This research aims to explore the mechanisms of constructing multi-company identity and investigate how to reconcile the tensions among them based on the theory of multiple company identification. We applied both qualitative and quantitative methods in this research. Our objectives are three-fold: a) firstly develop the definition, structure and measurement of multiple company identification based on social identity theory and identity theory; b) secondly explore the process of multiple company identification development from the perspective of social psychology and cultural innovation; and c) examine the mechanisms of reconciling identity tensions among multiple companies during the multi-company identification development process. Our research contributes to the theory by extending customer-company identification into multiple stakeholders-company identification. The results of this study not only explore the mechanisms of constructing a multiple-company identity, but also investigate how to reconcile the tensions among them. The results could be of practical value by offering insights to companies in maintaining long-term and harmonious relationships with their customers.
Since the introduction of the time-frequency analysis technique into the field of EEG data in the 1980’s, researchers can excavate non-phase locked components in EEG signals, overcoming the previous shortcomings of traditional ERP methods. In the field of psychology, the two most commonly used time-frequency analysis methods are wavelet transform and Hilbert transform. Power, phase locking index (PLI), and coherence are three important indices of time-frequency analysis. Power in different frequency band is typically considered to reflect different mental processes. For example, α power is frequently related to selective attention, while γ energy is often associated with feature binding. Researchers use PLI to investigate the mechanism generated by an ERP component. Coherence indicates the exchange of information between long-distance brain regions and cognitive control of higher-level brain regions in the low-level brain regions, which show different patterns in various complex cognitive tasks.
During the recent decade, quantum decision-making models were established based on the mathematical structure and methodologies of quantum mechanics. Owing to its unique theoretical structure, the quantum decision-making models can be applied to explain problems that violate the classical decision models, especially for judgments under uncertainty and decisions under conflicts. Quantum decision-making models have been used to explain phenomena such as disjunction effect, conjunction fallacy and interference of categorization on decision making which are difficult to account for with classical decision models. A model called quantum question equality has been tested for its accurate prediction of order effects. Being a new research field contributing to analysis of decision making, quantum decision-making models worth further investigations both in theoretical and applicative levels.
Memory is a vital component of retrospective duration estimation, which is either assessed by the interval between two successive events, or the duration of an event after it has ended. Retrospective duration estimation can be divided into two types: close-range and long-distance. The timing mechanisms of both are related to memory; however, they have distinct foci. The former focuses on short-term memory or long-term memory; here, direct evidence is derived from the immediate recall of a single or multiple cognitive tasks to estimate time, while indirect evidence refers to the influence of physical, physiological, and psychological factors. The latter emphasizes the role of autobiographical memory, as evidenced by the measurement mode of a questionnaire or an interview and the influencing factors of subject-object characteristics. Future research should focus on further extending the timing mechanism of retrospective duration estimation in an integrated manner, expand the research of behavioral measurement, and explore the basis of neurobiology for retrospective duration estimation.
Spatial presence is an experience/feeling of “being there” when an individual is immersing into a virtual environment with absorption,which includes two dimensions: self-location and possible action perceived possible behaviors in the virtual mediated environment. Belonging to the field of embodied cognition, Spatial presence is similar to, but different from the experiences in the immediate physical world The existing literature on spatial presence can be divided into two parts: theoretical construction and empirical researches. The former applies deductive approach to explore the process of formation, determining factors and influential factors of it; the latter mainly adopts the experimental research to measure the spatial presence, to investigate the concrete effects of various influential factors, as well as the effects in different virtual environments. In the future researches, the two kinds should be integrated, and theoretical models can be applied to the basic and practical problems of media psychology, so as to promote the researches in the field. In addition, the neural mechanism of the spatial presence, the value and effects of the actual application of spatial presence also need to be further explored.
Fear generalization is a phenomenon that conditioned fear responses extended to safe stimuli which shares perceptual similarity with threat stimuli. Moderate fear generalization is beneficial for human survival, but excessive fear generalization leads to maladaptation to environment. Rules that underlie fear generalization have been investigated by related researches based on perception, and been widely applied to studies in various domains. This paper reviews the study of the generalization of fear based on perception. Here, we begin with Pavlovian fear conditioning and the gradient of fear generalization, which lays the foundation for theoretical approaches used today. Then we review the research of fear generalization based on perception in multiple sensory channels (i.e., visual, auditory, context). Third, we summarize the neural circuits of fear generalization which involve hippocampus, amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex. Last but not least, we briefly clarify the difference between perception-based and concept-based fear generalization which receive increased interests. Further studies should extend this work in many ways, such as combining concepts-based fear generalization, using Just-Noticeable-Difference Threshold to ensure that the generalization stimuli can actually be discriminated, increasing the explicitness and divisity of stimuli, as well as applping hormonesand multi-modal data analysis methods.
For the past decades, researchers have paid much attention to exploring how cognitive processes influence eye movements. Recently, they have begun to directly look into the reciprocal relationship and test how eye movements might influence cognitive processes by using eye movement modeling examples (EMME). As a new kind of teaching examples, EMME proved to be effective to guide visual attention. It could facilitate the selection, organization, and integration of information, as well as improve the scanpath similarity. However, research examining the effects of EMME on learning performance reported mixed results. The information-reduction hypothesis, cognitive theory of multimedia learning, and cognitive apprenticeship have been used as theoretical foundations for predicting or explaining the positive effects of EMME. Future studies are highly needed to explore the effects of EMME from the perspectives of boundary conditions, functional mechanism, eye-movement pre-training, expertise development, cooperative learning, and the neural basis.
Active maternal behavior refers to a set of motivated behaviors that promote female mammals to effectively care for the pups during their lactation, so it has a vital important role for the survival and behavioral development in pups. Evidence has shown that the active maternal behavior in rodents could dynamically change from the onset and maintenance in early postpartum to the decline in late postpartum, which reflects female rodents’ adaptation to the stage changes of incentive values in pups. This process not only involves in the pathway of medial preoptic area (MPOA)-ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NA)-ventral pallidum (VP) opened by hormone profile at parturition, but also requires the basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and other areas to real-timely regulate this pathway. Studies on the dynamic changes about active maternal behavior and its neural mechanisms in lactating rodents could deepen our knowledge about the evolution and early development of behaviors, and also be helpful for the clinical intervention to postpartum depression in humans. This review illustrates the relationship between incentive values in pups and dynamic changes in active maternal behavior with evidence used by conditioned place preference (CPP), then systematically elaborates the neural mechanisms underlying dynamic changes of active maternal behavior, and finally discusses several major issues or future research directions.
The development of depression has important genetic underpinnings. COMT (catechol-O- methyltransferase) Val158Met polymorphism is an important candidate gene locus for depression. At present, the studies associated with the relationship between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and depression mainly adopt single gene design, single gene-environment design and multiple gene-environment design. The researches have demonstrated that negativity bias and its related brain mechanism may play an intermediary role between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and depression. However, the mechanism underlying is still not clear and need to be explored. Future research should focus on issues as the moderation effect of participants’ ethnicity, gender and age on the association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and depression, and further investigate the role of negativity bias and the neuralbiological mechanisms between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and depression by using multiple gene-environment design and comprehensively using positive and negative environmental factors.
A growing number of studies have recently focused on the functional significance of oxytocin (OT) in human social decision-making. With various experimental paradigms being developed, previous studies have shown that oxytocin (OT)plays an important regulatory role in interpersonal decision-making. In the OT research field, researchers have looked into many aspects of social decision-making, including cooperation and protection, morality, trust, generous behavior. Three possible hypotheses for oxytocin function were proposed to interpret current findings, however, no unified theory has yet been suggested to integrate all the observed phenomena. Future studies should focus on the physiological mechanisms of intranasal OT and receptor gene polymorphisms, take the gender differences into consideration, and establish a more appropriate and testable theoretical model.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The repetitive behavior of people with ASD is closely related to the development of inhibitory control. The studies which used of Go/No-go, Flanker and Stroop tasks found that the inhibitory control of people with ASD was mainly manifested as a deficit in response inhibition and interference inhibition. Task status, subjects age and sampling were the main factors that affected inhibitory control of people with ASD. Previous studies have shown that inhibitory control correlated with brain regions including: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and basal ganglia. The genes related to inhibitory control including: glutamate, gamma aminobutyric acid and 5- serotonin. The future study should start with the research of brain mechanism, taking into account the influence of task status and individual characteristics on the research results, and put forth effort to the development of more effective intervention model.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are generally assumed to be lifelong due to its poor prognosis. However, more sophisticated research has shown that autistic children diagnosed and treated at earlier ages are able to enter the normal range of cognitive and adaptive skills. With proper intervention, meanwhile, they lose their autism diagnosis and achieve “optimal outcomes.” That said, most of them still display varying degrees of residual deficits. This paper first describes ASD outcomes and traces the definitional evolution of “optimal outcomes.” It then analyses the distribution of optimal outcome children, with a particular focus on residual deficits. In so doing, the paper teases out individual characteristics and predictors of outcome in this group to provide empirical and effective evidence for systematic intervention in children with ASD.
Individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are exposed to more stressful events but have less coping resources compared to those on higher ranks. They are hence more prone to a variety of diseases from the fetus to the elderly. Allostatic load (AL) provides an effective index to such cumulative effect of chronic stress on interconnected biological systems. Research revealed that AL is sensitive to changes in SES. The moderating and mediating factors between SES and AL include environmental risks, social support, psychological characteristics and life style. We propose that investigations on AL may shed light into understanding and intervention of disadvantaged populations in China.
As a frontier topic in the field of career research, career success has garnered extensive attention from organizational scholars and practitioners. By systematically clarifying its concept, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and mechanisms, this study summarizes and evaluates relative research at home and abroad. Future research should focus on career success in the era of the boundaryless career, develop the concept and measurement of career success in the Chinese organizational context, examine the antecedents of career success from the trait activation theory, examine the consequences of career success based on its value, and explore the contingent role of Chinese indigenous culture.
The job crafting theory emphasizes that employees’ spontaneity and initiative to reshape their work from the bottom up. Within the realm of organization behavior, how to intervene the job crafting of employees has garnered the most attention in recent years. In the current intervention research, the intervention mainly includes three aspects: motivating employees’ crafting motivation, helping employees to form a good crafting awareness and cultivating employees' crafting behavior. These three aspects are closely connected, and researchers can choose to intervene in one area or in all three areas. Job crafting intervention can be implemented through theory learning, plan making and executing, feedback and discussion. Future research needs to continue to explore the concept, structure and measurement tools of job crafting, provide support for intervention research, enrich the types of intervention research, improve intervention research techniques, and try to use modern science and technology resources to promote the modernization of intervention research.
Many empirical evidences provide sufficient support on the assumption that multicultural experience fosters creativity. The effect could be observed only in the individuals who engaged in two inconsistent cultures deeply. Moreover, the cognitive skills which include alternation, integration and inclusion developed by dual-identity individuals, foster their creativity. Future researches could be directed to strengthen its external validity in diverse samples, explore the mediating role of other variables such as stress appraisal, approach motivation, positive emotions, and expand domestic research on this topic.