心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1831-1843 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01831

研究前沿

积极心理干预是“新瓶装旧酒”吗?

段文杰,1, 卜禾2

1 武汉大学社会学系, 武汉 430000

2 香港城市大学应用社会科学系, 香港

Positive psychology interventions: Are they selling old wine in a new bottle?

DUAN Wenjie,1, BU He2

1 Department of Sociology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430000, China

2 Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hongkong, Hongkong, China

通讯作者: 段文杰, E-mail: duan.w@outlook.com duan.w@whu.edu.cn 段文杰, E-mail: duan.w@outlook.com duan.w@whu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-12-25   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: *武汉大学人文社会科学青年学者学术发展计划学术团队建设项目.  WHU2016019
2017年国家社科基金青年项目.  17CSH073

Received: 2017-12-25   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

积极心理干预是一系列基于积极心理学基本原理而开发的干预技术和干预活动的总称。“内容取向”和“机制取向”是其定义的主要观点, 目前主要有认识和运用积极特质、感知和欣赏积极体验、训练和养成积极思维、建立和维持积极关系四大基本策略。干预通过认知、情绪、行为、需求、脑神经等机制产生效果。活动、参与者、文化背景等因素也影响干预效果。未来研究需将内容取向与机制取向、独立运用与整合运用、效度原则和经济成本相结合。

关键词: 积极心理学 ; 积极心理干预 ; 干预策略 ; 作用机制

Abstract

Researches on positive psychology intervention is fruitful. Content-level and Mechanism-level are two main perspectives to define positive psychology interventions (PPIs). Strategies adopted in PPIs mainly focus on identifying and using positive strengths, noticing and appreciating positive feelings, training and acquiring positive thoughts, and establishing and maintaining positive relationships. Positive thoughts, positive feelings, positive behaviors, need satisfaction and neural evidences function as the possible active ingredients of PPIs. Features of activity, features of person and features of cultural background play the role as moderators which influence the efficacy and effectiveness of PPIs. Future study should integrate both Content- and Mechanism-level to define PPIs, apply both independent and packed PPIs, and follow effective and cost-effective principles.

Keywords: positive psychology ; positive psychology intervention ; strategy ; mechanism

PDF (459KB) 元数据 多维度评价 相关文章 导出 EndNote| Ris| Bibtex  收藏本文

本文引用格式

段文杰, 卜禾. (2018). 积极心理干预是“新瓶装旧酒”吗?. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1831-1843

DUAN Wenjie, BU He. (2018). Positive psychology interventions: Are they selling old wine in a new bottle?. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1831-1843

基于对一个多世纪以来心理学研究和治疗的问题视角的反思, 马丁·塞利格曼(Martin E.P. Seligman)博士于1998年提出了“积极心理学” (Positive Psychology)这一概念, 对近20年心理学的发展产生了重大影响(Seligman, 2002)。积极心理学旨在通过科学的研究方法寻找能够帮助个人、群体和组织理解并获得幸福的有效机制, 从而促进个人、群体和组织达到一种丰盈(Flourishing)的状态(Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014)。丰盈是帮助研究者衡量积极情绪、参与、人际关系、意义、成就的重要概念, 是指个人有能力通过自身的能动性, 使其自身生活在一种积极、幸福的环境中, 即便面对威胁和挑战也能适应并获得积极的成长(Fairman, Knapp, & Martin, 2005; Fredrickson & Losada, 2005)。

随着积极心理学理论的发展, 基于其基本原理而开发的干预技术也随之出现。积极心理干预(Positive Psychology Intervention, PPI)正是在这一背景下产生的一系列干预活动的总称, 是积极心理学理论转换为心理干预或治疗操作技术的载体。Wellenzohn, Proyer和Ruch (2016b)研究发现, 基于性格优势的干预可以帮助个体提升幸福感, 干预效果在6个月后的跟踪测试中仍然显著; 而Meyers和van Woerkom (2017)却发现, 这种类型的干预效果至多持续一个月。以往的研究发现积极心理干预在提升个体幸福感方面比认知行为疗法更有效(Asgharipoor, Asgharnejad Farid, Arshadi, & Sahebi, 2012); 而最近一项研究却表明, 在积极功能的提升上, 二者并没有表现出显著差异(Chaves, Lopez-Gomez, Hervas, & Vazquez, 2017)。此外, 学者们还发现积极心理干预并非无所不能, 例如一些干预措施在学校(Baños et al., 2017)和企业(Meyers & van Woerkom, 2017)中并不能产生显著效果。

这些不一致的结果使得我们有必要在“积极心理学”提出20周年之际, 对积极心理干预的主要内容、干预技术及其成效、作用机制、影响因素等进行系统归纳和分析, 探讨并回答积极心理干预“如何” (How)、“为何” (Why)以及“何时” (When)能起作用这一系列关键性问题。以期能为丰富积极心理学理论研究和进一步发展积极心理干预的实践应用提供新思路。

1 积极心理干预的定义

目前, 主要有“内容取向”和“机制取向”两种方式来理解积极心理干预。

“内容取向”的观点强调积极心理干预的内容和主题。一些学者认为, 积极心理干预就是帮助个体发掘、强化和维持人本身及其生命中的“积极资源” (例如积极情绪、性格优势、生命的意义等), 这种干预方法不是直接针对个体的消极情绪或心理问题而开展的干预或治疗, 而是通过发现并强化个体本身所具有的“积极资源”, 从而帮助个体改善消极情绪和心理问题(Seligman, Rashid, & Parks, 2006)。例如, Seligman等人(2006)开发的积极心理治疗(Positive Psychotherapy)包含了14个帮助患者提升“积极资源”的策略, 并通过积极资源的提升来降低抑郁。然而, “内容取向”过分强调干预的内容, 而忽略了对干预结果的要求。好奇心是一种性格优势, 但过度好奇会让人觉得聒噪(Niemiec, 2013); “感恩”也是一种个体的积极资源, 但受虐者常常因为“感恩”而忍受暴行(Wood et al., 2016)。显然, 增强个体及其生命中“积极资源”的结果并不一定是积极的。“积极”与“消极”是辩证统一的关系, 不应将其割裂成对立的两方面, 并以此来定义积极心理干预。此外, “内容取向”这一定义过于宽泛, 它包含了其他任何不直接针对心理问题开展的活动(如逃避行为)和任何能够使个体感到愉快的活动(如放纵行为), 这些活动使个体通过麻痹自己来消解负面情绪、获得快感, 但显然不能包含在积极心理干预的范畴之中(Parks & Biswas-Diener, 2013)。

“机制取向”则侧重于积极心理干预的机制和干预结果。这一观点认为, 通过改变积极变量或者获得积极结果的干预活动就是积极心理干预。例如, 基于积极情绪的拓展和建构理论(Broad- and-Build Theory) (Fredrickson, 2004), 积极心理干预可以通过提升积极情绪来帮助个体面对问题和困境; Sin和Lyubomirsky (2009)也提出积极心理干预是通过改变积极情绪、积极行为、积极认知等来提升幸福感的干预活动。这一定义比前一种定义更准确, 但我们仍然无法确定干预活动最终达成的积极结果是通过可操作的干预手段获得的, 还是个体通过其他手段获得的(Lomas, Hefferon, & Ivtzan, 2015; Parks & Biswas-Diener, 2013)。

在对过往研究回顾和分析的基础上, Parks和Biswas-Diener (2013)认为积极心理干预应该同时满足:(1)以强化个体“积极资源”、促进个体自我提升为主要目标, 但不包含以放纵或是回避的行为来达成目标的活动; (2)可以被证明是通过积极的干预机制, 改变积极变量而达成上述目标的活动, 不包括个人自我调适、自助发展而实现自我提升的活动; (3)所设定的目标是具有实证基础的, 在设计时应该参考已有研究, 明确改变目标变量达成积极效果的路径是可行的。

此外, Lomas等人(2015)认为, 积极心理干预很难被定义成某种“纯粹”的干预, 它不取决于干预活动本身, 而取决于干预的对象。那些经过实证检验的, 能够帮助非临床人群提升幸福感的干预活动就是积极心理干预, 它所针对的对象是那些受到负面情绪困扰但不愿意进行传统治疗的人群。这一取向为我们理解积极心理干预提供了另一种视角, 它不再突出干预活动本身, 而强调其运用的对象和环境。Lomas等人(2015)强调, 这一定义并不是要否认积极心理干预在临床领域的运用, 积极心理干预可以与传统的心理治疗相结合运用到临床治疗当中。

可以看出, 积极心理干预的定义不是在理论驱动下进行的分类尝试, 而是研究者们对既往研究和实务经验合理化后提出的定义(Parks & Biswas-Diener, 2013)。无论“内容取向”还是“机制取向”, 运用单一的视角来理解积极心理干预, 失之粗疏。Parks和Biswas-Diener所提出的三个标准兼具包容性和排他性, 能够帮助研究者们更加清晰的理解积极心理干预, 但需要强调的是, 积极心理干预的对象不仅包括健康人群, 也包括临床患者; 积极心理干预不仅能够帮助个体达到丰盈的状态, 还能降低负面情绪, 改善心理问题。综上所述, 我们认为, 积极心理干预是一种以明确干预路径可行性为前提, 以强化个体“积极资源”为目标, 以改变积极变量为手段, 为有需要的人群提供的心理干预方法。

2 积极心理干预的基本策略

通过过去20年的研究和实践, 积极心理干预已形成了四大基本干预策略, 即认识和运用积极特质、感知和欣赏积极体验、训练和养成积极思维、建立和维持积极关系。这些策略不仅能够促进积极情绪、积极认知和积极行为的提升和发展, 还能帮助参与者降低了负面情绪, 改善心理问题。

2.1 认识和运用积极特质

积极的人格特质是积极心理学研究的三大主题之一, 是指个人性格中的优势、个人的兴趣、天赋、价值观等(Peterson, 2006)。Peterson和Seligman等人所提出的24种积极特质, 即性格优势(Character Strengths)是积极特质研究的主要内容(Peterson & Seligman, 2004)。

基于性格优势的干预(Character Strengths- based Intervention)是一种个性化的干预策略, 也是目前为止积极心理干预领域运用最为广泛的一种方式。参与者可以根据自己的突出优势开展相对应的活动。Martínez-Martí, Avia和Hernández- Lloreda (2014)针对“欣赏美的能力”这一优势设计了为期3周的在线课程, 包括美丽日记(Beautiful Journal)、美丽意识(Beauty Awareness)、美丽作品(Beauty Portfolio)、分享论坛(Forum)等等, 旨在帮助参与者提升对“美”的感知、了解“美”的作用、提升美学态度、接触美的事物, 从而提升幸福感。Wellenzohn等人(2016b)设计了基于“幽默”的干预方案, 包括三件有趣的事、收集有趣的事、运用幽默、以幽默应对压力等。

在这一系列干预中, 普遍采用了“认识-探索- 运用”模型(Aware-Explore-Apply Model, Niemiec, 2013), 这是最常被采用的模型之一(Walsh, Cassidy, & Priebe, 2017)。参与者首先通过问卷测量(Duan & Bu, 2017b; Duan, Ho, Bai, & Tang, 2013; Duan et al., 2012; Ho et al., 2016; Peterson & Seligman, 2004)、优势评价(Strengths 360°, Shankland & Rosset, 2017)、识别突出优势(Signature Strengths, Peterson & Seligman, 2004)等方式了解自身优势, 再通过观察他人的优势(Strengths Spotting, Niemiec, 2013)、想象自己最好的状态(Best Possible Self, Niemiec, 2013)等方式来强化认识优势的技巧, 最后学会如何在日常生活中使用自己的优势(Use Your Strengths In A New Way), 并通过不断地练习提升幸福感(Peterson & Seligman, 2004; Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005)。

此外, 新近研究将基于性格优势的干预与传统干预模型相结合。例如, Niemiec将性格优势与正念干预相结合, 通过正念的方式提高个体对自身性格优势的意识, 同时通过性格优势提升个体的正念水平(Niemiec, 2013); Duan和Bu将性格优势、认知行为疗法、单一干预模型(Single Session Model)相结合, 用于快速提升大学新生的入学适应性(Duan & Bu, 2017a)。

2.2 感知和欣赏积极体验

有价值的主观体验是积极心理学研究的另一支柱, 包括了愉悦感、主观幸福感、最优的体验、乐观、自我决定、积极情绪和身体健康的关系等(Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014)。积极的情绪体验不仅包括了能使个体内在达到平衡的基本愉悦感(Pleasures, 如生存需求、健康需求、性需求的满足), 还包括了个体突破自我极限和内在平衡而取得发展时的愉悦感(Enjoyment, 如体育、艺术活动中的自我超越、利他行为和激励人心的谈话), 后者能够使个体获得积极的成长和长久的幸福感(Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014)。积极心理干预策略通过感恩、品味等方式能够帮助个体感知和体验积极情绪(Davis et al., 2016; Wellenzohn, Proyer, & Ruch, 2016a); 通过帮助个体开展相关活动, 获得心流体验, 从而提升积极情绪和幸福感(Drozd, Mork, Nielsen, Raeder, & Bjørkli, 2014; Layous, Katherine Nelson, & Lyubomirsky, 2013)。

感恩是积极体验的重要元素, 个体通过感知和欣赏世界、主动地回馈世界来获得感恩的体验。感恩的策略通常包括帮助个体觉察到自己是受馈者并记录下值得感恩的事情(感恩清单、感恩日记)、向他人表达感恩(感谢信、感恩拜访)、以及心理教育领域的感恩活动(感恩图、感恩树) (Davis et al., 2016; Shankland & Rosset, 2017)。感恩的练习能够帮助个体获得积极情绪, 提升幸福感, 并降低负面情绪(Davis et al., 2016)。“三件好事” (Three Good Things, 每天记录下生活中的三件好事及其发生的原因)也是一种与感恩相关的练习(Parks & Biswas-Diener, 2013)。感恩和“三件好事”练习是最常被采用的积极心理干预策略(Walsh et al., 2017)。

心流(Flow)是一种人在全身心投入一项活动时达到的最愉快的巅峰体验。当个体在进行一项有明确目标的挑战性活动, 并且个人技能和挑战之间匹配适当时, 个体就会产生“心流”的体验(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Mao, Roberts, Pagliaro, Csikszentmihalyi, & Bonaiuto, 2016)。个体不仅享受这个时刻, 而且还可以通过学习新技能、增强自我效能来提升个人能力, 发掘潜力(Mao et al., 2016)。心流的特点包括行动与意识的融合、时间的扩展、忘我的状态、内在的驱动、完全集中的注意力等(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Mao et al., 2016)。积极心理干预通过帮助个体寻找、计划并实施与心流相关的活动, 例如想象并写下“最好的自己”以及实现它的详细计划和步骤, 从而促进个体获得心流的体验、提升幸福感(Drozd et al., 2014; Layous et al., 2013)。

品味(Savoring)是一种操作自身的注意力, 关注、产生、欣赏积极情绪的能力, 个体通过品味积极的回忆来唤起积极情绪, 从而提升幸福感和生活满意度, 降低焦虑和抑郁(何敏贤, 袁雅仪, 段文杰, 2014)。“品味”与正念干预不同之处在于, 正念强调对当下的觉察, 无论当下的体验是愉悦或者不愉悦的; 而品味在于把注意力放在积极体验上, 通过有意识的认知加工来提升愉悦感和幸福感, 并使其得以持续(Niemiec, 2013)。品味包含三个基本过程:品味体验(意识到有关的刺激、事件、情绪、情感等)、品味过程(对意识到的刺激进行加工处理的生理和心理过程)、品味策略(个体采取行动和策略来维持和强化积极体验) (何敏贤等, 2014; Bryant, Chadwick, & Kluwe, 2011)。积极心理干预通常帮助参与者制定品味计划, 来获得积极体验。例如鼓励参与者每天花点时间回顾和记录我们习以为常的事情(例如吃饭、洗澡、上课等), 思考认真记录和匆匆度过相比有什么不一样的感受等(Rashid, 2015; Seligman et al., 2006; Walsh et al., 2017)。

除了直接的感知和欣赏之外, 自然环境也会对个体的积极体验产生影响, 例如宜人的气候能够提升情绪、拓展认知(Keller et al., 2016), 因此个体与自然的联结能帮助个体在身心灵各个方面获得积极体验, 促进个体达到丰盈的状态。人类对自然的依赖使自然成为人类幸福感的必要成分; 自然环境还能帮助个体恢复注意力、减轻压力(Capaldi, Passmore, Nisbet, Zelenski, & Dopko, 2015), 因此增强个体与自然的联结也是积极心理干预的一种手段。基于自然的积极心理干预鼓励参与者开展和参与自然相关的活动, 例如在30天内每天至少花30分钟在户外或自然环境中, 聆听自然的声音、进行冥想、观察野生动物等(Hamann & Ivtzan, 2016); 参与者也被鼓励拍摄自然美景, 上传到公共空间并相互交流(Hamann & Ivtzan, 2016; Passmore & Holder, 2017)。

2.3 训练和养成积极思维

积极思维是指一个人对未来抱着积极的期望, 并且他所采取的行动会受到他对这些行为可能后果的预期的影响, 那些看到预期结果的人通过自身的努力去争取期望中的结果, 尽管他们在这一过程中会遇到困难(Scheier & Carver, 1993), 典型的积极思维有希望和乐观。积极心理干预策略帮助个体养成积极的思维方式, 以积极的视角探索并实现目标(如希望疗法), 用积极的信念促进最优的功能(如幸福疗法)。

希望疗法(Hope Therapy)是由积极心理学家施耐德(Snyder)等人提出的“希望理论”发展而来的一系列干预方法, 该理论认为“希望”是一种目标导向的积极思维策略, 包括目标思维(Goal thinking)、动力思维(Agency thinking)与路径思维(Pathway thinking)三个部分(何敏贤等, 2014; Snyder, 2002)。希望疗法的过程通常包括两个阶段——灌输希望和提升希望。在灌注希望的阶段, 首先是帮助个体理解“希望”的内涵, 以积极的视角回顾自己的经历, 关注自己所获得的成就, 使其明白希望感是贯穿生命始终的, 并在回顾的过程中帮助个体形成“目标”的概念, 探索和明晰自己所追求的目标; 在提升希望的阶段, 帮助个体寻找能够通向目标的方法和路径, 尤其当个体面临挑战时克服困难的方法, 并增强个体的动力思维来增加其实现目标的动机(何敏贤等, 2014; Goodall & Berman, 1999; Keyes & Lopez, 2002; Snyder, 2000, 2002)。目前, 希望理论和希望疗法已经得到了广泛的研究和运用。刘孟超和黄希庭(2013)概括总结了希望与学业成绩、心理健康、生理健康、人力资源管理、物质滥用治疗之间的联系和作用。谢丹、赵竹青、段文杰和胡卫平(2016)详述了希望思维在改善身心症状、帮助行为矫正、维护心理健康、促进个体适应、激发个人成长等临床与实践领域的应用。希望疗法是一种适用范围广泛、干预方法简单、可作为独立干预系统也能与传统心理治疗相融合的积极心理干预策略。

幸福疗法(Wellbeing Therapy, WBT)是以Ryff (1989)提出的心理幸福感的多维度模型(包括个体对环境的掌握、个人的成长、生活的目的、自决、自我接纳、以及与他人的积极关系)为干预内容发展起来的一种短期的积极心理干预策略(Fava, 2016)。Fava (2016)将幸福疗法概括成三个阶段:(1)初期:帮助参与者选择体验到最佳幸福感的情境; (2)中期:鼓励参与者识别导致幸福感中断的想法和信念; 这一阶段是干预的核心阶段, 其目的在于改变个体对幸福的信念和态度, 促进个人成长, 强化积极行为。(3)末期:讨论和修正参与者影响幸福感维度的想法和信念。幸福疗法所采用的技术与认知行为疗法相近, 主要包括认知重组、安排愉快的活动、分级分配任务、自信训练、解决问题以提高参与者的自决能力和环境掌控能力以及增加乐观和积极思维, 其与认知行为疗法主要区别在于幸福疗法的重点是增强幸福感并促进最优的功能, 而不仅仅是减轻痛苦。幸福疗法可以被独立运用, 也可以与传统的认知行为疗法相结合; 在严重精神障碍的治疗中, 幸福疗法作为中后期的一种治疗技术更为有效; 此外, 幸福疗法不仅可以用于个体的治疗, 也可以用于团体辅导(Fava, 2016)。

2.4 建立和维持积极关系

积极的关系是幸福感的一大支柱, 积极的关系包括社会融合感、支持他人以及被他人支持, 积极的关系能够带来更高的生活满意度、希望、感恩和灵性(Kern, Waters, Adler, & White, 2015)。积极心理干预策略通过鼓励参与者与他人积极地互动(如利他行为)、积极地沟通(如积极回应)来帮助参与者建立和维持积极的关系。

“善良行为” (Acts of Kindness / Counting Kindness)是一种鼓励和引导参与者发现和识别需要帮助的人, 并采取利他行为的积极干预策略。作为社会性动物, 人类拥有一系列的心理机制激励我们去帮助别人。善良行为能够促进个体采取更多亲社会行为, 进而促进幸福感的提升(Layous, Nelson, Kurtz, & Lyubomirsky, 2017)。善良行为形式多样, 帮助他人开门、帮忙照看小孩、慈善捐助、志愿服务等等都可以作为一种积极活动, 帮助个体提升幸福感(Parks & Biswas-Diener, 2013)。

“积极回应” (Active Constructive Responding)是指积极地、有建设性地回应他人。我们如何回应他人对人际关系的质量和个人的幸福感有很大的影响, 因此积极的回应能够促进人际沟通, 改善人际关系。例如, 一项在学校中开展的积极干预项目——“没有‘但是’的一天” (But Free day), 要求老师和学生以积极的、主动的方式对他人做出回应, 不能在言语之间表达或者暗含否定的意味(Peterson, 2013; Shankland & Rosset, 2017)。积极心理干预鼓励参与者每天至少练习一次积极回应, 对他人有意义或者重要的信息表示热情和支持(Rashid, 2015; Seligman et al., 2006; Walsh et al., 2017)。

3 积极心理干预的作用机制

归纳总结现有实证研究, 发现目前积极心理干预的作用机制主要包括认知行为理论、拓展建构理论、自我决定理论和神经生理机制。

3.1 认知行为理论

认知行为理论的基本信念是:思想扭曲和不适应行为在心理障碍的发展和维护中起着重要作用, 帮助服务对象改变不良的认知(例如思想、信念和态度), 发展持久的技能, 促进行为改变, 可以减少症状和相关的痛苦(Beck, 1993)。认知行为理论为积极心理干预的作用机制提供了一种解释。例如, 基于性格优势的积极心理干预模型, 即“认知-探索-运用”模型反映了认知重构、学习技巧、运用训练等认知行为疗法的核心过程, 认知重组、设定目标和安排愉快活动等认知行为疗法的技巧也被用在积极心理干预的过程中。

例如, Duan和Bu (2017a)针对大学新生适应问题设计了一次90分钟的单一小组干预, 辅之以一周的自主活动。这一干预更加清晰地将认知阶段和行为阶段进行了划分:认知阶段主要是一节90分钟的干预课程, 侧重于帮助学生认识自身性格优势, 运用的策略包括认识优势(Identifying Character Strengths)、请他人评价自己的优势(Character Strengths 360°)、突出优势(Signature Character Strengths)、制定目标(Nominate Goals); 一周的自主活动是行为阶段, 侧重于运用优势达成目标。这一干预过程将认知行为疗法的技巧(如认知重组、学习技巧、设定目标、安排愉快活动等)和积极心理干预策略相结合, 通过提升优势意识和优势使用来达到降低负面情绪, 提升幸福感的作用。

3.2 拓展和建构理论

美国心理学家Fredrickson通过拓展和建构理论(The broaden and Build Theory)来解释积极情绪在积极心理干预中的重要性及其运作机制。她认为, 积极情绪体验(快乐、满足、骄傲、爱等)具有瞬时的拓展功能, 能帮助个体拓展其注意、认知、行动的范围, 从而建构起可持续到未来的特质(高正亮, 童辉杰, 2010; Fredrickson, 2004)。因此, 积极心理干预的作用机制在于通过提升个体的积极情绪帮助个体拓展认知和行动, 建构资源, 从而良好地应对困境, 而对困境的良好应对又能进一步产生积极情绪, 这是一种“螺旋式”的上升(高正亮, 童辉杰, 2010), 最终帮助个体达到丰盈的状态。Fredrickson提出, 通过积极情绪拓展注意、认知、行动能够帮助个体缓解负面情绪、增强心理韧性, 从而促进组织良好地运转(Fredrickson, 2016); 此外, 研究表明个体的心理韧性通过积极情绪影响丰盈和压力水平(Denovan & Macaskill, 2017); 性格优势通过积极情绪影响员工的生活满意度、工作参与度和倦怠感(Meyers & van Woerkom, 2017)。可以看出, 积极情绪在积极心理干预发挥作用的过程中扮演着重要的角色, 这一理论也是“机制取向”的积极心理干预的重要理论基础。

Fredrickson, Cohn, Coffey, Pek和Finkel (2008)设计了一组爱与善良冥想训练(Loving-and- Kindness Meditation, LKM)。LKM要求参与者在一个相对安静的环境中, 闭上双眼, 席地而坐, 首先将注意力放置到呼吸上, 接下来依次进行关于自己、所爱之人、他人与陌生人的爱与善良的冥想。不同于非评判的正念冥想, LKM直接指向积极的情绪, 参与者在将积极情绪从自身延伸到一个不断扩大的圈子(他人、陌生人)的过程中, 其认知也得到了拓展。随机对照试验的结果显示, 爱与善良冥想练习使参与者在日常生活中获得了更持久的积极情绪体验, 进而使个人的积极资源(例如正念、生活的目的、社会支持等)得到了提升。这些个人资源的增加也预示着生活满意度的提高和抑郁症状的减轻。

3.3 自我决定理论

自我决定理论(self-determination theory, SDT)为积极心理干预的有效性提供了另一种解释。自我决定理论提出了三个人类最基本的心理需求, 即胜任(Competence)需求、自主(Autonomy)需求和归属(Relatedness)需求。自主是个体把自己看作是行为源头的需求; 胜任是个体有能力达成目标的需求; 归属是个体对频繁和持久的关心的需求, 自我决定理论假设人在充满安全感和归属感的环境中, 内在动机更有可能被激发, 并产生探索性的行为(Britton, Williams, & Conner, 2008; Ryan & Deci, 2000)。如果这三者能够得到满足, 则会促进个体的幸福和健康(Chirkov, Ryan, Kim, & Kaplan, 2003)。这些需求是与生俱来的, 不需要经过后天的学习。积极心理干预通过一系列干预活动帮助个体满足心理需求, 激发内在的自我动机(Self- motivation), 从而促进个性整合(Personality- integration), 提升幸福感。因此, 内在需求的满足, 是积极心理干预发生作用的重要机制。基于自我决定理论的干预技巧包括自主的支持(如促进自我认同、尊重兴趣和选择、避免控制等)、结构化(如制定目标、将目标与个人能力结合、即时反馈获得的进步等)、参与(如同理心、情感披露等) (Silva, Marques, & Teixeira, 2014)。

Farmer, Allsopp和Ferron (2015)针对患有学习障碍和多动症的大学生的需要设计了“个人优势训练” (Personal Strengths Program, PSP)项目。这一项目将基于自我决定理论的干预技巧和积极心理干预相结合, 为干预对象提供了8次干预课程。干预主题为:自我意识、性格优势(2次)、学习优势(2次)、自信地交流与沟通技巧、合理处理反馈、一般化与维持。PSP项目一对一面谈来帮助学生识别他们自身的性格优势, 并在学习过程中使用他们的突出优势来达到与学业表现相关的目标。每次干预遵循相同的流程:设定目标、制定计划、监测进展、反思进步。在面谈过程中, 指导者主要采用开放式地询问技巧引导学生学会选择合适的策略并反思自己的想法。学生会被询问“你达成上周的目标了吗?你本周的目标是什么?你将使用什么优势来实现自己的目标?你如何得知自己已经达成了目标?”等问题。学生在识别自身的突出优势并选择个性化的活动过程中满足了自主需求; 在运用突出优势达成目标的过程中满足了胜任需求; 在指导者和学生问答的互动过程中, 开放式地询问技巧、对学生的自我效能感的支持、良好的治疗关系满足了学生的归属需求。

3.4 神经生理机制

生物心理学、认知神经科学等领域的理论和研究结果为积极心理干预产生作用的生理机制提供了多种解释。脑成像研究表明, 大脑皮层(如眼窝前额皮质、扣带皮层、前额叶皮层)是与愉悦感、幸福感相关的关键区域(Funahashi, 2011; Machado & Cantilino, 2016), 而个体的性格和气质与大脑皮层的激活有关(Cloninger, Svrakic, & Przybeck, 1993; Machado & Cantilino, 2016), 因此, 积极心理干预的策略能够激活大脑相关区域, 从而提升幸福感。

皮质醇是一种和压力相关的激素, 创伤和压力事件会提升皮质醇分泌的水平和持续时长(Gropper, Smith, & Groff, 2009) ; 同时, 皮质醇分泌水平也被认为是一项预测幸福感的指标, 与心理健康、生活满意度、积极情绪、知觉到的社会支持等积极功能呈显著负相关, 皮质醇水平越低, 个体积极功能越高(Rickard, Chin, & Vella-Brodrick, 2016)。性格优势是一种压力防御因素, 能够帮助个体在生理和心理上适应压力(Li, Duan, & Guo, 2017), 从而减少皮质醇分泌, 以提升幸福感。

Kini, Wong, McInnis, Gabana和Brown (2016)招募了一批寻求心理咨询的案主作为被试, 一组被试在每次咨询之后, 进行感谢信写作, 每次写作20分钟, 连续3周; 另有一组进行普通的心理治疗, 并在每次咨询后书写生活中所感受到的压力事件和时期。3个月之后, 两组被试参与一项“金钱传递”的游戏并接受核磁共振扫描。在游戏中, 被试作为受益人可以获得1~20美元的捐助, 同时被试会被告知捐助者是一个真实的人而不是电脑, 而实际上捐赠是由电脑决定的。之后, 被试会得到另一名受益人的信息, 被试可以自行决定与另一受益人分享其获得的捐助的比例。被试会被告知捐助人并不想要回钱, 但是如果被试想要表示感谢, 可以将金额与他人分享。分享的金额的比例和自我报告式的感恩量表被用作量化感恩的程度。游戏反复进行5次, 游戏过程中会通过核磁共振对被试的大脑进行扫描。结果显示, 感恩表达通常与大脑顶叶和外侧前额皮质的活动有关, 感恩信写作也与这些区域中更高水平、更持久的神经敏感度显著相关, 这就意味着参加感谢信书写组的被试的感恩行为增加, 感恩的激发下, 被试内侧前额叶皮质中表现出更高水平的神经调节, 从而使得被试的临床结果(如焦虑、抑郁)有极大地改善。

4 积极心理干预起作用的基本条件

Lyubomirsky和Layous (2013)基于以往的理论和实证研究, 提出了积极活动模型(The Positive- Activity Model), 旨在解释“如何”使积极的活动帮助人们获得幸福感。积极心理干预的一系列活动通过积极情绪、积极思维、积极行为和需求满足促进和提升幸福感。活动的特征、个体的特征和文化背景因素都影响了干预的效果。

活动的特征包括干预的频率和时间点、干预内容的多样性和连续性, 参与者获得的社会支持等等(Lyubomirsky & Layous, 2013)。过往研究表明, 过度地进行“感恩日记”练习, 会让参与者感到冗余而失去兴趣, 每周进行一次效果最佳(Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005); 而每天坚持“三件好事”能够有效、持久地提升幸福感, 降低抑郁情绪(Seligman et al., 2005)。“三件好事”与“感恩日记”的区别在于, “三件好事”关注的是当天发生的事情, 每天都会经历各种各样的事件, 而“感恩日记”主要是回顾过往发生的值得感恩的事件, 如果太频繁地记录, 容易出现重复, 导致参与者失去兴趣。此外, 社会支持调节了个体积极心理优势对其主观幸福感的影响(Khan & Husain, 2010)。

个体的特征包括了个人参与活动的需求及其配合程度、参与者的个性及其情绪特质等。具有较强参与意愿的参与者、希望变得更幸福的参与者往往对干预活动的投入更多, 从而获得更多的积极体验。例如, 前文提到, Baños等人(2017)发现并非所有的积极心理干预在学校情境中都能产生显著的效果, 未能产生显著效果的原因, 可能是由于学生被动参与到积极心理干预中, 将其视为不得不完成的任务, 参与动机不强, 活动的执行也可能是敷衍, 从而影响了干预的效果。Meyers, van Woerkom和Bakker (2013)也总结道积极心理干预的有效性受到员工心理资本、个体负面情绪特质等多种因素的影响。

最优的个体与活动的匹配状态(person- activity fit)也影响着幸福感的提升(Lyubomirsky & Layous, 2013)。例如, Baños等人(2017)提出, 对于青少年进行在线干预时, 比起电脑操作, 通过手机进行干预更加适合青少年, 因为他们对手机的使用频率远远高于电脑; 当个人在运用某项技能进行挑战活动时, 只有挑战和技能都很高并且相互平衡, 个人才会产生“心流”的体验(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Mao et al., 2016)。

文化背景是不能忽视的一个因素。东方文化强调集体主义, 这使得东方文化中, 例如中国人, 他们的幸福感不仅仅取决于他们自身, 还来存在着“他人取向” (other-oriented) (Ho, Duan, & Tang, 2014)。因此, 强调参与者与他人关系的策略, 例如(感恩、善良行为等)更能够帮助中国人提升幸福感(D'raven & Pasha-Zaidi, 2014)。尽管积极心理学的研究和干预已经在不同国家(例如中国、英国、印度、拉丁美洲) (何敏贤等, 2014; Eades & Gray, 2017; Marujo & Neto, 2016; Singh, Junnarkar, & Kaur, 2016)和不同领域(例如学校、临床、组织) (Macaskill, 2016; Meyers et al., 2013; Shankland & Rosset, 2017)中开展, 但西方国家的研究和运用远比在其他国家和地区多, 因此, 积极心理干预的跨文化和跨群体的有效性仍然是值得研究的问题。此外, 人口统计学因素(性别、年龄等)也影响着积极心理干预的效果(Layous & Lyubomirsky, 2014)。

5 积极心理干预的总体评价与未来发展方向

10年之前, 积极心理学家们提出了疑问, “积极心理学会有未来吗?” 10年之后, 我们可以看到, 积极心理学不仅成为了一个独立的学科派别, 其研究成果还广泛地被其他心理学流派吸收和采纳(Proctor, 2017)。积极心理学和传统心理学既有联系又有区别。积极心理学并非要替代传统心理学, 它与传统心理学共同构成了一块硬币的两面。而相比传统的心理干预, 基于积极心理学基本原理而开发的积极心理干预, 面向对象、目标结果、接受性更广泛; 同时, 有学者认为积极心理干预还具有见效快、成本低、能够避免污名化(D'raven & Pasha-Zaidi, 2014; Lambert D'raven, Moliver, & Thompson, 2015)等优势。因此, 积极心理干预不是新瓶装旧酒, 而是建构在对问题视角的反思上、基于被实证检验过的知识而形成的一系列新的心理干预策略, 是心理学在辩证地发展中所开出的新花。

未来在开展积极心理干预的研究和实践中应当注意以下问题。

首先, 未来研究需要开展严格的随机对照组实验(Randomized controlled trial)。目前, 许多积极心理干预仅仅是初步的研究, 缺乏对照组、安慰剂效应组等来检验其有效性。例如, Flink, Smeets, Bergbom和Peters (2015)对慢性病患者开展了为期7周的积极心理干预。干预策略包括三件好事、品味、想象自己最好的状态等练习。干预仅仅对参与者进行了前测、后测和3个月后的跟踪测试, 并没有设置对照组和安慰剂效应组。

其次, 上文中提到的Duan和Bu (2017a)开展的干预以及Farmer等人(2015)开展的干预, 都采用了认识和使用性格优势这一策略, 但二者分别与认知行为疗法、自我决定理论两种不同的模型相结合。未来的研究还需将干预策略与理论模型结合起来检验, 探索同一策略与不同模型相结合时, 其效果是否存在差别, 何种模型更有效。

再次, Sin和Lyubomirsky (2009)对49个通过积极心理干预提升幸福感研究和25个通过积极心理干预降低抑郁情绪的研究进行了元分析, 结果发现积极心理干预能够有效提升幸福感、降低抑郁情绪, 干预具有中等效应。然而, Bolier等人(2013)对19个通过积极心理干预提升主观幸福感(Subject wellbeing)和心理幸福感(Psychological wellbeing)、降低抑郁情绪的研究进行了元分析, 结果表明尽管干预效应显著, 但效应量很小。因此, 未来研究还需要对已有研究进行更多的元分析, 检验效应值大小, 以确定不同的积极心理干预结果在强度和方向上的差异。此外, 未来研究还应当寻找“人-环境-方法”的最佳匹配性。针对不同的干预对象(例如临床患者与健康人群)、不同的文化背景(例如东西方文化背景)、不同的环境(例如学校、企业), 寻找最为适切的干预手段。

发展方向上, 未来的研究应当注意将内容取向与机制取向相结合, 将独立运用与整合运用相结合, 将效度原则和经济成本相结合。首先, 将内容取向和机制取向相结合要求研究者和实务工作者在设计积极心理干预的过程中, 以明确干预路径可行性为前提, 以强化个体“积极资源”为目标, 以改变积极变量为手段, 选择和设计具有“人-环境-方法”最佳匹配性的干预策略, 为有需要的人群提供积极心理干预, 帮助个体达到丰盈的状态。值得注意的是, 盲目地强调“积极”, 一味地促进个体的积极资源并不是最有效的途径, 相反地, 还会带来负面影响。Hervás (2017)指出, 积极情绪对于幸福感的促进作用是呈倒U型的, 高强度和低强度的积极情绪都无益于幸福感。未来在研究和实践中应当注意把握适度原则, 避免出现“日中则昃, 月满则亏”的问题。

其次, 将独立运用与整合运用相结合, 能够充分发挥积极心理干预的灵活性和可操作性。如前文所述, 积极心理干预既可以独立地运用(如希望疗法、幸福疗法等), 也可以和其他心理治疗方法相结合(例如认知行为疗法、正念等); 可以将积极心理干预的策略整合, 根据对象的不同特点开展干预, 例如, 包含14种策略的积极心理治疗和包含6种策略的简短积极心理治疗; 还可以通过网络平台实施干预(Rashid, 2015; Seligman et al., 2006; Walsh et al., 2017; Woodworth, O'Brien-Malone, Diamond, & Schüz, 2017)。尽管这些都体现了积极心理干预的灵活性和可操作性, 研究者和实务工作者还需要重视干预可及性的问题。Hone, Jarden和Schofield (2015)通过回顾和总结, 发现积极心理干预的平均流失率达到27%, 意味着有相当一部分的参与者在干预过程中退出。这部分流失的参与者为何流失, 他们具有怎样的特征, 是因为参与意愿低还是因为干预活动设计不合理, 未来的研究应当考虑这方面的问题。

最后, 将效度原则和经济成本相结合, 需要干预设计者考虑积极心理干预在现实环境中实施时, 其效果的持续性以及积极干预的成本。积极心理干预作为一种简短的干预策略, 这些干预策略能够快速而有效地帮助参与者提升幸福感, 降低负面情绪。Seligman等人提出, 积极心理干预的干预周期越长, 干预的效果越好(Seligman et al., 2005)。而近来的研究表明, 无论是单一的、短期的, 还是较长周期的干预都具有显著的即时和短期效果(Duan & Bu, 2017a; Meyers & van Woerkom, 2017; Proyer, Gander, Wellenzohn, & Ruch, 2016)。然而, 蜜月式的干预之后, 这一效果是否能够维持, 能维持多久, 当前的研究尚难以解答。因为多数的研究并未进行长期的跟踪测试, 仅有少部分研究进行了6个月以上的跟踪测试(Hone et al., 2015), 再加上较高流失率的影响, 干预的长期效果难以保证。前文中提到, 有学者认为积极心理干预具有成本低的优势, 然而这些所谓的低成本操作, 往往是在实验条件下进行的小规模操作。目前极少有研究者报告干预的成本和详细的开支(Hone et al., 2015)。当积极心理干预运用到大规模的人群(例如公司、学校、社区)中, 成为积极干预项目时, 活动设计者和政策制定者就不得不将实施成本纳入考量标准。

本文通过对积极心理干预的定义及其主要策略(即干预的核心要素)、干预的成效及其机制(即干预的中介因素)、干预起作用的基本条件(即影响干预效果的因素)等方面进行了梳理, 探讨并回答了积极心理干预如何起作用、为何起作用以及何时起作用这一系列关键问题, 明晰了积极心理干预的独特性、有效性、科学性, 并为未来的研究和应用提供新的思路和参考。积极心理学发展至今, 尽管成果丰硕, 但可以看出, 积极心理干预仍缺乏一个坚实的理论基础和基本假设, 目前积极心理学也尚未形成一套完善的理论体系以整合所有形式的积极心理干预。未来积极心理学应当与更多相关学科进行充分有效的对话和合作(彭凯平, 窦东徽, 刘肖岑, 2011; Deci & Vansteenkiste, 2004; Linley, Joseph, Maltby, Harrington, & Wood, 2012), 以丰富和深化其理论, 从而展开更加科学有效的应用。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

参考文献

高正亮, 童辉杰 . ( 2010).

积极情绪的作用: 拓展-建构理论

中国健康心理学杂志, 18( 2), 246-249.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

积极情绪是积极心理学的重要研究内容。Fredrickson的拓展-建构理论解释了积极情绪体验不但反映个体的幸福,而且有利于个体的成长和发展,具有长期的适应价值。即积极情绪具有两大核心功能:瞬时的拓展功能,可以拓展个体即时的思维—行动范畴;长期的建构功能,可建构个体长久的身体、认知、社会等的资源。通过两大功能,积极情绪促使个体产生螺旋式上升并增进个体幸福。

何敏贤, 袁雅仪, 段文杰 . ( 2014).

发现自己的抗逆力: 正向心理学的应用和技巧

北京: 社会科学文献出版社.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

本书介绍正向心理的基本理论知识及其在香港的研究和应用,提供正向特质、正向思维、正向感知的测量和练习方法,帮助个体从逆境中复原并走向更好的未来,获得更快乐、更有意义的人生。

刘孟超, 黄希庭 . ( 2013).

希望: 心理学的研究述评

心理科学进展, 21( 3), 548-560.

[本文引用: 1]

彭凯平, 窦东徽, 刘肖岑 . ( 2011).

幸福科学: 问题、探索、意义及展望

清华大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 26( 6), 116-124.

[本文引用: 1]

谢丹, 赵竹青, 段文杰, 胡卫平 . ( 2016).

希望思维在临床与实践领域的应用、特点与启示

心理科学, 39( 3), 741-747.

[本文引用: 1]

Asgharipoor N., Asgharnejad Farid A., Arshadi H., & Sahebi A . ( 2012).

A comparative study on the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy for the patients suffering from major depressive disorder

Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 6( 2), 33-41.

[本文引用: 1]

Baños R. M., Etchemendy E., Mira A., Riva G., Gaggioli A., & Botella C . ( 2017).

Online positive interventions to promote well-being and resilience in the adolescent population: A narrative review

Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 10.

[本文引用: 3]

Beck, A. T . ( 1993).

Cognitive therapy: Past, present, and future

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61( 2), 194-198.

URL     PMID:8473571      [本文引用: 1]

Proponents of cognitive therapy have striven to establish this approach as a mature system of psychotherapy for over 3 decades. The theoretical formulations have been enriched by clinical extrapolations from the neopsychoanalysts and experimental findings from cognitive psychology. The therapeutic strategies and techniques have been refined as a result of interaction with therapy, which also influenced the emphasis on empirical testing of the theoretical formulations and the therapeutic applications. Outcome trials have demonstrated efficacy in a number of common disorders. New emphasis on the crucial importance of specific formulations (especially dysfunctional beliefs) has provided important clues to the treatment of a large number of other disorders. I conclude that cognitive therapy has fulfilled the criteria of a system of psychotherapy by providing a coherent, testable theory of personality, psychopathology, and therapeutic change; a teachable, testable set of therapeutic principles, strategies, and techniques that articulate with the theory; and a body of clinical and empirical data that support the theory and the efficacy of the theory.

Bolier L., Haverman M., Westerhof G. J., Riper H., Smit F., & Bohlmeijer E . ( 2013).

Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

BMC Public Health, 13, 119.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Britton P. C., Williams G. C., & Conner K. R . ( 2008).

Self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and the treatment of clients with acute suicidal ideation

Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64( 1), 52-66.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Bryant F. B., Chadwick E. D., & Kluwe K . ( 2011).

Understanding the processes that regulate positive emotional experience: Unsolved problems and future directions for theory and research on savoring

International Journal of Wellbeing, 1( 1), 107-126.

[本文引用: 1]

Capaldi C. A., Passmore H. A., Nisbet E., Zelenski J., & Dopko R . ( 2015).

Flourishing in nature: A review of the benefits of connecting with nature and its application as a wellbeing intervention

International Journal of Wellbeing, 5( 4), 1-16.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Chaves C., Lopez-Gomez I., Hervas G., & Vazquez C . ( 2017).

A comparative study on the efficacy of a positive psychology intervention and a cognitive behavioral therapy for clinical depression

Cognitive Therapy & Research, 41( 3), 417-433.

[本文引用: 1]

Chirkov V., Ryan R. M., Kim Y., & Kaplan U . ( 2003).

Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84( 1), 97-110.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Cloninger C. R., Svrakic D. M., & Przybeck T. R . ( 1993).

A psychobiological model of temperament and character

Archives of General Psychiatry, 50( 12), 975-990.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Csikszentmihalyi M., ( 1990).

Flow: The psychology of optimal performance

New York: Cambridge University Press.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Traducción de: Creativity : Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention Incluye índice Incluye bibliografía

Davis D. E., Choe E., Meyers J., Wade N., Varjas K., Gifford A., .. Worthington E. L . ( 2016).

Thankful for the little things: A meta-analysis of gratitude interventions

Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63( 1), 20-31.

URL     PMID:26575348     

A recent qualitative review by Wood, Froh, and Geraghty (2010) cast doubt on the efficacy of gratitude interventions, suggesting the need to carefully attend to the quality of comparison groups. Accordingly, in a series of meta-analyses, we evaluate the efficacy of gratitude interventions (ks = 4-18; Ns = 395-1,755) relative to a measurement-only control or an alternative-activity condition across 3 outcomes (i.e., gratitude, anxiety, psychological well-being). Gratitude interventions outperformed a measurement-only control on measures of psychological well-being (d = .31, 95% confidence interval [CI = .04, .58]; k = 5) but not gratitude (d = .20; 95% CI [-.04, .44]; k = 4). Gratitude interventions outperformed an alternative-activity condition on measures of gratitude (d = .46, 95% CI [.27, .64]; k = 15) and psychological well-being (d = .17, 95% CI [.09, .24]; k = 20) but not anxiety (d = .11, 95% CI [-.08, .31]; k = 5). More-detailed subdivision was possible on studies with outcomes assessing psychological well-being. Among these, gratitude interventions outperformed an activity-matched comparison (d = .14; 95% CI [.01, .27]; k = 18). Gratitude interventions performed as well as, but not better than, a psychologically active comparison (d = -.03, 95% CI [-.13, .07]; k = 9). On the basis of these findings, we summarize the current state of the literature and make suggestions for future applied research on gratitude. (PsycINFO Database Record

Deci E. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. ( 2004).

Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology

Ricerche di Psicologia, 27, 23-40.

[本文引用: 1]

Denovan A., & Macaskill, A. ( 2017).

Stress, resilience and leisure coping among university students: Applying the broaden-and-build theory

Leisure Studies, 36( 6), 852-865.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

D'raven L. L., & Pasha-Zaid, N. ( 2014).

Positive psychology interventions: A review for counselling practitioners

Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 48( 4), 383-408.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The primary goal of counselling is to promote human strengths and increase levels of well-being...

Drozd F., Mork L., Nielsen B., Raeder S., & Bjørkli C. A . ( 2014).

Better Days - A randomized controlled trial of an internet-based positive psychology intervention

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9( 5), 377-388.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Duan W. J., & Bu, H. ( 2017 a).

Randomized trial investigating of a single-session character-strength-based cognitive intervention on freshman’s adaptability

Research on Social Work Practice, doi: 10.1177/1049731517699525.

[本文引用: 4]

Duan W. J., & Bu, H. ( 2017 b).

Development and initial validation of a short three-dimensional inventory of character strengths

Quality of Life Research, 26( 9), 2519-2531.

URL     PMID:28429239      [本文引用: 1]

Character strength is described as a positive and organized pattern of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. It serves as a schema that organizes categories of information toward the self, others, and th

Duan W. J., Ho S. M. Y., Bai Y., & Tang X. Q . ( 2013).

Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese virtues questionnaire

Research on Social Work Practice, 23( 3), 336-345.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Duan W. J., Ho S. M. Y., Bai Y., Tang X. Q., Zhang Y. H., Li T. T., & Yuen T . ( 2012).

Factor structure of the Chinese virtues questionnaire

Research on Social Work Practice, 22( 6), 680-688.

URL    

Objectives: The present study examined the factorial invariance and functional equivalence of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) among the Chinese. Methods: A total of 839 undergraduate students completed the 240-item Simplified Chinese version of the VIA-IS online. Another 40 students participated in qualitative interviews to examine the meaning and function of the items in Chinese culture. Results: A total of 144 items were removed from the original version questionnaire (240-item) because of low item-loading and lack of cultural validity. A Chinese Virtues Questionnaire-96 (CVQ-96) in simplified Chinese containing 96 items (4 items per strength) was adopted. Three subscales (interpersonal, vitality, and cautiousness) were developed after exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusion: A theoretically meaningful 3-factor model of virtue, comparable to some virtue structures proposed in previous studies conducted in Western countries, was obtained. The inventories being developed can facilitate positive social work assessment and intervention.

Eades J. F., & Gray, J. ( 2017).

Applying positive psychology in the primary school: Celebrating strengths, a UK well-being project

In C. Proctor (Ed.), Positive psychology interventions in practice( pp. 107-121). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

[本文引用: 1]

Fairman N., Knapp P., & Martin A . ( 2005).

Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44( 8), 834-835.

[本文引用: 1]

Farmer J. L., Allsopp D. H., & Ferron J. M . ( 2015).

Impact of the personal strengths program on self-determination levels of college students with LD and/or ADHD

Learning Disability Quarterly, 38( 3), 145-159.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Fava, G. A . ( 2016).

Well-being therapy: Current indications and emerging perspectives

Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85( 3), 136-145.

URL     PMID:27043240      [本文引用: 3]

Well-being therapy (WBT) aims to enhance psychological well-being based on Ryff's (1989) six dimensions: autonomy, personal growth, environmental mastery, purpose in life, positive relations, and self-acceptance. Previous studies have documented the efficacy of this psychotherapy in treating patients with mood and anxiety disorders and in preventing relapse in recurrent depression. We discuss... [Show full abstract]

Flink I. K., Smeets E., Bergbom S., & Peters M. L . ( 2015).

Happy despite pain: Pilot study of a positive psychology intervention for patients with chronic pain

Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 7, 71-79.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Fredrickson, B. L . ( 2004).

The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359( 1449), 1367-1377.

URL     PMID:11315248      [本文引用: 2]

The broaden-and-build theory describes the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment and love. A key proposition is that these positive emotions broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire: joy sparks the urge to play, interest sparks the urge to explore, contentment sparks the urge to savour and integrate, and love sparks a recurring cycle of each of these urges within safe, close relationships. The broadened mindsets arising from these positive emotions are contrasted to the narrowed mindsets sparked by many negative emotions (i.e. specific action tendencies, such as attack or flee). A second key proposition concerns the consequences of these broadened mindsets: by broadening an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire-whether through play, exploration or similar activities-positive emotions promote discovery of novel and creative actions, ideas and social bonds, which in turn build that individual's personal resources; ranging from physical and intellectual resources, to social and psychological resources. Importantly, these resources function as reserves that can be drawn on later to improve the odds of successful coping and survival. This chapter reviews the latest empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory and draws out implications the theory holds for optimizing health and well-being.

Fredrickson, B. L. ( 2016).

Leading with positive emotions

Retrieved from

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Fredrickson B. L., Cohn M. A., Coffey K. A., Pek J., & Finkel S. M . ( 2008).

Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95( 5), 1045-1062.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Fredrickson B. L., & Losada, M. F . ( 2005).

Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing

American Psychologist, 60, 678-686.

URL     PMID:3126111      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the mean ratio of positive to negative affect was above 2.9 for individuals classified as flourishing and below that threshold for those not flourishing. Together with other evidence, these findings suggest that a set of general mathematical principles may describe the relations between positive affect and human flourishing. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

Funahashi S., ( 2011).

Brain mechanisms of happiness

Psychologia, 54( 4), 222-233.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Goodall J., & Berman, P. ( 1999).

Reason for hope: A spiritual journey

New York: Soko Publications Ltd.

[本文引用: 1]

Gropper S. A. S., Smith J. L., & Groff J . ( 2009).

Advanced nutrition and human metabolism

(5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

[本文引用: 1]

Hamann G. A., & Ivtzan, I. ( 2016).

30 minutes in nature a day can increase mood, well-being, meaning in life and mindfulness: Effects of a pilot programme

Social Inquiry into Well-Being, 2( 2), 34-46.

[本文引用: 2]

Hervás G., ( 2017).

The limits of positive interventions

Psychologist Papers, 38( 1), 42-49.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

emotions reach an excessive level of intensity or frequency?In terms of intensity, there is evidence that a very high intensity/reactivity in relation to positive emotions seems to be associated with poorer life satisfaction (e.g., Diener, Sandvik, & Pavot, 1991), and it even appears to be a marker of vulnerability to mania (Johnson, 2005; Meyer, Johnson, & Winters, 2001; Gruber, 2011). Therefore, in the case of intensity, it could be said that there is an inverted U effect, that is, that very low or very high levels of intensity in positive emotions are associated with worse adaptation in comparison with a moderate level (Diener et al., 1991).As for the frequency, the results also suggest that the potential benefits associated with greater or lesser frequency of positive emotionality could also form an inverted U, although as we shall see, with regards to the pole of high frequency, it is not so clear that it is maladaptive as seems to be the case with intensity.Most of the available evidence we will review here refers to the rate of positive versus negative emotions. What is observed is that, beyond the fact that there is no magic number to describe when this rate produces an accelerated increase in its benefits (Brown, Sokal, & Friedman, 2013), the results confirm that lower rates -the same or fewer negative emotions than positive ones- are associated with negative results (e.g., Schwartz et al., 2002), intermediate rates between two and four positive emotions for every negative emotion show the best results of adaptation (Diehl, Hay, & Berg, 2011; Kolanowski, Van Haitsma, Meeks, & Litaker, 2014; Trute, Benzies, Worthington, Reddon, & Moore, 2010). And finally, there is also evidence that excessively high rates of positive versus negative emotions may not be associated with improved adaptation, or they may even be slightly maladaptive. And this has been observed in both healthy adults (Rego, Sousa, Marques, & Cunha, 2012) and more clearly in people under stress and adversity (Shrira et al., 2011). Bearing in mind that other studies have not found this negative effect in participants who had higher rates of positive emotionality (e.g., Diehl et al., 2011), together with the absence of longitudinal studies that show the adverse effect prospectively, we must conclude that it is early to say that a high frequency of positive emotions may have drawbacks. The wisest option would therefore be to wait to have further studies. In addition, as observed by Fredrickson (2013), the way positive and negative emotions are measured is slightly different in each study, which could affect the result obtained in relation to the optimal rate and the point from which a high rate is associated with maladaptive outcomes.It also should be noted that the adverse effect that may be found when the rate of positive vs. negative emotions is high may be due, not so much to the frequency of positive emotions being abnormally high, but rather to an extremely low frequency of negative emotions (Fredrickson, 2013; Shrira et

Ho S. M. Y., Duan W. J ., & Tang, S. C. M. ( 2014).

The psychology of virtue and happiness in Western and Asian thought

In N. E. Snow & F. V. Trivigno (Eds.), The philosophy and psychology of character and happiness( pp. 215-238). New York: Routledge.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Ho S. M. Y., Li W. L., Duan W. J., Siu B. P. Y., Yau S., Yeung G., & Wong K . ( 2016).

A Brief Strengths Scale for individuals with mental health issues

Psychological Assessment, 28( 2), 147-157.

URL     PMID:26029942      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Using their strengths and virtues enables individuals to build resilience and alleviate mental health issues. However, most existing instruments for measuring strengths are too lengthy to provide effective assessment for clinical screening. A brief instrument with good factorial and ecological validity is needed to measure strengths, especially among individuals with mental health issues. In this study, the authors developed a brief inventory, the Brief Strengths Scale-12 (BSS-12), to assess 3 strengths: Temperance Strength, Intellectual Strength, and Interpersonal Strength. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was conducted in Hong Kong. Service recipients (n = 149) from a psychiatric rehabilitation organization were recruited to establish the factor structure and construct validity of the BSS-12. In Study 2, 203 university undergraduates from mainland China were recruited to examine the factorial invariance of the BSS-12 in a different culture and population. Each factor demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, content validity, and discriminant validity. The BSS-12 may be a useful tool for assessing strengths in clinical and nonclinical settings for service planning and the evaluation of intervention effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

Hone L. C., Jarden A., & Schofield G. M . ( 2015).

An evaluation of positive psychology intervention effectiveness trials using the re-aim framework: A practice-friendly review

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10( 4), 303-322.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Keller M. C., Fredrickson B. L., Ybarra O., Côté S., Johnson K., Mikels J., .. Wager T. D . ( 2016).

A warm heart and a clear head: The effects of weather on human mood and cognition

Psychological Science 2005, 16, 724. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2858564

Kern M. L., Waters L. E., Adler A., & White M. A . ( 2015).

A multidimensional approach to measuring well-being in students: Application of the PERMA framework

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10( 3), 262-271.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Keyes C. L. M., & Lopez, S. J.( 2002) .

Toward a science of mental health: Positive directions in diagnosis and interventions In C R Snyder & S J Lopez (Eds), Handbook of positive psychology

(pp 45-59) New York: Oxford University Press .

URL     [本文引用: 1]

react-text: 442 This chapter summarizes the research on the dual-continua model of mental health and mental illness. Studies supported this model and therefore the view that the presence of mental health is more than the absence of mental illness. Mental health is conceived of as a constellation of dimensions of subjective well-being, specifically hedonic and eudaemonic measures of subjective well-being.... /react-text react-text: 443 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Khan A., & Husain, A. ( 2010).

Social support as a moderator of positive psychological strengths and subjective well- being

Psychological Reports, 106( 2), 534-538.

URL     PMID:20524555      [本文引用: 2]

The present study was conducted to examine: (a) the relation of positive psychological strengths, i.e., hope, optimism, self-efficacy, and resiliency, with subjective well-being, and (b) the role of social support as a moderator of positive psychological strengths and subjective well-being. The following hypotheses were proposed: (a) that positive psychological strengths would be positively related with subjective well-being and social support; (b) social support would moderate the relation of positive psychological strengths with subjective well-being. 116 men and 64 women (M age=21.53 yr., SD=4.99, range=33) from India participated. Significant positive relationships were found for positive psychological strengths with subjective well-being and with social support network (family, friends, and others). Regression analysis showed social support significantly moderated the relations of positive psychological strengths with subjective well-being.

Kini P., Wong J., McInnis S., Gabana N., & Brown J. W . ( 2016).

The effects of gratitude expression on neural activity

NeuroImage, 128, 1-10.

URL     PMID:26746580      [本文引用: 2]

61Subjects performed a “Pay It Forward” gratitude task with fMRI.61BOLD signal correlates of gratitude expression found in cognitive regions.61A brief gratitude writing intervention increased BOLD gratitude sensitivity.61The BOLD effects of writing intervention persisted three months later.

Lambert D'raven L. T., Moliver N., & Thompson D . ( 2015).

Happiness intervention decreases pain and depression, boosts happiness among primary care patients

Primary Health Care Research & Development, 16( 2), 114-126.

Layous K., Katherine Nelson S., & Lyubomirsky S . ( 2013).

What is the optimal way to deliver a positive activity intervention? The case of writing about one’s best possible selves

Journal of Happiness Studies, 14( 2), 635-654.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Layous K. , & Lyubomirsky, S.( 2014) .

The how, why, what, when, and who of happiness: Mechanisms underlying the success of positive activity interventions

In J. Gruber & J. T. Moskowitz (Eds.), Positive emotion: Integrating the light sides and dark sides (pp. 472-495). New York: Oxford University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Layous K., Nelson S. K., Kurtz J. L., & Lyubomirsky S . ( 2017).

What triggers prosocial effort? A positive feedback loop between positive activities, kindness, and well-being

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12( 4), 385-398.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Li T. T., Duan W. J., & Guo P. F . ( 2017).

Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

PeerJ, 5, e3396.

URL     PMID:5452949      [本文引用: 1]

In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n= 15) or low-character-strength (n= 15) groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress) were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

Linley P. A., Joseph S., Maltby J., Harrington S. , & Wood, A. M.( 2012).

Positive psychology applications

In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds. ), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 35-48). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Lomas T., Hefferon K., & Ivtzan I . ( 2015).

The LIFE Model: A meta-theoretical conceptual map for applied positive psychology

Journal of Happiness Studies, 16( 5), 1347-1364.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Lyubomirsky S., & Layous, K. ( 2013).

How do simple positive activities increase well-being?

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22( 1), 57-62.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Lyubomirsky S., Sheldon K. M., & Schkade D . ( 2005).

Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change

Retrieved 2018-03-01, from California Digital Library . pdf

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Macaskill A., ( 2016).

Review of positive psychology applications in clinical medical populations

Healthcare, 4( 3), 66.

URL     PMID:27618122      [本文引用: 4]

This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care contexts. The review identified that most of this research involves measuring character strengths and their association with health outcomes in patients with a range of different conditions, similar to the position in positive psychology research on non-clinical populations. More recently, PPIs are beginning to be applied to clinical populations with physical health problems and this research, although relatively scarce, is reviewed here for cancer, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. In common with PPIs being evaluated in the general population, high quality studies are scarce. Applying PPIs to patients with serious health conditions presents significant challenges to health psychologists. They must ensure that patients are dealt with appropriately and ethically, given that exaggerated claims for PPIs are made on the internet quite frequently. This is discussed along with the need for more high quality research.

Machado L., & Cantilino, A. ( 2016).

A systematic review of the neural correlates of positive emotions

Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria, 39( 2), 172-179.

URL     PMID:27901215      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Objective:: To conduct a systematic literature review of human studies reporting neural correlates of positive emotions. Methods:: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched in January 2016 for scientific papers written in English. No restrictions were placed on year of publication. Results:: Twenty-two articles were identified and 12 met the established criteria. Five had been published during the last 4 years. Formation and regulation of positive emotions, including happiness, are associated with significant reductions in activity in the right prefrontal cortex and bilaterally in the temporoparietal cortex, as well as with increased activity in the left prefrontal regions. They are also associated with increased activity in the cingulate gyrus, inferior and middle temporal gyri, amygdalae, and ventral striatum. Conclusion:: It is too early to claim that there is an established understanding of the neuroscience of positive emotions and happiness. However, despite overlap in the brain regions involved in the formation and regulation of positive and negative emotions, we can conclude that positive emotions such as happiness activate specific brain regions.

Mao Y., Roberts S., Pagliaro S., Csikszentmihalyi M., & Bonaiuto M . ( 2016).

Optimal experience and optimal identity: A multinational study of the associations between flow and social identity

Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 67.

[本文引用: 1]

Martínez-Martí M. L., Avia M. D., & Hernández-Lloreda M. J . ( 2014).

Appreciation of beauty training: A web- based intervention

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9( 6), 477-481.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study presents qualitative findings from a three-week web-based intervention of appreciation of beauty. The intervention consisted of exercises aimed at (i) increasing the awareness of beauty and of how it affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviors, (ii) cultivating an esthetic attitude in front of beauty, and (iii) encouraging participants to expose themselves to beauty. The website included a personal beauty journal, a personal multimedia-based beauty portfolio, a forum to share beauty experiences, and didactic information in audio and video sessions. Most participants reported that the intervention improved some aspects of appreciation of beauty and well-being, and, to a lesser extent, an increased perceptive awakening and self-transcendence.

Marujo H. á., & Neto, L. M . ( 2016).

A review of “positive psychology in Latin America”: From emblematic paradoxes to knowledge enrichment

Applied Research in Quality of Life, 11( 1), 321-324.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Meyers M. C., & van Woerkom M. , ( 2017).

Effects of a strengths intervention on general and work-related well-being: The mediating role of positive affect

Journal of Happiness Studies, 18( 3), 671-689.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Meyers M. C., van Woerkom M., & Bakker A. B . ( 2013).

The added value of the positive: A literature review of positive psychology interventions in organizations

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22( 5), 618-632.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Niemiec R. M. ( 2013).

Mindfulness and character strengths: A practical guide to flourishing

Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Abstract The first third of the book reviews the latest research and best practices of mindfulness and of character strengths. The second third of the book outlines the integration of these areas, discussing practices and concepts around "strong mindfulness" (i.e., bringing character strengths to mindfulness practices) and "mindful strengths use" (i.e., bringing mindfulness to character strengths practices). The latter third of the book offers a manualized program called Mindfulness-Based Strengths Practice (MBSP) that integrates these areas of positive psychology. MBSP marks the first science-based program designed to work with character strengths and is one of the first mindfulness-programs designed to explicitly boost what is best in human beings rather than to counter illness, pain, and psychological/medical disorders. Handouts, audio CD with practices, lecture points, cautions, case examples, and intervention exercises are relayed to make it easy for researchers to study the 8-week MBSP program and for equipped practitioners to apply it with their clients. Adaptations to various settings and populations are discussed.

Parks A. C., & Biswas-Diener, R. ( 2013).

Positive intervention: Past, present, future …

In T. B. Kashdan & J. V. Ciarrochi (Eds.), Mindfulness, acceptance, and positive psychology: The seven foundations of well-being( pp. 140-165). Oakland,CA: New Harbinger Publications.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Passmore H.-A., & Holder, M. D . ( 2017).

Noticing nature: Individual and social benefits of a two-week intervention

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12( 6), 537-546.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

(2016). Noticing nature: Individual and social benefits of a two-week intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology. Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1221126

Peterson C., ( 2006).

A primer in positive psychology

New York: Oxford University Press.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Positive psychology is the scientific study of what goes right in life, from birth to death and at all stops in between. It is a newly-christened approach within psychology that takes seriously the examination of that which makes life most worth living. Everyone's life has peaks and valleys, and positive psychology does not deny the valleys. Its signature premise is more nua...Positive psychology is the scientific study of what goes right in life, from birth to death and at all stops in between. It is a newly-christened approach within psychology that takes seriously the examination of that which makes life most worth living. Everyone's life has peaks and valleys, and positive psychology does not deny the valleys. Its signature premise is more nuanced, but nonetheless important: what is good about life is as genuine as what is bad and, therefore, deserves equal attention from psychologists. Positive psychology as an explicit perspective has existed only since 1998, but enough relevant theory and research now exist to fill a textbook suitable for a semester-long college course. A Primer in Positive Psychology is thoroughly grounded in scientific research and covers major topics of concern to the field: positive experiences such as pleasure and flow; positive traits such as character strengths, values, and talents; and the social institutions that enable these subjects as well as what recent research might contribute to this knowledge.Every chapter contains exercises that illustrate positive psychology, a glossary, suggestions of articles and books for further reading, and lists of films, websites, and popular songs that embody chapter themes. A comprehensive overview of positive psychology by one of the acknowledged leaders in the field, this textbook provides students with a thorough introduction to an important area of psychology.克里斯托弗61彼得森,美国密歇根大学Arthur F.Thumau心理学教授,著名心理学家,临床心理学委员会前主席,全球100位最受欢迎的心理学家之一,美国VIA性格研究中心学术部主任。他是积极心理学的创始人之一,并以其在乐观、健康、幸福等领域的研究而享誉世界。2010年,彼得森博士荣获密歇根大学最高教学荣誉奖——“青苹果奖”。彼得森出生、成长于美国中西部,先后就读于伊利诺宜州立大学、科罗拉多州立大学和宾夕法尼亚大学。1986年开始在密西根大学执教心理学,他在这所学校教授多门课程,包括心理学概论、心理病理学、心理学研究方法,当然还有积极心理学。其学生大约有20000名之多。他将其职业生涯的大部分时间用于抑郁、绝望和道德败坏等问题的研究上,帮助无数人改变生活。《积极心理学》是彼得森教授最新的代表著作,此外,他还与人合著了《性格优势与美德》一书。

Peterson C., ( 2013).

Pursuing the good life: 100 reflections on positive psychology

New York: Oxford University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Peterson C. , & Seligman, M. E. P.( 2004) .

Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification New York: Oxford University Press A handbook and classification

New York: Oxford University Press.

[本文引用: 4]

Proctor C., ( 2017).

Positive psychology interventions in practice

. Cham: Springer.

[本文引用: 1]

Proyer R. T., Gander F., Wellenzohn S., & Ruch W . ( 2016).

Nine beautiful things: A self-administered online positive psychology intervention on the beauty in nature, arts, and behaviors increases happiness and ameliorates depressive symptoms

Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 189-193.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Rashid T., ( 2015).

Positive psychotherapy: A strength-based approach

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10( 1), 25-40.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is a therapeutic approach broadly based on the principles of positive psychology. Rooted in Chris Peterson’s groundbreaking work on character strengths, PPT integrates symptoms with strengths, resources with risks, weaknesses with values, and hopes with regrets in order to understand the inherent complexities of human experiences in a way that is more balanced than the traditional deficit-oriented approach to psychotherapy. This paper makes the case of an alternative approach to psychotherapy that pays equal attention and effort to negatives and positives. It discusses PPT’s assumptions and describes in detail how PPT exercises work in clinical settings. The paper summarizes results of pilot studies using this approach, discusses caveats in conducting PPT, and suggests potential directions.

Rickard N. S., Chin T. C., & Vella-Brodrick D. A . ( 2016).

Cortisol awakening response as an index of mental health and well-being in adolescents

Journal of Happiness Studies, 17( 6), 2555-2568.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Physiological measures provide a useful complement to self-report indices of mental health and well-being. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) has been associated with mental distress, but less consistently so with positive functioning. In this study, the utility of two CAR indices as a measure of the full spectrum of mental health and well-being in a sample of healthy adolescents was explored. Forty-seven adolescents (14M, 33F; mean age 13.89, SD = .73) completed questionnaires on mental distress and positive functioning, and provided three saliva samples for cortisol analysis as well as demographic and life event information. Correlational analyses revealed that both absolute CAR (CARi) and area under the curve during awakening (CARAUC) indices correlated positively with measures of mental distress, and inversely with measures of positive functioning. When the significant life events score was controlled, moderate to strong effects were maintained with negative and positive affect, mental well-being, satisfaction with life and perceived social support from significant others. These findings provide the first data confirming that CAR is a reliable index of positive functioning in healthy adolescents.

Ryan R. M., & Deci, E. L . ( 2000).

Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being

American Psychologist, 55( 1), 68-78.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ryff, C. D . ( 1989).

Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57( 6), 1069-1081.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

ABSTRACT Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Scheier M. F., & Carver, C. S . ( 1993).

On the power of positive thinking: The benefits of being optimistic

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2( 1), 26-30.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Abstract 1. This review argues that positive thinking (PT) and an optimistic orientation (OPO) to life can be beneficial. Also considered is how individual differences in optimism might arise and whether optimism is always good and pessimism always bad. PT involves

Seligman M. E. P.( 2002) .

Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment

New York: Free Press.

Seligman M. E. P., & Csikszentmihaly, M. ( 2014).

Positive psychology: An introduction

In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology( pp. 279-298). Dordrecht: Springer.

[本文引用: 3]

Seligman M. E. P., Rashid T., & Parks A. C . ( 2006).

Positive psychotherapy

American Psychologist, 61( 8), 774-788.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Seligman M. E. P., Steen T. A., Park N., & Peterson C . ( 2005).

Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions

American Psychologist, 60( 5), 410-421.

URL     PMID:16045394      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.

Shankland R., & Rosset, E. ( 2017).

Review of brief school-based positive psychological interventions: A taster for teachers and educators

Educational Psychology Review, 29( 2), 363-392.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Silva M. N., Marques M. M., & Teixeira P. J . ( 2014).

Testing theory in practice: The example of self- determination theory-based interventions

The European Health Psychologist, 16( 5), 171-180.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Publication » Testing theory in practice: The example of self-determination theory-based interventions.

Sin N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. ( 2009).

Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta- analysis

Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65( 5), 467-487.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Singh K., Junnarkar M., & Kaur J . ( 2016).

Positive psychology in India: A review

In Measures of positive psychology: Development and validation( pp. 1-15). New Delhi: Springer.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The current chapter introduces positive psychology (PP), Indian psychology (IP) and connection between two. Broadly both focus on well-being but with different angle; PP focuses more on external sources of happiness and IP focuses more on internal sources of happiness. The present chapter addresses PP in India by considering both the points of view. The major distinguishing factor was in the approach and methodology. Indian sages focus on ‘experiential state’ as the method of enquiry whereas Western scholars focus on observed facts. Contrasting Indian vision of behavior emphasizes interdependence and interrelatedness based on caste, class, family, community, gods, etc., which shapes one’s ego identity (Dalal and Misra, 2011). The current chapter is divided into four main parts; Indian research on universal PP constructs, Indian constructs contribute to understand human nature, PP scales developed and validated in India and intervention modules implemented in India. Finally, the chapter concludes with future recommendations.

Snyder C. R. ( 2000).

Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications

San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The handbook, woven around the hope theory that has received the most attention in the 1990s, is divided into 6 sections. Two chapters describe the rise and fall of hope hat is, how hope develops normally in children and how it tragically can die for some people in their childhood or adult years. A chapter gives an overview of the various instruments for and approaches to measuring hope. Five chapters deal with how hope theory relates directly to the processes of helping people in general. 11 chapters cover hope theory applied to benefit various people: from children to adolescents to the elderly, minorities, athletes and others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Snyder, C. R . ( 2002).

Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind

Psychological Inquiry, 13( 4), 249-275.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Hope is defined as the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals, and motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways. The adult and child hope scales that are derived from hope theory are described. Hope theory is compared to theories of learned optimism, optimism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Higher hope consistently is related to better outcomes in academics, athletics, physical health, psychological adjustment, and psychotherapy. Processes that lessen hope in children and adults are reviewed. Using the hope theory definition, no evidence is found for "false" hope. Future research is encouraged in regard to accurately enhancing hope in medical feedback and helping people to pursue those goals for which they are best suited.

Walsh S., Cassidy M., & Priebe S . ( 2017).

The application of positive psychotherapy in mental health care: A systematic review

Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73( 6), 638-651.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Wellenzohn S., Proyer R. T., & Ruch W . ( 2016 a).

How do positive psychology interventions work? A short-term placebo-controlled humor-based study on the role of the time focus

Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 1-6.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Wellenzohn S., Proyer R. T., & Ruch W . ( 2016 b).

Humor-based online positive psychology interventions: A randomized placebo-controlled long-term trial

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11( 6), 584-594.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Wood A. M., Emmons R. A., Algoe S. B., Froh J. J., Lambert N. M., & Watkins P . ( 2016).

A dark side of gratitude? Distinguishing between beneficial gratitude and its harmful impostors for the positive clinical psychology of gratitude and well-being

In A. M. Wood & J. Johnson (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of positive clinical psychology( pp. 137-151). UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Woodworth R. J., O'Brien-Malone A., Diamond M. R., & Schüz B . ( 2017).

Web-based positive psychology interventions: A reexamination of effectiveness

Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73( 3), 218-232.

URL     PMID:27377826      [本文引用: 1]

Objective Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (2005) suggested that positive psychology interventions (PPIs) contain specific, powerful, therapeutic ingredients that effect greater increases in happiness and reductions in depression than a placebo control. This study reexamined the three PPIs that Seligman et al. found to be most effective when delivered over the internet. Method Three PPIs and a placebo control, identical with the interventions used by Seligman et al., were examined in a web-based, randomized assignment design. Results Mixed-design analysis of variance and multilevel modeling showed that all interventions, including the placebo, led to significant increases in happiness and reductions in depression. The effects of PPIs were indistinguishable from those of the placebo control. Conclusion Using web-based delivery, both PPIs and theoretically neutral placebos can increase happiness and reduce depression in self-selected populations. Possible explanations include that non-specific factors common to most therapeutic treatments are responsible for the observed changes, or that cultural or other context-related variables operate to account for the divergent findings.

版权所有 © 《心理科学进展》编辑部
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发  技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn

/