心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1749-1763 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01749

元分析

感恩的个体主观幸福感更强?—— 一项元分析

丁凤琴,, 赵虎英

宁夏大学教育学院, 银川 750021

Is the individual subjective well-being of gratitude stronger?A meta-analysis

DING Fengqin,, ZHAO Huying

School of Education, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China

通讯作者: 丁凤琴, E-mail: dingfqin@nxu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-03-30   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: *国家自然科学基金项目.  31560285
宁夏区级研究生教育创新计划示范课程建设.  YKC201706

Received: 2018-03-30   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

本研究采用元分析技术探讨感恩与主观幸福感之间的关系。通过文献搜索共获得了62项研究167个独立效应量(n = 31975)。异质性检验发现, 选择随机效应模型比较合适; 敏感性分析显示, 逐步删除异质性较高研究, 感恩与主观幸福感、生活满意度、积极情感均呈显著正相关, 与消极情感呈显著负相关; 亚组检验和元回归分析表明, 感恩与主观幸福感关系受感恩测量工具、被试群体、文化背景的调节与影响。以上结果说明, 感恩的个体主观幸福感更强, 同时还要考虑感恩测量工具、被试群体和文化背景在二者关系中的作用。

关键词: 感恩 ; 主观幸福感 ; 元分析 ; 调节效应

Abstract

This meta-analysis was designed to explore the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being. Through literature retrieval, 62 cases and 167 independent effect sizes together with 31975 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. Heterogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. TheSensitivity analysis showed that there existed a significant positive correlation between gratitude with subjective well-being, satisfaction with life, positive affect, yet there existed a negative correlation between gratitude and negative affect after progressively deleting the higher heterogeneity studies. The Subgroups analysis and Meta-regression analysis revealed that the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being was moderated and influenced by gratitude measurement tools, type of participants, and culture background. The above results indicated that grateful individuals have stronger subjective well-being, meanwhile, the function of the gratitude measurement tool, the subjects and the cultural background is also taken into consideration.

Keywords: gratitude ; subjective well-being ; meta-analysis ; moderate effect

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本文引用格式

丁凤琴, 赵虎英. (2018). 感恩的个体主观幸福感更强?—— 一项元分析. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1749-1763

DING Fengqin, ZHAO Huying. (2018). Is the individual subjective well-being of gratitude stronger?A meta-analysis. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1749-1763

1 问题提出

主观幸福感作为积极心理学的一种重要的心理品质, 具有扩展增强功能。从个体层面而言, 主观幸福感是个体心理健康水平(刘霞, 赵景欣, 申继亮, 2013)、生活质量(宋佳萌, 范会勇, 2013; Satterfield, 2001)和社会适应的表现(石国兴, 祝伟娜, 2008); 从人际层面而言, 主观幸福感有助于促进人际关系(Diener & Ryan, 2009), 维持人际和谐(Martin & Dowson, 2009); 从社会层面而言, 主观幸福感是社会和谐的重要指标(彭运石, 莫文, 2011)和幸福社会建构的基础(李艳艳, 2015)。因此, 主观幸福感的研究得到了研究者的广泛关注。

以往研究发现, 感恩能预测个体的主观幸福感(罗利, 周天梅, 2015; 孙配贞, 郑雪, 余祖伟, 2010; Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009; Watkins, Woodward, Stone, & Kolts, 2003)。然而, 采用同样的量表进行测量, 感恩与主观幸福感的相关系数差异较大, 国外研究表明, 二者相关系数从0.27 (Tian, Pi, Huebner, & Du, 2016)到0.55 (Jun, Lee, & Lee, 2015); 国内研究也显示, 二者相关系数从0.21 (陈郑, 2013)到0.54 (连灵, 2017)。那么, 感恩与主观幸福感之间的关系究竟如何? 受何种因素的调节? 亟需研究者进行考量。

本研究采用元分析方法探讨感恩与主观幸福感的关系以及二者关系的调节因素。主要原因在于:第一, 元分析方法是对以往多项研究成果的整合分析, 可以避免单一研究结果造成的测量误差的影响(Lipsey & Wilson, 2001); 第二, 主观幸福感是一个多维度多层次的构念, 基于多元视角研究成果的定量回顾和综合分析将有助于主观幸福感理论的全面整合和建构; 第三, 国内外研究者已探索出影响二者关系的大量因素, 对这些影响因素进行系统分析, 从而可以得到更普遍、更准确的结论。

1.1 主观幸福感的概念及其测量

主观幸福感(subjective well-being, SWB)是个体依据自我内化的标准对其生活质量做出的整体性判断, 具有主观性、整体性、稳定性等特征(Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999)。主观幸福感包括生活满意度、积极情绪和消极情绪三个维度(Diener, Oishi, & Lucas, 2015), 并且以上维度各自独立(Fujita, Diener, & Sandvik, 1991)。生活满意度更倾向于个体对生活质量的认知评价, 积极情绪和消极情绪则倾向于个体对生活质量的主观情绪体验(Diener & Ryan, 2009)。

主观幸福感的测量一般从整体取向和维度取向两个方面进行。整体取向的量表主要包括:Fazio (1977)编制的总体幸福感量表(General Well- being Schedule, GWB)、Campbell (1976)编制的幸福感指数量表(Index of Well-being, IWB)、Kozma和Stones (1980)编制的纽芬兰纪念大学幸福感量表(Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness, MUNSH)、Hills和Argyle (2001)编制的牛津幸福感调查表(Oxford Happiness Inventory, OHI)。维度取向的量表包括:Diener和Gonzalez (2011)编制的生活满意度量表(Life satisfaction scale, LSS); Watson, Clark和Tellegen (1988)编制的积极情感量表和消极情感量表(Positive affect and Negative affect scale, PANAS); Bradburn (2015)编制的情感平衡量表(Affect balance scale, ABS)。

1.2 感恩的概念及其测量

感恩(gratitude)是个体源于积极主观经历而诱发的积极情绪(Froh, Fan et al., 2011)和因他人帮助而获得的积极认知和积极人格(Emmons & Shelton, 2005; Emmons & McCullough, 2003)。感恩包括特质感恩和状态感恩两类(何安明, 惠秋平, 刘华山, 2013; Emmons & McCullough, 2003)。特质感恩是指个体采用感激情绪体验回报他人帮助行为, 并由此衍生出对日常生活心怀感激的积极人格特质(何安明等, 2013; McCullough, Tsang, & Emmons, 2004; Wood, Maltby, Stewart, & Joseph, 2008), 是个体成长的重要的韧性因子(喻承甫, 张卫, 李董平, 肖婕婷, 2010)。国外特质感恩测量的工具主要有:McCullough, Emmons和Tsang (2002)编制的六项目感恩问卷(The Gratitude Questionnaire-6, GQ-6), 用于测量被试感恩特质的“强度、频度、密度和广度”四个方面。谢振旺(2010)基于本土化背景编制的大学生感恩特质量表(the Scale of College Students’ Gratitude, SCSG), 包括知足幸运、简单快乐、珍惜、消极体验和回报行为五个维度; 何安明、刘华山和惠秋平(2012)编制的青少年特质感恩量表(Adolescent Gratitude Scale, AGS), 包括两个维度和6个因素, 即对自然、社会和他人恩惠的感知和体验, 对自然、社会、他人恩惠的表达和回报。

状态感恩是指个体在受到恩惠时所产生的一种感激和喜悦的即时情绪感受(何安明等, 2013)和持续一段时间的心境(McCullough et al., 2004)。状态感恩会影响个体在某种特定情境中的信息加工和反应能力(McCullough et al., 2004)。目前McCullough等人(2002)编制的感恩形容词评定量表(The Gratitude Adjective Checklist, GAC)是状态感恩测评工具的代表, 该量表要求被试评定感激的、感谢的、欣赏的三个形容词与自己的符合程度。大多数感恩问卷的测量既包括特质感恩成分, 也包括状态感恩成分, 如Watkins等人(2003)编制的感恩、忿恨和感激问卷(The Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test, GRAT), 该量表包含富足感、简单感激、感谢他人三个维度。实际上, 大多数学者均将感恩看作是一种积极人格特质(何安明等, 2013; Wood, Maltby et al., 2008)。

我们认为, 状态感恩强调感恩的状态性和暂时性, 特质感恩更强调感恩跨时间和跨情境的稳定性与一致性, 个体具有回报他人帮助行为并由此衍生出心怀感激的积极人格倾向。相对而言, 具有感恩特质的个体更容易体验到感恩情绪。因此, 状态感恩是特质感恩的前提与基础, 而特质感恩是状态感恩的必然结果。此外, 感恩特质高的个体会更频繁的处于状态感恩之中并表达感恩行为(喻承甫等, 2010)。状态感恩与特质感恩均能促进个体的积极发展(Wood, Maltby et al., 2008), 也均能反映感恩的本质属性(Emmons & Shelton, 2005; Froh, Emmons, Card, Bono, & Wilson, 2011)。限于国内外关于状态感恩的文献较少, 并且状态感恩具有情境性和特异性, 元分析研究需要有全面、稳定、系统的文献作为支撑, 所以, 本元分析主要针对稳定且系统的特质感恩进行专门分析和研究。

1.3 感恩与主观幸福感的关系

首先, 在主观幸福感形成的理论建构中, 学者们一直很重视感恩在其中的重要作用。积极情绪拓展建构理论认为, 感恩作为一种积极情绪能拓宽人们的思想模式, 建构积极持久的社会和心理资源, 从而提升个体的主观幸福感(Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005); 内外在目标理论强调, 感恩可促进个体内在目标奋斗, 进而满足个体的自主、关系和能力的内在需要, 个体的主观幸福感也相应增强(La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman, & Deci, 2000); 道德情感理论认为, 个体的感恩感激之情能够促进其产生亲社会行为, 进而提升其主观幸福感(Grant & Gino, 2010)。上述理论均强调, 感恩与主观幸福感关系密切, 为感恩与主观幸福感的关系提供了理论基础。

其次, 研究者通过实证研究探讨了感恩对主观幸福感的重要作用。一方面, 感恩与整体取向的主观幸福感关系密切。众多研究表明, 感恩与主观幸福感之间存在明显的正相关(Froh et al., 2009; Martínez-Martí, Avia, Hernández-Lloreda, 2010; McCullough et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 2003); 感恩对主观幸福感具有增益功能(喻承甫等, 2010); 研究者采用纵向研究也发现, 感恩是主观幸福感的预测因素(Wood, Joseph, & Maltby, 2009)。另一方面, 感恩与主观幸福感各维度关系密切。感恩与生活满意度(Froh, Sefick, & Emmons, 2008; Rash, Matsuba, Prkachin, 2011)紧密联系; 高感恩倾向的个体拥有更多的积极情绪(McCullough et al, 2004; Wood, Joseph, & Maltby, 2008; Watkins et al., 2003)和更少的消极情绪(喻承甫等, 2010)。

最后, 感恩的教育干预是增强个体主观幸福感的重要途径。研究表明, 感恩干预可以有效提升个体的主观幸福感(Emmons & McCullough, 2003; Wood, Froh, & Geraghty, 2010)、生活满意度(Froh et al., 2008)和积极情绪(Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006), 抑制消极情绪(Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2004)。因此, 积极的感恩教育干预无疑是提升个体主观幸福感的有效途径。

以上研究表明, 感恩和主观幸福感关系密切。但感恩和主观幸福感之间的关系可能不仅仅局限于相关关系和因果关系, 可能有更复杂的交互作用(张妍, 韩黎, 孔繁昌, 许芳, 2011)。为此, 感恩和主观幸福感关系的调节变量也值得进一步探讨。

1.4 感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节变量

被试年龄 以往研究认为, 青少年群体是感恩形成和发展的关键期(喻承甫等, 2011), 并随年龄增长而不断提高(王建平, 喻承甫, 曾毅茵, 叶婷, 张卫, 2011; Froh et al., 2009)。此外, 细数感恩对于积极心理状态的提升作用在不同年龄阶段表现不同(Froh et al. 2009); 不同年龄阶段被试感恩所激发的主观幸福感不同(Watkins et al., 2003)。因此, 不同年龄群体感恩与主观幸福感之间的关系可能不同。

测量工具 在感恩与主观幸福感关系的研究中, 研究者对感恩的测量工具没有统一的规定和评价标准, 导致了感恩测量工具存在以下问题:(1)感恩测量工具的不统一。如Watkins等人(2003)编制的GRAT, McCullough等人(2002)编制的GAC, Adler和Fagley (2005)编制的AS等量表均用来测量被试的状态感恩; 而McCullough等人(2002)编制的GQ-6, 谢振旺(2010)编制的SCSG等量表均用来测量被试的特质感恩。因此, 感恩测量工具有很大的差异性。(2)感恩测量维度的不同。McCullough等人(2002)编制的GQ-6是单维量表; Watkins等人(2003)编制的GRAT, 谢振旺(2010)编制的SCSG是多维度量表。(3)感恩测量内容的不同。McCullough等人(2002)编制的GQ-6感恩量表用于测量感恩情绪的强度、频率和密度; Watkins等人(2003)编制的GRAT倾向于测量被试的富足感、简单感激、感谢他人方面的心境; 谢振旺(2010)编制的SCSG量表倾向于测试被试的知足幸运、简单快乐、珍惜、消极体验和回报行为五个方面的感恩特质。这就使得感恩量表标准不统一, 导致不同的研究结果也就不能直接进行比较。Eisenberg和Miller (1987)指出, 测量方法的不同直接影响变量之间的关系强度。为此, 本研究假设, 感恩与主观幸福感之间的关系可能会受不同测量工具的调节。

文化背景 首先, 感恩与文化背景关系密切(Cohen, 2006)。以往研究表明, 西方文化倾向于对上帝和自然的感恩, 东方文化倾向于对人和社会的感恩(何安明等, 2013; 喻承甫等, 2010), 并且更注重感恩的回馈与报答(Naito, Wangwan, & Tani, 2005)。其次, 主观幸福感因文化背景不同而不同(Markus, Kitayama, & Heiman, 1996)。与集体主义文化背景相比, 个人主义文化背景下个体的幸福感水平更高(Diener, Oishi, & Lucas, 2003; Oishi & Diener, 2001)。最后, 不同文化背景下感恩对主观幸福感的影响不同。研究表明, 感恩干预在不同文化背景下对于积极心理状态(包括主观幸福感)的提升作用不同(Martínez-Martí et al., 2010)。由此我们推测, 文化背景可能是感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节变量。

2 研究方法

2.1 文献搜索

本研究全面搜索了中文和英文文献。中文文献主要检索CNKI数据库、中国优秀硕士学位论文全文数据库、中国科技期刊数据库、万方数据库, 同时通过参考文献进行人工搜索。感恩检索词为感恩、感戴、感激、感恩行为; 主观幸福感检索词为主观幸福感、幸福感、生活满意度(感)、积极(正性)情感(情绪)、消极(负性)情感(情绪)、快乐感、乐观。英文文献检索Science Direct、Springer link、Web of Science、Psy INFO、Elsevier、ProQuest硕博士论文全文数据库, 以Grateful Appreciate、Gratitude、Owed、Thankful、Thank、Thanksgiving为关键词, 联合Well-being、SWB、Happiness、Optimism、Positive emotions、Negative emotions、Positive affect、Negative affect、Life satisfaction进行检索, 并通过Google Scholar进行文献补查, 为了避免遗漏, 对综述和相关文章的参考文献进行人工搜索。

2.2 文献纳入与排除标准

结合元分析方法和研究主题的要求, 纳入元分析研究的标准为:(1)必须是报告了实验或调查数据的实证研究, 排除纯理论和文献综述类文章; (2)研究中同时使用感恩量表和主观幸福感量表, 并报告了至少一个感恩与主观幸福感维度或者总分之间的相关关系或其他可以转化为效应量的指标; (3)研究之间样本独立, 若研究之间的样本重复或重叠, 则采用更详细或样本更大的研究; (4)数据重复发表的只取其一, 若学位论文发表在学术期刊上, 则以发表的期刊论文为准; (5)研究对象为正常人; (6)样本量大小明确。

2.3 文献编码

对纳入元分析的文献进行如下编码:文献信息(作者名+文献时间), 样本量大小, 感恩测量工具(感恩量表、感戴量表、大学生感恩特质问卷)、被试群体(青少年、成人)、文化背景(东、西方文化), 结果变量类型(主观幸福感、生活满意度、积极情感、消极情感)。文献效应值按照每个独立样本编码一个效应值, 若一篇论文同时报告了多个独立样本, 则分开编码, 产生多个独立效应量, 共得到167个独立效应量。2名编码者依据文献纳入和排除标准进行单独编码, 编码的一致性为91.9%, 说明文献编码是比较有效而准确的。最终纳入元分析的文献62篇, 其中, 中文文献42篇, 英文文献20篇(见表1)。

表1   纳入元分析研究的基本资料

作者(发表时间) 样本量 工具 群体 文化 结果变量 效应量(r)
卜琳, 2013 379 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.44
曾妍, 2013 300 SCSG A E SW & LS 0.32 & 0.39
曾昱, 2013 762 GQ-6 Ad E SW 0.55
陈郑, 2013 353 SCSG A E SW 0.21
董霞, 2008 597 SCSG A E SW 0.38
甘启颖, 2009 260 GQ-6 A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.37 & 0.26 & 0.39 & -0.28
和娟, 2015 382 GRAT A E LS 0.68
黄慧, 2014 572 GQ-6 A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.29 & 0.21 & 0.36 & -0.13
惠秋平, 2010 582 GQ-6 A E LS 0.22
蒋怀滨, 2015 133 GQ-6 A E SW & LS 0.23 & 0.35
李霞, 2015 587 GQ-6 A E LS 0.25
李旭, 2015 206 GRAT A E LS & PE & NE 0.64 & 0.35 & -0.42
李艳, 2014 206 GQ-6 A E SW 0.40
连灵, 2017 538 GQ-6 A E SW 0.54
廖军和, 2015 677 SCSG A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.42 & 0.27 & 0.43 & -0.20
林婵, 2014 328 GRAT A E SW 0.53
刘静, 2012 495 GRAT A E SW & LS & NE 0.48 & 0.38 & -0.41
陆超祥, 2016 519 GQ-6 A E SW 0.12
罗利, 2015 865 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.02
马丽, 2011 100 GQ-6 A E SW & LS & NE 0.36 & 0.17 & -0.28
马永泽, 2016 561 GQ-6 A E LS 0.28
苗静宇, 2013 342 GQ-6 Ad E LS & NE 0.31 & -0.25
彭秀, 2015 502 SCSG A E SW 0.34
邱会霞, 2017 497 SCSG Ad E SW 0.61
施艳, 2012 504 GRAT Ad E LS 0.53
舒亚丽, 2014 300 GQ-6 Ad E LS & PE & NE 0.35 & 0.52 & -0.23
孙配贞, 2010 839 GRAT Ad E LS & PE & NE 0.41 & 0.32 & -0.17
王华云, 2012 600 GRAT A E SW & LS 0.36 & 0.32
王艳辉, 2012 390 GQ-6 A E LS 0.15
王元元, 2012 521 SCSG A E SW & LS 0.22 & 0.28
谢晓东, 2013 701 GQ-6 Ad E SW & LS & NE 0.45 & 0.22 & -0.09
谢振旺, 2013 1000 SCSG A E LS 0.35
谢振旺, 2010 378 SCSG A E LS & PE & NE 0.46 & 0.37 & -0.26
徐璐璐, 2016 589 GRAT A E SW 0.59
荀龄萱, 2016 306 GQ-6 Ad E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.57 & 0.55 & 0.47 & -0.37
杨强, 2014 1319 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.41
禹玉兰, 2013 227 SCSG A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.68 & 0.56 & 0.54 & -0.20
袁书杰, 2012 231 GRAT A E SW 0.60
张惠, 2014 370 GQ-6 A E LS 0.39
朱桂萍, 2009 208 GRAT A E SW 0.48
朱攀华, 2016 717 SCSG A E LS 0.34
祝伟娜, 2008 806 GRAT Ad E LS & PE 0.63 & 0.43
作者(发表时间) 样本量 工具 群体 文化 结果变量 效应量(r)
Wood, 2010 289 GQ-6 A W PE 0.43
Wood, 2009 201 GQ-6 A W PE 0.51
Wood, 2008 E1 253 GQ-6 Ad W PE 0.51
Wood, 2008 E2 389 GQ-6 Ad W PE 0.43
Lin, 2014 504 GQ-6 A E LS & PE 0.41 & 0.46
Lin, 2016 750 GRAT Ad E SW 0.58
Chan, 2013 145 GQ-6 A E LS & PE & NE 0.41 & 0.43 & -0.2
Kong, 2015 427 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.20
Froh, 2008 221 GRAT Ad W LS 0.13
Froh, 2011 E1 274 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.44 & 0.31 & -0.16
Froh, 2011 E2 274 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.42 & 0.36 & -0.24
Froh, 2011 E3 260 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.46 & 0.37 & -0.21
Froh,2011 E4 260 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.43 & 0.30 & -0.17
Froh,2011 E5 249 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.47 & 0.39 & -0.21
Froh,2011 E6 249 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.46 & 0.41 & -0.25
Froh,2011 E7 207 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.59 & 0.44 & -0.35
Froh,2011 E8 207 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.45 & 0.33 & -0.32
Froh,2011 E9 194 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.58 & 0.28 & -0.23
Froh,2011 E10 194 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.16 & 0.19 & -0.03
Froh, 2011 E11 217 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.56 & 0.34 & -0.09
Datu, 2014 210 GQ-6 A W SW & LS 0.42 & 0.47
Datu, 2015 409 GQ-6 Ad W LS 0.43
Jun, 2015 411 GQ-6 A W SW 0.55
Tian, 2016 881 GQ-6 A W SW 0.27
Tian, 2015 E1 375 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.43 & 0.27 & -0.08
Tian, 2015 E2 331 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.38 & 0.34 & -0.14
Chen,2008 E1 169 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.30
Chen, 2008 E2 365 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.70
McCullough, 2004 96 GRAT A W SW & LS & PE 0.27 & 0.31 & 0.39
Emmons, 2003 E1 238 GQ-6 A W SW& PE 0.22 & 0.14
Emmons, 2003 E2 238 GQ-6 A W SW & PE & NE 0.13 & 0.28 & -0.17
Emmons, 2003 E3 192 GQ-6 A W SW 0.15
Hasemeye, 2013 154 GQ-6 Ad W LS 0.37
Adler, 2005 E1 420 SCSG Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.27 & 0.43 & -0.10
Adler, 2005 E2 420 SCSG Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.32 & 0.42 & -0.10
Adler, 2005 E3 418 SCSG Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.22 & 0.22 & -0.03
Watkins, 2003 E1 154 GRAT A W LS & PE & NE 0.50 & 0.36 & -0.15
Watkins, 2003 E2 66 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.52 & -0.20
Watkins, 2003 E3 57 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.23 & -0.15
Watkins, 2003 E4 237 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.28 & -0.35
Watkins, 2003 E5 157 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.32 & -0.43
Watkins, 2003 E6 157 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.31 & -0.51

注:(1) 为了减少篇幅, 多数只列出了第一作者。(2) GART = 感戴量表; GQ-6 = 感恩量表; SCSG = 大学生感恩特质量表。(3) A = 成人; Ad = 青少年。(4) E = 东方文化; W = 西方文化。(5) SW = 主观幸福感; LS = 生活满意度; PE = 积极情感; NE = 消极情感。(6)同一研究包含两个或以上独立样本的以年代后加E1, E2, E3等进行区分。

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2.4 元分析过程

2.4.1 效应量计算

本研究选用CMA 2.0 (Comprehensive Meta- analysis 2.0)专业版软件进行元分析。采用相关系数作为效应量来整合两者之间的关系。在编码过程中, 一些文献没有直接报告感恩与主观幸福感之间或者与其各个指标之间的相关系数, 而是报告了F值、t值或χ2值, 我们采用王洁等人(2013)的公式将其转化为r值, 即r = [t2/(t2 + df)]1/2, df = n1 + n2 - 2; r = [F/(F + df)]1/2, df = n1 + n2 - 2; r = 2/(χ2 + N)]1/2, 再将相关系数r值转换为Fisher-Z值后进行元分析。

2.4.2 模型选定与异质性检验

目前元分析主要采用固定效应模型或随机效应模型。固定效应模型假设, 所有研究均存在一个真效应量, 并且只包含研究所涉及的总体, 不能推广到其它总体。随机效应模型认为, 元分析的研究不仅只存在一个真效应量, 由于研究群体和研究工具的不同而有所不同(Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, & Rothstein, 2009)。本研究文献梳理发现, 感恩与主观幸福感之间的关系可能受被试群体、测量工具、文化背景因素的影响。而当不同研究特征会影响元分析结果时, 选用随机效应模型更加科学合理(Borenstein et al., 2009)。为此, 本研究采用随机效应模型进行元分析。此外, 通过异质性检验(heterogeneity test)进一步验证随机效应模型选择的合理性。异质性检验方法主要有Q检验、I2检验和H检验。Q检验是基于总变异的检验, 假设效应量服从卡方分布, 若p < 0.05, 则表明显著异质; I2检验主要反映了效应量的真实变异在总变异中所占的比重, 根据以往观点, 可将25%、50%、75%的I2值看作异质性低、中、高的界限(Higgins, Thompson, Deeks, & Altman, 2003); H检验是Q效应量的校正值, H > 1.5则表示研究间存在高度异质性。

2.4.3 出版偏倚

出版偏倚(publication bias)意味着被发表的研究文献不能系统全面地代表该领域已经完成的研究总体(Rothstein, Sutton, & Borenstein, 2005)。排除出版偏倚最有效的途径就是加大样本量, 因为样本缺乏代表性, 特别是缺乏研究结果不显著的或未发表的学位论文, 可能会影响元分析结果的可靠性。针对此问题, 首先, 我们在文献搜索阶段尽可能获取了没有发表的文献; 其次, 在具体元分析过程中, 我们采用漏斗图(funnel plot)、Rosenthal’s Classic Fail-safe N检验、Egger’s检验三种方法进一步检验出版偏倚。

3 研究结果

3.1 出版偏倚检验

首先采用漏斗图(fuunel plot)检查本元分析的发表偏差, 见图1图2图3图4。从漏斗图来看, 感恩与主观幸福感总分及其各维度关系的研究文献基本分布于总效应量两侧, 表明感恩与主观幸福感及其各指标的研究不存在严重的发表偏差。但漏斗图只是从主观角度初步检查发表偏差, 尚需采用Rosenthal’s Classic Fail-safe N和Egger’s进行更精确的检验(见表2)。

图1

图1   感恩与主观幸福感关系漏斗图


图2

图2   感恩与生活满意度关系漏斗图


图3

图3   感恩与积极情感关系漏斗图


图4

图4   感恩与消极情感关系漏斗图


表2   发表偏差检验结果

结果变量 K Classic Fail-safe N FSR Egger’s Intercept SE LL UL p
SW 32 19963 117.42 -1.76 2.49 -5.98 2.47 0.50
LS 57 44365 150.39 1.15 1.52 -1.40 3.70 0.45
PE 41 18455 85.84 -0.75 0.91 -2.30 0.79 0.42
NE 37 5842 29.96 1.17 1.11 -0.71 3.05 0.30

注:LL、UL表示Egger’s regres sion Intercept 的95%置信区间的下限与上限。

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表2结果表明, 感恩与主观幸福感、生活满意度、积极情感、消极情感的失安全系数分别为19963、44365、18455、5842, 即额外分别需要相应数量的研究文献才能否定感恩与主观幸福感及其各指标之间的重要关系; 对应的四个失安全系数比率均远大于1, 表明样本具有代表性, 不存在发表偏差; 四个结果变量上Egger’s Intercept的p值分别是0.50、0.45、0.42、0.30, 与零差异不显著(p > 0.05), 说明感恩与主观幸福感总体及其各个指标均不存在发表偏差。

3.2 异质性检验

异质性检验的目的在于检验研究之间测得的效应量是否异质。本研究对感恩与主观幸福感及其亚类型之间的关系进行异质性检验, 结果见表3

表3   异质性检验结果

结果变量 k Q df p I2 Tau-squared H
SW 32 430.30 31 < 0.001 92.79 0.03 3.73
LS 57 676.85 56 < 0.001 91.73 0.03 3.47
PE 41 109.69 40 < 0.001 63.53 0.01 1.66
NE 37 159.88 36 < 0.001 77.48 0.01 2.11

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表3结果表明, 各研究之间效应值的Q检验均显著(p < 0.001), 表明元分析中各效应值均是异质的; I-squared值在63.53%~92.79%之间, 表示效应量的真实变异在总变异中所占的比例在63.53%~92.79%之间, 随机误差所占的比例较小, 依据Higgins等人(2003)判断异质性的的标准, I-squared > 75%, 表示高异质性; H > 1.5, 表示研究间存在异质性。Tau-squared的值在1%~3%之间, 表示各研究间效应量的变异有1%~3%可用于计算权重。

3.3 敏感性分析

异质性检验表明, 各研究之间的效应值均呈高异质性。依据漏斗图及效应值的偏离情况, 对感恩与主观幸福感及其维度关系的异质性效应量进行敏感性分析。逐步删除16项研究(邱会霞, 2017; 禹玉兰等, 2013; 袁书杰, 2012; 徐璐璐, 贺雯, 2016; 荀龄萱, 2016; 曾昱, 夏凌翔, 2013; Lin, 2016; Jun et al., 2015; 连灵, 2017; 林婵, 2014; 陆超祥等, 2016; Emmons & McCullough, 2003 E3; 王元元等, 2012; 陈郑, 2013; 刘静, 2012; 谢晓东等, 2013)后, 主观幸福感的异质性降低至48.96%, 感恩与主观幸福感关系的效应量r = 0.35, p < 0.001; 逐步删除20项研究(Chen & Ying, 2008 E2; 和娟, 2015; 祝伟娜, 2008; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E7; 罗利, 周天梅, 2015; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E9; Froh et al., 2008; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E11; 王艳辉, 张少浩, 2012; 施艳, 2012; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E10; 荀龄萱, 2016; 马丽, 2011; 谢晓东等, 2013; Datu, 2014; Kong et al., 2015; 黄慧, 2014; 惠秋平, 2010; 李霞等, 2015; 甘启颖, 2009)后, 生活满意度的异质性降低至49.50%, 感恩与生活满意度关系的效应量r = 0.38, p < 0.001; 逐步删除9项研究(Emmons & McCullough, 2003 E1; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E10; Adler & Fagley, 2005 E3; 禹玉兰等, 2013; Wood et al., 2009; Wood, 2008; 舒亚丽, 沐守宽, 2014; Watkins et al., 2003 E1; Lin, 2014)后, 积极情感的异质性降低至24.66%, 感恩与积极情感关系的效应量r = 0.37, p < 0.001; 逐步删除11项研究(Watkins et al., 2003 E6; 李旭, 郑雪, 2015; 刘静, 2012; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E7; 荀龄萱, 2016; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E11; 马丽, 2011; 甘启颖, 2009; Watkins et al., 2003 E4; Adler & Fagley, 2005 E3; Froh, Fan et al., 2011 E10)后, 消极情感的异质性降低至18.98%, 感恩与消极情感关系的效应量r = -0.19, p < 0.001。以上结果表明, 无论异质性程度如何, 感恩与主观幸福感及其各指标均存在显著相关。

3.4 亚组检验

异质性检验发现, 各研究之间的效应值均呈高异质性, 可能存在显著的调节变量。而亚组检验是探讨异质性来源最常用的方法之一。故本研究通过亚组检验进一步考察异质性的来源及研究特征对效应量的调节作用。本研究关注感恩测量工具(GQ-6、GRAT和SCSG)、被试群体(青少年、成人)、文化背景(东方、西方文化)对感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节作用(见表4表5表6)。

表4   测量工具对感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节作用

结果变量 工具类型 k r 95%CI I2 Qw Qb p
SW GQ-6 16 0.36 0.28~0.44 92.57 201.84*** 6.39 0.04
GRAT 8 0.50 0.41~0.58 87.34 48.54***
SCSG 8 0.38 0.26~0.47 92.44 118.89***
LS GQ-6 32 0.38 0.33~0.41 92.06 590.61*** 8.67 0.01
GRAT 16 0.41 0.32~0.48 92.47 199.14***
SCSG 9 0.30 0.27~0.33 10.66 8.96
PE GQ-6 20 0.39 0.35~0.43 64.66 53.76*** 3.89 0.14
GRAT 15 0.34 0.31~0.38 36.47 22.04
SCSG 6 0.40 0.32~0.48 80.94 26.23***
NE GQ-6 16 -0.22 -0.26~-0.17 74.63 59.13*** 6.00 0.05
GRAT 15 -0.26 -0.35~-0.21 79.91 69.72***
SCSG 6 -0.16 -0.22~-0.09 61.52 13.00*

注: 采用随机效应模型; Qw表示组内异质性; Qb表示组间异质性; *** p < 0.001,** p < 0.01;* p < 0.05。下同

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表5   被试群体对感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节作用

结果变量 类型 k r 95%CI I2 Qw Qb p
SW A 27 0.37 0.35~0.38 90.50 303.84*** 17.91 0.00
Ad 5 0.55 0.52~0.57 78.15 18.31**
LS A 25 0.33 0.28~0.38 85.38 164.24*** 3.95 0.03
Ad 32 0.41 0.35~0.46 93.49 476.39***
PE A 19 0.39 0.34~0.43 57.12 41.98** 0.24 0.63
Ad 22 0.37 0.34~0.41 68.23 66.10**
NE A 16 -0.28 -0.33~-0.22 76.04 62.61*** 4.34 0.04
Ad 21 -0.20 -0.24~-0.15 77.72 89.78***

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表6   文化背景对感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节作用

结果变量 类型 k r 95%CI I2 Qw Qb p
SW E 25 0.44 0.41~0.45 92.65 329.44*** 4.39 0.04
W 7 0.31 0.28~0.35 89.56 57.47***
LS E 35 0.35 0.30~0.40 93.89 557.26*** 2.36 0.08
W 22 0.41 0.36~0.46 80.40 107.12***
PE E 12 0.42 0.38~0.46 53.44 30.09** 6.32 0.01
W 29 0.35 0.32~0.39 58.35 67.23***
NE E 13 -0.26 -0.31~ -0.21 80.44 61.35*** 2.31 0.13
W 24 -0.22 -0.26 ~- 0.16 71.18 79.80***

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表4结果显示, 测量工具显著调节主观幸福感(Qb = 6.39, p < 0.05)、生活满意度(Qb = 8.67, p < 0.05)、消极情感(Qb = 6.00, p < 0.05), 使用GRAT测量工具测得的感恩与主观幸福感及各维度的关系相对比较高。

表5结果表明, 被试群体显著调节主观幸福感(Qb = 17.91, p < 0.001)、生活满意度(Qb = 3.95, p < 0.05)、消极情感(Qb = 4.34, p < 0.05), 青少年感恩和主观幸福感、生活满意度的关系高于成人, 而感恩与消极情感的关系低于成人。

表6结果显示, 文化背景显著调节主观幸福感(Qb = 4.39, p < 0.05)、积极情感(Qb = 6.32, p < 0.05), 东方文化背景下感恩和主观幸福感与积极情感的关系均高于西方文化背景。

3.5 调节变量的元回归分析

进一步对调节变量进行元回归分析(表7), 结果表明, 测量工具、被试群体、文化背景三个变量在感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节作用显著(p < 0.05); 测量工具和被试群体在感恩与生活满意度及消极情感关系的调节作用显著(p < 0.05); 文化背景在感恩与积极情感关系的调节作用显著(p < 0.05), 与亚组检验结果一致。

表7   调节变量的元回归分析

结果变量 调节变量 Beta SE z p
主观幸福感 测量工具 0.17*** 0.03 5.23 0.00
被试群体 0.43** 0.08 2.64 0.01
文化背景 -0.38*** 0.08 -2.22 0.00
生活满意度 测量工具 -0.11*** 0.02 -0.82 0.00
被试群体 -0.31*** 0.09 -0.17 0.00
积极情感 文化背景 0.26*** 0.14 1.70 0.00
消极情感 测量工具 0.02*** 0.14 0.13 0.00
被试群体 0.34*** 0.04 2.13 0.00

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4 讨论

4.1 感恩与主观幸福感的关系

本研究结果显示, 删除髙异质性文献后, 感恩与主观幸福感关系密切(r = 0.35), 感恩体验较高的个体, 其主观幸福感也较高, 与以往研究结果吻合(孙配贞等, 2010; 舒亚丽, 沐守宽, 2014; 石国兴, 祝伟娜, 2008; Watkins et al., 2003; Wood et al., 2009)。主要原因在于:首先, 感恩与主观幸福感相互强化, 即个体感恩水平越高, 主观幸福感水平就越高, 从而促进更高的感恩水平和更高的主观幸福感。纵向数据表明, 感恩对主观幸福感具有独特的递增效应(喻承甫等, 2010; Wood, Maltby et al., 2008)。感恩的个体体验到更多的心理满足、积极情绪和希望, 进一步强化其感恩水平和主观幸福感(Watkins, 2004)。其次, 感恩是个体拥有的一种积极的人格特质和积极情绪。感恩具有快乐、充满敬畏、精神饱满等特征(Emmons & Shelton, 2005), 感恩与满意、自豪、积极主观经历等密切相关(Tsang, Carpenter, Roberts, Frisch, & Carlisle, 2014; Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2008)。这些积极特征能直接促进个人的成长和良好关系的形成, 增强个体的心理健康水平和心理适应功能, 从而促进个人的主观幸福感, 同时也通过抑制个体的憎恶和贪婪, 降低消极情绪, 减轻心理压力, 提高个体的主观幸福感。最后, 感恩作为一种道德情感, 能够有效拓展个体积极的心理资源, 进而提高个体的主观幸福感。如积极情绪拓展建构理论强调, 感恩能拓宽个体积极的认知模式, 建构较为积极而持久的心理资源, 从而提升个体的主观幸福感(Fredrickson, 2001); 内外在目标理论提出, 感恩可以满足个体的内在需要, 其主观幸福感自然增强(La Guardia et al., 2000)。总之, 感恩增强了个体的积极认知、积极情绪, 积极内在需要, 使个体更容易感知生活中的正能量、能更加积极乐观看待生活中的一切, 从而促进个体的主观幸福感。因此, 感恩与主观幸福感的关系理应得到教育实践者的重视, 今后可以通过感恩的激发与培养进一步提升个体的主观幸福感。

本研究还发现, 删除髙异质性文献后, 感恩与生活满意度(r = 0.38)、积极情感(r = 0.37)、消极情感(r = -0.19)关系密切。国外研究也表明, 高感恩的个体具有更多的生活满意度(Froh et al., 2008)。大量研究也表明, 感恩能增强个体的积极情感(Froh et al., 2009), 并且能抑制个体的消极情感(Park et al., 2004)。因为感恩作为一种积极人格特质和积极情绪, 使个体能以感激心态和感同身受的体验理解社会与人生, 促进个体更加乐观、积极地评价自己的生活, 也更容易体验到生活的快乐感和满足感, 最大程度地提高个体对生活的满意感、感知到更多的积极情感, 同时减少消极情感。因此, 今后应多开展感恩教育活动, 如通 过感恩日记、感恩信件、感恩电话等方式, 增强个体的感恩经验, 提高个体的生活满意感和积极情感。

4.2 感恩与主观幸福感关系的调节效应

4.2.1 测量工具

元分析结果表明, 测量工具是感恩与主观幸福感(Qb = 6.39, p < 0.05)、生活满意度(Qb = 8.67, p < 0.05)、消极情感(Qb = 6.00, p < 0.05)的调节变量。其中, GART量表在感恩与主观幸福感总分(r = 0.50)、生活满意度(r = 0.41)及消极情感(r = -0.26)的关系中影响程度最大; GQ-6量表在感恩与生活满意度(r = 0.38)、消极情感(r = -0.22)的关系中影响程度较SCSG量表大; 而SCSG量表在感恩与积极情感(r = 0.40)的关系中影响程度较大。不同的感恩测量工具会影响感恩与主观幸福感及其维度的关系。

出现上述结果的原因可能是, 首先, 各量表测试内容有差异, GQ-6六项目感恩问卷只有6个项目, 主要用来测量个体的感恩特质; 而GART量表有44个项目, 主要用来测量个体的状态感恩; SCSG量表有22个项目, 主要基于中国文化背景测试个体的感恩特质。其次, 各量表本身所包含的维度也不同。GQ-6问卷包括感恩的强度、频度、密度和广度四个维度; SCSG量表则包括知足幸运、简单快乐、珍惜、消极体验和回报行为五个维度; GRAT量表包含富足感、简单感激、感谢他人三个维度。尤其GRAT量表本身就包含了个体对事件、行为和对象的价值和意义及其与之相联系的积极情绪, GRAT与主观幸福感及消极情感的关系比较大。所以, 感恩各量表拓展与延伸的内涵及其量表结构有所差异。此外, 不同的感恩测量工具的理论基础存在差异, 如:GQ-6六项目感恩问卷是McCullough等人(2002)依据感恩特质理论编制的自陈量表; 而GRAT量表是在简单感激(Simple Appreciation, SA)量表、富足感(Sense of Abundance, AS)量表、他人感激(Appreciation of Others, AO)量表基础上编制(Watkins et al., 2003); SCSG量表是谢振旺(2010)基于中国传统文化特点, 兼顾了感恩心理和感恩行为编制的量表。所以, 不同的测量工具所蕴含的内容、意义、理论建构基础不同, 影响了感恩与主观幸福感之间的关系, 二者关系受到测量工具的调节。今后研究需要选择最优的测量工具, 以探讨感恩与主观幸福感的实质关系。

4.2.2 被试群体

元分析结果表明, 被试群体也是感恩与主观幸福感(Qb = 17.91, p < 0.001)、生活满意度(Qb = 3.95, p < 0.05)及消极情感(Qb = 4.34, p < 0.05)的调节变量。其中, 青少年感恩与主观幸福感、生活满意度之间关系的调节效应比成人更高; 青少年感恩与消极情感之间的关系比成人更弱。以往研究也认为, 感恩对于积极心理状态的提升作用在不同年龄阶段表现不同(Froh et al., 2009); 不同年龄阶段被试感恩所激发的主观幸福感不同(Watkins et al., 2003)。此外, 刘晓岚(2008)研究发现, 青少年比成人的感恩更强。大多数成年人认为, 在接受别人的恩惠后有必要回馈他人(Sommers & Kosmitzki, 1988)。这说明感恩与主观幸福感的关系不是同步发展的, 会受到年龄阶段的间接影响。

导致年龄调节效应的原因可能与个体的年龄阶段及特定的心理发展特点有关。埃里克森认为:随着年龄的增长, 个体的认知、情感情绪体验更理性, 不会立即产生感同身受的感恩体验。对青少年而言, 他们更多在乎感恩体验与感受以及受到他人赞赏的过程, 对感恩体验与表达不会有太多顾忌, 感恩行为较高, 主观幸福感也相应较高。而对成年人而言, 更多的会整合过去、现在和未来的感恩体验和感受, 在此基础上进行感恩理性判断和选择, 从而限制了成年人的感恩体验和行为, 自然而然会影响其主观幸福感。此外, 青少年群体是感恩形成和发展的关键期(喻承甫等, 2011; Froh et al., 2009), 青少年会表现出更多的亲社会行为(Eisenberg, Fabes, & Spinrad, 2006), 这些无疑会提升他们的感恩特质, 增强其主观幸福感。未来的研究需要加大青少年群体的感恩干预与培养, 提高青少年的感恩过程体验; 同时扩大年龄跨度, 将感恩意识萌芽扩展到儿童时期, 这对更全面、更准确的阐述感恩与主观幸福感的关系及建立科学的跨年龄层的主观幸福感干预都具有参考价值。

4.2.3 文化背景

元分析结果发现, 文化背景也是感恩与主观幸福感(Qb = 4.39, p < 0.05)、积极情感(Qb = 6.32, p < 0.05)的调节变量, 西方文化背景下个体感恩对主观幸福感、积极情感的影响程度低于东方 文化背景。以往研究也表明, 不同文化背景下感恩对于积极心理状态的提升作用不同(Martínez- Martí et al., 2010)。主要原因在于:首先, 东西方文化关于感恩的理解不同。西方文化背景更注重对上帝创造世界的感激, 从而将这种感激扩展至上帝所创造的世界(Emmons & Kneezel, 2005)。由于缺乏指向性和针对性, 西方文化下的个体就有可能体验到较低的感恩水平, 主观幸福感自然降低。东方文化背景下的感恩注重个体源于积极主观经历而诱发的积极情绪(Froh, Fan et al., 2011)和因他人帮助而获得的积极人格(Emmons & McCullough, 2003)。更强调感恩的个体倾向性与稳定性, 并且这种已形成的稳定、积极的感恩特质更容易增强个体的主观幸福感。其次, 感恩内容与形式上存在文化差异。东方文化倾向于对人和社会的感恩(喻承甫等, 2010; 何安明等, 2013)。尤其中国儒家文化本身是一部感恩文化, 注重人世担责、亲情人伦及道德关怀, 侧重感恩父母、国家、社会和师长等, 更强调“鸦有反哺之义”、“滴水之恩”、“投桃报李”等感恩体验和行为的实现, 在这种根深蒂固的儒家文化影响下, 个体普遍会有较高的感恩意识, 主观幸福感也较高。而西方文化下的感恩更注重个体的给予和接受(Emmons & Shelton, 2005), 主要侧重于感恩上帝和自然(喻承甫等, 2010)。第三, 主观幸福感的来源存在文化差异。西方文化下个体的幸福感更多来源于个体自身因素, 实现“个人价值”就是幸福。东方文化下个体的幸福感大多来源于人际关系等外在因素, 强调“人际和谐”就是幸福。研究表明, 人际和谐更能促进东方文化下个体的幸福感, 自尊更能促进西方文化下个体的幸福感(Kwan, Bond, & Singelis, 1997; 高良, 郑雪, 严标宾, 2010)。而感恩是一种人际现象, 有利于促进人际和谐(Algoe, Fredrickson, & Gable, 2013; 梁宏宇等, 2015)。所以, 感恩通过提升人际和谐进而增强东方文化下个体的主观幸福感。因此, 东方文化下个体感恩与主观幸福感、积极情感的关系会更密切一些。

4.3 研究局限及展望

研究不足:(1)本研究没有涉及到性别、地域差异、受教育程度、干预方式等特征在感恩与主观幸福感关系中的调节效应。以往研究表明, 感恩水平存在性别差异, 女性的感恩水平要高于男性(Watkins et al., 2003); 幸福感水平也存在性别差异(Froh et al., 2009)。因此, 性别很可能调节感恩与主观幸福感的关系。(2)感恩的测量工具比较多, 但本元分析只选取了GQ-6、GRAT、SCSG三类工具, 因为采用其他测量工具进行感恩与主观幸福感关系研究的文献使用频率比较低(不足3篇), 可能会影响测量工具调节效应的信度。(3)本元分析纳入的未发表的国外文献较少, 纳入未发表的国内文献较多, 元分析文献分布不均衡也会影响元分析结果。未来的研究可以:(1)有必要关注性别在感恩与主观幸福感中的调节作用, 这对于更全面、更准确的阐述感恩与主观幸福感的关系具有重要价值。(2)继续关注其他测量工具的使用, 尽可能选用频率较高并且较为全面的测量工具, 以提高测量工具的代表性。(3)更系统、全面的的搜集元分析所需要的中英文文献, 尽量使二者达到平衡。

5 结论

本研究采用元分析的方法发现, 感恩与主观幸福感、生活满意度、积极情感均呈显著正相关, 与消极情感呈显著负相关, 感恩的个体主观幸福感更强, 二者之间的关系受感恩测量工具类型、被试群体、文化背景的影响。

带*的文献表示元分析中纳入的文献

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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中国临床心理学杂志, 23( 1), 129-132.

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目的:探讨中国文化背景下以德报德和以怨报怨两种不同互惠倾向对幸福感的影响差异及作用机制问题,考查互惠倾向对生活满意度的影响以及感戴在两者关系中的中介作用。方法:采用个体互惠规范量表、感戴问卷和生活满意度量表对 587名大学生进行问卷调查。结果:积极互惠与消极互惠相关不显著;积极互惠与感戴和生活满意度显著正相关;消极互惠与感戴、生活满意度显著负相关;感戴完全中介了积极互惠&mdash;生活满意度、消极互惠&mdash;生活满意度之间的关系。结论:积极互惠和消极互惠是两个相对独立的维度;个体以德报德的倾向越强, 感戴心理也越强, 从而有较高的生活满意度;个体以怨报怨的倾向越强,感戴心理就越弱,因而生活满意度也较低。

*李旭, 郑雪 . ( 2015).

大学生感戴水平对主观幸福感的影响: 人际困扰的调节作用

南方论刊, ( 6), 74-75.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

为探讨人际困扰对大学生感戴水平和主观幸福感关系的调节作用,采用大学生感戴量表(GRAT)、人际困扰量表和主观幸福感量表组合,对206名大学生为被试进行自陈试问卷调查。研究结果表明:⑴感戴水平、人际困扰和主观幸福感(生活满意度、积极情绪和消极情绪)的相关显著;⑵人际困扰在大学生感戴水平对生活满意度维度的影响中调节效应显著,而对积极情绪和消极情绪维度的调节效应则不显著。

*李艳, 陈赛群 . ( 2014).

感恩与高职生幸福感、焦虑抑郁的关系

浙江工贸职业技术学院学报, 14( 4), 23-26.

URL    

本研究对浙江工贸职业技术学院的高职学生进行随机抽样调查,采用感恩问卷(GQ-6)、Campbell幸福感指数量表、焦虑自评(SAS)和抑郁自评(SDS)问卷,探究感恩水平与主观幸福感、焦虑、抑郁之间的关系。研究显示:感恩与主观幸福感存在正相关,与焦虑、抑郁存在负相关;感恩对主观幸福感、焦虑、抑郁具有一定的预测作用。

李艳艳 . ( 2015).

“主观幸福感”在构建和谐社会中的意义

高教学刊, ( 17), 228-229.

[本文引用: 1]

*连灵 . ( 2017).

大学生领悟社会支持和感恩在尽责性和心理幸福感间的序列中介作用

心理技术与应用, 5( 3), 154-159.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

本研究采用测量法以538名大学生为被试探讨了尽责性与心理幸福感的关系,以及领悟社会支持、感恩在其中的中介作用。结果发现:(1)尽责性预示着更多的领悟社会支持,更高的感恩水平和心理幸福感水平;(2)领悟社会支持和感恩在尽责性和心理幸福感之间起序列中介作用。因此,本研究揭示了领悟社会支持和感恩在尽责性预测心理幸福感中的重要作用。

梁宏宇, 陈石, 熊红星, 孙配贞, 李放, 郑雪 . ( 2015).

人际感恩: 社会交往中重要的积极情绪

心理科学进展,23( 3), 479-488.

[本文引用: 1]

*廖军和, 欧阳儒阳, 左春荣, 李相南, 苏永强 . ( 2015).

贫困大学生感戴与主观幸福感的关系: 链式中介效应分析

中国临床心理学杂志, 23( 4), 722-724.

*林婵 . ( 2014).

大学生感恩、社会支持与心理幸福感的关系研究

(硕士学位论文). 吉林大学, 长春.

[本文引用: 1]

*刘静 . ( 2012).

大学生感恩、非理性信念与主观幸福感的关系研究

(硕士学位论文). 哈尔滨工程大学, 哈尔滨.

[本文引用: 2]

刘霞, 赵景欣, 申继亮 . ( 2013).

歧视知觉对城市流动儿童幸福感的影响:中介机制及归属需要的调节作用

心理学报, 45( 5), 568-584.

[本文引用: 1]

刘晓岚 . ( 2008).

大学生的感戴与其自我概念、社会支持的关系研究

(硕士学位论文). 贵州师范大学, 贵阳.

[本文引用: 1]

*陆超祥, 马文燕, 郭子仪 . ( 2016).

高职生感恩与主观幸福感的关系: 自尊的中介效应——以贵州省高等职业教育为例

贵州师范学院学报, 32( 10), 90-95.

[本文引用: 1]

*罗利, 周天梅 . ( 2015).

中学生感恩与主观幸福感的关系: 抗挫折能力与社会支持的中介作用

心理发展与教育, 31( 4), 467-474.

[本文引用: 2]

*马丽 . ( 2011).

感恩与主观幸福感: 中介效应和调节效应的探讨

(硕士学位论文). 南京大学, 南京.

[本文引用: 2]

*马永泽 . ( 2016).

大学生感恩对生活满意度的影响: 社会支持的中介作用

兵团教育学院学报, 26( 5), 35-38.

URL    

[目的]探讨大学生感恩、社会支持与生活满意度间的关系。[方法]采用感恩问卷、社会支持问卷和生活满意度问卷对561名大学生进行问卷调查。[结果]感恩、社会支持和生活满意度两两之间均存在显著的正相关(γ=0.355、0.283、0.287,P0.001);感恩对社会支持和生活满意度有直接影响(γ=0.383,SE=0.067,P0.001;γ=0.244,SE=0.081,P0.001);社会支持对生活满意度有直接影响(γ=0.250,SE=0.063,P0.001);社会支持在感恩对生活满意度的影响之间起部分中介作用(中介效应量为0.095,占总效应的27.53%)。[结论]社会支持部分中介感恩对生活满意度的影响;促进大学生的感恩和社会支持水平有助于提高其生活满意度。

*苗静宇, 陈启山, 高姜明 . ( 2013).

初中生感恩自尊与主观幸福感的关系

校园心理, 11( 4), 233-235.

*彭秀 . ( 2015).

运动员感恩、领悟社会支持与主观幸福感的关系研究

(硕士学位论文). 华中师范大学, 武汉.

彭运石, 莫文 . ( 2011).

社会和谐视野下的主观幸福感研究

心理与行为研究, ( 增刊), 82-84.

[本文引用: 1]

* 邱会霞 . ( 2017).

高中生感恩、生命意义和幸福感的关系

(硕士学位论文). 天津师范大学, 天津.

[本文引用: 1]

石国兴, 祝伟娜 . ( 2008).

初中生感戴和主观幸福感的干预研究

心理学探新, 28( 3), 63-66.

[本文引用: 2]

*施艳 . ( 2012).

初中生感戴、社会支持与学校生活满意度的关系研究

(硕士学位论文). 沈阳师范大学, 沈阳.

[本文引用: 1]

*舒亚丽, 沐守宽 . ( 2014).

中学生感恩、自尊与主观幸福感关系研究

牡丹江师范学院学报(哲学社会科学版), ( 6), 128-130.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

为构建中学生感恩、自尊与主观幸福感的关系模型,对300名中学生采用感恩量表GQ-6、主观幸福感问卷和自尊量表进行问卷测量,使用EQS软件构建各变量之间的关系模型。结果表明:(1)感恩、自尊与主观幸福感各因子之间相关显著;(2)自尊在感恩和幸福感之间呈现部分中介作用,效果显著。得出结构方程模型支持自尊对感恩和主观幸福感的中介作用的结论。

宋佳萌, 范会勇 . ( 2013).

社会支持与主观幸福感关系的元分析

心理科学进展, 21( 8), 1357-1370.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This meta-analysis was designed to explore the relationship between social support and subjective well-being, and moderating effects of primary study characteristics on their associations. 86 primary studies were identified with a total sample size of 32948 participants. Results of the meta-analysis showed that the social support rating scale (SSRS), including its three dimensions, correlated significantly with subjective well-being, satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect, with rs ranging from -0.23 to 0.36. These correlations were moderated by type of participants. Among deaf/dumb students and middle school students correlations were highest while associations were lowest in older samples. Other study characteristics including type of publication, year of publication, and well-being scales employed did not have significant moderating effects on the relationship between SSRS and subjective well-being. Several unresolved issues and future research directions are also discussed.

*孙配贞, 郑雪, 余祖伟 . ( 2010).

初中生感戴状况与学校生活满意度的关系: 应对方式的中介作用

心理发展与教育, 26( 1), 67-72.

[本文引用: 2]

*王华云. ( 2012).

大学生人格、主观幸福感与感戴的关系研究

(硕士学位论文). 曲阜师范大学, 曲阜.

王建平, 喻承甫, 曾毅茵, 叶婷, 张卫 . ( 2011).

青少年感恩的影响因素及其机制

心理发展与教育, 27( 3), 260-266.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

采用感恩问卷、自尊量表、应对效能量表、亲子关系问卷、同伴支持问卷、同伴拒绝问卷、学校联结量表、社区安全问卷和社区满意问卷对1217名中学生进行调查,考察了青少年感恩的影响因素及其内在机制。结果发现:(1)自尊、应对效能、亲子关系、同伴支持、学校联结、社区安全和社区满意与感恩显著正相关,同伴拒绝与感恩显著负相关;(2)自尊在亲子关系、学校联结与青少年感恩之间起着部分中介作用,应对效能在亲子关系、同伴支持、学校联结与青少年感恩之间起着部分中介作用;表明与亲子关系、同伴支持、学校联结等环境因素相比,自尊和应对效能等个体因素是影响青少年感恩的更近端因素。

王洁, 陈健芷, 杨琳, 高爽 . ( 2013).

感觉寻求与网络成瘾关系的元分析

心理科学进展, 21( 10), 1720-1730.

[本文引用: 1]

*王艳辉, 张少浩 . ( 2012).

大学生主观幸福感、感恩与利他行为的关系研究

中国电力教育, ( 23), 129-130.

[本文引用: 1]

*王元元, 余嘉元, 潘月强 . ( 2012).

大学生感戴与主观幸福感的关系研究

中国健康心理学杂志, 20( 2), 280-282.

[本文引用: 1]

*谢晓东, 张卫, 喻承甫, 周雅颂, 叶瀚琛, 陈嘉俊 . ( 2013).

青少年物质主义与幸福感的关系: 感恩的中介作用

心理科学, 36( 3), 638-646.

[本文引用: 2]

*谢振旺. ( 2010).

大学生感恩特质的量表及实验研究

(硕士学位论文). 福建师范大学, 福州.

[本文引用: 5]

*谢振旺. ( 2013).

高职学生的感恩与生活满意度: 寝室人际的中介作用

广东青年职业学院学报, 27( 3), 48-51.

*徐璐璐, 贺雯 . ( 2016).

大学生好奇心与幸福感的关系: 感恩的中介作用

社会心理科学, 31( 2), 39-43.

[本文引用: 1]

*荀龄萱. ( 2016).

高中生宽恕倾向、感恩与主观幸福感的关系研究

(硕士学位论文). 吉林大学, 长春.

[本文引用: 3]

*杨强, 叶宝娟 . ( 2014).

感恩对青少年生活满意度的影响: 领悟社会支持的中介作用及压力性生活事件的调节作用

心理科学, 37( 3), 610-616.

喻承甫, 张卫, 李董平, 肖婕婷 . ( 2010).

感恩及其与幸福感的关系

心理科学进展, 18( 7), 1110-1121.

URL     [本文引用: 8]

Gratitude is a heated spot of positive psychology research currently. It refers to a generalized tendency to recognize and to respond with grateful emotions to the roles of other people’s benevolence in positive experiences and outcomes that one obtains. Gratitude plays a unique role in predicting well-being. Two theories of mediation model and moderation model explained this mechanism. Gratitude intervention can effectively increase the general level of individuals’ gratitude and thus improve their well-being. It’s strategies mainly include gratitude lists, gratitude contemplation and behavioral expressions of gratitude. Finally, further research should focus on the clarification of the conception and structure of gratitude, the improvement of the measurement tools, the broadening and deepening of the mediation and moderation mechanism, the development of effective intervention strategies, the study of children and adolescent and cross-cultural or localized research.

喻承甫, 张卫, 曾毅茵, 叶婷, 李月明, 王姝君 . ( 2011).

青少年感恩与问题行为的关系:学校联结的中介作用

心理发展与教育, 27( 4), 425-433.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

采用青少年感恩量表、学校联结量表、青少年外化问题行为调查表和焦虑抑郁量表对1217名中学生进行调查,考察了青少年感恩与其问题行为的关系,以及学校联结的同学支持、教师支持和学校归属感三大成分在其中的系列中介作用。结果表明:(1)青少年感恩与其外化问题行为和内化问题行为(以焦虑抑郁为指标)均显著负相关;(2)学校联结三大成分在感恩与其外化和内化问题行为之间均起着系列中介作用,即感恩对青少年学校归属感既有直接影响,也通过增强同学支持和教师支持间接促进其发展,进而学校联结的三成分共同作用减少青少年的外化和内化问题行为。

*禹玉兰, 罗军, 黄智, 焦桂花, 万崇华 . ( 2013).

大学生感恩与幸福感的现状及其关系

中国卫生事业管理, 30( 11), 866-870.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

目的:研究大学生感恩和幸福感的现状及其关系.方法:采用大学生感戴问卷 和大学生主观幸福感量表对227名在校大学生进行调查和测量,对所得数据进行独立样本t检验、One-Way ANOVA检验、Pearson相关分析和逐步法多重线性回归分析.结果:(1)大学生幸福感的总分及各因子得分(除消极情绪因子外)都在介于3.00 ~3.99之间,消极情绪因子2.36±0.84分.感戴总均分为及各因子(除感戴频度外)均高于4.00分.(2)女生在幸福感总均分 (t=2.115,P<0.05)及自我满意(t=2.548,P<0.05)、人际关系(t=2.845,P<0.01)方面高于男生,消极情绪 (t=2.036,P<0.05)低于男生;感戴总均分(t=3.131,P<0.01)及感戴频度(=3.569,P<0.001)和感戴广度 (t=2.098,P<0.01)上均高于男生.城市学生的感戴总均分(t =2.126,P<0.05)和感戴密度(t=3.154,P<0.001)高于农村学生.独生子女和非独生子女在幸福感和感戴总均及各因子上均没有统计 学差异.不同月生活费水平的大学生,其幸福感的消极情绪(f=5.036,P<0.01)、社会性行为(f=2.804,P<0.05)和感戴深度 (f=3.510,P<0.05)因子方面有统计学差异.(3)大学生感戴总均分及各因子均与幸福感总均分及各因子(消极情绪除外)呈正相关(r =0.217 ~0.676,均P<0.01),与幸福感的消极情绪呈负相关(r=-0.192 ~-0.438,均P<0.01).感戴四个因子联合起来能够预测主观幸福感51.4%的变异量.结论:大学生感恩和幸福感水平都较高,感恩对幸福感有较 强的预测作用.

*袁书杰 . ( 2012).

高校大学生感恩心理及其相关研究

南京工程学院学报(社会科学版), 12( 2), 53-55.

[本文引用: 1]

*曾妍 . ( 2013).

团体归因训练对高职生感恩及主观幸福感的影响研究

(硕士学位论文). 苏州大学, 苏州.

*曾昱, 夏凌翔 . ( 2013)

中学生自立人格与主观幸福感的关系: 心理资本与感恩的中介效应

西南师范大学学报(自然科学版),38( 12), 145-151.

[本文引用: 1]

*张惠, 周燕, 戴冰 . ( 2014).

成都地区医学生感恩、主观幸福感及其关系研究

成都医学院学报, 9( 5), 624-627.

张妍, 韩黎, 孔繁昌, 许芳 . ( 2011).

积极心理学视角下感恩与幸福感关系研究述评

教育导刊, ( 3), 22-26.

[本文引用: 1]

*朱桂萍, 姚本先 . ( 2009).

大学生感恩、主观幸福感及其相关研究

皖西学院学报, 25( 5), 78-80.

URL    

采用整群随机抽样法抽取某大学本科生208名。采用GRAT、GQ-6感恩问卷调查大学生的感恩水平,用总体幸福感量表测查主观幸福感。结果:1、感恩在性别上差异显著,女生的感恩要高于男生,但主观幸福感在性别上差异不显著;2、大学生感恩与总体幸福感总分呈显著的正相关,与对生活的满足和兴趣、忧郁或愉快的心境、精力、对情感和行为的控制及松弛和紧张5个因子呈显著的正相关;3、对生活的满足和兴趣、忧郁或愉快的心境两个幸福感因子是影响感恩水平的主要因素。主观幸福感对感恩有一定的预测作用,感恩是增强个人主观幸福感的有效手段之一。

*朱攀华, 王慧, 李霞 . ( 2016).

感戴在大学生存在焦虑和生活满意度之间的中介作用

内江师范学院学报, 31( 6), 74-77.

*祝伟娜 . ( 2008).

初中生感戴与主观幸福感的关系及干预研究

(硕士学位论文). 河北师范大学, 石家庄.

[本文引用: 1]

*Adler M. G., & Fagley, N. S . ( 2005).

Appreciation: Individual differences in finding value and meaning as a unique predictor of subjective well-being

Journal of Personality, 73( 1), 79-114.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Algoe S. B., Fredrickson B. L., & Gable S. L . ( 2013).

The social functions of the emotion of gratitude via expression

Emotion, 13( 4), 605-609.

URL     PMID:23731434      [本文引用: 1]

Recent theory posits that the emotion of gratitude uniquely functions to build a high-quality relationship between a grateful person and the target of his or her gratitude, that is, the person who performed a kind action (Algoe et al., 2008). Therefore, gratitude is a prime candidate for testing the dyadic question of whether one person's grateful emotion has consequences for the other half of the relational unit, the person who is the target of that gratitude. The current study tests the critical hypothesis that being the target of gratitude forecasts one's relational growth with the person who expresses gratitude. The study employed a novel behavioral task in which members of romantic relationships expressed gratitude to one another in a laboratory paradigm. As predicted, the target's greater perceptions of the expresser's responsiveness after the interaction significantly predicted improvements in relationship quality over 6 months. These effects were independent from perceptions of responsiveness following two other types of relationally important and emotionally evocative social interactions in the lab, suggesting the unique weight that gratitude carries in cultivating social bonds.

Borenstein M., Hedges L. V., Higgins J. P. T., & Rothstein H. R . ( 2009).

Effect sizes based on means

In M. Borenstein, L. V. Hedges, J. P. T. Higgins, & H. R. Rothstein (Eds.), Introduction to meta-analysis( pp. 21-32). United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Abstract This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Raw (unstandardized) mean difference D Standardized mean difference, d and g Response ratios Summary points

Bradburn, N. M . ( 2015).

The affect balance scale: Subjective approaches (3)

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Abstract The Affect Balance Scale (ABS) is aten-itemscale used to measure hedonic wellbeing in normal populations. It is composed of two5-itemsubscales: a positive and a negative scale that are statistically independent. The ABS is constructed by taking the arithmetic difference between the positive and the negative scales and transforming the result to be a positive number. The combined scale can be used as a dependent variable in research on subjective wellbeing. Thesub-scalescan be used separately to investigate components of hedonic wellbeing that are related to experiences in everyday life. This chapter reviews briefly the historical and theoretical context for the development of the concept of subjective wellbeing, the creation and validation of the Affect Balance Scale (ABS) and discusses some current issues surrounding its conceptual status and use.

Campbell A., ( 1976).

Subjective measures of well-being

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Concludes that we are changing from a society whose goals were basically economic to one whose goals are psychological, and consequently we cannot expect the economists or the demographers to tell us to what extent these goals are being met or under what conditions they are most likely to be fulfilled. (Author/AM)

* Chan, D. W . ( 2013).

Subjective well-being of Hong Kong Chinese teachers: The contribution of gratitude, forgiveness, and the orientations to happiness

Teaching and Teacher Education, 32( 3), 22-30.

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* Chen L. H., & Ying, H. K . ( 2008).

Gratitude and adolescent athletes’ well-being

Social Indicators Research, 89( 2), 361-373.

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Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes’ well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M02=0216.43, SD02=020.702years) were administered the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ; McCullough et02al. 2002 , Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82 (1), 112–127), Team Satisfaction Scale (Walling et al. 1993 , Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15 , 172–183), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et02al. 1985 , Journal of Personality Assessment, 49 , 71–75), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke and Smith, 2001 , Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23 (4), 281–306). In Study 2, a separate sample of 265 adolescent athletes (M02=0216.4702years, SD02=020.7) were administered the modified Sport-domain GQ, Team Satisfaction Scale, and ABQ. Study 1 results showed that dispositional gratitude positively predicts team satisfaction and life satisfaction, and negatively predicts athlete burnout. Findings from Study 2 revealed that sport-domain gratitude positively predicts team satisfaction and negatively predicts athlete burnout. A stronger gratitude and well-being relationship was observed in Study 2. This research provides the initial verification that gratitude and adolescent athletes’ well-being are related. Possible mechanism of this relation, limitations, and practical implications are discussed.

Cohen J., ( 2006).

Social, emotional, ethical, and academic education: Creating a climate for learning, participation in democracy, and well-being

Harvard Educational Review, 76( 2), 201-237.

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* Datu, J. A. D . ( 2014).

Forgiveness, gratitude and subjective well-being among Filipino adolescents

I nternational Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 36( 3), 262-273.

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This study examines the influence of forgiveness and gratitude on life satisfaction and subjective well-being among Filipino adolescents. Two hundred and ten (210) Filipino college students were recruited as respondents for the empirical inquiry. Results indicated that gratitude served as the most robust determinant of well-being after controlling demographic characteristics and forgiveness dimensions. Most importantly, gratitude and forgiveness of self , which is a dimension of forgiveness, predicted subjective well-being beyond the influence of the Big Five personality factors. These findings strengthened the empirical evidence that moral traits would have unique contributions on subjective well-being, even after controlling the impact of Big Five personality factors. Implications of the results are discussed in the context of counseling.

* Datu J. A. D., & Mateo, N. J . ( 2015).

Gratitude and life satisfaction among Filipino adolescents: The mediating role of meaning in life

International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 37( 2), 198-206.

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Diener E., & Gonzalez, E. ( 2011).

The validity of life satisfaction measures

Social Indicator Network News, 108, 1-5.

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Using a latent-state, latent-trait analysis of repeated measures of mood and life satisfaction over time, Eid and Diener (2004) estimated that 74% of the variance in LS is due to chronically accessible information, 16% to temporarily acces- sible information, and 10% to random error. The comparable figures found by Schimmack and Oishi (2005) based on their meta-analysis of reliability studies were 80%, 10%, and 10%. In addition, Lucas & Donnellan (2007) found that in a long-term panel study that about 36% of variance was due to stable trait differences and about 31% additional variance was due to a moderately stable autoregressive component that changed slowly over years. Thus, it appears that about 60% to 80% of the variability in life satisfaction scales is associated with long-term factors, some of which such as personality are quite stable and some of which change slowly over the years.

Diener E., Oishi S., & Lucas R. E . ( 2003).

Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life

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Abstract Subjective well-being (SWB), people's emotional and cognitive evaluations of their lives, includes what lay people call happiness, peace, fulfillment, and life satisfaction. Personality dispositions such as extraversion, neuroticism, and self-esteem can markedly influence levels of SWB. Although personality can explain a significant amount of the variability in SWB, life circumstances also influence long-term levels. Cultural variables explain differences in mean levels of SWB and appear to be due to objective factors such as wealth, to norms dictating appropriate feelings and how important SWB is considered to be, and to the relative approach versus avoidance tendencies of societies. Culture can also moderate which variables most influence SWB. Although it is challenging to assess SWB across societies, the measures have some degree of cross-cultural validity. Although nations can be evaluated by their levels of SWB, there are still many open questions in this area.

Diener E., Oishi S., & Lucas R.E . ( 2015).

National accounts of subjective well-being

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Abstract Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

Diener E., & Ryan. K . ( 2009).

Subjective well-being: A general overview

South African Journal of Psychology, 39( 4), 391-406.

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We provide a comprehensive review of the field of subjective well-being in terms of its societal and individual benefits, demographic correlates, theories of origin, and relationship to culture. Interventions to increase well-being are also presented as well as the argument that national accounts of well-being for public policy should be instituted and utilized, alongside economic and social indicators, to both reveal and improve the quality of life within nations.

Diener E., Suh E. M., Lucas R. E., & Smith H. L . ( 1999).

Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress

Psychological Bulletin, 125( 2), 276-302.

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ABSTRACT W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Eisenberg N., Fabes R. A., & Spinrad T. L . ( 2006).

Prosocial development

In N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.) and W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.),Handbook of child psychology: Vol.3. Social, emotional, and personality development( 6th ed., pp. 646-718). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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Empathy, sympathy, and altruism: Empirical and conceptual links

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Emmons R. A., & Kneezel, T. T . ( 2005).

Giving thanks: Spiritual and religious correlates of gratitude

Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 24( 2), 140-148.

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Gratitude is a Christian virtue and an emotional disposition that has recently become the focus of systematic scientific research. We explore first the theological origins of gratitude as a virtue that is emphasized in Judeo-Christian traditions, and we then examine spiritual and religious predictors of dispositional gratitude and grateful emotions measured on a daily basis in a sample of persons with neuromuscular disease (NMDs). In this primarily Christian sample, grateful emotions and tendencies were related to both conventional religious practices (e.g., church attendance and reading the Bible) as well as to spiritual self-transcendence. Sanctification through personal goals (the perceived degree to which strivings enable one to feel closer to God) was also predictive of gratitude. Some implications of the research for psychospiritual assessment, religion and health, and the integration of psychology and theology are discussed.

* Emmons R. A., & McCullough, M. E . ( 2003).

Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84( 2), 377-389.

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Emmons R. A. , & Shelton, C. M.( 2005) .

Gratitude and the science of positive psychology

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Fazio, A. F . ( 1977).

A concurrent validation study of the NCHS general well-being schedule

Vital and Health Statistics, 73, 1-53.

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The objectives of the National Health Survey of the U.S.A. are accomplished by several programmes, one of which is the Health Examination Survey, The health characteristics of the civil population of the U.S. are studied by means of medical, dental, nutritional and psychological examinations, tests and measurements.This issue of Vital and Health Statistics deals with the psychological componen...

Fredrickson, B. L . ( 2001).

The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions

American Psychologist, 56( 3), 218-226.

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Fredrickson B. L., & Branigan, C. ( 2005).

Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires

Cognition and Emotion, 19( 3), 313-332.

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Abstract The broaden‐and‐build theory (Fredrickson, 199819. Fredrickson , BL . (1998). What good are positive emotions?. Review of General Psychology, 2: 300–319. [CrossRef], [PubMed]View all references, 200121. Fredrickson , BL . (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden‐and‐build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56: 218–226. [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science 03], [CSA]View all references) hypothesises that positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought‐action repertoires. Two experiments with 104 college students tested these hypotheses. In each, participants viewed a film that elicited (a) amusement, (b) contentment, (c) neutrality, (d) anger, or (e) anxiety. Scope of attention was assessed using a global‐local visual processing task (Experiment 1) and thought‐action repertoires were assessed using a Twenty Statements Test (Experiment 2). Compared to a neutral state, positive emotions broadened the scope of attention in Experiment 1 and thought‐action repertoires in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, negative emotions, relative to a neutral state, narrowed thought‐action repertoires. Implications for promoting emotional well‐being and physical health are discussed.

Froh J. J., Emmons R. A., Card N. A., Bono G., & Wilson J. A . ( 2011).

Gratitude and the reduced costs of materialism in adolescents

Journal of Happiness Studies, 12( 2), 289-302.

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Materialistic youth seem to be languishing while grateful youth seem to be flourishing. High school students ( N = 1,035) completed measures of materialism, gratitude, academic functioning, envy, depression, life satisfaction, social integration, and absorption. Using structural equation modeling, we found that gratitude, controlling for materialism, uniquely predicts all outcomes considered: higher grade point average, life satisfaction, social integration, and absorption, as well as lower envy and depression. In contrast, materialism, controlling for gratitude, uniquely predicts three of the six outcomes: lower grade point average, as well as higher envy and life satisfaction. Furthermore, when examining the relative strengths of gratitude and materialism as predictors, we found that gratitude is generally a stronger predictor of these six outcomes than is materialism.

* Froh J. J., Fan J. Y., Emmons R. A., Bono G., Huebner E. S., & Watkins P . ( 2011).

Measuring gratitude in youth: Assessing the psychometric properties of adult gratitude scales in children and adolescents

Psychological Assessment, 23( 2), 311-324.

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* Froh J. J., Sefick W. J., & Emmons R. A . ( 2008).

Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being

Journal of School Psychology, 46( 2), 213-233.

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Froh J. J., Yurkewicz C., & Kashdan T. B . ( 2009).

Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences

Journal of Adolescence, 32( 3), 633-650.

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Gratitude was examined among 154 students to identify benefits from its experience and expression. Students completed measures of subjective well-being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Positive associations were found between gratitude and positive affect, global and domain specific life satisfaction, optimism, social support, and prosocial behavior; most relations remained even after controlling for positive affect. Gratitude demonstrated a negative relation with physical symptoms, but not with negative affect. Relational fulfillment mediated the relation between gratitude and physical symptoms. Gratitude demonstrated strong relations with the following positive affects: proud, hopeful, inspired, forgiving, and excited. The relation between gratitude and family support was moderated by gender, indicating that boys, compared with girls, appear to derive more social benefits from gratitude. Strengths, limitations, and implications are discussed.

Fujita F., Diener E., & Sandvik E . ( 1991).

Gender differences in negative affect and well-being: The case for emotional intensity

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61( 3), 427-434.

URL     PMID:1941513      [本文引用: 1]

Affect intensity (AI) may reconcile 2 seemingly paradoxical findings: Women report more negative affect than men but equal happiness as men. AI describes people's varying response intensity to identical emotional stimuli. A college sample of 66 women and 34 men was assessed on both positive and negative affect using 4 measurement methods: self-report, peer report, daily report, and memory performance. A principal-components analysis revealed an affect balance component and an AI component. Multimeasure affect balance and AI scores were created, and t tests were computed that showed women to be as happy as and more intense than men. Gender accounted for less than 1% of the variance in happiness but over 13% in AI. Thus, depression findings of more negative affect in women do not conflict with well-being findings of equal happiness across gender. Generally, women's more intense positive emotions balance their higher negative affect.

Grant A. M., & Gino, F. ( 2010).

A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98( 6), 946-955.

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* Hasemeyer, M. D . ( 2013).

The relationship between gratitude and psychological, social, and academic functioning in middle adolescence (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). University of

South Florida.

Higgins J. P., Thompson S. G., Deeks J. J., & Altman D. G . ( 2003).

Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses

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Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.

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Emotional stability as a major dimension of happiness

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Happiness is associated with both extraversion and neuroticism, and extraversion is generally considered the more important. A recent study of happy introverts has shown that extraversion is not always an essential correlate of happiness, and an extensive meta-analysis has found that neuroticism is a greater predictor of both happiness and life satisfaction. It is suggested that the reason for the importance of neuroticism having been overlooked in the past, is the difficulty of handling the idea that (positive) happiness is related to the absence of a (negative) construct. This difficulty could be resolved by the reversal of neuroticism into an alternative and positive concept of motional stability . Happiness could then be regarded as being associated with two positive qualities. With this change of emphasis, a short empirical study has been made of the relationships between happiness as measured by the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) and extraversion and emotional stability. In bivariate and partial correlation, emotional stability was more strongly associated with happiness than extraversion, and accounted for more of the total variability in multiple regression. Emotional stability was also the greater correlate for a majority of the 29 items of the OHI, and the sole significant predictor of the happiness of younger people.

* Jun W. H., Lee E. S., & Lee K. L . ( 2015).

Relationships among gratitude, depression, and psychological well-being in clinical nurses

Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 24( 2), 136-144.

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PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the relations among gratitude, depression, and psychological well-being among clinical nurses. METHODS: The participants were 411 clinical nurses, working in U city. Data were collected during the four months, April to June, 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression with the SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. RESULTS: The mean scores for gratitude and psychological well-being were above average. The mean score for depression presented a probable depression level. Psychological well-being in clinical nurses was significantly correlated with gratitude (r=.55, p<.001) and depression (r=-.62, p<.001). The significant predictors of psychological well-being for clinical nurses were depression (beta=-.47, p<.001) and gratitude (beta=.34, p<.001), which explained 48.0% of the variance in psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that it is necessary to develop depression reduction and gratitude enhancement programs to improve the psychological well-being of clinical nurses.

* Kong F., Ding K., & Zhao J. J . ( 2015).

The relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, social support and life satisfaction among undergraduate students

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* Lin, C. C . ( 2014).

A higher-order gratitude uniquely predicts subjective well-being: Incremental validity above the personality and a single gratitude

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* Lin, C. C . ( 2016).

The roles of social support and coping style in the relationship between gratitude and well-being

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Culture and “Basic” psychological principles

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ABSTRACT describe a cultural perspective, outline why many psychologists now believe it is both necessary and useful for social psychology, and discuss how it is influencing the study of social psychology / review theoretical and empirical research that has taken a cultural perspective on [5 levels] he biological, the cognitive, the personal motivational, the intergroup, and the group/cultural / at each level, our focus will be on research that examines typically unexamined assumptions about the nature of basic social psychological concepts and principles in the hope of identifying important questions and promising new directions for social psychological research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Martin A. J., & Dowson, M. ( 2009).

Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice

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Martínez-Martí M. L., Avia M. D., & Hernández-Lloreda M. J . ( 2010).

The effects of counting blessings on subjective well-being: A gratitude intervention in a Spanish sample

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McCullough M. E., Emmons R. A., & Tsang J. A . ( 2002).

The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography

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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. /negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.

* McCullough M. E., Tsang J. A., & Emmons R. A . ( 2004).

Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience

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Naito T., Wangwan J., & Tani M . ( 2005).

Gratitude in university students in Japan and Thailand

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The authors surveyed 212 university students in Japan and 284 university students in Thailand, using amultiaspect questionnaire that was designed to investigate cultural similarities and differences in gratitude.The questionnaire included the items involved in hypothetical helping situations: (a) perceived gains ofrecipients, cost to benefactors, and obligation to help as antecedent variables of gratitude; (b) both positivefeelings of gratitude and feelings of indebtedness; and (c) requital to benefactors and increased prosocialmotivation of recipients as an outcome of gratitude. In both Japanese and Thai students, positive feelings correlatedwith facial and verbal expressions of gratitude and increased prosocial motivation.However, the variableof feelings of indebtedness was positively related to increased prosocial motivation only in Japanesemale students.

Oishi S., & Diener, E. ( 2001).

Goals, culture, and subjective well-being

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27( 12), 1674-1682.

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The present studies examined the role of independent and interdependent goal pursuits in the subjective well-being (SWB) of Asian and European American college students. In Study 1, the authors found

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Strengths of character and well-being

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The ability of lock-in vibrothermography to distinguish between different sizes, shapes and locations of vertical kissing defects, such as cracks or corrosion, is analyzed in this work both theoretical and experimentally. We have computed the oscillating, AC, surface temperature of samples containing inner modulated heat sources, representing the defect, and analyzed the sensitivity of this oscillating temperature to the defect geometric parameters. Moreover, we have prepared samples with calibrated vertical defects. Vibrothermographic data are usually recorded under non-steady conditions (i.e. while the surface temperature is still rising). As this transient temperature rise has a non-negligible component at the excitation frequency, the measured AC temperature is strongly distorted. By subtracting the Fourier component of the transient temperature rise from vibrothermographic data, we obtain the pure AC temperature (amplitude and phase) in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Rash J. A., Matsuba M. K., & Prkachin K. M . ( 2011).

Gratitude and well-being: Who benefits the most from a gratitude intervention?

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Background: Theory and research have shown that gratitude interventions have positive outcomes on measures of well-being. Gratitude listing, behavioral expressions, and grateful contemplation are methods of inducing gratitude. While research has examined gratitude listing and behavioral expressions, no study has tested the long-term effects of a gratitude contemplation intervention on well-being. Methods: The present experiment examined the efficacy of a 4-week gratitude contemplation intervention program in improving well-being relative to a memorable events control condition. Pre-test measures of cardiac coherence, trait gratitude, and positive and negative affect were collected. Pre- and post-test measures assessing satisfaction with life and self-esteem were also collected. Daily positive and negative affect were completed twice a week throughout the intervention period. Results: Compared to those in the memorable events condition, participants in the gratitude condition reported higher satisfaction with life and self-esteem. Trait gratitude was found to moderate the effects of the gratitude intervention on satisfaction with life. Conclusion: Grateful contemplation can be used to enhance long-term well-being.

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Happiness, excellence, and optimal human functioning

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Are emotions essentially an individual-subjective phenomenon, or are they broader in scope? Do emotions mainly represent what the individual feels ‘inside’ or do they also carry implications for the social context? Questions such as these were in the background of the present research that has examined the way emotions are viewed, understood, and experienced by young and older adult men and women (ranging in age from 18 to 50) in two cultural environments, Germany and the US. Overall, the results revealed distinctly different patterns of age and sex differences in the evaluation and experience of emotions for Americans and Germans. In addition, the study identified specific emotions (e.g. gratitude, despair, rage) that seem to have different connotations and associations for individuals in the two cultural groups. Interpretation of the findings emphasizes connections between the emotional life and emotional understanding of the individual and broad sociocultural themes. It is argued that social context is an important feature of emotion requiring more extensive consideration is psychological theory and research on emotion.

* Tian L. L., Du M. M., & Huebner E. S . ( 2015).

The effect of gratitude on elementary school students’ subjective well-being in schools: The mediating role of prosocial behavior

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* Tian L. L., Pi L. Y., Huebner E. S., & Du M. M . ( 2016).

Gratitude and adolescents’ subjective well-being in school: The multiple mediating roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction at school

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Watkins P. C. ( 2004).

Gratitude and subjective well-being

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ABSTRACT This chapter examines how the conscious practice of gratitude can help transform individuals' emotional lives. It evaluates previous research that indicates that gratitude has a causal influence on mood, especially positive mood. It stresses the need for a critical examination of research on gratitude and well-being and argues that the cultivation of grateful emotions might be efficacious in the treatment and prevention of depressed affect.

* Watkins P. C., Woodward K., Stone T., & Kolts R. L . ( 2003).

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Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54( 6), 1063-1070.

URL     PMID:3397865      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.

* Wood, A. M . ( 2008).

Individual differences in gratitude and their relationship with well-being (Unpublished doctorial dissertation)

The University of Warwick.

[本文引用: 1]

*Wood A. M., Froh J. J ., & Geraghty, A. W. A. ( 2010).

Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration

Clinical Psychology Review, 30( 7), 890-905.

URL     PMID:20451313      [本文引用: 1]

This paper presents a new model of gratitude incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life", incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others, but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life. Research into individual differences in gratitude and well-being is reviewed, including gratitude and psychopathology, personality, relationships, health, subjective and eudemonic well-being, and humanistically orientated functioning. Gratitude is strongly related to well-being, however defined, and this link may be unique and causal. Interventions to clinically increase gratitude are critically reviewed, and concluded to be promising, although the positive psychology literature may have neglected current limitations, and a distinct research strategy is suggested. Finally, mechanisms whereby gratitude may relate to well-being are discussed, including schematic biases, coping, positive affect, and broaden-and-build principles. Gratitude is relevant to clinical psychology due to (a) strong explanatory power in understanding well-being, and (b) the potential of improving well-being through fostering gratitude with simple exercises.

Wood A. M., Joseph S., & Maltby J . ( 2008).

Gratitude uniquely predicts satisfaction with life: Incremental validity above the domains and facets of the five factor model

Personality and Individual Differences, 45( 1), 49-54.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

* Wood A. M., Joseph S., & Maltby J . ( 2009).

Gratitude predicts psychological well-being above the big five facets

Personality and Individual Differences, 46( 4), 443-447.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

This study tests whether gratitude predicts psychological well-being above both the domains and facets of the five factor model. Participants ( N = 201) completed the NEO PI-R measure of the 30 facets of the Big Five, the GQ-6 measure of trait gratitude, and the scales of psychological well-being. Gratitude had small correlations with autonomy ( r = .17), and medium to large correlations with environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, and self-acceptance ( rs ranged from .28 to .61). After controlling for the 30 facets of the Big Five, gratitude explained a substantial amount of a unique variance in most aspects of psychological well-being ( r equivalent = .14 to .25). Gratitude is concluded to be uniquely important to psychological well-being, beyond the effect of the Big Five facets.

Wood A. M., Maltby J., Gillett R., Linley P. A., & Joseph S . ( 2008).

The role of gratitude in the development of social support, stress, and depression: two longitudinal studies

Journal of Research in Personality, 42( 4), 854-871.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Wood A. M., Maltby J., Stewart N., & Joseph S . ( 2008).

Conceptualizing gratitude and appreciation as a unitary personality trait

Personality and Individual Differences, 44( 3), 621-632.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Gratitude and appreciation are currently measured using three self-report instruments, the GQ6 (1 scale), the Appreciation Scale (8 scales), and the GRAT (3 scales). Two studies were conducted to test how these three instruments are interrelated, whether they exist under the same higher order factor or factors, and whether gratitude and appreciation is a single or multi-factorial construct. In Study 1 ( N = 206) all 12 scales were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis. Both parallel analysis and the minimum average partial method indicated a clear one-factor solution. In Study 2 ( N = 389) multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor structure, demonstrated the invariance of this structure across gender, and ruled out the confounding effect of socially desirable responding. We conclude gratitude and appreciation are a single-factor personality trait. We suggest integration of gratitude and appreciation literatures and provide a clearer conceptualization of gratitude.

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