Statistical inference plays a critical role in modern scientific research, however, the dominant method for statistical inference in science, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), is often misunderstood and misused, which leads to unreproducible findings. To address this issue, researchers propose to adopt the Bayes factor as an alternative to NHST. The Bayes factor is a principled Bayesian tool for model selection and hypothesis testing, and can be interpreted as the strength for both the null hypothesis H0 and the alternative hypothesis H1 based on the current data. Compared to NHST, the Bayes factor has the following advantages: it quantifies the evidence that the data provide for both the H0 and the H1, it is not “violently biased” against H0, it allows one to monitor the evidence as the data accumulate, and it does not depend on sampling plans. Importantly, the recently developed open software JASP makes the calculation of Bayes factor accessible for most researchers in psychology, as we demonstrated for the t-test. Given these advantages, adopting the Bayes factor will improve psychological researchers’ statistical inferences. Nevertheless, to make the analysis more reproducible, researchers should keep their data analysis transparent and open.
Cognitive control is essential in conflict processing. Most related theories elucidated the mechanism via integrating both the enhancement of task-relevant stimuli and inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli, which has been challenged by recent studies. We reviewed the major debates on whether enhancement or inhibition might be the mechanism and their empirical evidences, and then argued that conflict resolution mechanisms might not be constant, but depend on conflict situation and individual state. Future studies could pay more attention to reveal the influence factors of cognitive control, exploring cognitive processing strategies and doing cognitive training, which may benefit the intervention treatment of the cognitive function disorders.
One of the prominent characteristics of human language and cognition is to use the spatial concepts such as “front” and “back” to understand and represent temporal concepts such as the “past” and “future”. However, people’s implicit space-time mappings are not always consistent with explicit space-time mappings in their speech. In recent years, the “Temporal Focus Hypothesis” proposes that sagittal space-time mappings in people’s minds are shaped by their attentional focus, namely, the conceptualizers’ attentions to past, present and future events. A large body of research has shown that many factors related to temporal focus such as cultural attitudes, individual differences and life experiences may influence people’s implicit space-time mappings. These studies not only provide supporting evidence for the “Temporal Focus Hypothesis”, but also reflect the flexibility and malleability of human time cognition system.
As perceptual load theory of attention posits, the effectiveness of selective attention in excluding perception of irrelevant distractors depends on the perceptual load associated with the relevant task. If the perceptual load of the relevant task is sufficiently high so as to require all available attentional capacity, thus the processing of task-irrelevant distractors is prevented. However, facial processing is special, irrelevant face can be processed regardless of the level of perceptual load. And facial expression and gaze direction may be affected by perceptual load. Some studies showed that negative emotions was less affected by the perceptual load, compared with positive and neutral emotions; Perception of direct gaze does not require focus of attention. In the future, we can extend to investigate the effects of some categories such as race, sex, and age in different levels of perceptual load.
Language was the most remarkable ability of human beings. Numerous neuroimaging studies attempted to investigate its neurophysiological basis. Recent findings of abnormal sulcal patterns in psychiatric syndromes and neurological disorders shed new light on the relationship between language ability and complicated morphology of cerebral cortex. Here we described the studies using sulcal morphometry analysis in cognitive neuroscience of language and outlined some possible research directions for further studies. Combining sulci quantification with multimodal data will contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms of language ability.
Previous studies have shown that sad music could evoke the aesthetic pleasure or other psychological benefits while inducing sadness. Based on these existing evidence, two major psychological theories have been proposed: one is the " dissociation theory ", the other is the" neutralization theory ". Both theories have been used to elaborate how sad music becomes pleasurable. However, neither can provide a comprehensive and reasonable explanation. Therefore, further exploration of the specific reward processing of sad music is of great significance. Future research need to clarify the neural basis of the existing psychological theories from the neurobiological perspectives.
The acquisition of musical syntax derives from the long-term abstraction of statistical rules of musical schema, which depends on the daily music exposure and statistical learning ability. It plays an important role in the process of constructing musical mental lexicon and influences the formation of musical schema expectation. The musical syntax has been proved to be implicitly learned with unconscious exposure, while explicit professional training may be conducive to the improvement of music statistical learning ability. The researches of the ENAN, N5, mCPS and other musical syntax-related electroencephalograms help to understand the processing mechanism of implicit learning of musical syntax. Therefore, future studies should examine, in the complete music structure, how the acquisitions of various music elements interact to make music learning experiments more ecologically effective and to promote the application of the research results in music teaching practice.
Communicative language cognition is a typical representation of communicative cognition, and language is a typical medium in the process of communication and interaction. Communicative language has the characteristics of interaction, cooperation, collective reward and personal responsibility, which results in the complexity, flexibility and practical function of communicative language cognition process. The article focuses on induction and review: the theory of peer specificity, time process theory and consciousness theory in communicative language processing. Future research should furtherly explore: the naturalness of the experimental context of communicative language cognition, the inclusiveness of experimental angle and purpose, the relationship between language cognition and nonverbal cognition, etc..
Audiovisual temporal integration is the fact that the relative timing of audio-visual stimulation should be bound into a unified percept. The audiovisual temporal integration of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was confirmed to be impaired mainly in four aspects. First, the temporal binding window is wider and more symmetrical. Second, ASD got weaker ability of rapid audiovisual temporal recalibration. Third, the effect that visual target search can be improved by a synchronous sound decreased has been found to be missing in ASD in some studies. Last, ASD showed impaired audiovisual temporal acuity for speech stimuli. Various methods are used to probe for temporal aspects of audiovisual integration, such as sound-induced flash illusion task and "pip-pop" task. The simultaneity judgment task, temporal order judgment task and preferential-looking task are mainly used to measure intersensory synchrony. Relevant theories from abnormal neural processing, the internal priors and the interaction between multiple sensory modals explain those defects. In future, researchers should improve the ecological validity of study, further integrate different theoretical explanations and accurate quantitative diagnostic indicators, as well as exploit the effective intervention strategies.
Biomedical approaches to study depression focus on the explanation and intervention of the proximate cause of depression by exploring specific pathogenic genes and neuropathological mechanisms, while the theoretical medical studies of the origin of depression discuss the ultimate historical cause of depression, mainly through theoretical reasoning based on empirical results. Those theories can be classified into three perspectives. First is the evolutionary adaptation perspective, which suggested that depression originates from the adaptive mechanisms coping with evolutionary pressure, represented by the social adaptation hypothesis and the individual adaptation hypothesis. Second is the functional disorder perspective, which assumes that depression originates from the dysfunction of normal moods and emotions, represented by the mismatch explanation and gene distribution explanation. Third is the social culture perspective, which believed that depression originates from social-cultural constructed concepts, represented by the social-cultural construction viewpoint and knowledge development viewpoint. There are different tendencies of the meaning and essence of depression under three perspectives, either of essentialism or constructivism. Theoretical integration and evidence base are needed for developing more comprehensive interpretation frameworks.
Everyday academic resilience refers to students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life. The “resilience” lies in the dynamic interaction of academic engagement, coping and re-engagement. The measures include Martin’s Academic Buoyancy Scale and Skinner’s Motivational Resilience and Vulnerability scale. The important influence factors of everyday academic resilience include positive academic motivation, adaptive emotional and personality factors, as well as good teacher-student and student-student relationships. Everyday academic resilience is significantly predictive of students’ academic performance and mental health. Future studies should further explore the concept, mechanism, and neurobiological basis of everyday academic resilience, explore the combined effects of promoting factors and inhibition factors, and adopt targeted intervention and promotion strategies.
Deci and Ryan proposed the concept of basic psychological needs based on previous studies and conceptualized basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Basic psychological needs originated from the Self-Determination Theory. Currently, measurement of basic psychological needs mainly employs the General Need Satisfaction Scale compiled by Gagné. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs is mainly affected by the surrounding environment, and closely related to the mental health of the individual; the thwarting of basic psychological needs will lead to anxiety and depression. The challenges of basic psychological needs are mainly focused on four aspects: the content of needs, the contradiction between needs, the stability of needs, and the universality of needs. Future research on basic psychological needs should focus on developing the measurement, carrying out in-depth studies on need thwarting, enhancing longitudinal studies, and conducting research on the strategies of meeting basic psychological needs.
Weight stigma refers to the social stigma to overweight or obese individuals, including discrimination, prejudice and stereotype, which is mainly evaluated by the public and the stigmatized groups themselves. Weight stigma exerts negative and interconnected impacts on individuals’ body, mind and behavior. Currently, there are three main dimensions of weight stigma interventions (i.e., reducing public stigma and conducting physical and psychological intervention on overweight and obese individuals). More theoretical and practical researches in future should be done to reveal the mechanism of effects of weight stigma and develop effective measurements and intervention strategies
The effects of light on social cognition and social behavior as a specific form of non-image forming (NIF) function are less investigated than any other NIF functions, which is a promising field. Natural light and artificial light exert different influences on prosocial and antisocial behaviors. At present, the underlying psychological mechanisms mainly focus on mood, self construal, sense of anonymity, moral salience and embodied cognition. Future studies should put emphasis on dynamic lighting, laboratory studies of natural light, replications of previous studies and investigations of possible psychological and neuro-endocrine mechanism.
Sleep, as an important physiological process for human to recover and store physical strength and energy, has attracted extensive attention in the field of organizational behavior in recent years and become a popular research topic. Sleep quality is a complex concept that includes both quantitative components related to sleep and individual subjective evaluations of sleep. To date, researchers have found that individual characteristics (age, family and affective traits) and job characteristics (job demands, control and support) can effectively predict sleep quality, which in turn affects work safety, physical and mental health, attitude, job performance and ethical behavior. Ego depletion theory is the core theoretical mechanism to explain how sleep affects work attitude and behavior. Future studies could focus on the following aspects: from the interaction perspective between human and environments to explore the influencing factors of employee’ sleep, from the perspective of recovery experience to explore the boundary conditions of how sleep affects the work, and compare the differential effects of sleep quality and quantity.
Unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) involves actions of employees or employers in any business or organization or company that benefits such organization in a seemingly positive way, but lacks moral, ethical and/or societal standards and codes of conduct. The available research on this concept dives into how much of an impact this behavior makes, as well as how wide-spread it is throughout the corporate world. By systematically clarifying the conception and measurement of UPB, comparison with relevant behaviors, this research establishes a multi-level integrated model. It also identifies the trends of future study in this field and discusses their implications for UPB’s conceptualization, dimension and measurement, research levels and localization research.
Feedback-seeking behavior refers to individuals proactively seek feedbacks about their performance, role position or job targets from other individuals or their leaders. This study systematically summarizes the existing literatures in aspects of the concept, measurement, influencing factors and consequences of feedback-seeking behavior, at the same time highlights the effects of Chinese indigenous culture. We identify that future study should try to improve the concept of feedback-seeking behavior, develop new measurement which fits into new cultural and economic background, expand research level to organization and team level, and take Chinese special organizational situation into consideration to make further discussion toward feedback-seeking behavior.
Although the multisource feedback in foreign enterprises has become mature, it is still underdeveloped in China. Based on extant studies, we discuss and analyze the characteristics and internal mechanism of multisource feedback through three constructs, including appraisal process, rater sources, and ratee. From the perspective of appraisal process, multisource feedback has various objectives, and it often preserves the anonymity of raters as well as managers should pay attention to reasonably using appraisal results. In terms of the rater sources, the level of rating agreement between different raters is low, and raters often make halo error and leniency effect easily. From the view of ratee, the reaction of individuals to the feedback results is impacted by personality, feedback signal, and self-others agreement, etc. Additionally, the studies also show the influence of multisource feedback on performance is unstable. Based on these findings, there is a need for further study on how to enhance the validity and accuracy of appraisal process, improve individuals’ reaction, and summarize the results of multisource feedback.