心理科学进展, 2018, 26(10): 1724-1733 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01724

研究构想

自尊稳定性的认知神经机制

王轶楠,

心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875

Neural mechanisms of self-esteem stability in the perspective of neuroendocrine system-brain-behavior

WANG Yi’ nan,

Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

通讯作者: 王轶楠, E-mail: yynnwang@gmail.com

收稿日期: 2018-01-24   网络出版日期: 2018-10-15

基金资助: *国家自然科学基金青年项目.  31700978

Received: 2018-01-24   Online: 2018-10-15

摘要

自尊稳定性(自尊在短期内波动的幅度)是一种具有重要心理功能的人格特质, 它既不同于自尊水平, 也区别于情境性自尊, 但在理论和测量上却与后两者具有密不可分的联系。然而, 由于目前人们对于自尊稳定性的认知神经机制知之甚少, 所以并不清楚它与自尊水平在生理机制上的关系是什么, 更不了解它会如何调节情境性自尊。鉴于此, 本研究计划将自尊稳定性、自尊水平和情境性自尊置于整合的认知神经加工模型(神经内分泌-脑-行为)之中, 通过融合心理测量、脑成像与应激诱发等多种技术指标, 力争全方位、多角度揭示自尊稳定性的认知神经机制, 及其与自尊水平、情境性自尊间的区别和联系。

关键词: 自尊 ; 外显自尊 ; 自尊稳定性 ; 应激 ; 脑成像

Abstract

There is accumulating evidence suggesting that stability of self-esteem, which refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations in an individual’s self-esteem, has important psychological functions. It can not only influence people’s feelings of anger, depression, and well-being, but also moderate the relationship between level of self-esteem and psychological health. However, knowledge about the neural mechanisms underlying stability of self-esteem is limited. Consequently, it is unclear what the difference or connection is between the stability and level of self-esteem, and how they modulate state self-esteem. To answer these questions, we first developed an integrated model to conceptualize the relationships between stability of self-esteem, level of self-esteem, and state self-esteem. Furthermore, we combined classical psychometry and neuroimaging techniques, stress induction, and physiological and biochemical tests to reveal the neural mechanisms underlying stability of self-esteem comprehensively and systematically. The current study will contribute to the understanding of the neural pathway underlying stability of self-esteem and thereby elucidate the nature of self-esteem, which has important theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: self-esteem ; explicit self-esteem ; stability of self-esteem ; stress ; magnetic resonance imaging

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本文引用格式

王轶楠. (2018). 自尊稳定性的认知神经机制. 心理科学进展, 26(10), 1724-1733

WANG Yi’ nan. (2018). Neural mechanisms of self-esteem stability in the perspective of neuroendocrine system-brain-behavior. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(10), 1724-1733

1 问题提出

“不以物喜, 不以己悲”常被看作是人生修养的至高境界之一。同时, 心理学研究也表明, 自我评价的稳定性(又称自尊稳定性)对于维护心理健康至关重要(Kernis & Goldman, 2003), 一个稳定的自尊不但有助于提升幸福感(Goldman & Kernis, 2002)、抵抗抑郁(Kernis et al., 1998), 还有利于降低愤怒情绪(Kernis, Grannemann, & Barclay, 1989)。在定义上, 自尊稳定性指的是个体整体自尊在短期内波动的幅度。它既不同于自尊水平(个体在通常情况下的自尊高低), 也区别于情境性自尊(个体在某时某刻的自尊水平), 却与后两者具有密不可分的联系。然而, 相比较大量的针对自尊水平和情境性自尊认知神经机制的研究, 有关自尊稳定性的研究还仅仅停留于行为层面, 以至于目前对其生理基础知之甚少, 另外, 也不清楚它与自尊水平在生理机制上的联系和区别, 更不了解自尊稳定性调节情境性自尊的认知神经通路是什么, 从而严重制约了人们对于自尊稳定性作用机制的认识。

为了全面而系统地揭示自尊稳定性的认知神经机制, 及其与自尊水平、情境性自尊间的关系, 本课题计划在已有研究的基础上(Wang, Kong, Huang, & Liu, 2016; Wang, Zhang, et al., 2016; 王轶楠, 2016), 首先提出整合性的理论框架, 随后, 融合传统的心理学研究方法于脑成像与神经内分泌检测, 旨在全面揭示与自尊稳定性相关的大脑与神经内分泌特征, 探明自尊稳定性与自尊水平在认知神经层面的联系和区别, 最后, 寻找到自尊稳定性联合自尊水平调节情境性自尊的认知神经通路, 进而揭示三者间交互作用的认知神经机制。

2 研究现状

2.1 自尊稳定性:一种具有重要心理功能的人格特质

自尊(self-esteem)是指个体对于自我的总体评价(Rosenberg, 1965), 它代表了自我概念中涉及情绪性和评价性的成分(Leary & Baumeister, 2000)。根据“社交计量器理论”, 人类对于高自尊的渴望来自于其在本质上拥有人际归属的需要(Baumeister & Leary, 1995)。因为从进化的角度讲, 只有稳定的、高情感联结的人际关系才有利于人类的生存和繁衍, 所以, 为了监控个体人际关系的质量, 自尊应运而生, 并被形象地比作“社交计量器” (张林, 曹华英, 2011)。具体来说, 自尊的高低被认为反映了个体被他人接纳(或排斥)的程度, 可分为两个监控系统:长期的和即时的, 分别对应两类自尊——特质性自尊和情境性自尊。特质性自尊反映的是个体长期以来被他人接纳(或排斥)的程度, 而情境性自尊体现的则是个体在特定情境中被他人接纳(或排斥)的程度。然而, 也有越来越多的研究者强调:“自尊不仅应有高低之分, 自尊稳定性在维护人健康心理机能中的作用也很重要。个体需要一个合理稳定的自我评价, 它是个体最基本的参考框架。没有清晰稳定自我评价的个体, 其自我实际上是不确定的(Rosenberg, 1979)。”

所谓自尊稳定性(stability of self-esteem)指的是个体整体自尊在短期内波动的幅度, 而非较长时间内缓慢的波动, 它反映的是立即的、基于情境性自尊的变化, 波动越大, 自尊越不稳定(Kernis, Grannemann, et al., 1989; 张向葵, 田录梅, 2006)。1989年, Kernis团队首次清晰地界定了自尊稳定性的定义, 提出采用自然情境法针对自尊稳定性加以测量, 并揭示出自尊稳定性和自尊水平在预测愤怒和对抗情绪中的交互作用机制, 时至今日, 已有大量研究证实, 自尊稳定性作为一种人格特征具有重要的心理功能。

自尊稳定性低的个体会对外部事件拥有过高的自我卷入, 会非常注意外部事件中潜在的、涉及自我评价的部分, 同时倾向于将模糊的甚至与自尊无关的事件理解为和自尊有关, 并且过分泛化地将自己整体的自我价值建立在具体的结果或事件之上。因此, 他们经常会表现出:在面对生活琐事时体验到更多的抑郁 (Kernis et al., 1998; Roberts & Monroe, 1992); 更容易受到具体的负面事件或失败的影响(Greenier et al., 1999); 体验到更多的愤怒和对抗性情绪(Kernis, Brockner, et al., 1989)。相反, 那些稳定的高自尊者拥有积极的、架构良好的自我价值感, 他们的自主性和对环境的掌控感更强, 很少受到具体的评价性事件的影响, 对威胁性信息较少做出防御性和破坏性的反应, 倾向于更少体验到愤怒情绪, 更少感觉到抑郁(Kernis, Grannemann, & Frankel, 1989; Kernis, Grannemann, & Mathis, 1991)。

在自尊稳定性的测量上, 既可采用问卷法, 也可采用自然情境法。已有的自尊稳定性量表主要有两个, 分别由Rosenberg (1979) (包括5个题目, 如“我对自己的看法经常发生变化”)和Chabrol, Rousseau和Callahan (2006) (包括4个题目, 如“有时我感到自己一无是处, 有时我又感到自己很有价值”)编制。但相比问卷法, 自然情境法最为研究者们所常用, 具体程序是要求被试在数天内的多个固定时间点填答情境性自尊量表, 报告他们在当时当刻的自尊水平, 最后, 研究者通过计算多次重复测量的情境性自尊得分间的标准差来衡量个体自尊稳定性的高低(Kernis, 2005)。

可见, 无论是在定义还是测量上, 自尊稳定性既不同于自尊水平, 也区别于情境性自尊, 但三者间又具有密不可分的联系。自尊水平与自尊稳定性同属于特质性自尊之列, Kernis一直主张两者无关, 但也有一些研究显示两者间存在较低的正相关(Zeiglerhill, Britton, Holden, & Besser, 2015), 事实上它们分别反映了特质性自尊的不同属性——自尊水平反映的是个体对于自我整体评价的高低, 而自尊稳定性反映的是个体自我评价随时间或情境波动的幅度。之前有研究在高自尊个体身上发现了一系列矛盾的现象, 一方面他们的幸福感更高, 在失败面前坚持的时间更长, 但另一方面他们的人际关系不佳, 在受到人际威胁时, 会表现出更多的愤怒和攻击性行为, 其中一个重要的调节变量就是自尊稳定性, 换句话说, 高水平—低稳定性自尊会导致更多的抑郁和敌对行为(Kernis, 2003; 2005)。总之, 自尊水平和自尊稳定性既有区别也有联系, 但是由于人们对于自尊稳定性的生理机制知之甚少, 所以并不清楚自尊稳定性和自尊水平之间关系的内在机制究竟为何。

自尊稳定性也不同于情境性自尊, 前者指的是整体自尊在多次测量中沿某一基线水平上下浮动的变化幅度, 而后者测量的则是个体在某时某刻的自尊水平。有研究者认为, 当一个人对他人的接纳拥有高水平的、稳定的期待时, 他们的情境性自尊会更不容易受到他人排斥与消极反馈的影响(Leary & Baumeister, 2000), 因而高水平、高稳定性的特质性自尊很有可能会缓冲社会排斥对情境性自尊的降低作用。

个体在自尊稳定性上的个体差异究竟从何而来, 目前尚无定论。有限的几个研究结果表明, 不良的父母教养方式会导致个体自尊稳定性降低(Foster, Kernis, & Goldman, 2007)。同时, 在生理层面, 不良的父母教养方式又会导致个体应激功能失调, 从而提示研究者, 失调的应激功能有可能是导致个体自尊稳定性降低的生理机制之一。Bowlby (1969)认为, 如果父母在孩子童年时对他们的要求过高, 而一旦孩子没有达到他们的要求, 父母就采用诸如拒绝、忽略和惩罚等方式让孩子感到挫折, 那么, 当孩子长大后就会形成不安全的依恋风格, 他们的自尊也会因为对于外部负面评价的过度敏感, 表现出稳定性不足。“依恋风格”是指由天生的依恋行为系统与特殊的早期依恋经验相互作用产生的社会行为模式, 具体涉及一系列期望, 需要和情绪调节策略(Shaver & Mikulincer, 2002)。不安全的成人依恋风格(如焦虑型依恋)不仅与较低的自尊稳定性相关(Foster et al., 2007), 还被发现和较低的皮质醇输出(Kidd, Hamer, & Steptoe, 2011)与应激功能失调 (Pietromonaco & Powers, 2015)相关。

应激(stress)是指当有机体受到真实或潜在威胁刺激时所表现出来的状态, 涉及神经内分泌、心理和行为等多种反应(如段海军等, 2017)。按照应激源的不同, 应激可分为慢性应激与急性应激两种, 当个体处于应激状态时, 他们唾液中的皮质醇或血浆中的糖皮质激素等分泌的水平都会增加(杨娟, 侯燕, 张庆林, 2011)。诸如拒绝或忽略等不良的父母教养方式对于儿童来说属于典型的慢性社会心理应激, 它会通过持续作用于个体的大脑与应激系统, 让个体的应激功能逐渐失调; 在行为层面, 不良的父母教养方式又会通过塑造个体的社会行为模式, 让他(或她)们在成年后对社会排斥变得尤为敏感, 其自尊总是需要依赖于外部的认可才得以保持, 从而导致自尊稳定性降低。因此, 过低的自尊稳定性极有可能与不良的应激反应特征相联系。

总之, 自尊稳定性在心理健康中的作用不容忽视。然而, 目前的自尊稳定性研究还多停留于行为层面, 对于自尊稳定性的生理基础知之甚少, 严重制约了人们对于自尊稳定性的本质与作用机制的认识。通过系统回顾已有关于自尊大脑机制的研究(详见王轶楠, 2016), 将会有助于我们准确把握当前自尊领域研究的趋势与方向, 从而为全面而系统地揭示自尊稳定性的大脑机制夯实基础。

2.2 自尊水平的认知神经机制

针对自尊水平大脑机制的探讨, 大体可分为结构与功能两个层面, 近期还表现出与神经内分泌研究相整合的趋势。首先, 多个研究发现自尊水平的神经机制主要与海马(hippocampus)有关(Kubarych et al., 2012; O’Connor, Rutter, Beckett, Keaveney, & Kreppner, 2000; Pruessner et al., 2005)。如本研究者前期完成的大样本脑成像研究结果显示, 海马的灰质体积与自尊水平显著正相关, 而全脑分析进一步确认, 海马是全脑中与自尊水平相关程度最高的区域, 从而揭示了海马与自尊水平间关系的特异性(Wang, Kong, et al., 2016)。

自尊水平与海马相关的原因可能在于两者都会受到慢性应激的影响(Pruessner et al., 2005; Zilioli et al., 2016)。研究者们普遍认为, 因为海马富含对糖皮质激素反应敏感的受体, 所以会在持续应激的作用下体积萎缩。更进一步, 有学者推测, 海马结构与自尊水平间的关联可以透过海马负责的主要功能(如记忆情境化)获得解释(Squire, 1992), 具体来说, 如果个体无法回忆起某个负性事件(如失败或社会排斥)的具体情境特征, 那么, 便会产生一种过分泛化的、失败的(或受排斥的)自我感知, 最终, 导致自尊水平降低(Pruessner et al., 2005)。

除了在结构上与海马体积相关之外, 自尊水平还被发现与特定脑区的自发神经活动有关。比如, Pan等(2016)的研究通过揭示默认网络(default mode network, DMN)以及社会认知网络的核心脑区均与自尊水平相联系, 提示自尊的保持涉及自我参照加工, 自传体记忆, 及社会认知等多个过程, 也印证了之前采用自我参照加工范式(Self- Referential Processing, SRP)寻找到的自尊水平神经机制的可靠性。以往的脑成像研究结果揭示, 内侧前额叶皮质(medial prefrontal cortex, mPFC), 扣带回(cingulated cortex), 新皮质楔前叶(precuneus)和颞顶叶(temporoparietal cortex)都会参与SRP的加工(Ochsner et al., 2005; Qin & Northoff, 2011)。

总之, 有关自尊水平神经机制的研究结果揭示, 自尊水平的加工机制涉及情绪性和评价性两种相互独立成分, 反映了个体将积极社会评价与自我相联系的程度。在结构层面, 自尊水平与海马体积显著相关, 并且, 应激有可能是将两者联系在一起的核心要素; 在功能层面, 自尊水平的加工机制涉及mPFC和ACC等多个脑区。但是, 在这些涉及自尊水平的大脑和神经内分泌机制之中, 究竟哪些是与自尊稳定性共享, 又有哪些是特异于自尊水平的, 目前还尚不清楚, 通过解答这些问题, 将会有助于揭示自尊水平和自尊稳定性间关系的本质。

2.3 情境性自尊的认知神经机制

自尊的“社交计量器理论” (Leary & Baumeister, 2000)认为, 个体会将被他人接受或排斥的知觉转换为情境性自尊。因此, 研究者们通常采用引发应激的社会排斥任务探讨情境性自尊的神经机制。Eisenberger 等(2011)的研究发现, 收到负面反馈的被试的情境性自尊更低, 并且, 他们大脑中dACC和前脑岛(anterior insula)部位的激活更强, 从而揭示社会排斥会通过影响dACC和前脑岛的活动改变个体的情境性自尊。

最新的研究趋势尝试将应激诱发与脑成像研究相结合。例如, 研究者们发现, 当被试在完成特里尔社会应激测试(Trier Social Stress Test, TSST)时, 他们血液中涉及炎症活动(inflammatory activity)的两项指标(肿瘤坏死因子α (sTNFαRII)和白细胞间介素-6 (IL-6)的可溶性受体)显著提升, 同时, 白细胞介素-6的可溶性受体的增加与dACC和前脑岛(参与社会排斥反应的脑区)的活动增强有关(Slavich, Way, Eisenberger, & Taylor, 2010), 从而说明社会排斥对于个体来说属于典型的应激事件, 它会通过同时影响个体的应激水平以及dACC和前脑岛的活动, 导致个体情境性自尊降低、社会痛苦增加。

更为重要的是, 研究者们还发现自尊水平能够改变个体在社会排斥任务中的大脑活动与神经内分泌反应。如有研究发现, 在“网络掷球”任务中, 相比自尊高的被试, 那些自尊水平低的被试体验到的社会痛苦更多, dACC和mPFC的激活更强(Onoda et al., 2010)。此外, 还有研究从应激的角度揭示, 虽然人们在受到拒绝后社会痛苦会随着皮质醇水平的提升而增加(Blackhart, Eckel, & Tice, 2007), 但是, 相比较高自尊的个体, 低自尊的个体在受到社会排斥后感受到的社会痛苦更强烈, 且皮质醇水平更高(Ford & Collins, 2010)。虽然在这些社会排斥研究中, 研究者们并没有直接考察个体情境性自尊的变化, 但鉴于社会排斥是诱发个体情境性自尊降低的典型范式, 社会痛苦的升高通常伴随着情境性自尊的降低, dACC又是共同参与两者加工的脑区, 因而提示, 自尊水平可以通过影响相应脑区的活动与神经内分泌反应调节情境性自尊的变化。

总之, 已有研究结果显示, 社会排斥会通过影响ACC、mPFC和前脑岛的活动导致个体的情境性自尊降低, 还会引起急性应激反应, 导致皮质醇水平升高; 更为重要的是, 自尊水平会通过调节dACC和前脑岛的活动强度以及皮质醇分泌, 影响个体感知到的社会痛苦。但是, 在已有的研究中, 研究者们都忽视了自尊稳定性对情境性自尊可能的调节作用。理论上讲, 如果被试的自尊稳定性高, 那么他们的情境性自尊会更少受到威胁性社会情境的影响。但究竟自尊稳定性是否会和自尊水平一样调节急性应激中情境性自尊的变化、其间的神经通路又究竟为何, 目前还尚不清楚。

3 理论构建

自尊稳定性是一种具有重要心理功能的人格特质, 然而, 相比大量的针对自尊水平和情境性自尊生理机制的研究, 人们对于自尊稳定性的生理机制却知之甚少。在理论和测量上, 自尊稳定性既不同于自尊水平, 也区别于情境性自尊, 却与后两者具有密不可分的联系。不过, 人们并不清楚自尊稳定性与自尊水平在神经机制上的联系和区别是什么, 更不了解自尊稳定性是否以及如何调节情境性自尊。为了填补这些研究空白, 本研究拟揭示与自尊稳定性相关的大脑与神经内分泌特征, 并通过辨清自尊稳定性与自尊水平在认知神经层面的联系和区别加深人们对特异于自尊稳定性的生理机制的认识, 最后, 通过寻找自尊稳定性联合自尊水平调节情境性自尊的认知神经通路揭示自尊稳定性内在的作用机制和原理。

在前期研究以及预实验结果基础上(Wang, Kong, et al., 2016; Wang, Zhang, et al., 2016), 遵循自尊研究日益整合的趋势, 本研究尝试将自尊水平、自尊稳定性和情境性自尊置于整合的认知神经加工模型(神经内分泌—脑—行为)之中(如图1)。并基于该模型, 针对自尊稳定性的认知神经机制, 及其与自尊水平和情境性自尊间的关系提出以下三点假设:

图1

图1   应激视角下自尊水平, 自尊稳定性和情境性自尊间的关系模型


3.1 自尊稳定性的形成主要受慢性应激系统的影响

由于早期不良的父母教养方式(如拒绝或惩罚)既会导致个体的自尊稳定性降低(Foster et al., 2007), 也会让他们更多处于失调的应激状态(Zilioli et al., 2016), 所以, 我们推测较低的自尊稳定性会与异常的皮质醇觉醒反应(cortisol-awakening response, CAR)相关。如果自尊水平和自尊稳定性所反映的行为特征(平均数对标准差)与应激反应测量中的指标类型(皮质醇总量对皮质醇节律)分别相关, 那么说明两者间的差异部分来自于它们分别与觉醒皮质醇反应的不同属性相对应。

3.2 自尊稳定性与自尊水平的大脑机制既有共享也有分离

首先, 从个体对社会刺激的加工过程来看, 社会应激源通常会首先通过感觉系统对个体施加影响, 接着将信息传递给负责情绪或评价加工的脑区——杏仁核, 从而赋予外部刺激以动机或情绪方面的意义(Charney, Grillon, & Bremner, 1998)。当个体更容易注意到刺激中的负面信息, 并将其与自我评价相联系时, 他们的自我评价会更倾向随着刺激的属性而产生改变(Berntson, Bechara, Damasio, Tranel, & Cacioppo, 2007), 从而表现出高度的不稳定性, 而过低的自尊稳定性又会进一步导致愤怒情绪和抑郁水平升高(Kernis, Grannemann, et al., 1989; Kernis et al., 1991), 由于杏仁核被认为是参与愤怒和抑郁情绪加工的核心脑区(Carré, Fisher, Manuck, & Hariri, 2012; Holmes et al., 2012), 所以, 我们推测, 自尊稳定性的大脑机制可能主要涉及杏仁核这个脑区, 以区别于主要参与自尊水平加工的脑区(如海马)。此外, 因为过多的自我卷入会导致自尊稳定性降低, 所以, 我们还预测参与自我加工的脑区, 如mPFC和后扣带回(posterior cingulate cortex, PCC; Northoff et al., 2006; Denny, Kober, Wager, & Ochsner, 2012), 也有可能与自尊稳定性相关, 而除杏仁核、mPFC和PCC之外是否还有其他的脑区与自尊稳定性相关还有待本研究进一步去探明。

其次, 因为类似于自尊水平、自尊稳定性在行为上的差异(平均数对标准差)在大脑活动或应激特征上也有体现(平均活动强度对活动强度变异), 所以, 自尊水平和自尊稳定性间的区别可能源自它们分别涉及大脑或神经内分泌活动的不同属性。此外, 考虑到自尊稳定性与自尊水平之间也存在一定程度的低相关, 而我们的预实验也发现两者皆与海马旁回的大脑自发神经活动相关, 所以, 海马旁回有可能是体现自尊水平与自尊稳定性间共享机制的核心脑区之一。最后, 由于自尊水平还被发现与mPFC的活动相关, 如果自尊稳定性的加工同样被发现涉及mPFC, 那么, mPFC会是另外一个连接自尊水平和稳定性共同变异的脑区。

3.3 自尊稳定性会联合自尊水平通过调节神经内分泌和大脑活动影响情境性自尊

有研究证实, 自尊水平会调节个体在急性应激状态下的大脑活动(Somerville, Kelley, & Heatherton, 2010), 并且, 很多与自尊稳定性密切相关的变量, 如依恋类型(DeWall et al., 2012)和拒绝敏感性(Burklund, Eisenberger, & Lieberman, 2007)也被发现会影响个体在急性应激任务中的反应; 更为重要的是, 自尊水平还被发现会联合自尊稳定性调节个体在收到负面反馈之后的生理反应(Seery, Blascovich, Weisbuch, & Vick, 2004)。理论上讲, 过低的自尊稳定性和自尊水平会让个体的情境性自尊更容易受到负面反馈或急性应激的影响而降低, 所以, 我们推测在急性应激状态下, 自尊稳定性会联合自尊水平, 通过影响特定脑区的活动(如ACC或mPFC)调节情境性自尊的变化。

总之, 为了全面而系统地揭示自尊稳定性的生理基础与作用机制, 本课题计划从“神经内分泌—脑—行为”的多视角, 将自尊水平、自尊稳定性、情境性自尊置于整合的认知神经加工模型之中。主要观点认为, 自尊稳定性与自尊水平同属于特质性自尊之列, 两者皆受慢性应激系统调控, 并在大脑机制上既有区别也有联系, 同时, 两者会联合起来通过影响个体在急性应激情境中的大脑活动或神经内分泌反应调节情境性自尊的变化。

4 研究构想

4.1 总体研究设计

基于本研究提出的“应激视角下自尊水平, 自尊稳定性和情境性自尊间关系的认知神经加工模型”, 我们提出三点研究假设:(1)自尊稳定性的形成主要受慢性应激系统的影响; (2)自尊稳定性与自尊水平的大脑机制既有区别也有联系; (3)自尊稳定性会联合自尊水平通过调节个体的应激水平和大脑活动影响其情境性自尊。为了检验以上假设, 我们计划整合脑成像, 心理测验, 行为实验与应激诱发等多种研究技术, 通过3个纵深推进的研究, 全面而系统地揭示自尊稳定性的神经特性与作用机制, 具体研究框架如图2所示。

图2

图2   揭示自尊稳定性认知神经机制的总体研究框架图


研究1的目的是揭示与自尊稳定性相关的大脑与神经内分泌特征, 并探明自尊稳定性和自尊水平在大脑与神经内分泌机制上的共享和分离:具体计划采用个体差异法, 整合多模态脑成像和神经内分泌技术, 首先寻找到与自尊稳定性相关的大脑结构与功能特征, 在广度上拓宽人们对于自尊稳定性大脑机制的认识; 随后, 揭示自尊稳定性和自尊水平在大脑与神经内分泌机制上的共享和分离, 从而寻找到特异于自尊稳定性的神经机制。

研究2和研究3的目的是寻找自尊稳定性联合自尊水平调节情境性自尊的认知神经通路:研究2基于被试在自然情境中的自发脑神经活动, 采用混合设计的重复测量范式, 初步揭示自尊稳定性、自尊水平和情境性自尊在大脑机制层面的关系; 在研究2相关研究结果的基础上, 研究3进一步采用适用于脑成像研究的“蒙特利尔应激”范式(Dedovic et al., 2005), 创设急性社会心理应激情境, 诱发个体的情境性自尊、应激水平和大脑活动同步发生改变, 最终, 寻找到自尊稳定性联合自尊水平影响情境性自尊的大脑与神经内分泌机制。

4.2 研究1:自尊稳定性和自尊水平间的共享和分离:来自脑成像与神经内分泌的双重证据

4.2.1 研究目的

整合多模态脑成像技术和神经内分泌测量,全面揭示与自尊稳定性相关的大脑结构、功能与神经内分泌特征, 并初步探明自尊稳定性和自尊水平在大脑和神经内分泌机制上的共享和分离。

4.2.2 研究程序

被试来到实验室后, 首先填写心理学量表(如自尊量表, 社会赞许性量表, 压力量表等); 随后对被试的大脑结构像以及静息功能像进行扫描, 时间总长约为20分钟。为了测量被试的自尊稳定性以及觉醒皮质醇节律, 要求被试在实验室研究之后3天里的4个固定时间(自然晨醒后立即, 晨醒后30分钟, 午饭前, 以及睡觉前)自行收集唾液样本, 同时测量情境性自尊和主观应激水平。

4.2.3 数据分析

第1步, 采用多重回归分析, 针对个体的自尊稳定性、自尊水平得分与大脑结构和功能特征间的关系进行分析, 在回归掉混淆变量的基础上, 既寻找到分别与自尊水平和自尊稳定性相关的脑区, 也寻找到同时与两者相关的脑区, 并在预实验结果上, 针对杏仁核, 旁海马等区域的自发神经活动进行感兴趣区(Region of interest, ROI)分析; 第2步, 我们将借鉴滑动窗口方法, 重点以低频振幅(ALFF)为例探讨自尊水平和自尊稳定性相分离的潜在大脑机制:是否自尊水平与自尊稳定性分别与大脑自发神经活动强度的不同特征(平均强度对变异)相关; 第3步, 采用多重回归分析检验是否自尊水平和自尊稳定性分别与个体觉醒皮质醇反应的不同属性(皮质醇总量对皮质醇节律)相关, 最后, 采用中介效应分析(Preacher & Hayes, 2004), 检验是否觉醒皮质醇反应会通过作用于不同的脑区的结构(或活动)分别影响个体的自尊稳定性或自尊水平。

4.3 研究2:自然情境下自尊稳定性、自尊水平和情境性自尊间的关系

4.3.1 研究目的

在自然情境下采用混合设计重复测量范式, 一方面验证研究1结果的可靠性, 另一方面初步揭示自尊稳定性与自尊水平调节情境性自尊的认知神经通路。

4.3.2 研究设计

2(自尊水平:高、低) × 2(自尊稳定性:高、低) × 3(被试内:重复测量)混合实验设计。

4.3.3 研究程序

在脑成像扫描前一周, 采用经典范式针对被试的自尊水平、自尊稳定性及控制变量加以测量。在脑成像扫描当天的3个固定时间点(如早晨8:00, 中午11:00, 晚上14:00)针对被试的大脑静息功能像、情境性自尊、唾液皮质醇水平和主观应激进行测量。

4.3.4 数据分析

第1步, 检验研究1结果的可重复性:采用多重回归分析, 在回归掉混淆变量的基础上, 检验是否多次测量的大脑静息功能、唾液皮质醇的不同属性(如平均值、变异性)分别与自尊水平和自尊稳定性相关; 第2步, 在个体和组水平上检验是否多次测量的大脑静息活动模式间的相似性与个体的自尊稳定性相关。其中, 重点以ALFF为例, 通过针对研究1中找到的与自尊水平相关的多个ROI进行全脑相关分析, 得出多个“自尊水平-ROI”在每次测量中的相关矩阵, 随后, 采用一般线性模型(general linear model, GLM)针对三个相关矩阵间的模式相似性进行分析, 假设认为, 被试的自尊稳定性越高, 三次“自尊水平-ROI”相关矩阵间的模式相似性越高; 第3步, 以自尊稳定性×自尊水平为自变量, 以两次大脑静息神经活动指标上的差作为因变量(T2-T1和T3-T2)进行全脑分析, 从寻找到和自尊稳定性×自尊水平相关的脑区; 最后, 采用中介效应分析, 检验是否自尊稳定性x自尊水平会通过调节影响脑区的活动的变化调节情境性自尊的变化(T2-T1和T3-T2)。

4.4 研究3:急性应激下自尊稳定性、自尊水平与情境性自尊间的关系

4.4.1 研究目的

在研究2揭示的相关性研究结果的基础上, 研究3进一步通过实验操控让被试的情境性自尊, 大脑活动和皮质醇水平同步发生变化, 进而寻找到自尊稳定性联合自尊水平调节情境性自尊的认知神经通路。

4.4.2 研究设计

采用2(自尊水平:高、低) × 2(自尊稳定性:高、低) × 2(应激状态:控制任务、应激任务)的混合实验设计, 采用适合脑成像研究的“蒙特利尔应激”实验范式(Dedovic et al., 2005), 诱导被试的情境性自尊、大脑活动与神经内分泌反应同步产生变化, 进而寻找自尊稳定性联合自尊水平调节情境性自尊变化的认知神经通路。

4.4.3 研究程序

在被试来到实验室之后, 首先安排其在房间A中休息10分钟, 同时, 填写情境性自尊量表和主观应激量表, 提取第1个唾液样本(基线阶段); 随后, 将被试带到磁共振扫描间, 在磁共振扫描仪内完成10分钟心算任务(任务难度逐渐增加, 直到被试无法解决为止), 期间不给予被试任何的反馈和提示, 随后填答情境性自尊量表和主观应激量表, 提取第2个唾液样本(控制条件); 让被试接着完成与控制条件同等难度的心算任务, 同时给予被试社会压力(要求被试尽快做出反应)和消极反馈(告之其心算成绩远远落后于大学生的平均水平)。待任务结束后, 让被试再次填答情境性自尊量表和主观应激量表, 提取第3个唾液样本(任务条件); 扫描被试的大脑静息功能像10分钟, 结束时, 指导被试填答情境性自尊量表和主观应激量表, 提取第4个唾液样本(恢复阶段); 所有扫描任务结束后, 将被试带回房间A休息, 期间每隔10分钟让被试填答情境性自尊量表和主观应激量表, 收集第5、6、7次唾液样本(恢复阶段)。为了避免唾液皮质醇自身分泌节律的影响, 所有的实验都安排在14:00~17:00进行。

4.4.4 数据分析

操控检验:采用重复测量的方差分析检验被试在控制条件和实验条件的主观报告(情境性自尊和压力等)与客观测量(血压, 心率和皮质醇水平)间是否存在显著性差异, 以确保本实验范式能够成功地诱导出被试的急性心理应激反应, 情境性自尊产生显著变化;

数据分析与研究假设:第1步, 采用方差分析, 检验是否自尊稳定性可以调节自尊水平与情境性自尊(或皮质醇水平)变化间的关系, 研究假设认为, “高水平—低稳定性组”情境性自尊降低(或皮质醇升高)的程度显著高于“高水平—高稳定性组”, 而在“低水平—低稳定性组”和“低水平—高稳定性组”的情境性自尊降低(或皮质醇升高)的程度间不存在显著性差异, 并且, 组间差异的差也差异显著; 第2步, 采用全脑分析, 寻找到和自尊水平×自尊稳定性相关的激活变化的脑区; 第3步, 采用中介效应分析, 检验是否自尊水平×自尊稳定性会通过第2步分析找到的脑区的激活变化导致个体情境性自尊的改变。

总之, 本课题拟从大脑特性与神经内分泌两个层面, 全面而系统地考察自尊稳定性的神经基础以及作用机制, 预期将取得以下三个方面的研究成果:寻找到与自尊稳定性相关的大脑结构、静息功能与功能性网络连接特征; 揭示自尊稳定性和自尊水平在神经生理机制上的共享与分离; 探明自尊稳定性联合自尊水平调节情境性自尊认知神经通路。

最终, 本研究通过揭示自尊稳定性的生理基础与作用机制, 探明自尊水平、自尊稳定性和情境性自尊三者间的关系, 将会加深人们对于自尊本质的了解, 并为寻找提升心理健康、降低抑郁和愤怒的方法提供理论模型和实证依据, 因此, 具有重要的理论价值和实践意义。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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URL     PMID:12467518      [本文引用: 1]

Shaver PR, Mikulincer M.

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Self-esteem modulates medial prefrontal cortical responses to evaluative social feedback

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URL     PMID:2978246      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Self-esteem is a facet of personality that influences perception of social standing and modulates the salience of social acceptance and rejection. As such, self-esteem may bias neural responses to positive and negative social feedback across individuals. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants (n = 42) engaged in a social evaluation task whereby they ostensibly received feedback from peers indicating they were liked or disliked. Results demonstrated that individuals with low self-esteem believed that they received less positive feedback from others and showed enhanced activity to positive versus negative social feedback in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (vACC/mPFC). By contrast, vACC/mPFC activity was insensitive to positive versus negative feedback in individuals with high self-esteem, and these individuals consistently overestimated the amount of positive feedback received from peers. Voxelwise analyses supported these findings; lower self-esteem predicted a linear increase in vACC/mPFC response to positive versus negative social feedback. Taken together, the present findings propose a functional role for the vACC/mPFC in representing the salience of social feedback and shaping perceptions of relative social standing.

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Neural correlates of biased responses: The negative method effect in the rosenberg self-esteem scale is associated with right amygdala volume

Journal Personality, 84( 5), 623-632.

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Wang Y. N., Zhang L., Kong X. Z., Hong Y. Y., Cheon B., & Liu J . ( 2016).

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How will I love you? Self-esteem instability moderates the association between self-esteem level and romantic love styles

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Zilioli S., Slatcher R. B., Chi P. L., Li X. M., Zhao J. F., & Zhao G. X . ( 2016).

Childhood adversity, self-esteem, and diurnal cortisol profiles across the life span

Psychological Science, 27( 9), 1249-1265.

URL     PMID:27481911      [本文引用: 2]

Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span.

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