ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    “Temporal Windows” as Logistical Basis for Cognitive Processing
    Ernst Poeppel;Yan BAO;Bin ZHOU
    2011, 19 (6):  775-793. 
    Abstract ( 1147 )   PDF (272KB) ( 1629 )  
    Temporal processing is an intrinsic feature of cognitive processing. Thus, it is important to have an understanding about temporal processing in perception or cognition in general. To overcome some extrinsic challenges in central information processing, the brain has apparently developed special temporal windows within which information is integrated. One such window has been found in the range of some tens of milliseconds, and it serves to create the necessary building blocks for conscious activity. Empirical evidence comes from studies on reaction time, temporal order threshold or oscillatory responses in neuronal structures. Another temporal window operates in the range of two to three seconds and it serves to create the “subjective presence”, or temporal integration intervals within which the identity of percepts is maintained. Empirical evidence comes from studies on the reproduction of time intervals, ambiguous figures, sensorimotor synchronization or neurophysiological research. Another kind of temporal window is given with the diurnal rhythms; all psychological or physiological functions show apparently a 24-hour variability. Disturbances in temporal windows may show up in neurological or psychiatric diseases indicating the importance of studies in temporal processing beyond basic research.
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    The Brain Mechanisms for Processing Heterogeneous Distracting Information Along Task-Relevant and -Irrelevant Dimensions in Visual Search

    WEI Ping;ZHOU Xiao-Lin

    2011, 19 (6):  794-802. 
    Abstract ( 1206 )   PDF (270KB) ( 1061 )  
    Three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were conducted to investigate three issues regarding the impacts of heterogeneity along the task-relevant and the task-irrelevant dimensions upon the efficiency in visual search. The first concerns the neural basis of the interaction between target-presence and the homogeneity along the task-relevant dimension. The second is about the behavioral consequences and the neural correlates of processing heterogeneous distracting information along task-relevant and –irrelevant dimensions. The third is about the common and specific brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between target-presence and the homogeneity along task-relevant and -irrelevant dimensions in feature search vs. conjunction search.
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    Psychosocial Underpinnings of Ethnic Conflict in China
    LIU Li;YANG Xiao-Li
    2011, 19 (6):  803-808. 
    Abstract ( 1396 )   PDF (225KB) ( 1587 )  
    As a major social issue, ethnic conflict may endanger social harmony and stability. As one of critical scientific issues, the underlying psychosocial processes of ethnic conflict are still underexplored. Our research project aims to explore psychosocial underlying factors of ethnic conflict in China focusing on Tibetan-Han relations in China. The basic theoretical proposition of the project is that ethnic conflict is derived from the interaction of multi-variables including individual, intergroup, and social factors. By three empirical studies, the project will examine the effect of psychological essentialism of Tibetan on ethnic conflict, and the moderating roles of identity extending between the two, and the effect of social threat context between the two, so as to revealing the psychosocial underpinnings of ethnic conflicts. It is expected that the outcomes of the project will provide the solid evidences for building an early warning system of ethnic conflict, and for moving beyond ethnic boundaries, and for achieving a harmonious multi-ethnic coexistence in China.
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    “Perceive One’s Character through His Voice”: The Relationship between Speech Spectrum and Personality Traits
    HU Chao;FU Gen-Yue
    2011, 19 (6):  809-813. 
    Abstract ( 1326 )   PDF (203KB) ( 1976 )  
    The current research explored the correlation between speakers’ personality traits and speech spectrums of the same phoneme during different emotional states. 45 subjects completed a 16PF personality test, and then gave feedback on false results of personality test, describing their feelings at the same time. Their responses during different emotional states were recorded. Frequency and bandwidth of the former three formants of the consonant /Sh/ were analyzed by Praat voice software; results showed that the emotion’s effect is already significant on the consonant /Sh/, although its average duration is just 0.14 seconds. In addition, their variation from a neutral emotional state to a positive emotional state were significantly correlated with speakers’ Emotional Stability and Social Boldness. Speech spectrum parameters were significantly correlated with some of speakers’16PF personality traits during the associated emotional state, especially with Social Boldness and Sensitivity which are significantly correlated with individual’s emotional and interpersonal communication behaviors. Furthermore, the correlation varies between speakers’ different emotional states and response type. The results of this research indicated the possibility of detecting speakers’ personalities through their speech spectrums.
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    The Feature-Based Processing Mechanism of Crowding Effect
    PENG Chun-Hua;ZHANG Ming
    2011, 19 (6):  814-824. 
    Abstract ( 921 )   PDF (437KB) ( 1247 )  
    Crowding is defined as the deleterious influence of nearby stimulus on visual discrimination. Most researchers suggested that crowding occurred at the level of feature processing, and was caused by the erroneous combination of signals from the targets and the flankers. Many feature-based processing mechanisms have been proposed to account for the crowding effect, involving feature integration, centroid account, compulsory averaging and some quantitative models. However, there was no strong empirical evidence for these mechanisms. Future research should combine the ERP technology and use a variety of stimulus (e.g. moving stimulus, etc) to investigate the mechanisms of spatial and temporal crowding.
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    Survival Processing: A Special and Powerful Memory Encoding Procedure
    YU Rui;MAO Wei-Bin;JIA Zhe
    2011, 19 (6):  825-831. 
    Abstract ( 910 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1411 )  
    It is well known that memory system evolved. Survival pressures, a primary adaptive problem the human has been facing, had shaped some characters of memory system. Recent researches found memory performance is better in survival processing procedure than in other processing procedures, which is named as survival advantage of memory. A lot of experiments indicated survival processing may be a special and powerful memory encoding procedure, which is different from many memory encoding procedures, such as schematic processing, relational processing, congruity effect, elaboration, effortful processing, emotional arousal, familiarity, novelty, and self-reference, and so on. At last the authors suggested that in future researches we should focus on: 1) neural mechanisms of survival processing; 2) children as subjects; 3) effect of different areas and cultures; 4) false memory of survival processing.
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    Notation-dependent and Notation-independent Representation of Numerical Magnitude
    WANG Qi;LI Hong;ZHANG Li;CHEN Xue-Mei
    2011, 19 (6):  832-842. 
    Abstract ( 1243 )   PDF (201KB) ( 983 )  
    Numerical representation refers to the mental representation of a given number. Though the perspective of abstract representation has predominated for a long time, recent evidence shows the notation-dependent representation of number with the development of automatic processing paradigms and brain imaging techniques. There were two theories which assumed that the notation-independent and notation-dependent representations might coexist in the number processing. The computational model proposed that the summation coding was notation-dependent, whereas the place coding was notation-independent for both non-symbolic and symbolic number. The extension of dual code theory suggested that numerical information was represented internally by way of automatic and intentional codes. In the first stage, there was an automatic activation of the numerical quantity that was notation-dependent in the Intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Then the representation could be transferred to an on-line abstract representation on demands of tasks at the stage of intentional code. Although those assumptions were supported by extensive behavioral and neuropsychological studies, the internal mechanism and cortex of the dynamic change of numerical representation are still open questions. More attention should be devoted to numerical representation in many aspects in the future, such as developmental studies, cross-culture studies, the combination of automatic processing paradigms and neural imaging techniques, and single cell recording techniques.
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    The Neural Mechanisms of Category Learning and Application
    ZUO Bin;ZHANG Xiao-Bin
    2011, 19 (6):  843-852. 
    Abstract ( 1113 )   PDF (217KB) ( 925 )  
    The neural mechanisms of category learning and application (including non-human objects categorization and social categorization) were reviewed. Category learning is mainly relevant to neocortex, medial temporal lobe, basal ganglia and midbrain dopaminergic system. Different category learning tasks may activate different connections among these nervous systems. As for the classification of non-human objects, the involved neural mechanisms vary with the type, level, familiarity and similarity of the objects. In addition, the salience and uncertainty of the objects can affect neural responses of categorization. In different stages of the categorization process, there would be corresponding ERP components. For social categorization, people pay attention to out-group firstly, then process in-group deeper than out-group. P200 and N200 are the specific ERP components to distinguish out-group and in-group. Out-group activates the amygdala, and in-group activates fusiform gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. Finally, the authors compared neural mechanisms of categorization of the human beings and the primate, and suggested the integration of the neural mechanisms of social categorization and non-human object categorization and comparison of neural mechanisms of categorization between human beings and primates should be paid more attention in future studies.
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    Vagal Basis of Emotion and Social Behavior
    QIN Rong-Cai;WANG Zhen-Hong;Lü-Wei
    2011, 19 (6):  853-860. 
    Abstract ( 1129 )   PDF (251KB) ( 1432 )  
    By investigating the evolution of autonomic nervous system, Porges proposed Polyvagal Theory, considering myelinated vagal nerve and unmyelinated vagal nerve have different functions. During evolution, neurological relation gradually comes into being between myelinated vagal nerve which regulates visceral state such as heart state, and the other cranial nerves which regulate the muscles of face and head, and it forms the neural substrate of emotion and social behavior. Existing empirical evidence suggests that myelinated vagal nerve is closely related to individual’s emotion expressiveness and regulation, social behavior and difficulties in emotion and social behavior. Both lower vagal tone and lower vagal suppression are related to lower ability of emotion regulation. Children with higher vagal suppression display less behavior problems and exhibit better social skill. Individuals with anxiety disorder show lower baseline of vagal tone and lower vagal suppression. Polyvagal Theory and related empirical evidence is of great significance for promoting the study of neural basis of emotion and social behavior.
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    The Current Status, Problems and Recommendations on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in China
    JIANG Guang-Rong;YU Li-Xia;ZHENG Ying;FENG Yu;LING Xiao
    2011, 19 (6):  861-873. 
    Abstract ( 1725 )   PDF (345KB) ( 2279 )  
    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI, or Self-injury, SI) is an intentional and repeated destruction of one’s own body tissues without suicidal intentions or purposes. SI is very perilous though not always fatal, which is frequently seen among adolescents and young adults compared to older adults. Domestic SI, which is approximately 36%~57%, is much more prevalent than that in any other western countries. Not much is known why people engage in SI. The risky factors for SI include traumatic experiences in childhood and individual vulnerability, such as emotion dysregulation, impulsivity and biological factors. In this review, several explanatory models of SI are discussed, including the functional model, the developmental psychopathological model and the integrated theoretical model. However, more efforts are needed to further investigate the mechanism of SI and other related issues. Future research should also focus on the classification, the affect-regulation function, the inter-disciplinary and cross-cultured study of SI.
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    The Mechanism of Resilience: Evidence from Trait-Resilient Individual
    LEI Ming;DAI Yan;XIAO Xiao;ZENG Can;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2011, 19 (6):  874-882. 
    Abstract ( 1577 )   PDF (168KB) ( 1704 )  
    Resilience refers to the phenomenon that a person has the achievement of positive adaptation after going through significant adversity or trauma. An accumulating literatures indicated positive emotionality, emotion regulation were of great importance in the studies of resilience; insula and prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and OFC) of high-resilient individuals were activated under the condition of stress; variation in 5HTTLPR in amygdale was observed to be strongly related to resilience. Based on the research findings above, dual-process models of resilience and emotion flexibility hypothesis can be proposed. Studies in the future should shed light on the effects of the role of emotional memory and personality traits in resilience.
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    Pros and Cons of Self-Enhancement: Theory, Empirical Research, and Application
    LIU Xiao-Cen;SANG Biao;DOU Dong-Hui
    2011, 19 (6):  883-895. 
    Abstract ( 1707 )   PDF (277KB) ( 2043 )  
    Self-enhancement by motivating to pursue a positive self-image has received much attention across different disciplines of psychology. Evolutionary psychologists believe that self-enhancement has evolved as an adaptation for complex human social interactions. However, social psychologists have more mixed views about the psychological functions of self-enhancement. These are shown in three leading social psychological explanations, including interference of moderators theory, the ecological analog theory, and multidimensional and multifunctional model of self-criticism and self-enhancement. Clinical and counseling psychologists have also proposed ways to promote adaptive self-enhancement in psychotherapy by taking advantage of the pros and avoiding the cons of self-enhancement. These different self-enhancement theories and practices are reviewed with suggestions for further research especially in cross-cultural and developmental psychology.
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    Structures and Functions of Time-Personality
    CHEN Juan;ZHENG Yong
    2011, 19 (6):  896-904. 
    Abstract ( 1263 )   PDF (189KB) ( 2409 )  
    Time-personality is a steady tendency and character of capabilities in time-related situations, which functions in the adaptation to time-related situations, and it also affects both physical and mental health. Existing studies devoted a extensive discussion on several aspects such as time perspective, time orientation, time management, time urgency and procrastination. Thus, integrated model of time-personality is under construction recently. In view of current argument on time pattern, conception of time personality and research paradigm, future research should concentrate on improving the model. Besides, more researches are suggested on external factors, process study, qualitative research, and cross-cultural study. Supports from evolution theory, culturology and brain science are needed as well.
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    Research Paradigms and Theoretical Models of Social Exclusion
    2011, 19 (6):  905-915. 
    Abstract ( 1406 )   PDF (210KB) ( 1969 )  
    Social exclusion is regarded as a common phenomenon which has great influence on individual and society. It also has a variety of paradigms that include rejection paradigm, ostracism paradigm, life alone paradigm, and so on, and models that consist of temporal need-threat model, multimotive model, emotional numbness and self-control failure theory. The effects of social exclusion on basic needs, emotion, and self-esteem are still in the arguments. The developments of paradigm application and ecological validity as well as the explorations on social exclusion origins and results in the future are being ignited, as to the localization are also raised.
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    From “Chameleon effect” to “Mirror Neurons” and to “Echopraxia”: Human Mimicry Comes from Social Interaction
    WANG Yin;ZANG Yin-Yin;CHEN Wei
    2011, 19 (6):  916-924. 
    Abstract ( 1532 )   PDF (143KB) ( 1686 )  
    Mimicry refers to the unconscious imitation of other people’s behavior. It facilitates social interaction and plays a key role in one’s cognitive and social development. Converging evidences in cognitive neuroscience reveal that the neural mechanism of mimicry is based on mirror neuron system. Neuropsychological research suggests that clinical mimicry disorders such as echopraxia arise from the dysfunctional control of this system. As both the formation of mirror neurons and the control of mimicry are crucially driven by social interaction, here it is concluded that human mimicry is the product of social interaction. This point of view helps us better understand the ontogeny of mimicry in both neural and behavioral level and sheds light on the practical approaches to improve infant’s social and cognitive development. Finally, implications for the research of autism are discussed.
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    Change Fairness: A Critical Review and Its Future Agenda
    ZHU Qi-Quan;LONG Li-Rong
    2011, 19 (6):  925-932. 
    Abstract ( 1170 )   PDF (207KB) ( 1213 )  
    Person-oriented research, instead of systems-oriented research, becomes the new focus in organizational change domain. Change fairness, referring to the fairness perception of change promoting process, provides a new perspective for the person-oriented research. Change fairness is decided by change event attributes, change leadership, individual characteristics and social support factors. Change fairness also exerts influence on employee’s reaction to change, organization and job. The future research of change fairness should emphasize indigenous research, antecedents and moderators exploration, and longitudinal studies.
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