心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1734-1748 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01734

研究构想

服务型领导影响工作繁荣的动态双向机制

李超平,1, 毛凯贤2

1 中国人民大学公共管理学院组织与人力资源研究所, 北京 100872

2 香港科技大学工商管理学院管理学系, 香港

The dynamic and reciprocal effects of servant leadership on thriving at work

LI Chaoping,1, MAO Kaixian2

1 School of Public Administration and Policy, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China

2 Department of Management, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China

通讯作者: 李超平, E-mail: lichaoping@ruc.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-03-11   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: *国家自然科学基金资助.  71772171
教育部人文社会科学规划基金项目资助.  17YJA630073

Received: 2018-03-11   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

本研究基于资源保存理论, 采用动态追踪设计与双向影响设计, 通过文献研究和追踪问卷调查研究等方法, 揭示服务型领导对个人及团队工作繁荣影响的跨层作用机制、边界条件以及服务型领导与下属的双向影响过程, 从而增进对服务型领导作用机制的理解, 深化对领导本身动态变化本质的理解, 拓展工作繁荣前因变量的研究, 也为各类组织改善领导方式、提高领导效能、促进员工工作繁荣提供指导。

关键词: 服务型领导 ; 工作繁荣 ; 主动性 ; 追踪研究

Abstract

Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, this study tries to uncover and reveal the cross-level mechanisms of servant leadership’s effects on thriving at work for individuals and teams, the boundary conditions and the reciprocal effects between servant leadership and subordinates. This study adopts a longitudinal design and reciprocal design and includes research methods such as literature analysis and longitudinal survey study. This study therefore aims to deepen the understandings of the mechanism of servant leadership, contribute to the understandings of the dynamic nature of leadership, expand the study of the antecedents of thriving at work, and provide guidance for various organizations to improve leadership styles, contribute to leadership effectiveness and boost employees’ thriving at work. We also expect that due to this study, talents selection and training in all kinds of organizations and the overall development of people can be benefited, the positive relationship between leaders and subordinates can be established, and organizational culture and the long-term development of the organizations can be improved.

Keywords: servant leadership ; thriving at work ; initiative ; longitudinal study

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本文引用格式

李超平, 毛凯贤. (2018). 服务型领导影响工作繁荣的动态双向机制. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1734-1748

LI Chaoping, MAO Kaixian. (2018). The dynamic and reciprocal effects of servant leadership on thriving at work. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1734-1748

1 问题提出

越来越多的员工进入一个组织看重的是自己能否得到真正的成长与进步, 更重要的是能够伴随组织共同成长。然而现实中, 组织中的员工往往难以体验到朝气蓬勃、活力满满与日趋进步的状态(Spreitzer, Sutcliffe, Dutton, Sonenshein, & Grant, 2005), 相反, 他们很容易体会到的一种感觉是身心疲惫, 工作的快乐、意义与自身进步开始变得微不足道, 也由此给个人和组织都带来一系列的问题。Spreitzer等(2005)通过跨领域的文献研究及定性分析, 将“个体在工作中同时体验到的活力和学习”的心理状态归纳命名为工作繁荣(thriving at work)。作为一种工作状态而非特质, 工作繁荣较容易发生变化, 工作繁荣的员工能够得到健康成长, 不仅利于自身生活、工作和职业发展, 还对组织发展有着积极影响(Spreitzer & Porath, 2012)。Spreitzer等提出, 工作情境特征与个体工作资源均能够影响工作繁荣, 例如鼓励自主决策、信息共享、信任和尊重的工作氛围、积极情感资源与关系资源等(Spreitzer, Porath, & Gibson, 2012; Spreitzer & Porath, 2014), 但是目前从领导风格角度, 把领导行为作为一种重要工作情境特征, 探讨其对员工工作繁荣影响的研究还比较缺乏, 而积极心理学与积极组织行为学(Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Luthans, 2002; Luthans & Youssef, 2007)也均呼吁从领导的角度开展相关研究。

事实上, 领导在组织的成功和员工个人的成长中发挥着巨大的作用, 领导的有效引领为组织创造愿景, 也对下属产生着直接和显著的影响, 他们承担着使员工内化组织价值观、态度及目标的重要责任(Parris & Peachey, 2013)。但是, 在组织管理实践中, 领导对下属产生的负面影响、下属对领导的低认同度、领导与员工之间的低信任度与低配合度却成为了组织成功和员工个人成长过程中的重要障碍, 员工的工作繁荣也因此受到显著的负面影响。除此之外, 随着文化观念的进步、员工教育水平的提升, 员工期待的是一种更具人情味、个性化和合作化的领导方式(Parris & Peachey, 2013), 他们也希望能够从领导那里获得更多帮助、支持和力量。在近年来的组织管理研究中, 领导理论研究也已经开始强调一种共享、关系型、全局化的视角, 强调领导与下属的互动关系(Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009)。与传统的权力驱动、自我服务和领导第一的范式相反, 服务型领导理论由于强调超越个人利益、关心服务下属、帮助下属成长而成为了近来领导理论研究的一个热点领域(e.g., Neubert, Kacmar, Carlson, Chonko, & Roberts, 2008; Walumbwa, Hartnell, & Oke, 2010; Parris & Peachey, 2013; van Dierendonck, 2011; Liden, Wayne, Liao, & Meuser, 2014; Chen, Zhu, & Zhou, 2015; Neubert, Hunter, & Tolentino, 2016; 吴维库, 姚迪, 2009; 汪纯孝, 凌茜, 张秀娟, 2009; 孙健敏, 王碧英, 2010; 邓志华, 陈维政, 2012; 苗青, 2009; 张军伟, 龙立荣, 2016; 高中华, 赵晨, 2014; 许灏颖, 王震, 2016)。实际上, 服务型领导的独特之处就在于其明确的以人为中心、员工第一、专注于下属需求与发展(van Dierendonck, 2011)。服务型领导着重于服务他人, 打造共同体, 重视团队合作和分享权力(Greenleaf, 1977; Walumbwa et al., 2010)。因此, 服务型领导切中了当前组织管理中领导实践的弊病, 转变领导方式与作风, 强化对员工的服务与帮助应该能够推动员工健康成长发展与工作繁荣。

目前, 探索服务型领导的影响过程、作用机制及边界条件, 特别是针对服务型领导对员工和团队工作繁荣的影响关系, 采用追踪设计研究服务型领导在团队中的跨层作用机制、与下属的双向影响关系, 将有利于在实践中追求更为积极、卓有成效的服务型领导模式, 有助于构建领导与员工之间新型健康、积极正能量的互动影响关系, 还能够为各类组织营造良好文化氛围、提升组织绩效、推动员工成长与发展提供理论支持和依据。

2 文献回顾

2.1 服务型领导作用机制的研究现状

“开始于一种想要服务, 并且最早开始提供服务的自然信念” (Greenleaf, 1977, p.7), 服务型领导的特殊之处不仅在于他们想要服务的首要动机(做什么)和他们的自我建构(他们是谁), 也在于从这种有意识的“做什么”和“成为什么”的选择中, 他们渴望领导(Sendjaya & Sarros, 2002), 这是一种“将他人利益置于自己个人利益之上的领导行为” (Laub, 1999, p.81)。在操作化测量服务型领导的基础之上, 近年来国内外的研究开始更多转向展现其对于组织的实践价值, 越来越多的实证研究表明服务型领导能够在组织各个层面发挥重要的作用(e.g. Hunter, Neubert, Perry, Witt, Penney, & Weinberger, 2013; Liden et al., 2014; Peterson, Galvin, & Lange, 2012; Walumbwa et al., 2010; Harju, Schaufeli, & Hakanen, 2018; 吴维库, 姚迪, 2009; 汪纯孝 等, 2009; 孙健敏, 王碧英, 2010; 邓志华, 陈维政, 2012; 苗青, 2009)。

为了解释服务型领导的作用机制, 学者们基于相关理论检验了一些可能的重要中介变量。例如, 基于社会交换理论, Ehrhart (2004)研究发现服务型领导通过程序公平氛围而影响部门组织公民行为, Schaubroeck等(2011)研究发现服务型领导通过基于情感的信任影响团队心理安全感并最终影响团队绩效, Hu和Liden (2011)的研究发现团队水平的服务型领导通过团队潜能的中介作用来影响团队绩效和团队组织公民行为, Schneider和George (2011)检验了授权在服务型领导与下属工作结果(满意度、组织承诺和留任意愿)之间的中介作用, Chan和Mak (2014)则探索了对领导的信任在服务型领导与下属工作满意度之间的中介作用。国内方面, 马跃如和李树(2011)研究发现领导-下属关系质量在服务型领导与下属反生产行为和顾客导向的组织公民行为之间发挥中介作用, 赵宏旭(2011)研究表明对领导的信任在服务型领导与下属的领导效能感之间发挥中介作用, 赵红丹和彭正龙(2013)邢进(2013)朱玥和王晓辰(2015)均探讨了领导-成员交换或团队成员交换在服务型领导对团队绩效、组织承诺、员工建言行为影响机制中的中介作用, 林文静和段锦云(2015)研究了员工感知对领导的义务在服务型领导与员工工作绩效之间的中介作用。

基于社会学习理论, Hunter等(2013)研究发现服务氛围在服务型领导与离职意愿、组织公民行为和销售行为之间发挥中介作用, Liden等(2014)发现服务文化在服务型领导与组织绩效之间发挥中介作用, 凌茜和汪纯孝(2009)凌茜、汪纯孝、张秀娟和刘小平(2010)凌茜、汪纯孝、张秀娟和陈为新(2010)检验了部门的服务型领导氛围在企业的服务型领导氛围与员工的服务质量关系之间的中介作用, 以及员工感知的部门负责人的服务型领导风格在员工感知的企业负责人的服务型领导风格与员工的服务质量关系之间的中介作用, 许灏颖和王震(2016)研究发现下属顾客导向在服务型领导与下属服务绩效关系之间发挥中介作用。Walumbwa等(2010)基于社会学习理论和社会交换理论, 检验了程序公平氛围、服务氛围、自我效能和主管承诺在团队层面服务型领导与下属组织公民行为之间的中介作用。

基于自我决定理论, van Dierendonck, Stam, Boersma, de Windt和Alkema (2014)研究发现服务型领导主要是通过心理需要满意度(psychological needs satisfaction)作用于下属工作投入和组织承诺, 在此基础之上, Chiniara和Bentein (2016)进一步检验了自主需要满意度(autonomy need satisfaction)、胜任需要满意度(competence need satisfaction)和关系需要满意度(relatedness need satisfaction)在服务型领导与任务绩效、人际公民行为和组织公民行为关系之间的中介作用, Neubert等(2016)检验了护士工作满意度在部门服务型领导与病人满意度和推荐意愿关系之间的中介作用。国内方面, 林钰莹等(2015)根据自我决定理论研究发现工作动机在服务型领导与领导-下属交换交互项与下属创造力关系之间发挥中介作用, 黄俊、贾煜、桂梅、诸彦含和刘桃(2015)探索了员工工作投入在服务型领导与员工主动创新行为之间的中介作用。

基于社会认同理论, Liden等(2014)检验发现服务型领导营造服务文化后间接通过员工的组织认同影响员工的工作绩效、创造力、服务顾客行为及离职意愿, Chen等(2015)探索了社会认同中介变量(自我效能与团队认同)在服务型领导与顾客服务绩效(服务质量、顾客导向的公民行为与顾客导向的亲社会行为)关系之间的作用。除此之外, Neubert等(2008)基于调节定向理论研究发现服务型领导能够通过提升定向(promotion focus)来影响个体的帮助行为与创新行为。国内方面, 高中华和赵晨(2014)检验了组织认同和领导认同在服务型领导与下属组织公民行为关系之间的中介作用, 庄子匀和陈敬良(2015)研究了领导认同在服务型领导与员工创新行为之间的中介作用, 以及领导原型在服务型领导与团队创新能力之间的中介作用。除此之外, 张军伟和龙立荣(2016)基于社会信息加工理论和社会学习理论研究发现宽恕氛围在服务型领导与员工人际公民行为关系之间发挥中介作用。

现有研究已经初步验证了服务型领导与员工个人、团队和组织之间的显著关系, 并且基于相关理论检验了一些中介变量, 在帮助我们理解服务型领导的影响作用和机制方面做出了相当的贡献。但是, 我们对服务型领导如何积极影响下属、在团队中的跨层作用机制的了解仍然还是不够充分(Liden et al., 2014; Neubert et al., 2016; Chiniara & Bentein, 2016)。通过文献研究我们可以发现, 服务型领导具有倾听(listening)、共情(empathy)、治愈(healing)、知晓(awareness)、说服(persuasion)、概念化(conceptualization)、远见(foresight)、管家精神(stewardship)、对人的成长负责(commitment to the growth of people)和建立共同体(building community)等一系列重要特征(Spears, 1995, 1998, 2004), 也包括重视人(values people)、发展人(develops people)、建立共同体(builds community)、真诚待人(displays authenticity)、领导人(provides leadership)和共享领导权(shares leadership)等关键行为(Laub, 1999), 但是以往文献在分析服务型领导的特征和行为使得员工个体及团队本身发生了怎样的变化方面仍然是不足的, 这也使得我们在理解服务型领导的作用机制方面存在欠缺。资源保存理论则区别于上述相关理论, 其重点关注组织中个体的资源来源、获取与利用(Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001), 因此资源保存理论将能够为我们理解服务型领导的作用机制特别是服务型领导如何使得个体或团队得到资源提供较好的帮助。就个体而言, 组织中员工工作需要资源特别是工作能量, 缺乏能量的后果显而易见(Sonnentag, Kuttler, & Fritz, 2010), 以往服务型领导对个人、团队和组织结果的影响研究没有注意到这一视角, 因而也无法从个体、团队自身资源与能量的角度研究服务型领导对他们产生的变化。另外, 团队作为当前各类组织运行与管理的重要形式和载体, 目前也仅有少量研究对服务型领导在团队中的跨层作用机制加以了检验(e.g., Liden et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2015; Neubert et al., 2016), 而更好地了解服务型领导的作用机制特别是跨层作用机制才有利于推动服务型领导理论和实践的发展和进步。因此, 未来的研究有必要从资源、能量角度加深对服务型领导在组织中跨层作用机制的理解。

2.2 工作繁荣的形成研究现状

相比较于工作繁荣的结果研究如工作绩效(Porath, Spreitzer, Gibson, & Garnett, 2012)、创新行为(Carmeli & Spreitzer, 2009)、创新绩效(吴秋江, 黄培伦, 严丹, 2015)、组织忠诚(Porath, Gibson, & Spreitzer, 2008)、工作满意度(Porath et al., 2008)、组织公民行为(Porath et al., 2008; Spreitzer & Porath, 2014)、领导有效性(Spreitzer et al., 2012)、工作家庭促进(Porath et al., 2012)、身心健康(Spreitzer & Porath, 2014)、职业发展主动行为(Porath et al., 2012)、职业适应力(Jiang, 2017), 工作繁荣前因的实证研究相对还比较缺乏。

现有工作繁荣的前因研究表明, 工作情境特征和工作资源均是影响工作繁荣的前置因素。例如, Porath等(2008)对6个公司的员工、经理以及高管进行的研究表明, 自主决策、信息共享、绩效反馈、信任和尊重氛围这四个工作情境特征均与工作繁荣积极相关, 能够解释42%的方差变异。Porath和Erez (2007)研究发现员工之间不礼貌的互动(如粗鲁、不敬)和工作繁荣负相关。Niessen, Sonnentag和Sach (2012)对121名员工进行的日记式研究表明, 早晨获得的工作资源例如积极意义和知识获取程度能够促进晚上的工作繁荣(活力与学习)。Paterson, Luthans和Jeung (2014)研究发现心理资本和主管支持氛围通过主动工作行为(任务聚集和密切联系)的中介作用影响工作繁荣, Prem, Ohly, Kubicek和Korunka (2017)的研究表明时间压力和学习需求通过认知评价的中介作用影响工作繁荣。国内方面, 安静和万文海(2014)研究表明诚信领导通过心理安全感的中介作用影响工作繁荣, 时勘、万金和崔有波(2015)的研究发现核心自我评价与组织支持感交互影响内部动机, 从而影响工作繁荣, 吴秋江等(2015)探索了工作资源和积极情绪对工作繁荣的积极影响, 韩翼、周空、刘文兴和张一博(2016)的研究表明, 员工政治技能和员工潜能通过师徒关系的中介作用影响工作繁荣, 陈洪安、李乐、刘俊红、吴露琼和季昌梧(2016)研究发现职场友谊通过心理资本的中介作用影响工作繁荣。以上这些工作繁荣前因变量的研究为我们的研究提供了较好的基础, 也启发我们进行更为深入的探索。

可以发现, 近年来工作繁荣的研究者们更多开始考虑拓展工作繁荣的前因变量, 而根据Spreitzer等(2005)的工作繁荣社会嵌入模型和Spreitzer和Porath (2014)的工作中的个人成长整合模型, 不难看出工作繁荣的前因既包括情境特征或情境促发因素, 也包括个体工作资源, 两者促进主动行为或满足个体心理需求从而影响工作繁荣。因此, 在工作繁荣前因变量的实证研究中, 既需要考虑到相对稳定的组织情境, 也需要考虑到相对动态的资源, 研究个体如何与组织互动从而塑造工作情境和创造资源, 从而促进工作繁荣。加强对工作繁荣前因的实证研究特别是对相关理论模型进行检验才有助于我们对工作繁荣形成完整、综合的认识(韩翼, 魏文文, 2013; 郑晓明, 卢舒野, 2013; Prem et al., 2017)。

2.3 服务型领导与下属双向影响关系的模型建构

领导学研究中, Burns (1978)最早提出领导与下属之间存在着相互作用(interplay), 这种螺旋上升(upward spiral)的关系使得领导与下属双方都能够互相影响, 将另一方的道德、动机等提高到更高的水平。学者们建议, 考察这种双向影响的关系必须将时间考虑在研究模型中, 近年来领导学的研究也开始强调需要将时间与领导联系起来, 即从动态角度检验领导发生的变化(Bluedorn & Jaussi, 2008; Shamir, 2011; Day, 2014)。

事实上, 在Greenleaf (1977, p.7)的定义中, 服务型领导“并不仅是一种管理技巧, 而且是一种生活方式, 是一个人生旅程(life-long journey)”, 这一定义隐含服务型领导自身的发展可能是一个动态变化的过程。而直到Farling, Stone和Winston (1999)才将这一观点引入到服务型领导的研究中, 最近, Russell和Stone (2002)以及van Dierendonck (2011)在他们建构的理论模型中对这种螺旋上升关系进行了设想。Russell和Stone (2002) 建构了一个服务型领导前因后果的综合模型, 他们首先提出了服务型领导的功能性属性与伴随性属性, 伴随性属性作为调节变量, 能够影响领导者个人价值观、核心信念与准则等自变量影响服务型领导功能性属性的强度与水平。随后, 服务型领导作为自变量影响因变量即组织绩效。除此之外, 中介变量例如组织文化和员工态度和行为也会影响到服务型领导的有效性, 由此对组织绩效产生控制作用。同样的, 先前存在的组织价值观也会提升或限制服务型领导, 并且组织中也会存在有权势的人或团体中介服务型领导的作用。van Dierendonck (2011)则提出了另一个服务型领导的理论模型, 该模型认为服务型领导的核心在于领导动机与服务需要的结合, 同时个人特征与文化因素也同样会影响服务型领导的特征。继而, 下属感知到的服务型领导通过领导–下属关系与心理氛围这两个中介因素而作用于三个层次的结果变量, 即个体、团队和组织层面。除此之外, 更为重要的是, 该模型认为领导和下属之间存在双向影响作用, 因此下属的态度与行为也反过来影响服务型领导。

尽管这些模型建构开始考虑到服务型领导与下属的双向影响作用, 但是它们仍然相对比较抽象, 且缺乏实证数据的检验与支持, 而相关服务型领导研究的学者也均呼吁更多具体的实证研究来对此加以检验(van Dierendonck et al., 2014), 从而推动服务型领导理论的发展。因此, 服务型领导研究的一个重要方向即是从动态角度考察服务型领导的变化过程, 将时间考虑在研究模型中, 特别是可以检验服务型领导如何与下属产生互动影响关系, 从而更好把握这种领导与下属的螺旋上升双向影响作用机制。

从以上文献分析可知, 目前学术界对服务型领导、工作繁荣等的研究虽然取得了较大进展, 但是还存在一些问题。第一, 服务型领导的作用机制特别是其在组织中的跨层作用机制有待进一步研究, Liden等(2014)Chen等(2015)的研究是很好的范例, 他们分别以服务文化、自我效能与团队认同作为中介变量, 探索服务型领导对个体、顾客等的跨层影响作用, 也为未来研究指出了有意义的方向。除此之外, 以往关于服务型领导的研究还很少注意到领导与下属的双向影响作用, 往往将下属视为被动的输入方, 而实际上下属也是具有主观能动性的个体, 也能够在与领导的互动中对领导产生一定的影响。特别的是, 服务型领导作为独特的一种领导方式, 具有明显的关注他人需求的动机, 那么这种以人为中心、服务他人而非高高在上的领导风格必然使得其在实践中充分与下属互动, 因而探索这种双向影响作用就显得很有必要。尽管有学者意识到服务型领导与下属可能存在这种双向互动影响关系, 但是目前还没有研究对此加以证实和检验。组织资源和能量的相关理论就能够很好帮助我们理解服务型领导与下属的双向影响关系以及服务型领导的动态变化本质, 工作场所中的人体能量(human energy)是一种重要的组织资源(Fritz, Lam, & Spreitzer, 2011), 它是有限却也是可以得到补充的, 即在人际互动中能够产生能量从而提升员工行动和动机的能力, 使得他们更好工作并实现工作目标(Quinn, Spreitzer, & Lam, 2012), 能量还可以在互动双方中进行传递(Owens, Baker, Sumpter, & Cameron, 2016)。因此, 如果我们从能量的角度去看待服务型领导与下属的关系, 一方面我们可以更好探索服务型领导对工作繁荣影响的跨层作用机制, 另一方面也有助于我们得以观察和捕捉领导和下属的双向影响作用, 能够更好地去挖掘服务型领导与员工态度及行为之间的动态关系, 得到更为深入的启示与发现, 这也是前人所呼吁的研究方向(Walumbwa et al., 2010)。

第二, 工作繁荣的前因研究相对比较缺乏, 特别是工作场所中对员工有着重要影响的领导因素很少被考虑, 尽管近年来已有研究开始考虑主管支持、诚信领导等的影响作用, 但是总体来说领导风格与领导行为对工作繁荣的影响研究显得比较不足(韩翼, 魏文文, 2013)。服务型领导是一种独特的领导方式, 与其他类型的领导方式有着明显的区别。例如, 相关理论研究表明, 服务型领导与变革型领导、真实型领导、道德领导、授权领导、精神型领导、自我牺牲型领导(Smith, Montagno, & Kuzmenko, 2004; Parolini, Patterson, & Winston, 2009; van Dierendonck, 2011)均有所不同, 服务型领导的基础在于领导动机与服务需要的结合, 独特地强调了关注下属个人成长的重要性。工作繁荣的前置因素包括组织情境, 也包括个体资源, 服务型领导则能够为工作繁荣提供支持和基础。根据资源保存理论(Conservation of Resources Theory, COR),人们重视资源(物质性资源、条件性资源、人格特质与能源性资源), 人们试图获取并维持资源以便减少压力, 而在获得资源之后, 人们会利用这些资源来获得更多资源。为了最大化利用资源, 人们往往将资源利用到工作场所中(Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001)。作为资源的一种, 能量能够有助于个体提高行动和动机的能力, 并运用到工作中去, 而为了最大化利用能量, 个体也必须通过采取主动行为来释放和利用能量。因此, 基于资源保存理论, 从能量视角出发, 研究服务型领导对工作繁荣的影响机制, 能够使得我们探索能量等个体资源在形成工作繁荣中的重要作用, 特别的是, 我们还能够将利用能量与资源的积极主动行为考虑在其中, 从而在检验工作繁荣前因变量方面取得较好的研究成果。

第三, 通过相关文献研究我们发现, 以往有关服务型领导的研究几乎都是采用的横截面数据(cross-sectional data), 这些研究虽然均试图证明服务型领导的作用机制, 但是它们在因果关系推断上的说服力是不强的, 很多研究也都推测服务型领导与中介变量、因变量之间也很有可能是相反的因果关系(e.g., Ehrhart, 2004; Walumbwa et al., 2010; Schaubroeck et al., 2011; Hunter et al., 2013; van Dierendonck et al., 2014; Liden et al., 2014; Chan & Mak, 2014; Chen et al., 2015; Neubert et al., 2016; Chiniara & Bentein, 2016)。这些研究也都建议未来的研究采用追踪研究, 排除共同方法变异带来的误差, 以便更好证明变量之间的因果关系。因此, 追踪研究(longitudinal study)的方法将是服务型领导研究领域今后的一个重点。另外, 为了在研究中体现上述服务型领导与下属的双向影响关系, 也必须采用追踪研究的方法, 通过多次测量获取不同时间节点的数据, 建立潜在增长模型(latent growth modeling)来验证假设, 从而能够用动态的视角来检验服务型领导与下属的变化。

3 研究构想

本研究的主要任务就是通过动态追踪设计与双向影响设计,揭示服务型领导对个人及团队工作繁荣的跨层作用机制以及服务型领导与下属的双向影响过程。因此, 采用动态视角看待服务型领导, 通过追踪研究搜集数据, 检验服务型领导在团队中对工作繁荣的跨层作用机制及其边界条件, 探索服务型领导与下属的双向影响关系, 不仅有利于我们深化对服务型领导作用机制的理解, 推动其他相关领导风格的研究, 还能够拓展工作繁荣前因变量的研究。

本项目的研究框架如图1所示。本项目拟包括三个研究。第一个研究“服务型领导对员工个人及团队工作繁荣的跨层作用机制”, 从服务型领导的核心内涵和特征出发, 基于资源保存理论和工作繁荣的社会嵌入模型, 探索关系型能量和积极主动行为在服务型领导与工作繁荣关系之间的中介作用, 目的在于揭示服务型领导对工作繁荣影响的跨层作用机制。

图1

图1   总体研究框架


第二个研究“服务型领导对下属工作繁荣影响的边界条件”, 从个体个性倾向与心理动机的视角出发, 考察特质调节定向与目标取向的调节作用, 目的在于理解个体个性倾向与动机对服务型领导有效性的影响, 从而明晰服务型领导对个体工作繁荣影响的边界条件。

第三个研究“服务型领导与下属的螺旋上升双向影响作用”将基于追踪数据, 注重服务型领导的动态变化本质, 聚焦于服务型领导与下属的双向影响作用, 考察服务型领导对下属产生影响后, 下属如何反过来影响服务型领导并将其提升到更高的层次。由于关系型能量能够在互动中进行传递和感染, 因此第三个研究将重点关注服务型领导与关系型能量的螺旋上升双向影响关系。

3.1 服务型领导对员工个人及团队工作繁荣的跨层作用机制

根据资源保存理论(Hobfoll, 1989, 1998,), 组织资源包括很多种, 其中人体能量(human energy)就是一种重要的组织资源(Quinn et al, 2012), 这种关键的组织资源使得员工提高行动和动机的能力, 从而可以运用于工作中。能量的缺乏带来的是工作倦怠、压力和工作不投入(Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001; Sonnentag et al., 2010; Schaufeli, Bakker, & Van Rhenen, 2009)。人体能量既包括个体身体、心理层次的能量, 还包括社会、人际和关系层次的能量(Cole, Bruch, & Vogel, 2012), 后者即关系型能量(relational energy)。植根于互动仪式理论(interaction ritual theory)、社会感染理论(social contagion theory)和资源保存理论(conservation of resources theory), 关系型能量是指在社会和人际交往中能够影响个体行为的能量, 关系型能量的激活是可以共享的, 在互动的个体中能量能够转移和扩散(Owens et al., 2016)。在团队层面, 个体之间共享激活能量即形成关系型能量氛围。由于服务型领导将重心放在对他人的服务上, 视促进员工的成长与幸福感为第一要务, 他们能够倾听、同情、接纳和治愈员工, 他们提供方向和指引, 授权、鼓励和服务员工, 他们真诚、可信、谦逊和可靠(Greenleaf, 1977; Spears, 2004)。因此, 服务型领导能够为下属提供能量, 在与下属的社会互动中传递正面积极的能量, 当下属自身能量匮乏时, 服务型领导能够及时出现和提供服务, 使得下属能够得到能量的补充和恢复, 并源源不断推动下属继续的进步和成长。而根据Spreitzer等(2005)的定义, 工作繁荣包括两个维度, 分别是活力(vitality)和学习(learning)。活力是一种充满能量、工作活跃和热情的状态(Nix, Ryan, Manly, & Deci, 1999; Miller & Stiver, 1997), 学习则是一种个体通过获取与利用知识和技能从而提升能力和信心的状态(Carver, 1998; Elliott & Dweck, 1988), 两个维度同时具备个体才处于工作繁荣状态。工作繁荣在团队或部门层面即是集体繁荣(Spreitzer et al., 2005), 集体繁荣是一个团队或组织作为一个整体不断学习和成长的状态 (Spreitzer & Sutcliffe, 2007)。因此, 在个体层面, 由于服务型领导能够激发下属得到关系型能量, 我们将关系型能量视为服务型领导影响下属工作繁荣的最直接中介变量, 而在团队层面的服务型领导不仅能够直接作用于个体关系型能量, 更重要的是通过在团队中形成的相互感染的关系型能量氛围(Owens et al., 2016)而分别正向影响个体和团队工作结果, 因此关系型能量氛围将是团队服务型领导影响集体繁荣的最直接中介变量。

根据资源保存理论, 我们进一步认为, 员工在获得资源(关系型能量)之后, 会利用这些资源来获得更多资源, 因此他们会在工作中采取主动行为从而最大化利用资源(Hobfoll, 2001)。而为了释放和利用能量, 作为资源的一种, 能量能够有助于个体提高行动和动机的能力, 并运用到工作中去, 而为了最大化利用能量, 个体也必须通过发挥个人主动行为来释放和利用能量。个人主动行为(personal initiative)是一个行动概念, 是自发、积极的行为方式(Frese, Kring, Soose, & Zempel, 1996), 是一种新型的工作模式(夏霖, 王重鸣, 2006), 也是一系列工作行为的集合(薛宪方, 2008)。Fay和Frese (2001)指出个人主动行为就是个体采取积极和自发的方式, 通过克服各种障碍和困难, 去完成工作任务并实现目标的行为方式, 它包含自发(self-starting)、率先行动(proactive)和克服困难(overcoming-barriers)三个方面, 这三个方面彼此之间能够互相强化, 而团队层面的主动行为即团队主动行为(Kirkman & Rosen, 1999)。因而, 我们假设在得到关系型能量之后, 个人主动行为和团队主动行为将成为关系型能量与工作繁荣之间的中介变量。Spreitzer等(2005)提出的工作繁荣社会嵌入模型和Spreitzer和Porath (2014)提出的工作中个人成长整合模型均表明, 工作繁荣的前因在情境特征或情境促发因素之外, 还包括个体工作资源, 并且两者通过促进个人主动行为或满足个体心理需求最终影响工作繁荣。基于此, 我们认为, 在相对稳定的组织情境之外, 个体通过主动行为能够得到相对动态的资源, 从而塑造工作情境和促进工作繁荣。因此, 个人层面, 个体将发挥主动性, 采取主动行为来利用能量, 从而达到活力和学习即工作繁荣的状态, 而团队层面, 关系型能量氛围将带来团队主动行为, 并分别促进个体工作繁荣和团队集体繁荣。根据以上, 我们提出研究假设:

假设1:个体层面, 服务型领导促进下属获得关系型能量, 关系型能量通过个人主动行为促进个人工作繁荣。

假设2:团队层面, 团队服务型领导促进关系型能量氛围的形成, 关系型能量氛围通过团队主动行为促进个体工作繁荣和集体繁荣。

假设3:团队服务型领导能够跨层影响个体关系型能量, 关系型能量氛围能够跨层影响个人主动行为, 团队主动行为能够跨层影响个体工作繁荣。

3.2 服务型领导对下属工作繁荣影响的边界条件

尽管如George (1996)所宣称的那样, 热情、有活力的领导能够同样使得下属也充满能量, 但是获得能量后的员工能否进一步将能量运用于工作中则是另外一回事, 工作繁荣的社会嵌入模型也指出, 工作繁荣是工作情境特征和个体资源共同作用的结果(Spreitzer et al., 2005), 因此考虑服务型领导作为工作情境特征给工作繁荣带来影响的同时也必须考虑其边界条件。根据资源保存理论, 个人特征也是一种资源(Hobfoll, 1998, 2001), 因而聚焦于个人层面, 我们认为服务型领导对于下属工作繁荣的影响, 会受到下属个体特征的调节作用。具体而言, 我们将从个体个性倾向与心理动机的视角出发, 考察调节定向(regulatory focus)与目标取向(goal orientation)的调节作用。

调节定向代表着个体面对他们总体追求的目标和结果遇到可能威胁时所采取行动的方式(De Cremer, Mayer, Van Dijke, Schouten, & Bardes, 2009), 影响着哪些评价维度会决定人们生活中的偏好和选择, 是个体逐渐形成的稳定个性倾向(Higgins, 1997, 1998)。调节定向可以分为两种不同的动机系统, 分别是促进定向(promotion focus)和预防定向(prevention focus), 前者代表个体更多关心培养、成长和成就, 后者代表个体更多关心保护、安全和责任(Lockwood, Jordan, & Kunda, 2002)。具有促进定向的人倾向于在调节自身行为的时候更多关注希望, 更多在意的是正面结果和想要的收益, 预防定向的人倾向于更多关注安全、责任和义务需求, 更多在意的是避免错误、损失和负面结果(Johnson, Smith, Wallace, Hill, & Baron, 2015)。因此, 我们假设, 面对服务型领导无条件的爱(agapao love)、谦卑(humility)、利他(altruism)、信任(trust)等方面的特征与行为(Patterson, 2003), 促进定向的下属由于更加关心成就和奖励, 会更容易受到外在鼓励和支持的影响, 因此服务型领导对其主动行为、工作繁荣的正面影响将更强, 预防定向的下属由于更加考虑减少损失和采取规避策略, 因此服务型领导对其主动行为和工作繁荣的正面影响将较弱。由此, 我们提出研究假设:

假设4: 促进定向能够调节服务型领导对个人主动行为(4a)和工作繁荣(4b)的正面影响, 即当下属越倾向于促进定向, 服务型领导对个人主动行为和工作繁荣的影响更强。

假设5: 预防定向能够调节服务型领导对个人主动行为(5a)和工作繁荣(5b)的正面影响, 即当下属越倾向于预防定向, 服务型领导对个人主动行为和工作繁荣的影响减弱。

个体内在动机影响着个体对外在环境的解读和应对策略, 成就目标取向就直接体现了个体的内在动机(Dweck, 1986, 2000; Dweck & Leggett, 1988)。Dweck (1986)根据学习者学习行为的不同动机过程, 将个体的成就目标取向分为两种, 分别是学习目标取向(learning goal orientation)和表现目标取向(performance goal orientation), 前者关注学习和获取知识和技能, 主要为了实现个人发展, 后者则关注证明自身能力, 主要为了获得较好的评价。VandeWalle (1997)则针对工作场所将目标取向分为三种, 除了学习目标取向(learning goal orientation)之外, 他另外提出了证明目标取向(proving goal orientation)和回避目标取向(avoiding goal orientation), 证明目标取向的个体更多关注于超越他人、证明自己的机会, 但是却较少愿意接受挑战性的任务, 回避目标取向的个体则害怕接受挑战, 面对挫折往往采取退缩行为, 很少尝试新鲜事物。因此我们假设认为, 学习目标取向的下属由于更愿意挑战自我, 努力提升自身能力, 因此服务型领导对其主动行为、工作繁荣的积极影响将更强, 证明目标取向的下属虽然愿意展现自己, 但是缺乏对困难和挑战性任务的兴趣, 从而使得服务型领导对其主动行为、工作繁荣的积极影响将减弱, 而回避目标取向的个体由于更多采取防卫行为和退缩行为, 因此服务型领导对其主动行为和工作繁荣的正面影响将最弱。因此, 本研究假设:

假设6:目标取向能够调节服务型领导对个人主动行为和工作繁荣的正面影响, 即当下属越倾向于学习目标取向, 服务型领导对个人主动行为和工作繁荣的影响将最强(6a), 当下属越倾向于证明目标取向, 服务型领导对个人主动行为和工作繁荣的影响将减弱(6b), 当下属越倾向于回避目标取向, 服务型领导对个人主动行为和工作繁荣的影响将最弱(6c)。

3.3 服务型领导与下属的螺旋上升双向影响作用

对服务型领导与下属关系的研究必须考虑到时间的变化, 静止角度的研究往往是不充分的, 因此很有必要以动态视角研究服务型领导与下属的影响关系。Farling等(1999)Russell和Stone (2002)以及van Dierendonck (2011)对服务型领导与下属的双向影响作用提出了设想, 但是这种影响关系在以往的研究中却并未受到足够的重视。本研究将以动态视角充分研究服务型领导与下属的双向影响作用, 考察下属被服务型领导影响后如何影响服务型领导。

根据Day (2014), 领导学研究中涉及到时间、动态变化的议题可以从四个方面加以探讨:第一, 如何确定领导行为及其对下属产生影响之间的时间差, 多久之后测量才比较合适; 第二, 下属对领导的感知如何产生和发生变化; 第三, 领导–下属关系如何发展和变化, 速度如何; 第四, 领导如何动态获得和发展领导能力。我们的研究能够探索第一和第四两个方面, 我们对领导和下属的双向影响关系进行检验, 一方面可以确定领导行为对下属产生影响之间的时间差, 另一方面也了解领导如何在受下属影响后提升自身服务型领导水平。因此我们认为, 根据服务型领导自身动态变化的本质(Greenleaf, 1977), 服务型领导在对下属产生影响之后, 也会随时间变化感受到下属反应所带来的影响, 不断改进和提升自己的领导水平, 由此产生螺旋上升关系。服务型领导首先作用于下属工作态度行为与结果, 下属产生的积极态度、行为与结果继而激发服务型领导, 使得服务型领导达到更高的水平, 从而继续影响下属(见图2)。

图2

图2   服务型领导与关系型能量的双向影响关系

注:T1代表第1次, T2代表第3次, T……代表未画的几次, T6代表第6次


基于我们前述假设, 服务型领导能够激发下属关系型能量, 而下属受能量激发后更加投入于工作中, 表现出积极的工作态度以及产生良好的工作结果, 从而在与服务型领导互动交往的过程中, 又将能量传递给领导, 从而促进和提升服务型领导的水平, 形成了螺旋上升双向影响作用。因此, 我们提出研究假设:

假设7:随着时间变化, 服务型领导与下属存在螺旋上升双向影响关系, 即服务型领导与关系型能量互相正向影响。

3.4 研究构想的检验方法

在研究初期阶段, 我们将定向搜索国内外重点学术期刊的相关文献, 认真研读和总结, 结合专家小组讨论, 形成更为严密完整的理论框架; 在测量工具的发展阶段, 将采用半结构化的访谈形式了解服务型领导与下属互动所带来的具体态度及行为变化, 结合专家建议, 对当前测量工具进行修订和优化, 并结合因子分析(包括探索性与验证性因子分析)、信度和效度分析等统计分析方法形成符合中国情境的更为可靠的测量工具; 在问卷调查阶段, 我们将设计基于网络的调查问卷, 运用纵向研究设计, 密集搜集数据, 反映服务型领导及其下属的变化趋势, 并有针对性地选择相关组织进行案例研究; 在理论模型检验阶段, 我们将依需要选择性采用相关分析、方差分析、t检验、回归分析、结构方程模型、多层线性模型和潜在增长模型(latent growth modeling, LGM)等统计手段, 相互配合从而得到明确的研究结论。

具体的说, 在测量工具发展方面, 本研究将修订我国服务型领导、关系型能量、积极主动行为与工作繁荣的量表。量表修订过程会严格遵照“项目生成→预测试→项目精简→预试研究”的规范模式, 切实保障量表的信度、效度, 为整体研究提供基础。项目库(Item Pool)将在文献研究基础上, 结合访谈获取的内容生成, 然后选取200名领导者与员工进行预测试, 通过信度、效度分析对测量项目进行精简与补充, 形成可以广泛使用的调查问卷测量量表。

在问卷数据搜集方面, 本研究将利用组织行为与人力资源管理调查协同研究平台(www.obhrm. com)进行追踪问卷调查的发布与数据搜集。具体而言, 本研究将分别设计领导问卷和员工问卷, 同时采用追踪设计的方式来收集数据。研究1需要对服务型领导及其作用机制进行个体层面、团队层面与跨层次分析; 研究2主要是在个体层面分析服务型领导的边界条件, 因而从提高效率的角度, 研究1与研究2采用时间差设计, 即自变量、中介变量、调节变量、因变量和控制变量均在不同时间点进行数据搜集, 并且研究1与研究2的数据可以设计在同一批样本中收集。研究1、研究2拟在不少于150个团队中进行调查, 将邀请每个团队的管理者与不少于5名员工参与调查。在研究1、研究2的4次问卷数据搜集中, 第一次填写的关键变量包括服务型领导(领导自评与下属评价)、关系型能量(下属自评)、调节定向(包括促进定向和预防定向) (下属自评)、目标取向(包括学习目标取向、证明目标取向和回避目标取向) (下属自评)、个人主动行为(下属自评与领导评价)、团队主动行为(领导评价)和工作繁荣(下属自评), 第二次填写的关键变量包括关系型能量(下属自评)和调节定向(包括促进定向和预防定向) (下属自评), 第三次填写的关键变量包括个人主动行为(下属自评与领导评价)、团队主动行为(领导评价)和目标取向(包括学习目标取向、证明目标取向和回避目标取向) (下属自评), 第四次填写的关键变量为工作繁荣(下属自评)。在最后一次调查中, 我们还将通过人事部门或人力资源部门获得参与调查的领导、员工及所属团队的工作绩效数据, 以便更深入地分析研究结果。而研究3主要是检验服务型领导和下属双向互动的影响, 需要更密集地进行追踪数据的搜集, 因此为了避免被调查者的疲劳, 提高他们的配合程度和保证数据的质量, 研究3拟单独在另一批样本中收集数据。因此, 研究 3 共包括六次问卷数据搜集, 每次均搜集服务型领导(领导自评与下属评价)和关系型能量(下属自评)的数据。

本研究的所有数据收集都将在各类组织人事部门或人力资源部门的配合下完成, 并对所有的被调查对象(包括被调查者及其上级)进行编码, 以保证数据的准确匹配。两个样本的第一次问卷调查都将采用现场问卷调查的方式; 第一次调查时, 我们会让每个人被调查者提供常用的电子邮件地址, 并关注我们提供的微信公众号; 随后的调查都会通过电子邮件发送给被调查者, 并通过微信公众号提醒被调查者, 由被调查者直接访问组织行为与人力资源管理调查协同研究平台填写问卷。一定时间后, 如果被调查者还没有填写问卷, 我们会通过微信公众号与电子邮件进行提醒, 以提高问卷的回收率。

为了在追踪研究中更好地检验服务型领导及其下属的变化趋势, 本研究将在研究3中采用潜在增长模型(Latent Growth Modeling, LGM)来研究核心变量的变化轨迹。与传统统计方法只关注群组均值不同, 建立在结构方程模型基础上的潜在增长模型能够对发展过程中的群组和个体变异同时进行估计, 更科学地揭示变量之间的关系 (e.g., Ployhart & Vandenberg, 2010; Chan, 1998; Li, Fay, Frese, Harms, & Gao, 2014)。

4 理论建构

领导理论以往更多关注如何去“影响”追随者, 是一种权力驱动和领导优先的范式; 相比之下, 服务型领导理论更多关注“服务”, 强调超越个人利益、关注下属的利益和帮助下属成长。在21世纪的今天, 服务型领导理论显得更为重要, 特别是服务型领导强调的转变与下属的需求完全一致(Spears, 1997, 2004, in press; Patterson, 2003)。另一方面, 领导力自身的发展也得到越来越多管理研究和实践者的关注。基于此, 本研究构建的服务型领导与工作繁荣关系的理论框架将包括以下几个要点。

首先, 本研究指出, 服务型领导是个人层面和团队层面工作繁荣的重要前因。由于服务型领导能够竭力为下属服务, 视促进员工的成长与幸福感为第一要务, 提供方向和指引, 授权和鼓励员工, 下属的工作繁荣状态将得到极大提升。工作繁荣的社会嵌入模型表明, 外部环境促进工作繁荣的同时也需要个体内在资源或者能量的支撑(Spreitzer et al., 2005; Paterson et al., 2014; 安静, 万文海, 2014)。而根据资源保存理论(Hobfoll, 1989, 1998), 人体能量(human energy)也是一种重要的组织资源(Quinn et al., 2012)。由于能量的激发是可以在交互双方中传递和感染的(Owens et al., 2016), 本研究认为, 关系型能量作为一种从提高个人工作能力的人际互动中产生的更高的心理能量, 能够解释服务型领导对工作繁荣、集体繁荣产生影响的中介机制。因此, 具体理论模型为:即服务型领导通过提升下属关系型能量从而影响其主动行为, 并最终促进个体工作繁荣, 服务型领导在团队层面通过促进关系型能量氛围的形成从而影响团队主动行为, 并最终促进集体繁荣。以往文献在分析服务型领导的特征和行为使得员工个体及团队本身发生了怎样的变化方面存在不足, 使得我们在理解服务型领导的作用机制方面存在欠缺, 工作繁荣前因研究中则忽略了相关领导风格与行为的因素。因此, 本研究的框架既检验了服务型领导对工作繁荣的跨层作用, 还从新的视角探索了工作繁荣前因中领导风格、领导行为和个体资源的作用。

其次, 本研究整合了服务型领导理论与调节定向理论、动机理论等方面的研究, 指出服务型领导对个体工作繁荣、团队集体繁荣的作用会受到下属个性与动机的调节影响。具体而言, 从个体个性倾向与心理动机的视角出发, 调节定向(regulatory focus)与目标取向(goal orientation)将为服务型领导对下属主动行为、工作繁荣的影响设定边界条件。本研究认为, 面对服务型领导谦卑、利他、授权、指引、信任等方面的特征与行为(Patterson, 2003), 促进定向的下属由于更加关心成就和奖励, 会更容易受到服务型领导的积极影响, 因而下属主动行为和工作繁荣的水平将更高。相反, 预防定向的下属由于更加考虑减少损失和采取规避策略, 会较少受到服务型领导对其的正面影响, 因而下属主动行为和工作繁荣的水平将降低。本研究还认为, 学习目标取向的下属由于更愿意挑战自我和努力提升自己, 会更容易受到服务型领导对其的积极影响, 因而下属主动行为和工作繁荣的水平将最高。证明目标取向的下属由于缺乏对困难和挑战性任务的兴趣, 服务型领导对其的积极影响将变弱, 因而下属主动行为和工作繁荣的水平将减弱。而对于更多采取防卫行为和退缩行为的具有回避目标取向的个体, 服务型领导对其的正面影响将最为微弱, 因而下属主动行为和工作繁荣的水平将最低。本研究力图回应George (1996)的论述以探索领导作用的边界, 并通过整合个体个性理论与动机理论, 深入检验工作情境和个体资源的共同作用。这也能够启示领导者要因人而异, 要根据员工具体个性特征和动机, 来灵活、有针对性地加以指导与帮助。

第三, 本研究在研究服务型领导对个体、团队产生影响的同时, 还指出服务型领导与员工将产生双向影响关系。由于几乎所有组织现象都具有动态变化的本质(George & Jones, 2000), 因此使用动态视角看待领导行为十分有必要。更为重要的是, 组织中员工并不是被动接受领导, 而是时刻处于与领导交往和互动影响中, 这是一个能够产生螺旋上升关系的动态过程(Burns, 1978)。本研究揭示了领导行为的动态变化过程, 即服务型领导通过与下属的互动, 共同感受关系型能量, 从而不断提升自身的服务型领导水平, 产生螺旋上升的发展模式, 这也能够直接检验服务型领导自身动态变化的特点(Greenleaf, 1977)。本研究构建的这一模型把握住了当前领导学研究的一大前沿, 即研究领导本身动态变化的本质(Day, 2014)。现有研究对服务型领导作用机制的考察较多以社会交换理论、社会学习理论与社会认同理论等为基础, 进而检验了相关中介变量, 但是这些研究还没有考虑到领导与下属的互动过程, 因此也难以从组织资源和能量角度探索服务型领导与下属的双向影响作用。因此, 与文献中普遍将领导视为稳定不变的行为状态相比, 本研究构建的理论框架得以从时间角度深化对领导自身动态改变的认识, 能够更加系统地探索领导与下属在组织中的双向作用, 深化学者和管理者对复杂组织现象的理解。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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邢进 . ( 2013).

服务型领导、领导-成员交换与组织承诺之间的实证研究

(硕士学位论文). 辽宁大学.

[本文引用: 1]

夏霖, 王重鸣 . ( 2006).

个人主动行为: 21世纪的新型工作模式

技术经济, 25( 10), 54-56.

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Nowadays, research about the action of active employees is a new direction in the field of human resources management . Personal initiative as an active work model, is the focus of this direction. The article systemically introduced the concept, dimensions and action series of personal initiative. Based on this, the article discussed the important implication of personal initiative for the individual and organizational performance, and the strategies to enhance the personal initiative of employees.

许灏颖, 王震 . ( 2016).

服务型领导对下属服务绩效的影响:顾客导向和领导认同的作用

心理科学, 39( 6), 1466-1472.

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薛宪方 . ( 2008).

个人主动性的研究现状与展望

人类工效学, 14( 4), 69-71.

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随着组织面临的环境和任务的不 确定性逐渐增加,组织成员的个人主动性也越来越受到重视。个人主动性是一个行动的概念,其产生受到环境、知识技能、人格、导向等因素的影响,个人主动性与 工作变动、学习行为、绩效及组织变革都有密切的关系。今后的研究应该进一步探讨个人主动性的形成机制和作用机制。

赵红丹, 彭正龙 . ( 2013).

服务型领导与团队绩效: 基于社会交换视角的解释

系统工程理论与实践, 33( 10), 2524-2532.

[本文引用: 1]

赵宏旭 . ( 2011).

公仆型领导与领导效能感关系的实证研究

(硕士学位论文). 中南大学, 湖南.

[本文引用: 1]

张军伟, 龙立荣 . ( 2016).

服务型领导对员工人际公民行为的影响: 宽恕氛围与中庸思维的作用

管理工程学报, 30( 1), 43-51.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

服务型领导作为一种利他与服务导向的领导风格,近年来受到了诸多学者的关注.尽管不少研究表明服务型领导对员工的行为与态度有积极的影响,但从不同视角来探索服务型领导的作用机制仍是该研究领域的重要议题.基于此,本研究以50名直属主管和294名员工的配对数据为样本,从团队成员之间关系的视角探讨了宽恕氛围在服务型领导与员工人际公民行为之间所起的中介作用,并将中庸思维这一极能彰显中国人思维模式的变量纳入研究框架,考察了中庸思维对宽恕氛围与员工人际公民行为关系的调节作用.跨层次分析结果表明:(1)服务型领导对员工人际公民行为有显著的正向影响;(2)服务型领导通过影响宽恕氛围,进而作用于员工人际公民行为;(3)中庸思维对宽恕氛围与员工人际公民行为的关系具有正向调节作用,对于高中庸思维的员工,宽恕氛围对其人际公民行为有显著的正向作用,而对于低中庸思维的员工,宽恕氛围对其人际公民行为无显著影响.

郑晓明, 卢舒野 . ( 2013).

工作旺盛感: 关注员工的健康与成长

心理科学进展, 21( 7), 1283-1293.

[本文引用: 1]

庄子匀, 陈敬良 . ( 2015).

服务型领导对员工创新行为和团队创新能力的影响:个体与团队的多层次实证研究

预测, 34( 5), 15-21.

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本文从关系认同视角,考察了服务型领导对员工创新行为和团队创新能力的多层次影响机制。基于325对上下级配对数据,采用多层线性模型和层次回归法,对模型进行验证。结果表明:领导认同在服务型领导与员工创新行为之间起到完全中介作用;领导原型在服务型领导与团队创新能力之间起到完全中介作用;组织创新氛围对领导认同与员工创新行为之间的关系具有正向调节作用。

朱玥, 王晓辰 . ( 2015).

服务型领导对员工建言行为的影响: 领导-成员交换和学习目标取向的作用

心理科学, 38( 2), 426-432.

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Avolio B. J., Walumbwa F. O., & Weber T. J . ( 2009).

Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions

Annual Review of Psychology, 60( 1), 421-449.

URL     PMID:18651820      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

Bluedorn A. C., & Jaussi, K.S . ( 2008).

Leaders, followers, and time

The Leadership Quarterly, 19( 6), 654-668.

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Leadership

New York: Harper &Row.

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Trust, connectivity, and thriving: Implications for innovative behaviors at work

The Journal of Creative Behavior, 43( 3), 169-191.

URL    

This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both measured at Time 2). Trust and connectivity were hypothesized to create a nurturing environment that enables people to thrive and be innovative in their work. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicate a sequential mediation model in which connectivity mediates the relationship between trust and thriving, and thriving mediates the relationship between connectivity and innovative behaviors. The theoretical and practical implications for employee thriving and innovative behaviors at work are discussed.

Carver, C. S . ( 1998).

Resilience and thriving: Issues, models, and linkages

Journal of Social Issues, 54( 2), 245-266.

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Abstract This article addresses distinctions underlying concepts of resilience and thriving and issues in conceptualizing thriving. Thriving (physical or psychological) may reflect decreased reactivity to subsequent stressors, faster recovery from subsequent stressors, or a consistently higher level of functioning. Psychological thriving may reflect gains in skill, knowledge, confidence, or a sense of security in personal relationships. Psychological thriving resembles other instances of growth. It probably does not depend on the occurrence of a discrete traumatic event or longer term trauma, though such events may elicit it. An important question is why some people thrive, whereas others are impaired, given the same event. A potential answer rests on the idea that differences in confidence and mastery are self-perpetuating and self-intensifying. This idea suggests a number of variables whose role in thriving is worth closer study, including personality variables such as optimism, contextual variables such as social support, and situational variables such as the coping reactions elicited by the adverse event.

Chan D., ( 1998).

The conceptualization and analysis of change over time: An integrative approach incorporating longitudinal mean and covariance structures analysis (LMACS) and multiple indicator latent growth modeling (MLGM)

Organizational Research Methods, 1( 4), 421-483.

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Chan S. C. H., & Mak W. M, . ( 2014).

The impact of servant leadership and subordinates' organizational tenure on trust in leader and attitudes

Personnel Review, 43( 2), 272-287.

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Chen Z., Zhu J., & Zhou M . ( 2015).

How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance

Journal of Applied Psychology, 100( 2), 511-521.

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Chiniara M., & Bentein, K. ( 2016).

Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction

The Leadership Quarterly, 27( 1), 124-141.

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Energy at work: A measurement validation and linkage to unit effectiveness

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33( 4), 445-467.

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We introduce the notion that the energy of individuals can manifest as a higher-level, collective construct. To this end, we conducted four independent studies to investigate the viability and importance of the collective energy construct as assessed by a new survey instrument—the productive energy measure (PEM). Study 1 (n65=652208) included exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to explore the underlying factor structure of PEM. Study 2 (n65=65660) cross-validated the same factor structure in an independent sample. In study 3, we administered the PEM to more than 5000 employees from 145 departments located in five countries. Results from measurement invariance, statistical aggregation, convergent, and discriminant-validity assessments offered additional support for the construct validity of PEM. In terms of predictive and incremental validity, the PEM was positively associated with three collective attitudes—units' commitment to goals, the organization, and overall satisfaction. In study 4, we explored the relationship between the productive energy of firms and their overall performance. Using data from 92 firms (n65=655939employees), we found a positive relationship between the PEM (aggregated to the firm level) and the performance of those firms. Copyright 08 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Day D., ( 2014).

Time and leadership

In A. J. Shipp, & Y. Fried (Eds.), Time and Work Volume 2: How time impacts groups, organizations and methodological choices. (Vol. 2, pp. 30-52). (Current Issues in Work and Organizational Psychology). Hove and New York: Psychology Press.

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When does self-sacrificial leadership motivate prosocial behavior? It depends on followers’ prevention focus

Journal of Applied Psychology, 94( 4), 887-899.

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Demerouti E., Bakker A. B., Nachreiner F., & Schaufeli W. B . ( 2001).

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Journal of Applied Psychology, 86( 3), 499-512.

URL     PMID:11419809      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working conditions provided strong evidence for the JD-R model: Job demands are primarily related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas (lack of) job resources are primarily related to disengagement. Highly similar patterns were observed in each of 3 occupational groups: human services, industry, and transport (total N = 374). In addition, results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups.

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American Psychologist, 41( 10), 1040-1048.

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Philadelphia: Psychological Press.

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Psychological Review, 95( 2), 256-273.

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A research-based model is presented that accounts for major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior in terms of underlying psychological processes. It is postulated that as individuals' self-attributes are translated into allied goals, these goals generate corresponding behavior patterns. (SLD)

Ehrhart, M. G . ( 2004).

Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior

Personnel Psychology, 57( 1), 61-94.

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Despite an abundance of research conducted on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) at the individual level of analysis, relatively little is known about unit-level OCB. To investigate the antecedents of unit-level OCB, data were collected from employees of 249 grocery store departments. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to test a model in which procedural justice climate was hypothesized to partially mediate the relationship between leadership behavior (servant-leadership) and unit-level OCB. Models were tested using both employee ratings and manager ratings of unit-level OCB. The results gave general support for the hypotheses, although there were some differences depending on the source of the OCB ratings (supervisor or subordinate), whether the type of department was controlled for, and whether a common method variance factor was included. Overall, the evidence generally supported the association of both servant-leadership and procedural justice climate with unit-level OCB. Building on the current study, a multilevel framework for the study of OCB is presented in conjunction with a discussion of future research directions in four specific areas.

Elliott E. S., & Dweck, C. S . ( 1988).

Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54( 1), 5-12.

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This study tested a framework in which goals are proposed to be central determinants of achievement patterns. Learning goals, in which individuals seek to increase their competence, were predicted to promote challenge-seeking and a mastery-oriented response to failure regardless of perceived ability. Performance goals, in which individuals seek to gain favorable judgments of their competence or avoid negative judgments, were predicted to produce challenge-avoidance and learned helplessness when perceived ability was low and to promote certain forms of risk-avoidance even when perceived ability was high. Manipulations of relative goal value (learning vs. performance) and perceived ability (high vs. low) resulted in the predicted differences on measures of task choice, performance during difficulty, and spontaneous verbalizations during difficulty. Particularly striking was the way in which the performance goal-low perceived ability condition produced the same pattern of strategy deterioration, failure attribution, and negative affect found in naturally occurring learned helplessness. Implications for theories of motivation and achievement are discussed.

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Journal of Leadership Studies, 6( 1/2), 49-72.

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Executive Summary Servant Leadership received attention in the popular press, but little...

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Human Performance, 14( 1), 97-124.

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Construct validity of an interview measure of personal initiative (PI) is examined in two parts. The first part assembles the results from 11 samples, showing that PI is meaningfully related to a nomological network of variables, based on environmental supports; knowledge, skills, and cognitive abilities; personality variables and orientations; and behavior and performance, confirming our hypotheses. In the second part, the article presents a new analysis that looks at the influence of motivational parameters (control aspiration, self-efficacy, and change orientation) and cognitive ability on PI within a longitudinal study in East Germany.

Frese M., Kring W., Soose A., & Zempel J . ( 1996).

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Academy of Management Journal, 39( 1), 37-63.

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Personal initiative, a concept akin to entrepreneurship and organizational spontaneity, was compared in East and West Germany. Differences were hypothesized to be the results of occupational socialization, particularly of work control and complexity, rather than of a selection effect. A representative longitudinal study was conducted in the East and a cross-sectional study in the West. Lower initiative at work was found in the East; control and complexity affected changes in initiative. The results speak for socialization and against selection.

Fritz C., Lam C. F., & Spreitzer G. M . ( 2011).

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Although time has been included in theory and theory building as a boundary condition, this paper argues that time can and should play a more important role because it can change the ontological description and meaning of a theoretical construct and of the relationships between constructs. We suggest that theorists explicitly incorporate multiple aspects of temporality into the hat, how, and why building blocks of their theories. First, we describe six important time dimensions that we propose are especially relevant to theory building about people, groups, and organizations: the past, future, and present and the subjective experience of time; time aggregations; duration of steady states and rates of change; incremental versus discontinuous change; frequency, rhythms, and cycles; and spirals and intensity. Second, we put forward a series of time-related questions that can serve as a guide or template for improving theory building through the incorporation of temporality into the what, how, and why of theories. Third, we propose how temporality can be incorporated into theorizing, viewed from a process standpoint. Lastly, we demonstrate how the explicit incorporation of time into theoretical analyses may not only lead to better theorizing and theories but also shed light on ongoing debates in the organizational literature.

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Harju L. K., Schaufeli W. B., & Hakanen J. J . ( 2018).

A multilevel study on servant leadership, job boredom and job crafting

Journal of Managerial Psychology, 33(1), 2-14.

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Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-level effects of team-level servant leadership on job boredom and the mediating role of job crafting. Cross-level moderating effects of team-level servant leadership were also investigated. Design/methodology/approach This longitudinal study employed a multilevel design in a sample of 237 employees, clustered into 47 teams. Servant leadership was aggregated to the team-level to examine the effects of shared perceptions of leadership at T1 on individual-level outcome, namely job boredom, at T2. In addition, mediation analysis was used to test whether team-level servant leadership at T1 can protect followers from job boredom at T2 by fostering job crafting at T2. Cross-level moderating effects of team-level servant leadership at T1 on the relation between job crafting at T2 and job boredom at T2 were also modeled. Findings Job crafting at T2 mediated the cross-level effect of team-level servant leadership at T1 on job boredom at T2. Research limitations/implications The findings suggest that team-level servant leadership predicts less job boredom by boosting job crafting. Originality/value This study is the first to assess the effects of servant leadership on job boredom and the mediating role of job crafting. This paper examines job boredom in a multilevel design, thus extending knowledge on its contextual components.

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Advances in Experimental Social Psychology continues to be one of the most sought after and most often cited series in this field. Containing contributions of major empirical and theoretical interest, this series represents the best and the brightest in new research, theory, and practice in social psychology. *One of the most well-received and credible series in social psychology *Chapters spanning such diverse areas such as goal achievement, interracial relations, and self defense *An excellent resource for researchers, librarians, and academics

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This is a pioneer study to examine the mechanism underlying the relationship between proactive personality and career adaptability. Using a moderated mediation approach, it tested the mediating effect of thriving on this relationship and the moderating effect of proactive personality on the relationship between thriving and career adaptability. Three hundred and sixty-four adult employees participated in the survey study. Results demonstrated that proactive personality first promoted individuals' thriving at work, which in turn led to improved career adaptability. In addition, the effect of thriving on career adaptability was found to be stronger for those individuals with low rather than high proactive personality. In supporting this, the moderated mediation analysis further indicated that low proactive individuals, compared to their high proactive counterparts, relied more on thriving when developing career adaptability resources. These findings have important implications for career research and career counseling practices.

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Over the past 15 years, regulatory focus has gained prominence as a theory of self-regulatory motivation. Building from personality and social psychology research, the nomological network of regulatory focus spans individuals, groups, and organizations. This review provides an appraisal of regulatory focus from a multilevel perspective as it relates to organizational behavior, human resources, strategic management, and entrepreneurship. We begin with a discussion of the theoretical foundations of regulatory focus, including hierarchical motivation and regulatory fit theory. Using these foundations, we summarize empirical research on regulatory focus and provide actionable avenues for future research on regulatory focus, with particular attention paid to how individuals adjust their motivational strategies on the basis of context. We also consider regulatory focus as a collective function of teams to develop our understanding of motivational processes in the workplace.

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We examined the antecedents, consequences, and mediational role of team empowerment using 111 work teams in four organizations. The results indicated that the actions of external leaders, the production/service responsibilities given to teams, team-based human resources policies, and the social structure of teams all worked to enhance employee team empowerment experiences. More empowered teams were also more productive and proactive than less empowered teams and had higher levels of customer service, job satisfaction, and organizational and team commitment.

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In a sample of 961 employees working in 71 restaurants of a moderately sized restaurant chain, we investigated a key tenet of servant leadership theory—that servant leaders guide followers to emulate the leader’s behavior by prioritizing the needs of others above their own. We developed and tested a model contending that servant leaders propagate servant leadership behaviors among followers by creating a serving culture, which directly influences unit (i.e., restaurant/store) performance and enhances individual attitudes and behaviors directly and through the mediating influence of individuals’ identification with the unit. As hypothesized, serving culture was positively related both to restaurant performance and employee job performance, creativity, and customer service behaviors, and negatively related to turnover intentions, both directly and through employee identification with the restaurant. Same-source common method bias was reduced by employing five sources of data: employees, restaurant managers, customers, internal audits by headquarters staff, and external audits by a consulting firm

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Abstract: Servant leadership stresses personal integrity and serving others, including employees, customers, and communities. This article focuses on a servant leadership measure that was created by identifying 9 dimensions. Relevant items were then developed and subjected to factor analysis with a sample of 298 students, resulting in a 7-factor solution. Using an organizational sample of 182 individuals, we verified this 7-factor model with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We further validated our 28-item servant leadership scale by regressing outcomes on the servant leadership dimensions, controlling for transformational leadership and leader member exchange (LMX) in a multi-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis. The results suggest that servant leadership is a multidimensional construct and at the individual level makes a unique contribution beyond transformational leadership and LMX in explaining community citizenship behaviors, in-role performance, and organizational commitment. No between-leader (group-level) differences were found in the outcomes variables.

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Abstract This essay draws from the emerging positive psychology movement and the author's recent articles on the need for and meaning of a positive approach to organizational behavior. Specifically, the argument is made that at this time, the OB field needs a proactive, positive approach emphasizing strengths, rather than continuing in the downward spiral of negativity trying to fix weaknesses. However, to avoid the surface positivity represented by the non-sustainable best-sellers, the case is made for positive organizational behavior (POB) to take advantage of the OB field's strength of being theory and research driven. Additional criteria for this version of POB are to identify unique, state-like psychological capacities that can not only be validly measured, but also be open to development and performance management. Confidence, hope, and resiliency are offered as meeting such POB inclusion criteria. The overall intent of the essay is to generate some positive thinking and excitement for the OB field and ‘hopefully’ stimulate some new theory building, research, and effective application. Copyright 08 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Luthans F., & Youssef-Morgan, C. M . ( 2007).

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Mayer D. M., Bardes M., & Piccolo R. F . ( 2008).

Do servant-leaders help satisfy follower needs? An organizational justice perspective

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17( 2), 180-197.

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While theoretical work has discussed the link between servant-leadership and the satisfaction of follower needs, empirical research has yet to examine this relationship. The present article seeks to fill this void by reporting on a survey study (n = 187) linking servant-leadership to follower need and job satisfaction through the mediating mechanism of organizational justice. Drawing on the multiple needs model of justice, self-determination theory, needs-based theories of job satisfaction, and the servant-leadership literature, we find support for a theoretical model linking servant-leadership to job satisfaction with organizational justice and need satisfaction as mediators of this relationship.

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A servant leader and their stakeholders: When does organizational structure enhance a leader's influence?

The Leadership Quarterly, 27( 6), 896-910.

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Neubert M. J., Kacmar K. M., Carlson D. S., Chonko L. B., & Roberts J. A . ( 2008).

Regulatory focus as a mediator of the influence of initiating structure and servant leadership on employee behavior

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Thriving at work-A diary study

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33( 4), 468-487.

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The present diary study examines how employees thrive at work in response to resources (i.e., positive meaning, relational resources, and knowledge). Thriving is conceptualized as the joint experience of vitality and learning. A total of 121 employees working in the social services sector responded to three daily surveys (in the morning, at lunchtime, and at the end of the work day) for a period of five work days. Intra-individual analyses (hierarchical linear modeling) revealed that on days when employees experience positive meaning at work in the morning, they feel more vital at the end of the work day and have a higher sense of learning. Work behaviors such as task focus and exploration mediated the relation between positive meaning and both components of thriving. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nix G. A., Ryan R. M., Manly J. B., & Deci E. L . ( 1999).

Revitalization through self-regulation: The effects of autonomous and controlled motivation on happiness and vitality

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35( 3), 266-284.

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Relational energy at work: Implications for job engagement and job performance

Journal of Applied Psychology, 101( 1), 35-49.

URL     PMID:26098165      [本文引用: 1]

Energy is emerging as a topic of importance to organizations, yet we have little understanding of how energy can be useful at an interpersonal level toward achieving workplace goals. We present the results of 4 studies aimed at developing, validating, and testing the relational energy construct. In Study 1, we report qualitative insights from 64 individuals about the experience and functioning of relational energy in the workplace. Study 2 draws from 3 employee samples to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a measure of relational energy, differentiating relational energy from related constructs. To test the predictive validity of the new relational energy scale, Study 3 comprises data from employees rating the level of relational energy they experienced during interactions with their leaders in a health services context. Results showed that relational energy employees experienced with their leaders at Time 1 predicted job engagement at Time 2 (1 month later), while controlling for the competing construct of perceived social support. Study 4 shows further differentiation of relational energy from leader ember exchange (LMX), replicates the positive relationship between relational energy (Time 1) and job engagement (Time 2), and shows that relational energy is positively associated with employee job performance (Time 3) through the mechanism of job engagement. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings and highlight areas for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Parolini J., Patterson K., & Winston B . ( 2009).

Distinguishing between transformational and servant leadership

Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 30( 3), 274-291.

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Parris D. L., & Peachey, J. W . ( 2013).

A systematic literature review of servant leadership theory in organizational contexts

Journal of Business Ethics, 113( 3), 377-393.

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A new research area linked to ethics, virtues, and morality is servant leadership. Scholars are currently seeking publication outlets as critics debate whether this new leadership theory is significantly distinct, viable, and valuable for organizational success. The aim of this study was to identify empirical studies that explored servant leadership theory by engaging a sample population in order to assess and synthesize the mechanisms, outcomes, and impacts of servant leadership. Thus, we sought to provide an evidence-informed answer to how does servant leadership work, and how can we apply it? We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR), a methodology adopted from the medical sciences to synthesize research in a systematic, transparent, and reproducible manner. A disciplined screening process resulted in a final sample population of 39 appropriate studies. The synthesis of these empirical studies revealed: (a) there is no consensus on the definition of servant leadership; (b) servant leadership theory is being investigated across a variety of contexts, cultures, and themes; (c) researchers are using multiple measures to explore servant leadership; and (d) servant leadership is a viable leadership theory that helps organizations and improves the well-being of followers. This study contributes to the development of servant leadership theory and practice. In addition, this study contributes to the methodology for conducting SLRs in the field of management, highlighting an effective method for mapping out thematically, and viewing holistically, new research topics. We conclude by offering suggestions for future research.

Paterson T. A., Luthans F., & Jeung W . ( 2014).

Thriving at work: Impact of psychological capital and supervisor support

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35( 3), 434-446.

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Thriving at work is a positive psychological state characterized jointly by learning and vitality. Conventional wisdom and some initial research indicate that such thriving benefits both employees themselves and their organizations. This study specifically tests thriving at work by linking it to a theoretically important personal outcome variable (self-development), refining its relationship with agentic work behaviors (task focus and heedful relating), and proposing and testing two new antecedent variables (psychological capital and supervisor support climate). Using structural equation modeling on a sample of 198 dyads (employees and their supervisors), strong support was found for the theory-driven hypothesized relationships. The results contribute to a better understanding of positive organizational scholarship and behavior in general and specifically to the recently emerging positive construct of employees' thriving at work. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Patterson, K. A . ( 2003).

Servant leadership: A theoretical model

Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(2), 570 (UMI No. 3082719).

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Peterson S. J., Galvin B. M., & Lange D . ( 2012).

CEO servant leadership: Exploring executive characteristics and firm performance

Personnel Psychology, 65( 3), 565-596.

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Abstract This study offers an examination of the relationships between chief executive officer (CEO) servant leadership, the executive characteristics of narcissism, founder status, and organizational identification, and firm performance in a sample of 126 CEOs in technology organizations. Analysis of data gathered over multiple periods revealed a negative relationship between CEO narcissism and servant leadership, and a positive relationship between founder status (i.e., founder or nonfounder) and servant leadership. Furthermore, CEO organizational identification served as a partial mediating mechanism linking narcissism and founder status to servant leadership. In turn, CEO servant leadership predicted subsequent firm performance (measured as return on assets). The results of this study have implications for researchers interested in better understanding the predictors and consequences of servant leadership and for practitioners concerned with combating negative or selfish executive leadership behaviors and employing servant leadership for the organization's benefit.

Ployhart R. E., & Vandenberg, R. J, . ( 2010).

Longitudinal research: The theory, design, and analysis of change

Journal of Management, 36( 1), 94-120.

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ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to present cutting-edge research on issues relating to the theory, design, and analysis of change. Rather than a highly technical review, our goal is to provide management scholars with a relatively nontechnical single source useful for helping them develop and evaluate longitudinal research. Toward that end, we provide readers with “checklists” of issues to consider when theorizing and designing a longitudinal study. We also discuss the trade-offs among analytic strategies (repeated measures general linear model, random coefficient modeling, and latent growth modeling), circumstances in which such methods are most appropriate, and ways to analyze data when one is using each approach.

Porath, C. L, & Erez, A. , ( 2007).

Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness

The Academy of Management Journal, 50( 5), 1181-1197.

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In three experimental studies, we provided an empirical test of how rudeness affects task performance and helpfulness. Different forms of rudeness--rudeness instigated by a direct authority figure, rudeness delivered by a third party, and imagined rudeness--converged to produce the same effects. Results from these studies showed that rudeness reduced performance on routine tasks as well as on creative tasks. We also found that rude behavior decreased helpfulness. We examined the processes that mediated the rudeness-performance relationship and found evidence that disruption to cognitive processes fully mediated that relationship.

Porath C., Gibson C., & Spreitzer G . ( 2008).

Antecedents and consequences of thriving at work: A study of six organizations

Paper presented at the meeting of Presentation at the Academy of Management Meetings, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13.

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Porath C., Spreitzer G., Gibson C., & Garnett F. G . ( 2012).

Thriving at work: Toward its measurement, construct validation, and theoretical refinement

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33( 2), 250-275.

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Thriving is defined as the psychological state in which individuals experience both a sense of vitality and learning. We developed and validated a measure of the construct of thriving at work. Additionally, we theoretically refined the construct by linking it to key outcomes, such as job performance, and by examining its contextual embeddedness. In Study 1, we conducted second-order confirmatory factor analyses in two samples, demonstrating initial support for the two-dimensional structure of thriving. We provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of thriving in relation to theoretically related constructs, such as positive and negative affects, learning and performance goal orientations, proactive personality, and core self-evaluations. In Study 2, across two different samples, we further assessed construct validity by establishing a relationship between thriving and career development initiative, burnout, health, and individual job performance, explaining significant variance beyond traditional attitudinal predictors, such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Finally, in Study 3, we focused on understanding the contextual embeddedness of thriving. We found differences in reports of thriving across two points in time, when substantial changes are occurring in peoples' work lives and across contexts (i.e., work and non-work). Implications for theory and practice, as well as directions for future research, are discussed. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Prem R., Ohly S., Kubicek B., & Korunka C . ( 2017).

Thriving on challenge stressors? Exploring time pressure and learning demands as antecedents of thriving at work

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38( 1), 108-123.

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Building a sustainable model of human energy in organizations: Exploring the critical role of resources

The Academy of Management Annals, 6( 1), 1-60.

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The Behavioral Theory of the Firm has had an enormous influence on organizational theory, strategic management, and neighboring fields of socio-scientific inquiry. Its central concepts have become foundational to any theoretical and empirical work focussed on organizational phenomena. Unlike past reviews of this work, we start by focusing less on reviewing these concepts than we do on discussing the new agenda they created for students of organizations and related subjects. We then explain the theoretical commitments implied by its agenda before we trace and evaluate progress on a set of research issues inspired by its agenda: cognition, performance feedback, politics, attention, learning, and adaptation. Finally, we offer a broader assessment of the theory by looking both at original ideas that have seen less developments and at modern developments in the field that deserve to be incorporated into the Behavioral Theory of the Firm. In the open-system spirit of the Behavioral Theory of the Firm, we conclude that its agenda will continue to benefit from work both by its closest adherents and by work in related research traditions.

Russell R. F., & Stone, A. G . ( 2002).

A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model

Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 23( 3), 145-157.

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ABSTRACT Servant leadership is an increasingly popular concept in the repertoire of leadership styles. While an intuitively attractive concept, it is systematically undefined and not yet supported by empirical research. Reviews the servant leadership literature with the intent to develop a preliminary theoretical framework. Builds a foundation for categorizing and appraising the functional and accompanying attributes of servant leaders. Once categorized, a formative, rational servant leadership attribute model is constructed. The authors call for further development of the model and empirical research to support it.

Schaubroeck J., Lam S. S. K., & Peng A. C . ( 2011).

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How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism

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Schneider S. K., & George, W. M . ( 2011).

Servant leadership versus transformational leadership in voluntary service organizations

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32( 1), 60-77.

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Abstract Purpose – The major purpose of this research is to test the application of two leadership models to a voluntary service club. Servant leadership was predicted to better explain the attitudes and commitment of service organization members than transformational leadership. Both leadership styles were hypothesized to be mediated by empowerment. Design/methodology/approach – At eight clubs of a national voluntary service organization, it was investigated whether transformational and “servant” leadership were positively related to club member satisfaction, commitment and intentions to stay in the club. A sample of 110 participants completed either a printed or an online survey on the leadership style of their current club president and their attitudes toward the club in general. The club presidents completed the leadership surveys. Findings – While perceptions of transformational leadership and servant leadership styles were highly correlated, servant leadership was identified as a better predictor of the voluntary club members' commitment, satisfaction, and intentions to stay. Club members' perceptions of empowerment mediated the relationship between servant leadership and satisfaction, commitment, and intentions to stay in the volunteer service organizations. Practical implications – Leaders of service clubs may wish to adopt a servant leader style. These servant leaders may find it practical to provide empowering experiences to encourage volunteers to perform service club activities effectively. More generally, leaders who provide volunteers with positive, meaningful experiences may be able to maintain their interest in their volunteer positions. Originality/value – It is believed that this is the first paper to compare directly servant versus transformational leadership in a voluntary organization.

Seligman M. E. P., & Csikszentmihaly, M. ( 2000).

Positive psychology: An introduction

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Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations

Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9( 2), 57-64.

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Shamir B., ( 2011).

Leadership takes time: Some implications of (not) taking time seriously in leadership research

The Leadership Quarterly, 22( 2), 307-315.

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Most theories and studies of leadership simply ignore the dimension of time. This paper discusses some of the implications of neglecting time in the field of leadership studies, argues that potentially important leadership phenomena are overlooked due this neglect, and calls for more attention to time-related considerations in theory development and empirical studies of leadership.

Smith B. N., Montagno R. V., & Kuzmenko T. N . ( 2004).

Transformational and servant leadership: Content and contextual comparisons

Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10( 4), 80-91.

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The purpose of the study & to examine conceptual similarities of transformational and servant leadership theories and analyze the contribution both theories make to the understanding of leadership. The paper examines the extent the domains of the two theories overlap, and looks at the motivation of managers to create organizational cultures using one or the other perspectives. It is suggested that servant leadership leads to a spiritual generative culture, while transformational leadership leads to an empowered dynamic culture. The paper also addresses contextual factors which might make one or the other models more appropriate for organizational objectives. It is suggested that high change environments require the empowered dynamic culture of transformational leadership, while more static environments are better served by the servant leadership culture. ********** For the last twenty years, the topic of leadership has become popular among scholars. Considerable research on this topic has appeared in the literature (Avolio & Yammarino, 2002; Dansereau & Yammarino, 1998). However, there is still no comprehensive understanding of what leadership is, nor is there an agreement among different theorists on what good or effective leadership should be. The most popular leadership theories currently being discussed by researchers include charismatic, transactional, transformational and servant leadership. Charismatic leadership is based on extraordinary characteristics of a leader who inspires and directs followers by building their commitment to a shared vision and values (Hellriegel, Slocum, Woodman, 2001; Conger & Kanungo, 1998). Many current theories of leadership attempt to address some components of the charismatic construct. Transactional leadership is a process of social exchange between followers and leaders that involves a number of reward-based transactions. The transactional leader clarifies performance expectations, goals, and a path that will link achievement of the goals to rewards. The leader also monitors followers' performance and takes corrective actions when necessary (Burns, 1978; Graen & Cashman, 1975; Graen & Scandura, 1987; Hollander, 1993; Yukl, 1994; Bass, 1996). Transformational leadership occurs when a leader inspires followers to share a vision, empowering them to achieve the vision, and provides the resource necessary for developing their personal potential Transformational leaders serve as role models, support optimism and mobilize commitment, as well as focus on the followers' needs for growth (Bass, 1996; Bass & Avolio, 1988, 1994a, 1994b). Servant leadership views a leader as a servant of his/her followers. It places the interest of followers before the self-interest of a leader, emphasizes personal development and empowerment of followers. The servant leader is a facilitator for followers to achieve a shared vision (Greenleaf, 1977; Spears, 1998; Spears & Lawrence, 2002; Laub, 1999). The purpose of the present paper is to review major components of both transformational and servant leadership, and to compare these two theories, specifically highlighting theoretical similarities and differences. The authors provide contextual analysis of these theories and suggest that application of the two theories leads to significantly different organizational cultures, which are more or less appropriate to the context in which an organization operates. Charismatic Leadership as a Foundation Transformational and servant leadership are rooted...

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Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant leadership

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This article describes the development and validation process for an instrument to assess goal orientation (an individual disposition toward developing or validating one's ability in achievement settings). In contrast to previous goal orientation instruments, three goal orientation dimensions are identified (learning, avoid, and prove), and the instrument is domain specific to work settings. The results of exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest), confirmatory factor analysis, and nomological network analysis all support the conclusion that the instrument operationalizes the theorized three-dimensional construct.

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Servant leadership is positioned as a new field of research for leadership scholars. This review deals with the historical background of servant leadership, its key characteristics, the available measurement tools, and the results of relevant studies that have been conducted so far. An overall conceptual model of servant leadership is presented. It is argued that leaders who combine their motivation to lead with a need to serve display servant leadership. Personal characteristics and culture are positioned alongside the motivational dimension. Servant leadership is demonstrated by empowering and developing people; by expressing humility, authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, and stewardship; and by providing direction. A high-quality dyadic relationship, trust, and fairness are expected to be the most important mediating processes to encourage self-actualization, positive job attitudes, performance, and a stronger organizational focus on sustainability and corporate social responsibility.

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Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: A cross-level investigation

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Does servant leadership foster creativity and innovation? A multi-level mediation study of identification and prototypicality

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