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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    The Doctrinal Paradox, a New Challenge for Behavioral Psychologists
    Jean-François Bonnefon
    . 2011, 19 (5): 617-623.  
    Abstract   PDF (143KB) ( 1239 )
    In various professional and private contexts, it is often necessary to aggregate different opinions about whether a given claim is true or false. A doctrinal paradox occurs when this claim is akin to a logical formula combining several propositions, and it turns out that the claim itself is true (resp., false) for a majority of judges, whereas a majority of judges has opinions on the propositions that would make the claim false (resp., true). The doctrinal paradox is a serious formal concern for judgment aggregation, which has generated intense normative research in various scientific fields. Behavioral psychologists, though, still have to undertake systematic research on this important problem. This article provides a brief introduction to the doctrinal paradox and its formal study, summarizes available behavioral data, and points to perspective for future behavioral research.
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    The Definition, Dimensionality and Content of Newcomer’s Organizational Socialization: A Perspective from Identity Theory
    YAN Ming;TU Hong-Wei;LI Ji
    . 2011, 19 (5): 624-632.  
    Abstract   PDF (167KB) ( 1169 )
    The research on newcomer’s organizational socialization (OS) has been criticized for lacking a fundamental theoretical basis, thereby imitating the method of how to measure OS effect. Role Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory can provide OS research a substantial theoretical basis. Based on the theoretical discussion on the boundaries of OS concept, the identity nature of OS was explored as a newcomers’ role identity and social identity development process. The identity theory also revealed two dimensions of OS effect. The content of each dimension was further discussed. Future efforts are expected to develop new OS scale and conceptual model on the basis of identity theory. The identity theory also implies the advancement of research methodology in the future OS study.
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    The Role of the Cortex-Dorsal Striatum Pathway in Morhpine-Induced Compulsive Drug Seeking and Taking Behaviors
    BAI Yun-Jing;ZHENG Xi-Geng
    . 2011, 19 (5): 633-644.  
    Abstract   PDF (471KB) ( 1023 )
    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and taking behaviors. From initially go-directed drug use to compulsive drug taking, the drug-seeking behavior in addicts becomes more and more habitual. Compulsive drug seeking and taking behaviors are habitual behaviors depending on dorsolateral striatum, and the impaired function of executive control of behavior by prefrontal cortex-dorsomedial striatum pathway, which leads to persistent control of behavior by sensorimotor cortex-dorsolateral striatum pathway, is an important neural mechanism underlying compulsive addicted behaviors. The study will establish the animal model of drug addiction and adopt behavioral, behavioral pharmacological and morphological techniques to discover the role of the cortex-striatum pathway in compulsive drug seeking and taking behaviors. The results may shed light on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in drug addiction.
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    Understanding the Relationship between Self-esteem and Creativity: A Meta-analysis
    DENG Xiao-Ping;ZHANG Xiang-Kui
    . 2011, 19 (5): 645-651.  
    Abstract   PDF (269KB) ( 2124 )
    To explore the relationship between self-esteem and creativity and the factors affecting the relationship. In the present study, 24 retrievaled literatures were used, including 3956 participants. The results of meta-analysis showed that with respect to creativity, the estimated true score correlations were significantly positive for self-esteem. But it depended on the approach to creativity. In researches based on the product approach to creativity, the correlation between self-esteem and creativity was heterogeneous, and 95% confidence interval included 0. In researches based on the personality approach to creativity, the correlation between self-esteem and creativity was homogeneous, and the estimated true score correlations was 0.289.
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    Research Paradigms and Neural Mechanisms for Decision-making Deficits in Addicts
    YAN Wan-Sen;LI Shu;SUI Nan
    . 2011, 19 (5): 652-663.  
    Abstract   PDF (273KB) ( 1837 )
    Drug addicts and pathological gamblers usually prefer immediate reward and ignore the future consequences. They are inclined to choose the bad options those bring immediate gains but long-term losses, which implies a kind of decision-making deficits. The Delay Discounting Task (DDT), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Cambridge Gamble Task (CGT) are mainly three typical research paradigms and methods on decision -making deficits including impulsivity, myopia and risk-taking in addicts. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in human decision-making, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Future directions in this area are introduced and anticipated.
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    Winner’s Curse: Psychological Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Coping Strategies
    ZHANG Hong-Fei;XU Fu-Ming;LIU Teng-Fei;ZHANG Jun-Wei;JIANG Duo
    . 2011, 19 (5): 664-672.  
    Abstract   PDF (158KB) ( 1530 )
    Winner’s Curse refers to the situation where the auction winner curses after winning the auction through overestimating values of the auction items for ownership acquirement because of the inconformity does exist between their previous expectation and the actual value. It is common that winner’s curse happens in the auction business assets, mergers and acquisitions, gaming, investment decision-making and other fields. Winner’s curse can be explained by the loss aversion, overconfidence theory and meanwhile affected by the uncertainty of the auction goods’ value, the number of bidders, information and lessons learned, etc. Effective strategies for responding to the winner’s curse contain the joint bidding strategy, information sharing and learning more cautious. Future research on the winner’s curse needs to explore the psychological mechanism, research paradigm and localization issues.
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    Processing Mechanisms of Object Persistence
    QU Bin;CHEN Xu;XIONG Qian;YANG Jian-Xia
    . 2011, 19 (5): 673-681.  
    Abstract   PDF (150KB) ( 726 )
    Object persistence refers to the phenomena that an individual encountered at present is the same as the individual encountered earlier. There are several accounts of such object persistence in the literature: similarity theory, spatiotemporal theory, sortal theory, and causal theory. Some issues as to spatiotemporal persistence and surface cues together with sortal and causal persistence are discussed. Future researches should focus on the establishment of the experimental paradigm of similarity, sortal, causal theories, the improvement in the design for spatiotemporal, sortal and causal theories and the development of research on object persistence from visual domain to olfactive, audio, etc.
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    Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement and Its Influence on the Representation and Prediction of the Moving Object’s Spatiotemporal Characteristics
    WANG Xiang-Bo;DING Jin-Hong
    . 2011, 19 (5): 682-691.  
    Abstract   PDF (258KB) ( 815 )
    Smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) is a kind of eye movement with which people track the interesting object moving in their visual field. It is affected by ocular and extra-ocular information and some other high-level cognitive factors (mental representation and expectation). Meanwhile, SPEM can also affect the representation and prediction of spatiotemporal characteristics of the moving object with predictive tracking, catch-up saccade, time to contact (TTC) estimation, and spatial orientation and so on. Future researches could focus on how those perceptual factors and high-level cognitive factors impact on the representation and prediction of moving stimulus.
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    Temporal Recalibration in Multisensory Integration
    YUAN Xiang-Yong;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2011, 19 (5): 692-700.  
    Abstract   PDF (169KB) ( 871 )
    The temporal coincidence of cross-modal stimuli is required for multisensory integration. But due to the difference in physical and neural transmission times of information streams, this temporal synchrony is far from perfect. Temporal recalibration refers to the phenomenon that the brain adapts itself to (small) temporal asynchronies, thus reflecting the plasticity of multisensory integration in time. After exposure to asynchronous cross-modal stimulus pairs, participants show shifts in their point of subjective simultaneity towards the particular temporal lag. This paper reviews the modality-combination effect on adaptation aftereffects and the underlying mechanism of temporal recalibration, its initial processing stage, the relationship between temporal recalibration and stimulus content extracting, and the main influencing factors. Future researchers would investigate the following issues, e.g. whether temporal recalibration could happen at early processing stage, whether its process is initiated or mediated by late cognitive activity, and whether it is affected by spatial selective attention. Combined with studies on neural substrates, a comprehensive perspective will benefit the theoretical construct of temporal recalibration.
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    The Effect of Positive Mood on Visual Attention and Its Mechanism
    JIANG Jun;CHEN Xue-Fei;CHEN An-Tao
    . 2011, 19 (5): 701-711.  
    Abstract   PDF (241KB) ( 2419 )
    Driven by positive psychology, existing studies have shown that positive mood can not only broaden the scope of space and temporal attention and increase attention flexibility, but also bias people’s attention in positive mood towards positive stimuli. Previous studies interpreted the phenomenon of positive mood effect on attention based on such theories as broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and affect as information. However, these theories mainly emphasized the prime effect of mood on attention and the modulation effect on attention resource distribution, and therefore its specific mechanisms underlying them is unclear. The studies of neural biochemical mechanism showed that the effect of positive mood on attention is associated with the modulation of dopaminergic system on attention control and of positive mood on the activation of primary visual cortex. Future directions of studying the modulation effect of positive mood on attention should be based on different attention theory models and different kinds of attention selection.
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    Identity Salience: The Switch of Self
    WU Xiao-Yong;YANG Hong-Sheng;CHEN Lei;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2011, 19 (5): 712-722.  
    Abstract   PDF (180KB) ( 1275 )
    When an individual is categorized as a member of a group, the individual’s social identity becomes his or her frame for perceiving the world. This phenomenon reflects the important role of identity salience which means the possibility of related identity activated in special situation on individual’s cognition and behavior. Recently, theories about identity salience are constructed from several perspectives, such as personality, self-categorization, and social construal. All of these theories indicate that identity salience have close relationship with the process of self-concept integration. In addition, many studies found that effects of identity salience could be moderated by level of identity commitment, emotion, group size, social status, and dominant cue of related identity in specific situation. And many effective strategies, including decategorization, recategorization, and subcategorization, are used to reduce negative influence of identity salience. The future research should pay more attention to interaction between different levels of identities, integration of self-concept, strategies to reduce negative effects of identity salience, and cross-culture research about identity salience.
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    Collective Action: Definition, Psychological Mechanism and Behavior Measurement
    WAN Mei-Na;LIU Li;QIU Jia;YANG Xiao-Li
    . 2011, 19 (5): 723-730.  
    Abstract   PDF (185KB) ( 1171 )
    There are two features in a collective action: the individuals’ behavior is acting as the representative of a group; the action aims at improving the conditions of the group. This article analyzes and summarizes the models of collective action, elaborated social identity model (ESIM) as well as the theories of deindividuation, which can explain the readiness of the collective action, the trigger process and the maintenance factors in different angels. Social identity, anger and group efficiency constitute the states of collective action readiness. An awful intergroup interaction, together with the emergence of like-minded people in the group, plays a vital role in firing a massive collective action. Once a collective action breaking out, the key elements of sustaining the action are the temporary and situational group norms generated from the collective action. The behavior measurement in researching collective action is discussed. Existing literature in Western society regarding collective action provides us a realistic reference for studying group events in China.
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    Help-Seeking Behavior in Organization
    MAO Chang-Guo;SUN Jian-Min
    . 2011, 19 (5): 731-739.  
    Abstract   PDF (137KB) ( 1213 )
    Complexity of work content and uncertainty of work environment have exerted a significant influence on mutual assistance between employees. Autonomous help-seeking behavior contributes to employees’ performance, creativity and well-being. By reviewing related western studies, this overview clarified the concepts, classifications, antecedents and consequences of employee help-seeking behavior in organization. It is essential that future studies focus on the cultural difference and improve research methods so as to better explore the connotation and mechanism of help-seeking behavior in organizational context.
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    The Validity of Situational Judgment Tests: A Review of Recent Research
    LIU Xiao-Mei;BIAN Ran;CHE Hong-Sheng;WANG Li-Na;SHAO Yan-Ping
    . 2011, 19 (5): 740-748.  
    Abstract   PDF (235KB) ( 1027 )
    Situational judgment tests are popular personnel selection tests in which the participants are presented the typical work-related situations and the probable behavioral responses, and are required to select or evaluate them according to the instructions. With the development of the theory and practices of SJTs, researchers are paying more attention to its validity, including construct validity, criterion-related validity, incremental validity, and impacts of instruction types, situational fidelity, scoring and other factors on its validity. On this premise, the future practices of situational judgment tests may include: (1) developing tests that are fit for specific constructs; (2) adopting appropriate instructions according to specific constructs; (3) applying the findings of the impacts of faking and training on validity to practices.
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    A Review on the New Variants of Implicit Association Test: Based on the Normative Analysis
    LI Xi-Ying;WANG Xiao-Li;ZHAO Yu-Huan;XU Qing-Lin
    . 2011, 19 (5): 749-754.  
    Abstract   PDF (127KB) ( 1241 )
    Normative Analysis details description of a series of criteria and characteristics that an ideal, perfect implicit association test should has. An examination of the extent to which the three new variants meet the criteria of Normative Analysis shows that IAT-FR and SB-IAT, comparing with BIAT, conforms more to What criterion and How criterion. Future researches should pay more attention to implicit criterion.
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    Application of Social Network Analysis in Psychology
    MA Shao-Qi;JIAO Can;ZHANG Min-Qiang
    . 2011, 19 (5): 755-764.  
    Abstract   PDF (377KB) ( 2471 )
    Individuals are not isolated, their mind and behavior changes often depend on the relationship with other people. Social network analysis takes this dependency into account and develops corresponding methods to study relational variable. To begin with, this article clarified the main idea of social network theory and the fundamental concepts, data representation and research methods in social network analysis. Then, two types of statistical models on individual level and relational level are introduced. Based on the data, the UCINET software is used to show the steps of process relational data. Finally, the applications of social network analysis in the Personality psychology, Developmental and Educational psychology, and Management psychology are summarized.
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    Estimating Confidence Intervals of Mediating Effects by Using the Distribution of the Product, Bootstrap and Markov chain Monte Carlo Methods
    FANG Jie;ZHANG Min-Qiang;LI Xiao-Peng
    . 2011, 19 (5): 765-774.  
    Abstract   PDF (380KB) ( 2150 )
    Because the estimators of mediating effects are generally not normally distributed, it would be better use asymmetric confidence intervals to analyze mediating effects. There are three approaches to obtain the asymmetric confidence intervals of mediating effects: 1) Based on the distribution of the product (including M method and Empirical-M method); 2) Bootstrap methods (nonparametric percentile Bootstrap method, Bias-corrected nonparametric percentile Bootstrap method, parametric percentile residual Bootstrap method and bias-corrected parametric percentile residual Bootstrap method); 3) Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. After introducing each of the methods in details, we compared them and found the following results: 1) the behaviors of the three approaches were approximate. 2) Compared with Distribute of the product methods, bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method was better. 3) The mean square error (MSE) of the MCMC with prior information was smaller than Distribute of the product methods. Directions for further research on asymmetric confidence intervals of mediating effects were discussed.
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