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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 November 2006, Volume 14 Issue 06 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Research on Unconscious Processing of Learning and Memory
    Yang Zhiliang
    2006, 14 (06):  801-803. 
    Abstract ( 2498 )   PDF (774KB) ( 4160 )  
    Implicit learning and implicit memory represented the unconscious processing of learning and memory of human being. In the past forty years, Researches on implicit learning and memory have developed in several aspects, such as learning materials, research methods, and theoretical points. These researches did not only indicate psychological mechanism of learning and memory, but also broadened the fields of cognitive psychology, which referred to types of memory, unconscious process, artificial neural network and so on
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    Implicit Learning in the Last 40 Years

    Zhu Lei;Yang Zhiliang

    2006, 14 (06):  804-809. 
    Abstract ( 2236 )   PDF (773KB) ( 3051 )  
    The research on implicit learning has experienced a history for 40 years. This article will outline the development of implicit learning from three aspects: simultaneous and sequential stimulus; objective and subjective measures; abstract, specific knowledge and familiarity
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    The Tendency of Integration of Implicit Memory and Implicit Learning
    Li  Lin
    2006, 14 (06):  810-816. 
    Abstract ( 1551 )   PDF (777KB) ( 2650 )  
    Implicit memory and implicit learning, which opened the door into unconsciousness of human being, represented the unconscious mechanism of memory and learning. With researches going deeper and deeper, the situation that implicit memory and implicit learning have stayed at their own sides for many years from birth to development is being changed. The present paper discussed the necessity and method of integration through their definitions, empirical similarity, as well as the theories
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    Relationship between Implicit Sequence Learning and Attention
    Fu Qiufang;Fu Xiaolan
    2006, 14 (06):  817-821. 
    Abstract ( 1013 )   PDF (769KB) ( 2053 )  
    The relationship between implicit sequence learning and attention is one of the most ongoing questions in the study of implicit learning. The dual attention-mechanism hypothesis, the suppression hypothesis and the explicit intrusion hypothesis interpreted the relationship differently. All the three accounts have been debated heavily in that each has its supporting evidences under being questioned. In order to combine the three accounts at some extent, we further advance the dynamic-need hypothesis, which assumes that the task of implicit sequence learning has a dynamic need of attention and the more explicit learning in the task the more attention it needs
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    Cognitive Neuroscience Research on the Dissociation between Implicit and Explicit Memory

    Meng Yingfang;Guo Chunyan

    2006, 14 (06):  822-828. 
    Abstract ( 2457 )   PDF (813KB) ( 1833 )  
    Implicit memory and explicit memory are two distinct memory systems underlying different neural substrates. This article reviews the relevant studies of dissociation between implicit and explicit memory from two aspects: neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. The neuropsychological evidence indexes that implicit memory is dissociated from explicit memory in neuroanatomy. Using the haemodynamic techniques of fMRI and PET, the most common finding is a decreased haemodynamic response in occipitotemporal cortex and left inferior prefrontal region for implicit memory, and a increased haemodynamic response in medial temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex and posterior medial parietal cortex for explicit memory. ERP studies have also found that there is different spatial and temporal distribution between implicit and explicit memory. At last, the author puts forward some advice for future research
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    Priming Effect in the Field of Implicit Memory
    You xunqun;Gou Yahong
    2006, 14 (06):  829-836. 
    Abstract ( 2159 )   PDF (798KB) ( 2488 )  

    The phenomenon of priming refers to the behavioral effects of prior exposure to a stimulus, even when explicit memory of the prior experience is not available. The research of priming effects was an important component of implicit memory. This article reviewed some recent approaches in priming effects in the field of implicit memory from cognitive psychological studies, deficit patients in neuropsychological and neuroscience studies. After brief comments on some problems in priming effect researches, we pointed out that the establishment of a more clear explanation of the concept and effectiveness of the theoretical models of was the urgent need to the further development of priming effects researches

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    Artificial Neural Network Model about Implicit Learning
    Guo Xiuyan,Zhu Lei;Wei Zhichao
    2006, 14 (06):  837-843. 
    Abstract ( 2175 )   PDF (806KB) ( 1759 )  
    These years, Artificial Neural Networks have been used to simulate many kinds of psychological activities, including implicit learning. Neural networks has some traits which are good for simulating implicit learning, such as learning to response correctly through weight adjustment. There are two types of neural network models named autoassociators and simple recurrent networks which are used broadly in cognitive simulation
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    CLARION: A Integrated Model in Studying the Relationship between Implicit and Explicit Skill Learning
    Du Jianzheng;Li Ming
    2006, 14 (06):  844-850. 
    Abstract ( 2083 )   PDF (819KB) ( 1675 )  
    CLARION is a computational cognitive model different from other ones. It aims at studying the data of researches about the interaction between implicit and explicit skill learning. By simulating of those classic experiments with human subject in implicit learning, such as SRT, DC, and other high-order cognitive task, CLARION demonstrated its better fit to human data. CLARION has its advantages at least in two aspect, one is its integration of implicit and explicit processing, and the other is its emphasizing on the importance of bottom-up processing. It has developed much during recent years, and this paper just made a brief review of its development and its main point
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    The Spatial Character of Number
    Xu Xiaodong;Liu Chang
    2006, 14 (06):  851-858. 
    Abstract ( 523 )   PDF (785KB) ( 1639 )  
    When participants judge the parity of presented digits, left-hand responses are faster for numerically small numbers, whereas right-hand responses are faster for large numbers. This association of numbers with space was termed Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect). A number of experiments have proved this effect, It indicates that both spatial representation and attention influence the course of human number processing. This paper systematically reviewed the evidences of SNARC effect and its functional locus , then SNARC and Simon effects were contrasted. In the end, attention perspective was considered to further explore the essence of spatial-numerical association
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    A New Look at Framing Effects: The Neural Basis of Decision-making under Risk
    Gao Liping;Li Shu;Shi Kan
    2006, 14 (06):  859-865. 
    Abstract ( 2387 )   PDF (816KB) ( 1969 )  
    The study of decision-making under risk has been a major thrust of microeconomics and psychology in the last few decades. Both classical decision-making theory and prospect theory focus on the study of decision-making behavior, while the psychological mechanism under the decision-making has been in the dark. The latest and possibly most exciting frontier in this research area is the effort to understand the way in which neural processes mediate risk-taking behavior. Neuroscientists and their collaborators begin to apply modern neurophysiology methods to risk decision-making. The mechanisms and neural basis of framing effects that violate the invariance principle are presented and discussed from the following aspects: positive & negative framing, sure choice & risk option, risk aversion & risk seeking, and over-weighting low probabilities. Concluding remarks assess the future prospects of the cognitive neuroscience of decision-making under risk, such as decision-making under uncertainty and multiple play
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    A Review on Researches of Musical Perceptual Expectation
    Zheng Maoping
    2006, 14 (06):  866-872. 
    Abstract ( 2058 )   PDF (813KB) ( 1665 )  
    The article reviewed the latest progress in the field of musical perceptual expectation from five main aspects: the origin of musical perceptual expectation; the four ratings of music events that musical perceptual expectation depend; the two classify and five study methods to musical perceptual expectation; the main fields that musical perceptual expectation research in, such as ERP(Event-Related Potential of Musical Expectancy), attention, memory, and priming effect. The music expectancy affect the time of music performance because of different musical event perception and different music time estimation. At last, the article concerned about the direction for future research, and pointed out the importance to study the function and characteristic of expectancy in music performance and its time deviation
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    Adolescent Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable
    Guo Fei;Lei Li
    2006, 14 (06):  873-879. 
    Abstract ( 2334 )   PDF (783KB) ( 2905 )  
    Initially this paper presents the conceptually expositions about imaginary audience and personalfable ideations, and reviews theoretical models of the two constructs, and the empirical date related to each model. Then the paper outlines the relationships between the two ideations and some aspects of the adolescent development, such as separation-individuation, risk-taking, depressive symptomatology, finally the paper explores the reasons for contradictory findings in most areas of the research, and suggests the directions for future research
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    Social Cognitive Researches on Internal Working Models of Attachment
    Wang Zhengyan;Yang Ye;Wang Bin
    2006, 14 (06):  880-887. 
    Abstract ( 1865 )   PDF (785KB) ( 2179 )  
    Some researchers suggested that internal working models of attachment as mental representations were similar in many ways to other cognitive structures. Social cognitive researches on adult attachment made a great progress that psychologists examined the core hypotheses of attachment theory and explored the attachment behavioral system’s unconscious content. Article compared the relationship between internal working model and mental representation, and summarized related memory and emotion being the content and function of internal working model. Additionally, researches on the availability, accessibility and prime effects as well as the future directions of attachments were illustrated and discussed
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    Psychological Help-Seeking: Current Research and
    The Phases-Decision-Making Model
    Jiang Guangrong;Xia Mian
    2006, 14 (06):  888-894. 
    Abstract ( 1542 )   PDF (797KB) ( 2040 )  
    This paper reviewed the progress and achievements within the field of psychological help-seeking, and pointed out the limits of the studies. Then the authors proposed a model named Phases-Decision-making Model(PDM) to explain the help-seeking process, which based on literature and a set of pilot studies. The PDM include three continuous phases: the phases of perception of mental problem, self-help evaluation, and others-help evaluation. The primary studies by the authors based on PDM were introduced
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    Theory and Research
    on Trauma-related Dissociative Symptom
    Zhao Dongmei;Shen Heyong;Liu ZhiYa
    2006, 14 (06):  895-900. 
    Abstract ( 2617 )   PDF (808KB) ( 2462 )  
    People who had experienced trauma often developed dissociative symptom. There are several theories about trauma-related dissociative symptom, such as structural dissociation of the personality, betrayal- trauma theory, avoidant-encoding hypothesis, vigilance avoidant hypothesis, the article reviews the studies and the findings about these theory. Based on the theory reviews and analysis, the article propose future investigation should combine cognitive behavior research and cognitive neuroscience studies, as well as more close link clinical psychotherapy and medicament. Basis cognitive experiment studies and clinical psychotherapy, we will find out more knowledge of trauma-related memory in detail, paying more attention to inner brain mechanism and orientation
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    Cytokines and Depression
    Pan Yuqin;Lin Wenjuan
    2006, 14 (06):  901-906. 
    Abstract ( 1684 )   PDF (791KB) ( 1657 )  
    In the research field of psycholoneuroimmunology, accumulating evidence has indicated the existence of reciprocal communication pathway between nervous and immune system. “The cytokine hypothesis of depression” implies that proinflammatory cytokines, acting as neuromudulators, represent the key factor in the central mediation of the behavioral, neuroendocrine and neurochemical features of depression. This view is supported by various findings. Administration of proinflammatory cytokine in animal induces “sickness behavior”, which is very similar to the behavioral symptoms of depression in humans. Cytokines produced by peripheral immune activity, which could signal to the brain via a fast neural pathway and a slower humoral pathway, together with the cytokines produced within central nervous system exert central effects. Cytokines may cause hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis hyperactivity by disturbing the negative feedback inhibition of circulating corticosteroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Otherwise, cytokines may reduce 5-hydroxytryptamin level by lowering the availability of its precursor tryptophan through activation of the trypyophan-metabolising enzyme indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase.The central effects of cytokines appear to be able to account for most of the symptoms occurring in depression, and “cytokine hypothesis of depression” has created new perspectives in the mechanism study and the therapy of depressive symptoms
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    Long-term Effects of Early-life Stress on Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes Associated with Depression
    Wang Weiwen;Shao Feng;Liu Mei;Lin Wenjuan
    2006, 14 (06):  907-911. 
    Abstract ( 778 )   PDF (230KB) ( 1955 )  
    Clinical studies indicate early traumatic experiences are high risk factors in the development of depression in adulthood. The pathways that mediate the long-term effects of early-life stress on pathophysiology of depression are still unclear. This article reviewed laboratory animal studies in which the early-life stress models and the stress-induced chronic behavioral and neurobiological changes associated with depression were examined. It is concluded that early-life stress influenced behavior implicated in motivation for reward and stress coping, but it didn’t influence intrinsic behavior. These findings further demonstrated that early-life stress affected the development of depression by increasing individual predisposition to depression
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    Review on Psychological Contract Breach
    Shen Yimo;Yuan Denghua
    2006, 14 (06):  912-917. 
    Abstract ( 1554 )   PDF (777KB) ( 1913 )  
    Psychological contract breach is generally defined as an employee’s perception that the organization has failed to adequately fulfill the promised obligations of the psychological contract. The present paper reviewed the definitions, antecedents, work-related outcomes and cross-cultural comparisons of psychological contract breach, and findings concerning the mediating and moderating effects in the process of psychological contract breach. Finally, new trends pertaining to the future research of psychological contract breach were discussed as follows: (1) psychological mechanism and interventions; (2) cross-cultural comparison; (3) individual differences; (4) improvement of research methods
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    Influential Factors in Organization Trust
    Qi Shunsheng;He Hongqing
    2006, 14 (06):  918-923. 
    Abstract ( 1971 )   PDF (774KB) ( 1711 )  
    As the histology of modernistic enterprises take on the comolanate trend, trust in organization become more important. Combining the former research of domestic and overseas, this article not only induced the dimensions of the organization trust, but also ascended the antecedents and outcomes by right of the dimensions as the masterstroke. The antecedents of trust have some differences in view of the differences of eastern culture and western culture, as exploring and establishing the antecedents may provide accurate and rational gist for measuring organizational trust in the Chinese Ventures; and exploring and establishing the outcomes may provide academic direction for improving an organizational performance
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    A Review of the Research on Collective Efficacy in I/O Psychology
    Li Rui;Ling Wenquan
    2006, 14 (06):  924-931. 
    Abstract ( 2450 )   PDF (787KB) ( 1844 )  
    Collective efficacy represents a group’s shared belief in their conjoint capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given levels of attainments. There are mainly three methods of assessing collective efficacy: an aggregate of self-efficacy perceptions, an aggregate of individual perceptions of collective efficacy, and group discussion. Scholars have found that collective efficacy can effectively predict performance and some other work-related attitudinal and behavioral variables. However, too high collective efficacy can also produce negative effects. The antecedents of collective efficacy include the factors both within and between groups (e.g. group size and inter-group competition), and intervening methods such as goal-setting training can significantly increase collective efficacy as well. At last, the paper pointed out five prospects for the future research
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    Theories of Mere Exposure Effect

    Zhang Lirong;Guan Yijie;Wang Yong

    2006, 14 (06):  932-937. 
    Abstract ( 1558 )   PDF (814KB) ( 1579 )  
    The Mere Exposure Effect (MEE) means the mere exposure of stimulus can arouse positive evaluation. The concept of MEE was firstly defined by Zajonc in 1968. After that, a growing number of researches have been conducted to address this field. This paper introduces the definition of MEE, the studies on the influencing factors, the relationship between the stimulus exposure and affective evaluation, and the theories about MEE. Some problems in the current theoretic research are also discussed
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    Cultural Limitations of the Fundamental Attribution Error

    Li Chen;Chen Wuqing

    2006, 14 (06):  938-943. 
    Abstract ( 3248 )   PDF (774KB) ( 2324 )  
    the fundamental attribution error (FAE) was regarded as a universal attributional bias for all human beings, but researches of cultural psychology find that people living in different cultures show different attributional tendencies; the attribution tendencies are affected by cultures, thus FAE is not universal across cultures. The researches of cultural psychology make it dubious that the cognitive processes and style are universal, which was regarded as true by the discipline. Instead, people’s recognition is shaped by culture, therefore, psychological researches should be conducted in a social and cultural context to get more understanding of human
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    Social Comparison: Contrast Effect or Assimilation Effect?
    Xing Shufen;Yu Guoliang
    2006, 14 (06):  944-949. 
    Abstract ( 2869 )   PDF (772KB) ( 3735 )  
    Social comparisons influence self-evaluations in multiple ways. Sometimes self-evaluations are assimilated toward a given standard. At other times, they are contrasted away from the standard. The paper systematically reviewed the researches on the contrast and assimilation effect of social comparisons. At the same time, we expatiated the moderators of the social comparison effects. Finally, from an integrative perspective we expatiated the psychological mechanism of contrast and assimilation effect—selective accessibility model
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    Personal Strivings and the Relevant Study
    Zhang Zhao;Guo Yongyu
    2006, 14 (06):  950-955. 
    Abstract ( 2017 )   PDF (788KB) ( 1846 )  
    Personal strivings, one of the most popular concepts of personal goals, which represent one of specifically contextualized personal conation constructs, refers to the characteristic types of goals that individuals try to achieve through their daily behavior. According to the hierarchical systems of personal goals, these concepts are all called “midlevel” goal units. Focused on Emmons’ personal striving theory, this paper expounds the relationships between personal strivings, well-being and personal traits and briefly compares some similar personal goal theories. From the perspective of integrated trend on personality psychology, this paper provides a method different from the traditional trait theory on the study of personality
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    Don’t Expect Too Much From Me: Self-Handicapping in Sport
    Sun Qing;Zhang Liwei
    2006, 14 (06):  956-960. 
    Abstract ( 2281 )   PDF (239KB) ( 1851 )  
    Self-handicapping can be easily found in sport. Self-handicapping is a strategy of self-protection when individuals face an evaluation threat. Self-handicapping can be divided into two main categories; they are behavioral self-handicapping and claimed self-handicapping. Other-enhancement is a specific strategy of self-handicapping. Self-handicapping strategies can be used for the purposes of self-worth protection and impression management. Attribution, self-esteem, goal orientation, group cohesion, task quality, and gender are related with self-handicapping. Suggestions are provided for coaches to deal with self-handicapping in sport. Physical self-esteem is suggested to be a mediator between athlete’s global self-esteem and self-handicapping
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