being overqualified.Practitioner pointsThe current study found that employees who feel overqualified were more likely to be searching for a new job 6 months later, especially among those who strongly value work that utilizes their skills. Perceived overqualification was also linked to future actual turnover behaviour. Thus, organizations stand to potentially lose talented employees if they feel underutilized and underchallenged in their jobs.These trends are particularly true of employees who strongly desire work that takes advantage of their talents, suggesting that the most ambitious employees are likely to seek alternate employment if they feel underutilized.To retain these employees, supervisors first need to identify employees who might be feeling overqualified and underutilized, as these perceptions may or may not line up with bjective overqualification. The supervisor can then consider ways to empower the employee through increased involvement in decision-making or offering more advanced job assignments.

Martinez P. G., Lengnickhall M. L., & Kulkarni M . ( 2014).

Overqualified? A conceptual model of managers’ perceptions of overqualification in selection decisions

Personnel Review, 43( 6), 957-974.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Purpose: We present a conceptual model for conducting research on how Human Resource and hiring managers form impressions of overqualified individuals and how these impressions affect their treatment of overqualified individuals during selection decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Given the central role of psychological processes within the proposed model, this conceptual paper builds on a social cognition approach. Findings: The proposed model consists of seven primary factors that can help propel research that is dynamic and contextually driven: (1) attributes of the overqualified individual, (2) job attributes, (3) observers’ cognitive overqualification schemas, (4) observers’ attitudes, (5) observers’ categorization processes, (6) the organizational context, and (7) individual factors, all of which influence the observers’ treatment of overqualified individuals. Originality/value: Most research has focused on individual-level outcomes of overqualification such as job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and physical and psychological health, while overlooking how organizational decision makers perceive overqualification and how this subsequently affects the likelihood of individuals being selected for an interview. Given the global growth in the number of overqualified workers, understanding antecedents and correlates of overqualification and how these affect organizational selection decisions is a pressing need. The proposed model outlines several factors that can help us better understand the phenomenon of overqualification.

McKee-Ryan, F.M., Harvey, J. ( 2011).

I have a job, but…: a review of underemployment

Journal of Management, 37( 4), 962-996.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This article reviews the underemployment literature, providing a comprehensive integrative overview of underemployment research. Underemployment, which occurs when a worker is employed in a job that is inferior by some standard, is linked to a broad range of negative outcomes for employees. This article builds on Feldman’s 1996 model of underemployment and identifies relevant theoretical perspectives and dimensions of underemployment, as well as reviewing the empirical research on the relationships between underemployment’s antecedents and outcomes. Suggestions for future research are offered, with particular attention on career implications, the effects of underemployment on an employee’s identity, and the importance of “choice” for underemployed employees. Finally, recommendations for improving the methodological rigor of underemployment research are provided.

Pratt, M.G. ( 1988).

To be or not to beCentral questions in organizational identification

In Whetten, D. A. & Godfrey, P. C. Eds.), Identity in organizations: Building theory through conversations

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ABSTRACT Provides an overview of central questions of organizational identification. The author describes organizational identification as a fundamental human process whereby an individual's beliefs about his or her organization become self-referential or self-defining. This identification process has been posited to be related to, but distinct from, internalization, organizational commitment, and person rganization fit. It is argued that organizational identification often occurs when individuals are experiencing strong needs. The author uses attraction-selection-attrition model; theories of rhetoric, socialization, and identity; and behavioral commitment and schema formation to help understand how individuals come to identify with their organizations and how organizations may attempt to influence this process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Reichers, A.E. ( 1987).

An interactionist perspective on newcomer socialization rates

The Academy of Management Review, 12( 2), 278-287.

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A symbolic interactionist perspective on the genesis of meaning and identity is used as a general theoretical framework to explain the specifics of newcomer socialization processes in organizations. This framework suggests that interactions with insiders in the setting may be an important, but largely overlooked, influence on the rate at which newcomers negotiate the first (encounter) stage of the socialization process. The role of interactions between newcomers and insiders is emphasized as the primary vehicle through which initial socialization occurs. A model of the interactionist perspective is presented and directions for future research are discussed.

Rubb, S. ( 2003).

Overeducation in the labor market: A comment and re-analysis of a meta-analysis

Economics of Education Review, 22( 6), 621-629.

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Groot and Maassen van den Brink (International Journal of Manpower 21, 584, 2000a) provide a useful summary of the incidence of overeducation and undereducation. Unfortunately, by combining non-compatible estimates of the impact of surplus schooling (and under schooling) on earnings they potentially bias their estimates downward (upward). This paper bypasses this potential bias by examining only wage estimates that use the “standard” required-surplus-deficit education model of Duncan and Hoffman (1981). The paper also expands the meta-analysis by including approximately 50 additional wage estimates. On average, the literature finds that the premium paid for overeducation is approximately equal to the penalty for undereducation, but lower than the returns associated with an increase in required education. Overeducated individuals earn more than their properly educated co-workers, but less than others with their level of schooling. The paper also examines how different definitions of required education impact the returns from overeducation and undereducation.

Saks, A.M., &Ashforth, B.E . ( 2010).

A longitudinal investigation of the relationships between job information sources, applicant perceptions of fit, and work outcomes

Personnel Psychology, 5 0(2), 395-426.

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This longitudinal field study was designed to examine the relationships between job information sources, self-esteem, and perceptions of person-job (P-J) and person-organization (P-O) fit, as well as the relationships between perceptions of fit and work outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, intentions to quit, stress symptoms, and turnover). The results indicate that the number of formal job information sources and self-esteem were positively related to perceptions of P-J fit, and formal job information sources were positively related to perceptions of P-O fit. Perceptions of P-J fit were positively related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, and negatively related to stress symptoms and intentions to quit. Perceptions of P-O fit were negatively related to intentions to quit and turnover. In addition, perceptions of fit mediated the relationships between job information sources and self-esteem with job satisfaction, intentions to quit, and turnover. These results highlight the job applicant's perspective of fit, and demonstrate the importance of both P-J and P-O fit perceptions.

Saks A. M., Gruman J. A., & Cooper-Thomas H . ( 2011).

The neglected role of proactive behavior and outcomes in newcomer socialization

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79( 1), 36-46.

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This study examined the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of proactive outcomes in the relationship between newcomer proactive behaviors and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 204 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers who more frequently engaged in a proactive behavior (e.g., information seeking) were more likely to receive the corresponding proactive outcome (e.g., information). We also found that proactive outcomes mediate the relationship between proactive behaviors and socialization outcomes and several of the proactive behaviors were more strongly related to socialization outcomes for newcomers who obtained more proactive outcomes. These results indicate the important yet previously neglected role of proactive outcomes for understanding the relationship between newcomer proactive socialization behaviors and outcomes.

Shanock L. R., Baran B. E., Gentry W. A., Pattison S. C., & Heggestad E. D . ( 2010).

Polynomial regression with response surface analysis: A powerful approach for examining moderation and overcoming limitations of difference scores

Journal of Business and Psychology, 25( 4), 543-554.

[本文引用: 1]

Sierra, M.J. ( 2011).

A multilevel approach to understanding employee overqualification

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4( 2), 243-246.

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Smith L. G. E., Amiot C. E., Callan V. J., Terry D. J., & Smith J. R . ( 2012).

Getting new staff to stay: The mediating role of organizational identification

British Journal of Management, 23( 1), 45-64.

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Newcomer turnover is a major cost to organizations, and the quality of new employees' experiences in the first few months is critical in determining whether they decide to stay or leave. In a study that focused on the first stage of newcomer socialization, we investigate the impact of perceptions of social validation from the team and the team leader, and perceived fairness of treatment on newcomers' identification with their work team and the organization, specifically measuring the group self-investment components of identification. The mediating role of these levels of group self-investment and of the imbalance (i.e. difference) between levels of self-investment on turnover intentions was also tested. New staff (N=569) joining a large public-sector organization completed a questionnaire about their socialization experiences in their first 6 months of their employment. Structural equation modelling revealed that social validation by the team and team leaders, and fairness of treatment, predict increased investment with the organization and with the team. Organizational-level self-investment and an imbalance in favour of investment with the organization over that of the team mediated decreases in turnover intentions. We conclude that organizations should provide newcomers with validation that promotes identification with their organization during this critical stage of socialization.

Thompson K. W., Shea T. H., Sikora D. M., PerrewÉ P. L., & Ferris G. R . ( 2013).

Rethinking underemployment and overqualification in organizations: The not so ugly truth

Business Horizons, 56( 1), 113-121.

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What comes to mind when you hear the term underemployment? Does a slight, disapproving frown purse your lips? Does pity flood your heart? Or do forgotten mental notations to study the topic permeate your brain? Although we are intimately familiar with unemployment and its effects, we are much less aware of underemployment and its impact on people and organizations. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in January 2012, underemployment was estimated to affect more than 10 million people in the American civilian labor force. Its magnitude suggests that underemployment is a significant issue for all involved. By combining practical experiences from an outplacement firm (Right Management, headed by our second author) and what we have learned from academic research, we herein describe five types of underemployment, discuss widely held assumptions about the issue, and offer suggestions regarding ways that organizations might harness the power of this economy-wide phenomenon.

Tummers, L.G., &Knies, E . ( 2013).

Leadership and meaningful work in the public sector

Public Administration Review, 73( 6), 859-868.

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There have been many important studies on leadership in the public administration discipline; however, scholarly inquiry still lags behind related disciplines such as psychology and business administration. This article helps fill that gap by analyzing the role that public leaders play in making work more meaningful for their employees, which, in turn, has a positive influence on employee job outcomes. Specifically, the authors analyze the mediating role of work meaningfulness in the relationships between leader-member exchange and organizational commitment, work effort, and work-to-family enrichment. Samples from education, health care, and local government are used. Results show that leadership strongly influences work meaningfulness, which, in turn, influences job outcomes. In addition, the impact and extent of leadership and work meaningfulness are higher in health care and education than in local government. The results emphasize the importance of leadership and meaningful work in the public sector.

Verhaest, D., &Omey, E . ( 2006).

The impact of overeducation and its measurement

Social Indicators Research, 77( 3), 419-448.

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The central focus of this article is the influence of the applied measure when the impact of overeducation is analyzed. For a database of Flemish school leavers, four alternative measures of overeducation are related to job satisfaction, mobility, training participation and wages. The magnitude and significance of the effects diverge between these measures. When attained education is controlled for, overeducated workers are less satisfied, more mobile, participate less in training and earn less than adequately educated workers. When required education is controlled for, no robust results are found for job satisfaction and training participation. Overeducated workers earn more than adequately educated colleagues, but have a higher turnover rate. We have little clear results with respect to undereducation. Caution is thus recommended for the interpretation of empirical results with respect to the impact of over- and undereducation.

Walker I. , & Smith, H. J.(2002) . Relative deprivation: Specification, development, and integration Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Specification, development, and integration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Wu C. H., Luksyte A., & Parker S. K . ( 2015).

Overqualification and subjective well-being at work: The moderating role of job autonomy and culture

Social Indicators Research, 121( 3), 917-937.

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Overqualification is a form of underemployment wherein people have more skills, experience, knowledge, and abilities than required for a job. Past research has shown that overqualification is negatively related to subjective well-being at work, such as lower job satisfaction. To mitigate this negative impact, drawing on a job design perspective, the authors proposed that job autonomy can buffer overqualification's negative effects. Based on the model of culture fit in managerial practice, as well as regulatory fit theory, the authors further proposed that the buffering effects of job autonomy apply only to employees from individualistic (vs. collectivistic) cultures. Data from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey were analyzed. Results of a two-level multilevel modeling analysis showed a three way interaction between overqualification, job autonomy, and national culture in predicting subjective well-being at work. Job autonomy buffered the negative effects of overqualification on subjective well-being at work, but only in individualistic cultures.

Zhang M. J., Law K. S., & Lin B. L . ( 2016).

You think you are big fish in a small pond? Perceived overqualification, goal orientations, and proactivity at work

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( 1), 61-84.

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ABSTRACT Overqualification denotes situations in which job incumbents have higher qualifications than those required for the job. Drawing on the self-regulatory perspective, we proposed that employees' perception of overqualification positively affects their proactive behavior through the mechanism of role-breadth self-efficacy and that this indirect effect is moderated by employees' goal orientations. We tested our hypotheses through two studies. In Study 1, we found that perceived overqualification had a positive indirect effect on employees' proactive behavior through role-breadth self-efficacy using a sample of 323 salespeople with a cross-lagged panel design. In Study 2, the multi-wave and multi-source data from 302 teachers confirmed the indirect effect and indicated that performance goal orientation and learning goal orientation moderated the indirect relationship. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zhang, Y., &Chen, C.C . ( 2013).

Developmental leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating effects of self-determination, supervisor identification, and organizational identification

The Leadership Quarterly, 24( 4), 534-543.

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The authors investigate three levels of self-identity in the workplace—self-determination, supervisor identification, and organizational identification—for their mediating effects on developmental leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors. Data from 469 supervisor–subordinate dyads in two Chinese firms show that supervisor identification is the strongest mediator, self-determination is the second, and organizational leadership is the third. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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